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01BASIC CONCEPT Question 1 of 12

Number: 1116 Question: As a cause of accidents, the human factor 1. which is cited in current statistics, applies to the flight crew and ATC only

2. is cited in approximately 70 - 80 % of aviation accidents 3. plays a negligible role in commercial aviation accidents. It is much more important in general aviation 4. has increased considerably since 1980 - the percentage of accident in which this factor has been involved has more than tripled since this date

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Question 2 of 12
Number: 2467 Question: What aircraft equipment marked a substantial decrease in hull loss rates in the eighties? 1. SSR 2. TCAS

3. GPWS 4. DME

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Question 3 of 12
Number: 2472 Question: Between which components, with reference to the SHELL Concept, covers pilot misinterpretation of the old three-point altimeter? 1. Liveware - Software 2. Liveware - Liveware

3. Liveware - Hardware 4. Liveware - Environment

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Question 4 of 12
Number: 2475 Question: The errors resulting from an illogical indexing system in an operations manual are related to an interface mismatch between 1. Liveware - Liveware 2. Liveware - Environment 3. Liveware - Hardware

4. Liveware - Software

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Question 5 of 12
Number: 12573 Question: A pilot using a checklist is an example of the interaction within the SHELL Concept of: 1. L and H 2. L and E

3. L and S 4. L and L

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Question 6 of 12
Number: 12630 Question: In 1972, a psychologist named Edwards presented a concept of the interface between flight crew and other parts of the airspace environment. What is this concept called and the names of those elements involved ? 1. The SHELL Concept. Software, hardware, environment and location 2. The SHELL Concept. Software, hardware, economy and liveware 3. The SHELL Concept. Software, harmony, environment, and location

4. The SHELL Concept. Software, hardware, environment, and liveware

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Question 7 of 12
Number: 15870 Question: The most significant item of technical equipment introduced in the 1980s & 1990s which has contributed to a reduction in accidents is: 1. AFDS 2. EFIS

3. GPWS 4. ATIS

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Question 8 of 12
Number: 3748 Question: A pilot becomes skilled when he/she: -1: trains or practises regularly -2: knows how to manage himself/herself -3: possesses all the knowledge associated with his aircraft -4: knows how to keep resources in reserve for coping with the unexpected

1. 1,2,4 2. 1,2,3,4 3. 2, 3,4

4. 1,2

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Question 9 of 12
Number: 3769 Question: In civil air transport, linear accelerations (Gx): - 1: do not exist - 2: have slight physiological consequences - 3: may, in the case of pull-out, lead to loss of consciousness - 4: may cause sensory illusions on the pitch axis 1. 1 2. 3 3. 3,4

4. 2,4

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Question 10 of 12
Number: 11062 Question: The distribution of primary causes of accidents in the worldwide jet aircraft commercial fleet shows that human error is involved in: 1. about 90% of cases

2. about 70% of cases 3. all cases, one way or another 4. about 55% of cases

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Question 11 of 12
Number: 12332 Question: With reference to the SHELL Model, S represents: 1. Self-awareness (which includes Safety) 2. Symbology (which includes safety) 3. Security (which includes Safety)

4. Software (which includes check lists)

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Question 12 of 12
Number: 12358 Question: Who in the Aviation Industry is responsible for flight safety ? 1. Management, Aircrew, Groundcrew and ATC 2. Aircrew

3. Everyone involved 4. Aircrew and GroundCrew

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02- PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH

Question 1 of 573
Number: 16348 Question: In the event of fuel spillage onto the body it is advisable that the affected area is: 1. bandaged and medication is applied to avoid blistering. 2. immediately exposed to air to allow the fuel to evaporate as quickly as possible.

3. initially washed with copious water and without the use of soap. 4. initially washed with soap and water.

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Question 2 of 573
Number: 16676 Question: Flying while suffering from a cold may expose a pilot to: 1. Autokinesis. 2. Gastro-intestinal barotrauma. 3. sinus barotrauma only.

4. otic and sinus barotrauma.

