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Electrical & Electronics


Model Power Line

Name: Tarick Edwards

Date: 06 Feb 2009
Lecturer: Mr. A. Clarke
Reg#: 1000101042
Territory: Jamaica
Table of Content
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………..2
Purpose of the report…………………………………………………….3
Scope& Specification……………………………………………………..5
Design & Construction detail...…………………………………..….9
Summary of Tests and Troubleshooting procedure…….…18
Tests and Troubleshooting Results………………………………..19
Constraints & Difficulties/limitations………………………....…21


I sincerely Mr. Clarke guide us in construction of the project, and

also in the
assembling of the information gathered in the correct format. I
also wish to give
thanks to the pass student for their marvellous pass project.
Purpose of the report

The purpose of this project is to satisfy the requirements of CAPE

Electrical and

Electronic Technology.


The aim of this project is to construct a model AC power line at high

voltage in order to investigate the power losses in the transmission
lines. The AC model will deliver up to 12 volts at the rated output. Also
a DC power line to be compared with the AC lines.
This project also gives us a lot of practical experience working with the
device we leant by theory.

Scope and Specifications

This project is based on the creation of a Power Transmission System. This

Power Transmission should entail: Two Transformers, one bulb, Length
Constantan wire


Step down Transformer – 110V/12V 50Hz, KVA

Step up Transformer – 12V/240 50Hz, 4KVA

Step down Transformer – 240V/12V 50Hz, 4KVA


➢ Constantan Wires length – 1m each

➢ Daimeter-0.32mm

➢ Resistivity- 49x10-8
➢ Wire gauge- 30 SWG


Power lines are overhead wires supported by high towers that transmit
electric energy from power supplies or plants. The centre strands of power
lines are made of steel to give them strength and the outer strands are made
of aluminum because of its lightness and ability to carry current. The wires
are insulated from the towers by porcelain insulators to prevent the loss of
electric energy. Electric power transmission is a process in the delivery of
electricity to consumers and also the bulk transfer of electric power.

D.C. power transmission is the distribution of power using direct current.

Direct current can be transmitted at high voltages but to lower it for
consumers would be costly.

A.C. power transmission is the distribution of power using alternating current.

A.C. voltages has the advantage of increasing and decreasing in value more
readily than that of the (D.C).Transmission efficiency is improved by
increasing the voltage using a step up transformer which reduces the current
in the conductors while keeping the power transmitted nearly equal to the
power input. The reduced current flowing through the conductor reduces the
losses in the conductor and since, according to Joule's Law, the losses are

proportional to the square of the current, halving the current makes the
transmission loss one quarter the original value.

In alternating current systems, energy loss across power lines is reduced

because transformers make it possible to raise the A.C. voltage to very high
values. These high voltages allow the same level of electric power made
available at a lower current. This results in less power loss, smaller
transmission cables and higher efficiency. In addition to stepping up or raise
the voltage for long distance transmission, transformers also step-down or
lower the voltage to the requirements of the load. PLoss = I2R

The transformer is based on two principles: firstly that an electric current can
produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and secondly that a changing
magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the
coil (electromagnetic induction). By changing the current in the primary coil,
it changes the strength of its magnetic field; since the changing magnetic
field extends into the secondary coil, a voltage is induced across the

Diagram showing a simplified transformer design

A current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The
primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high
magnetic permeability, such as iron; this ensures that most of the magnetic
field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron and pass
through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil.

The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from
Faraday's law of induction, which states that:

where VS is the instantaneous voltage, NS is the number of turns in the

secondary coil and Φ equals the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If
the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines,
the flux is the product of the magnetic field strength B and the area A
through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional
area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time
according to the excitation of the primary.

Methodology and Approach

1) The information on Power Transmission Systems was gathered

2) The value of various circuit components was calculated (e.g. resistance
of wire).
3) The equipment and components needed were then gathered and
4) The current and voltage readings of both circuits were measured (for
the 2V D.C. and 12V A.C.)
5) The current and voltage readings of the lamps and the voltage across
the transmission line were recorded.
6) The power losses were then calculated.

Design and Construction details

These Materials were gathered: 12-240 step up Transformer, 240-12 step

down Transformer, 110-12 step down transformer, switch (SPDT), 12 lamp, 2
Piece 1m constantan wire, multi-meter, 12 DC supply

12V D.C.

The lamp was connected across the 12V D.C. Supply as shown in fig.1


Source Lamp
12 V 12V, 50W

2 1


12V A.C.

1) The lamp was connected to the secondary winding of the (110V-12V)

2) The primary winding of the transformer is connected to a 12V A.C.
3) (step down transformer, 110V/12V) as shown in fig.2

1 3 2
120 V Lamp
Source 50 Hz 12V, 50W
NLT_PQ_4_120 R2
5 6 4


240V A.C.

1) The 110V/12V transformer was connected to one of the bulbs

2) The bulb was then connected across a 12V/240V transformer

3) The transmission line was then connected to the transformer

4) The other ends of the transmission line was then connected to a 240V/12V

5) The transformer was then connected to a 12V AC power supply.

