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History of Taxonomy

·Aristotle grouped the types of creatures according to

their similarities: animals with blood and animals
without blood, animals that live on water and animals that
live on land.

·The full subtitle of Linnaeus's system was “System of nature

through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes,
orders, genera and species, with characteristics, differences,
synonyms, places.”

Kingdom Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

Prokaryotic Similar cell structure
Unicellular Similar metabolism
Archaebacteria have a different lipid stereochemistry than any other organism

Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Kingdom Protista
·Heterogeneous assemblage of unicellular, colonial and multicellular Eukaryotes that
do not have the distinctive characters of plants, animals or fungi
· Contains a number of organisms previously classified as plants, animals or fungi.
E.g. protozoans, all the algae except blue-greens, and several organisms previously
called fungi
·Flagella - most often involved in locomotion
·Whiplash - without appendages
·Tinsel - has appendages (barbs)

Ciliophora Euglenophyta Volvox Chlamydomonas Rhizopoda

Kingdom Fungi
Fungi are eukaryotic, containing membrane-bound nuclei with chromosomes. Fungal
cells contain membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles
Fungi lack chloroplasts and are heterotrophic organisms, requiring preformed organic
compounds as energy sources and also as carbon skeletons for organic synthesis.

Fungi possess a cell wall. They reproduce by both sexual and asexual means, and like
basal plant groups, such as ferns and mosses produce spores. Similar to mosses and
algae, fungi typically have haploid nuclei.
As in some bacteria, biosynthesis of the amino acid, L-lysine, is via the α-
aminoadipate pathway.

Mushroom 1up mushroom

Kingdom Plantae
All plants photosynthesize.
Many plants have flowers.
Many plants have leaves.

Trees Mesotaenium Nägeli

Animals can move on their own.
Animals can reproduce on their own.
Animals can eat on their own. Acanthocephala

tardigrada hemichordata cycliophora priapula

placozoa ctenophor Rhombozoa