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Question 3 of 573
Number: 16556 Question: Using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula, when will a pilot be classed as obese?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Over 30 for males and 29 for females Over 10 for males and 9 for females Over 26 for males and 25 for females Over 20 for males and 19 for females

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Question 4 of 573
Number: 16560 Question: A pilot is 1.7 metres tall and weighs 57 kgs. She is: 1. Obese.

2. Normal. 3. Overweight. 4. Underweight.

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Question 5 of 573
Number: 16389 Question: Which of the following statements are correct with regard to alcohol? 1. The maximum JAA limit for Flight and Cabin Crew is 40 milligrammes per 100 milliliters of blood.

2. It is absorbed directly from the stomach and intestines into the bloodstream. 3. It affects Orthodox sleep more than it affects REM sleep. 4. Eating while drinking alcohol reduces the amount of alcohol absorbed into the body.

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Question 6 of 573
Number: 3 Question: Without visual reference, what illusion could the pilot get, when he is stopping the rotation to recover from a spin? He will get the illusion of

1. 2. 3. 4.

spinning into the opposite direction straight and level flight climbing and turning into the original direction of the spin spinning into the same direction

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Question 7 of 573
Number: 5 Question: When accelerating forward the otoliths in the utriculus/sacculus will 1. give the illusion of descending (body tilting downwards, or forwards, nose of the aircraft going down) 2. give the illusion of straight and level flight 3. give the illusion of banking

4. give the illusion of climbing (body tilting backwards, nose of the a/c going up)

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Question 8 of 573
Number: 6 Question: A pilot, accelerating or decelerating in level flight may get: 1. the feeling of rotation

2. the illusion of climbing or descending 3. the illusion to turn 4. the impression of stationary objects moving to the right or left

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Question 9 of 573
Number: 14 Question: Which of the following symptoms may a pilot experience when subjected to hypoxia? 1. Fatigue. 2. Euphoria. 3. Lack of concentration. 4. Pain in the joints. 5. Pain in the inner ear 1. 4 and 5 only are correct 2. 1 and 5 only are correct 3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 10 of 573
Number: 17 Question: The consumption of medicines or other substances may have consequences on qualification to fly for the following reasons: 1. The disease requiring a treatment may be cause for disqualification. 2. Flight conditions may modify the reactions of the body to a treatment. 3. Drugs may cause adverse side effects impairing flight safety. 4. The effects of medicine do not necessarily immediately disappear when the treatment is stopped. 1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 2. Only 2 is false.

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 4. 3 and 4 are false, 1 and 2 are correct.

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Question 11 of 573
Number: 18 Question: Vitamin A and possibly vitamins B and C are chemical factors and essential to good night vision: 1. Vitamin deficiencies may decrease night vision performance 2. An excess intake of vitamin A will improve night vision performance significantly 3. Pilots should be carefully concerned to take a balaced diet containing sufficient vitamin A. 4. Vitamin deficiencies may decrease visual acuity in photopic vision but not in scotopic vision 1. 1 and 3 are false, 2 and 4 are correct 2. Only 4 is false

3. 1 and 3 are correct, 2 and 4 are false 4. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 12 of 573
Number: 89 Question: The volume percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere is 21% which 1. is dependent on the present air pressure 2. decreases with increasing altitude

3. is constant at all altitudes for conventional aircraft 4. increases with increasing altitude

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Question 13 of 573
Number: 91 Question: The percentage of oxygen in the air at an altitude of approximately 34 000 ft is: 1. 42% 2. 10,5%

3. 21% 4. 5%

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Question 14 of 573
Number: 92 Question: The respiratory process consists mainly of 1. the transportation of oxygen to the cells and the elimination of carbon monoxide 2. the transportation of oxygen to the cells and the elimination of nitrogen 3. the transportation of carbon dioxide to the cells and elimination of oxygen 4. the diffusion of oxygen through the respiratory membranes into the blood, transportation to the cells,

diffusion into the cells and elimination of carbon dioxide from the body

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Question 15 of 573
Number: 93 Question: Inhaling carbon monoxide can be extremely dangerous during flying. Which of the following statements is correct? 1. With increasing altitude the negative effects of carbon monoxide poisoning can be compensated for. 2. Carbon monoxide increases the oxygen saturation in the blood.