(Shown in fig.3)

1 7 5
Transformer1 Transformer2 2
12 V Lamp
Source 50 Hz 12V, 50W
NLT_PQ_4_12 R2 NLT_PQ_4_12
4 6 8 3


12 Volt AC Supply

Expected Values

Expected Resistance of Transmission lines Side Notes / Key
R= ρl/A

R = 49 x 10-8 x 2m ρ –Resistivity of constantan- 4.9x10-7 Ωm

8.042 x 10-8m2 Diameter of wire used - 0.32 x 10-3 m
R = 12.19Ω Radius of wire – 0.16 x 10-3m

Expected Bulb Resistance – 2.88 Ω

The Area of constantan wire Expected Vdrop in transmission Lines(9.75v)
A = Π r2 Expected V -12v

A = Π x (0.16 x 10-3)2
Expected wire resistance (R Line) - 12.19Ω
A = Π x 2.56 x 10-8
Actual Bulb Resistance - 0.6Ω
A = 8.042 x 10-8m2
Actual Current Supplied - 1.03A

Actual Resistance of Lines - 9Ω

Expected Current
Actual voltage supplied - 11.28v
I = V/ RT
Actual voltage across lamp - 2v
I = 12 / 15.07 Power delivered = Output Power -2.06W

I = 0.80A Power Supplied = Input Power- 11.62W

RT = 12.19 + 2.88 = 15.07 Ω

Expected voltage Drop in Lines

V=IxR line

V = 0.8A x 12.19 Ω

V = 9.75v

P Loss Expected =( V drop )2 / R Line

P Loss = (9.75)2 / 12.19

P Loss = 7.80W
Expected Voltage at Load
V Lamp =V supply -V drop in Lines

V Lamp = 12 – 9.75
V Lamp = 2.25v

Measured Values
Power loss measured in Transmission Lines
P Loss measured = I2R
P Loss measured = 1.032 x 9Ω
P Loss measured = 9.55W

Power Measured at Lamp/Load.

P Delivered to Lamp =I Supplied xV Delivered to lamp

P Delivered to Lamp = 1.03A x 2V

P Delivered to Lamp = 2.06W
Measured Input Power
P Generated = I Supplied xV supplied

P Generated = 1.03A x 11.28V

P Generated = 11.62W

%η = P Delivered x 100
P Generated

%η = 2.06 x 100

%η = 17.7

Where η is the Efficiency.

12 Volt Dc Supply

Side Notes for calculations

Total Resistance - 15.07Ω

Voltage Supplied - 12v

Current in circuit 1.12A

Expected Values
Actual voltage across lamp 2.23v
Expected Current
Expected wire resistance Power
I = V/ RT -2.24W

I = 12 / 15.07 = 0.80A
RT = 12.19 + 2.88 = 15.07 Ω
Expected voltage Drop in Transmission Lines

V=IxR Line

V = 0.8A x 12.19 Ω

V = 9.75v

P Loss Expected =( V drop )2 / R

P Loss = (9.75)2 / 12.19

P Loss = 7.80W

Expected Voltage at Load

V Lamp =V supply -V drop in Lines

V Lamp = 12 – 9.75
V Lamp = 2.25v

Measured Values

Power measured in Transmission lines

P Loss measured = I2R

P Loss measured = 1.122 x 9Ω
P Loss measured = 11.28W
Power Measured at the Load
P Delivered to Lamp =I Supplied xV Delivered to lamp

P Delivered = 1.12A x 2V
P Delivered = 2.24W

Input Power
P Generated = I Supplied xV supplied

P Generated = 1.12A x 12V

P Generated = 13.44W

%η = P Delivered x 100
P Generated

%η = 2.24 x 100

%η = 18.15

High Voltage Transmission (110V AC)

Side Notes for Calculations

Expected Values

V p – Primary voltage in Step

up Transformer 9V

Expected power loss I p – Primary Current in Step up

Transformer 2A

Vs – Voltage in secondary of
P loss = (Vdrop) 2 /R line
Step up Transformer 110V
P loss = 2.072/12.19
Is – Current in Secondary of
= 0.352w Step up Transformer = 0.164A

Expected current in transmission line : V p / Vs = Is /I p

9/110 = Is/2

Is = 0.082 x 2

Is = 0.164A

* Is is also the voltage transmitted to the Transmission lines

Expected voltage drop

Vdrop = I x R line

= 0.164 x 12.19

= 2V

– Expected = 107.93V

Expected V After T line = Expected V bef. T line – Vdrop in line =110- 2.07

= 107.93V

Measured Values

Measured V bef. T line = 45.8V

Measured VAfter T line = 43.8

Measured Voltage drop in Transmission lines

V drop =V before T lines –V after T Lines

V drop = 45.8 – 43.1

V drop = 2.7v

Measured current in lines – 0.17A

Power Loss Measured

Ploss = I2R

Ploss = 0.172 x 9Ω

Ploss = 0.260W

Testing & Troubleshooting Procedures

1) The Multimeter was used to test the Resistance of the Length

of Constantan.
2) It was then used to test the current and voltage
through/across each bulb for the D.C. Supply.
3) The digital multi-meter was also used to measure the voltage
and current across/through the bulb when connected as
shown in the schematics for the A.C. Power Transmissions.
4) The digital multi-meter was again used to measure the
voltage across the power line in fig.3.

