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The Balanced Diet

A healthy human diet should provide ;


Sufficient energy providing foods to enable the body to carryout internal
processes and external activities
Sufficient materials for growth and for the repair and replacement of cells
and tissues

The dietary requirements include ;


Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Mineral ions
Vitamins
Water
Dietary fibre

A balanced diet provides adequate quantities of all the nutrients required by the
body. Lack of particular nutrient could cause a deficiency disease. The quantity
of nutrients needed by an individual varies according to their age, gender, body
size and level of physical activities.

Carbohydrates 17 kJ/g
High energy value
Satisfied most of energy requirement (because human diet consist of more
carbohydrates the lipids and proteins)
Easily digested
Particularly useful for quick energy
Food sources ; potato, bread, rice pasta, sweets
It forms the bulk of a meal, which is good because it is a rich energy
source

Protein 19 kJ/g
Used for growth or repair of all cells
Used to strengthen bone and muscle
Many functional uses as enzymes, haemoglobin and some hormones
Food sources ; all meats, green gram soya, egg, fish
Protein malnutrition leads to “KWASHIORKOR”
Mental retardation
Swollen abdomen
Cracked skin
Liver damage
Fail to produce antibodies against some diseases
Usually irreversible
60 % death

Lipids 34 kJ/g
rich energy source
take a long time to digest, because molecules are complex
excess saturated fatty acids (mostly in animal fats) converted in to
cholesterol
plant oils consist of unsaturated fatty acids (use of margarines produce
from plant oils are much safer)

Roughage
refers to dietary fibre which is mainly cellulose fibres in plant tissues
food sources ; vegetables, fruits
uses : add bulk to the diet
increase and stimulates peristalsis
prevents constipation

Factors that affect dietary requirement


Sex – males need more energy than females
So more proteins should be there in diet of males
Age – young people need more energy than old people
Cell division, growth is very efficient in young poeple
Occupation – depend on level of activity
Road worker needs more energy than office worker
Climate – cold region people need more energy than hot region people
Pregnancy / lactation –more protein, carbohydrates, calcium, iron and vitamins
required
Less protein to fetus causing : reduction
of growth, lack enzymes,

poor immune system, effect cell

division and healing of wounds


Dangers of an unbalanced diet

Starvation
malnutrition is lack or excess of nutrients in diet
starvation is caused due to insufficient levels of all nutrients in the diet
due to starvation :
convert glycogen (in liver) to glucose last 12 hours
convert subcutaneous fat (under skin) last 2 days
convert cushioning fat (between organs)
protein/cells breakdown (first in muscles)
total starvation leads to “MARASMUS”
Under weight (about 80% weight loss)
Thin arms and legs
Face appears old looking
No brain damage, no liver damage
Usually reversible

Anaemia
Due to a lack of haemoglobin which leads to a lack of red blood cells.
Because of that lack of oxygen to the tissues
Common causes ;
Iron deficiency in diet
Excess menstrual bleeding in women
Hook worms
Symptoms : pale appearance, fatigue, breath less ness, general
debility(weakness)
Treatment : iron tablets

Obesity
Cause due to over-eating of fatty food and junk food
Excess body weight
Fat storage is beyond healthy level
Dangers : Heart diseases – over working of the heart may lead to heart
faileur
Arthrosclerosis – due to excessive cholesterol
Due to narrowing of arteries
by cholesterol rich
plaque
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin (which is a hormone secreted by pancreas)
Insulin increases the cell permeability to glucose and reduces the blood
glucose level to maintain constant level of glucose
Symptoms :
Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose)
Dehydration of cells due to loss of water
Metabolism slows down
Glucose in urine
Weight loss
Excessive urination

Home work (2004 May)


1) What is meant by the term balance diet and what are the main constituents of
a balance diet? (4)
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2) How might a balance diet for an office worker differ from that of a miner or
builder? (4)
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3) Why do teenagers require more vitamin D than adults? (3)


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