3. Carbon monoxide is odourless and colourless. 4. Small amounts of carbon monoxide are harmless.

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Question 16 of 573
Number: 94 Question: Carbon monoxide poisoning 1. occurs only above 15 degrees OAT 2. is more likely to occur in aeroplanes where the cabin heating is supplied by passing cabin air over the

exhaust manifold(s) 3. only occurs in jet-driven aeroplanes 4. is more likely to occur in aeroplanes with twin-engines because of high engine efficiency

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Question 17 of 573
Number: 96 Question: Which of the following applies to carbon monoxide poisoning?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Several days are needed to recuperate from a carbon monoxide poisoning. A very early symptom of carbon monoxide poisoning is euphoria. Inhaling carbon monoxide leads to hyperventilation. The human body shows no sign of carbon monoxide poisoning.

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Question 18 of 573
Number: 98 Question: How is oxygen mainly transported in the blood? 1. White blood cells. 2. Blood fat.

3. Haemoglobin in the red blood cells. 4. Plasma.

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Question 19 of 573
Number: 99 Question: Which gas most readily combines with haemoglobin? 1. nitrogen

2. carbon monoxide 3. carbon dioxide 4. oxygen

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Question 20 of 573
Number: 100 Question: Which of the following is true concerning carbon monoxide? 1. It combines 5 times faster to the haemoglobin than oxygen. 2. It is always present in the lungs. 3. It has no physiological effect when mixed with oxygen.

4. It is to be found in the smoke of cigarettes lifting up a smoker's "physiological altitude".

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Question 21 of 573
Number: 101 Question: An increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood leads to: 1. a decrease of acidity in the blood

2. an increased respiratory rate 3. an improving resistance to hypoxia 4. a reduction of red blood cells

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Question 22 of 573
Number: 102 Question: The rate and depth of breathing is primarily controlled by: 1. the total atmospheric pressure 2. the amount of carbon monoxide in the blood

3. the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood 4. the amount of nitrogen in the blood

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Question 23 of 573
Number: 103 Question: In the alveoli gas exchange takes place (external respiration). Which gas will diffuse from the blood into the lungs? 1. Carbon monoxide.

2. Carbon dioxide. 3. Oxygen. 4. Ambient air.

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Question 24 of 573

Number: 104 Question: Which statement is correct ? 1. Oxygen is mainly transported in plasma. 2. Oxygen diffusion from the lungs into the blood does not depend on partial oxygen pressure. 3. Oxygen diffusion from the blood into the cells depends on the partial oxygen pressure gradient.

4. The gradient of diffusion is higher at altitude than it is at sea-level.

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Question 25 of 573
Number: 109 Question: How can a pilot increase his tolerance to Gz ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Tightening of the stomach muscles. Take an upright seat position. Tighten shoulder harness. Relax the muscles and lean upper body forward.

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Question 26 of 573
Number: 112 Question: Hypoxia is caused by 1. an increased number of red blood cells 2. a higher affinity of the red blood cells (haemoglobin) to oxygen 3. reduced partial pressure of nitrogen in the lung

4. reduced partial oxygen pressure in the lung

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Question 27 of 573
Number: 113 Question: Hypoxia can be caused by: 1. low partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere when flying at high altitudes without pressurisation and supplemental oxygen 2. a decreased saturation of oxygen in the blood due to carbon monoxide attached to the haemoglobin 3. blood pooling in the lower extremities due to inertia ( Gz) 4. malfunction of the body cells to metabolize oxygen (i.e. after a hangover)

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 1, 2, 3 are correct, 4 is false 1 and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false 1 is false, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 28 of 573
Number: 115 Question: Why is hypoxia especially dangerous for pilots flying solo? 1. Hypoxia improves night vision therefore the pilot will have no indication of danger. 2. In a multi-crew cockpit hypoxia will always be detectable. 3. Only a solo pilot is more prone to illusions.

4. Since the first signs of hypoxia are generally hard to detect.

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Question 29 of 573
Number: 116 Question: The symptoms of hypoxia include:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Visual disturbances, lack of concentration, euphoria. Dull headache and bends. Dizziness, hypothermia. Nausea and barotitis.