Testing & Troubleshooting Results

12 Volt AC supply

Parameters Value Value Error

Expected Measured

Current 0.80A 1.03A 0.23

Supply Voltage 12V 11.28v 0.72
Voltage Drop 9.75V 9.76V 0.01
Power Loss 7.80W 9.55W 1.75
Resistance of Lines 12.19Ω 9Ω 3.19

12 Volt Dc Supply

Parameters Value Value Error

Expected Measured

Current 0.8A 1.12A 0.32

Supply Voltage 12V 12V -
Voltage Drop 9.75V 9.55V 0.20
Power Loss 7.80W 11.28W 3.48
Resistance of Lines 12.19 Ω 9Ω 3.19

240v ac Supply with Mounted Transformer at Both Ends

Parameters Value Value Error

Measure Expected

Transformer 1
Primary Voltage 9.27v 9V 0.27
Secondary Voltage 45.8v 110V 64.2
Primary Current 2.14A 2.0A 0.14
Secondary Current 0.17A 0.164A 0.006
Power Loss in lines 0.26W 0.35W 0.09
Voltage Delivered to 1.85V 1.53V 0.32

Current Delivered to 1.58A 2A 0.42

The circuits were constructed using the required components; hence, our
requirements were achieved. The resistances of both lengths of constantan
wires were both taken and recorded. The resistance of the lamp was also
measured and recorded.

The 12 AC circuit was constructed using a step down transformer

(120V-12V). The primary windings of the transformer are connected to the
power supply, and the secondary windings connected to two 1 meter length
of constantan wire. The constantan wires are then connected to the lamp.
Ideally, the reading on the secondary windings would be 12v, but it was
measured to be 11.28V. The voltage drops across the constantan wires were
measured. The current in the circuit was 1.03A; this is constant since it is a
series circuit. The lamp had small illumination due to the fact that most of
the voltage drops across the constantan wires. But it would definitely show
better in a dark area. After the circuit was powered up for a while, the
temperature of the constantan wires began to increase.

After completing the test of the 12V AC Circuit, the circuit was
disassembled and reconstructed into a high voltage transmission line. With
the use of two transformers refer to diagram below.
1 7 5
Transformer1 Transformer2 2
12 V Lamp
Source 50 Hz 12V, 50W
NLT_PQ_4_12 R2 NLT_PQ_4_12
4 6 8 3


The voltage across the secondary winding of the transformer was

measured. A voltage 43.1V was measured at primary end of transformer2.
The voltage at the load was found to be1.81V. The voltage drop across the
transmission line R1 and R2 were both measured; both result in a value of
0.6V. The current was then measured and a value of 0.17A was obtained. The
circuit has the least power lost of all. The lamp light could be seen clearly.
That is why Power Company transmits electricity at high Voltage and low

current. It is also less expensive to transmit at low current (smaller wires can
be used).

After completing the circuit illustrated of the circuit above. A 12V DC

circuit was assembled. The 12V DC supply was connected across the 12V
lamp. The voltage across the transmission line was measured and recorded
to be 9.55V, it was assumed to be 9.75V. The circuit was open and a multi-meter
used to test the current in the circuit, which was found to be 1.12A. This circuit has
the highest power loss. Hence, the lamp did not light. That is why this is a poor
method of transmitting electricity. It is expensive and inefficient to distribute due to
high temperature, overheat in the wire. As experienced in the experiment. It is also
difficult to convert from Dc to Ac.

Constraints & Difficulties/ Limitations

1) It was difficult to source the constantan wire.

2) The temperature of the room was constantly changing thus affecting
the results. (Drawn from ohms law).
3) It was difficult to get a 12 volt AC supply. (An 110V to 12V step-down
transformer was used).
4) The AC voltage fluctuated thus causing a variety of voltages and currents
readings on the multi-meter.
5) The someof voltages, currents, resistance, and reading on the multi-meter
never kept still and hence were estimated.


The Power loss in a Power Transmission line is I2R, where I is the current
through the power line and R is the resistance of the line. It can also be
concluded that the larger the voltage being transmitted, the smaller the
power loss. That is why power companies transmit electricity at high
voltages. AC and also recommended over DC, because, AC transmission is
less expensive transmit as I can be stepped up and down easily by a
transformer. AC is also preferable because it is easily converted.


1) It is recommended that A.C. is used over D.C. for transmission as

A.C. is less expensive to transmit as it can be stepped up by the
use of a transformer.
2) It is also recommended that when transmitting electrical power, it
should be transmitted at high voltages so as to limit the power loss.