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Question 30 of 573
Number: 117 Question: Which of the following is/are the symptom(s) of hypoxia ? 1. Pain in the joints

2. Lack of concentration, fatigue, euphoria 3. Excessive rate and depth of breathing combined with pains in the chest area 4. Low blood pressure

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Question 31 of 573
Number: 119 Question: Which statement applies to hypoxia? 1. it is possible to predict when, how and where hypoxia reaction starts to set in 2. you may become immune to hypoxia when exposed repeatedly to hypoxia 3. carbon monoxide increases the tolerance of the brain to oxygen deficiency

4. sensitivity and reaction to hypoxia varies from person to person

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Question 32 of 573
Number: 120

Question: Hypoxia can be caused by 1. a lack of red blood cells in the blood or decreased ability of the haemoglobin to transport oxygen

2. increasing oxygen partial pressure used for the exchange of gases 3. a lack of nitrogen in ambient air 4. too much carbon dioxide in the blood

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Question 33 of 573
Number: 121 Question: Which symptom of hypoxia is the most dangerous for conducting safe flight ? 1. Lack of adaptation. 2. Dizziness. 3. Lack of accommodation.

4. The degradation of reasoning and perceptive functions.

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Question 34 of 573
Number: 123 Question: Breathing 100% oxygen will elevate the pilot's physiological safe altitude to approximately: 1. 10 000

2. 40 000 ft 3. 45 000 ft 4. 22 000 ft

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Question 35 of 573
Number: 124 Question: The most dangerous symptoms of hypoxia at altitude are 1. the bends and the creeps 2. dehydration 3. sensation of heat and blurred vision

4. euphoria and impairment of judgement

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Question 36 of 573
Number: 126 Question: With hyperventilation, caused by high levels of arousal or overstress: 1. finger nails and lips will turn blue ("cyanosis")

2. peripheral and scotopic vision will be improved 3. more oxygen will reach the brain 4. an increased amount of carbon dioxide is exhaled causing muscular spasms and even unconsciousness

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Question 37 of 573
Number: 300 Question: Cigarette smoking has particular significance to the flyer, because there are long-term and shortterm harmful effects. From cigarette smoking the pilot can get: 1. a mild carbon dioxide poisoning increasing the pilot's tolerance to hypoxia 2. a suppressed desire to eat and drink 3. a mild carbon monoxide poisoning increasing the pilots tolerance to hypoxia

4. a mild carbon monoxide poisoning decreasing the pilots tolerance to hypoxia

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Question 38 of 573
Number: 301 Question: A pilot who smokes will lose some of his capacity to transport oxygen combined with haemoglobin. Which percentage of his total oxygen transportation capacity would he give away when he smokes one pack of cigarettes a day? 1. 12 - 18%

2. 5 - 8% 3. 20 - 25% 4. 0.5 - 2%

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Question 39 of 573
Number: 302 Question: Flying at pressure altitude of 10 000 ft, a pilot, being a moderate to heavy smoker, has an oxygen content in the blood equal to an altitude 1. lower than 10 000 FT 2. of 15000 FT when breathing 100% oxygen

3. above 10 000 FT 4. of 10 000 FT

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Question 40 of 573
Number: 303

Question: Which of the following applies when alcohol has been consumed? 1. Drinking coffee at the same time will increase the elimination rate of alcohol 2. Acute effects of alcohol cease immediately when 100% oxygen is taken 3. Even after the consumption of small amounts of alcohol, normal cautionary attitudes may be lost

4. Small amounts of alcohol increase visual performance

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Question 41 of 573
Number: 304 Question: Alcohol, when taken simultaneously with drugs, may 1. increase the rate of alcohol elimination from the blood

2. intensify the effects of the drugs 3. show undesired effects only during night flights 4. compensate for side effects of drugs

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Question 42 of 573
Number: 347 Question: The proprioceptive senses (seat-of-the-pants sense) are important for motor coordination. They 1. indicate the difference between gravity and G-forces 2. are important senses for flight training in IMC 3. allow the pilot to determine the absolute vertical at flight condition

4. are completely unreliable for orientation when flying in IMC

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Question 43 of 573
Number: 348 Question: The so-called "Seat-of-the-Pants" sense is

1. 2. 3. 4.

not suitable for spatial orientation when outside visual references are lost the only sense a pilot can rely on, when flying in IMC only to be used by experienced pilots with the permission to fly in IMC useful for instrument and contact flight

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Question 44 of 573
Number: 349 Question: Sensory input to the "Seat-of-the-Pants" sense is given by 1. pressure of the heart on the diaphragm

2. subcutaneous pressure receptors and muscle activity sensors 3. acceleration of the stomach (nausea) 4. blood rushing into legs

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Question 45 of 573
Number: 351 Question: Orientation in flight is accomplished by 1. eyes 2. utriculus and sacculus 3. semicircular canals 4. Seat-of-the-pants-Sense 1. only 1 and 4 are correct

2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 3. 2, 3 and 4 are false, only 1 is correct 4. 2, 3 and 4 are correct , 1 is false

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Question 46 of 573
Number: 352 Question: What should a pilot do to optimise his/her night vision (scotopic vision)?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Not smoke before start and during flight and avoid flash-blindness Avoid food containing high amounts of vitamin A Select meals with high contents of vitamin B and C Wait at least 60 minutes to night-adapt before he takes off

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Question 47 of 573
Number: 353 Question: During poor weather conditions a pilot should fly with reference to instruments because: 1. pressure differences can cause the altimeter to give wrong information 2. his attention will be distracted automatically under these conditions 3. the danger of a "greying out" will make it impossible to determine the height above the terrain

4. perception of distance and speed is difficult in an environment of low contrast

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Question 48 of 573
Number: 48 Question: A certain amount of water vapor saturated air is transported from sea-level up to 34 000 ft. In the same amount of dry air, the volume of this gas is : 1. smaller

2. first larger, then smaller

3. larger 4. constant

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Question 49 of 573
Number: 49 Question: Breathing 100% oxygen at 40000 ft is equivalent to breathing ambient air at: 1. 18 000 ft 2. 14 000 ft

3. 10 000 ft 4. 8 000 ft

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Question 50 of 573
Number: 50 Question: At what altitude (breathing 100% oxygen without pressure) could symptoms of hypoxia be expected? 1. Approximately 35 000 ft. 2. Approximately 10 - 12 000 ft. 3. 22 000 ft

4. Approximately 38 - 40 000 ft.

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Question 51 of 573
Number: 51 Question: You can survive at any altitude, provided that 1. 21% oxygen is available in the air you breath in 2. the temperature in the cabin does not drop below 10" C

3. enough oxygen, pressure and heat is available 4. pressure respiration is guaranteed for that altitude

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Question 52 of 573
Number: 52 Question: At which altitude is it necessary to breathe 100% oxygen plus pressure after a rapid decompression ? 1. Approximately 14 000 ft.

2. Approximately 50 000 ft.

3. Approximately 40 000 ft. 4. Approximately 20 000 ft.

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Question 53 of 573
Number: 54 Question: Fatigue and stress 1. increase the tolerance to hypoxia

2. lower the tolerance to hypoxia 3. will increase the tolerance to hypoxia when flying below 15 000 feet 4. do not affect hypoxia at all

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Question 54 of 573
Number: 55 Question: The atmosphere contains the following gases: 1. 78% helium, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases 2. 78% helium, 21% oxygen, 1% carbon monoxide, rest: rare gases 3. 78% oxygen, 21% nitrogen, 1% carbon monoxide, rest: rare gases

4. 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases

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Question 55 of 573
Number: 184 Question: Dizziness and tumbling sensations, when making head movements in a tight turn, are symptoms of

1. 2. 3. 4.

"Pilot`s vertigo" "Flicker-vertigo" "Oculogravic illusion" "Nystagmus"

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Question 56 of 573
Number: 185 Question: "Pilot's vertigo" 1. announces the beginning of airsickness 2. is the sensation to keep a rotation after completing a turn

3. is the sensation of climbing caused by a strong linear acceleration 4. is the condition of dizziness and/or tumbling sensation caused by contradictory impulses to the

central nervous system (CNS)

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Question 57 of 573
Number: 186 Question: What can a pilot do to avoid "Flicker vertigo" when flying in the clouds? 1. Dim the cockpit lights to avoid reflections 2. Engage the autopilot until breaking the clouds 3. Fly straight and level and avoid head movements

4. Switch strobe-lights off

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Question 58 of 573
Number: 187 Question: What do you do, when you are affected by "pilot's vertigo"? 1. Establish and maintain an effective instrument cross-check. 2. Believe the instruments. 3. Ignore illusions. 4. Minimize head movements. 1. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false 2. Only 4 is false

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

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Question 59 of 573
Number: 189 Question: The risk of spatial disorientation increases when: 1. the pilot is buckled tightly to his/her seat and cannot sense the attitude changes of the aircraft by the Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense

2. there is contradictory information between the instruments and the vestibular organs 3. information from the vestibular organ in the inner ear are ignored 4. the pilot is performing an effective instrument cross-check and is ignoring illusions

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Question 60 of 573
Number: 191 Question: Which flight-manoeuvre will most likely induce vertigo? Turning the head while

1. 2. 3. 4.

banking flying straight and level descending climbing

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Question 61 of 573
Number: 273 Question: The semicircular canals of the inner ear monitor 1. movements with constant speeds 2. gravity

3. angular accelerations 4. relative speed and linear accelerations

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Question 62 of 573
Number: 274 Question: Which part of the ear could be affected due to air pressure changes during climb and/or descent?

1. 2. 3. 4.

The Eustachian tube and the tympanic membrane (ear drum) The semicircular canals The saccules and utricles The cochlea

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Question 63 of 573
Number: 275 Question: Which part of the inner ear is responsible for the perception of sound? 1. The Eustachian tube 2. The sacculus and utriculus 3. The semicircular canals

4. The cochlea

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Question 64 of 573
Number: 276 Question: Which part of the vestibular apparatus is affected by changes in gravity and linear acceleration? 1. The semicircular canals 2. The cochlea

3. The eustachian tube

4. The sacculus and utriculus

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Question 65 of 573
Number: 277 Question: Which part of the vestibular apparatus is responsible for the detection of angular acceleration? 1. The Eustachian tube 2. The cochlea 3. The sacculus and utriculus

4. The semicircular canals

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Question 66 of 573
Number: 278 Question: The vestibular apparatus 1. reacts to vibrations of the cochlea 2. gives the impression of hearing 3. reacts to pressure changes in the middle ear

4. reacts to linear/angular acceleration and gravity

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Question 67 of 573
Number: 280 Question: Which of the following components belong to the middle ear? 1. Endolymph 2. Semicircular canals 3. Otoliths

4. Ossicles

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Question 68 of 573
Number: 281 Question: Through which part of the ear does the equalization of pressure take place, when altitude is changed?

1. Eustachian tube

2. External auditory canal 3. Cochlea 4. Tympanic membrane

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Question 69 of 573
Number: 283 Question: Concerning the effects of drugs and pilots performance

1. 2. 3. 4.

the primary and the side effects have to be considered only the primary effect has to be considered; side effects are negligible the side effects only have to be considered medication has no influence on pilots performance

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Question 70 of 573
Number: 289 Question: What is understood by air-sickness? 1. An illness caused by evaporation of gases in the blood 2. An illness caused by reduced air pressure 3. An illness caused by an infection of the middle ear

4. A sensory conflict within the vestibular system accompanied by nausea and vomiting

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Question 71 of 573
Number: 410 Question: The "Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense" 1. is a natural human instinct which will always indicate the correct body position in space 2. can be used as a reference for determining attitude when operating in visual and instrument meteorological conditions 3. can be used, if trained, to avoid disorientation in space

4. can give false inputs to body orientation when visual reference is lost

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Question 72 of 573
Number: 411 Question: Illuminated anti-collision lights in IMC 1. will improve the pilots depth perception

2. can cause disorientation

3. will effect the pilots binocular vision 4. can cause colour-illusions

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Question 73 of 573
Number: 412 Question: A shining light is fading out (i. e. when flying into fog, dust or haze). What kind of illusion could the pilot get? 1. The source of light stands still 2. The source of light is approaching him with increasing speed 3. The light source will make the pilot believe, that he is climbing

4. The source of light moves away from him

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Question 74 of 573
Number: 414 Question: Autokinesis is 1. the change in diameter of the pupil, when looking in the dark 2. the phenomenon of spinning lights after the abuse of alcohol 3. the automatic adjustment of the crystalline lens to objects situated at different distances 4. the apparent movement of a static single light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in

the dark

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Question 75 of 573
Number: 415 Question: A pilot is used to land on small and narrow runways only. Approaching a larger and wider runway can lead to: 1. a flatter than normal approach with the risk of "ducking under" 2. a steeper than normal approach dropping low 3. the risk to land short of the overrun

4. an early or high "round out"

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Question 76 of 573
Number: 416 Question: The impression of an apparent movement of light when stared at for a relatively long period of time in the dark is called 1. "oculografic illusion" 2. "white out" 3. "oculogyral illusion"

4. "autokinesis"

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Question 77 of 573
Number: 417 Question: Generally, the time required for dark adaptation is: 1. 10 min 2. 1/10 sec

3. 30 min 4. 10 sec

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Question 78 of 573
Number: 418 Question: Which problem may occur, when flying in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)? Under these conditions it is: 1. impossible to detect objects 2. unlikely that visual illusions occur 3. no problem to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

4. difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects

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Question 79 of 573
Number: 619 Question: Which of the following symptoms can mark the onset of hyperventilation? 1. Cyanosis (blueing of lips and finger nails)

2. Dizzy feeling 3. Slow rate of breathing 4. Slow heart beat

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Question 80 of 573
Number: 620 Question: Out of the list of possible measures to counteract hyperventilation, the most effective measure is:

1. breathe into a plastic or paper bag 2. speak soothingly and get the person to breathe slowly

3. avoid strenuous flight manoeuvres 4. hold breath

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Question 81 of 573
Number: 621 Question: What event can cause a hyperventilation (not required by physical need)? 1. Pressure breathing. 2. Anxiety or fear. 3. Overstress. 4. Strong pain. 5. Jogging.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,2,3 and 4 are correct, 5 is false 1and 5 are both false 1,2,3,4 and 5 are correct Only 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 82 of 573
Number: 622 Question: Which of the following could a pilot experience when he is hyperventilating? 1. Dizziness 2. Muscular spasms 3. Visual disturbances 4. Cyanosis 1. 2 and 4 are false 2. 1 is false, all others are correct

3. 1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 4. 1,2 and 4 are correct, 3 is false

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Question 83 of 573
Number: 624 Question: What could cause hyperventilation ? 1. Fatigue

2. Fear, anxiety and distress 3. Abuse of alcohol 4. Extreme low rate of breathing

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Question 84 of 573
Number: 625 Question: A pilot who is hyperventilating for a prolonged period of time may even become unconscious. Hyperventilation is likely to occur, when: 1. he/she is flying a tight turn 2. there is an increased blood flow to the brain

3. the pilot is emotionally aroused 4. there is a low CO-pressure in the blood

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Question 85 of 573
Number: 630 Question: Breathing pure oxygen (without pressure) will be sufficient up to an altitude of: 1. 45000 FT

2. 40000 FT 3. 80000 FT 4. 60000 FT

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Question 86 of 573
Number: 631 Question: TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) is: 1. the length of time during which an individual can act with both mental and physical efficiency;

measured from the moment at which he/she is exposed to hypoxia 2. the time before becoming unconscious at a sudden pressure loss 3. the time between the start of hypoxia and death 4. the time after pressure loss until decompression sickness sets in

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Question 87 of 573
Number: 632 Question: The "Effective Performance Time" or "Time of Useful Consciousness" after a decompression at 35 000 ft is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

between 30 and 60 seconds approximately 5 minutes less than 20 seconds approximately 3 minutes

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Question 88 of 573
Number: 633 Question: The time between inadequate oxygen supply and incapacitation is called TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness). It 1. varies individually and does not depend on altitude

2. is not dependent on physical or psychological pressure 3. is the same amount of time for every person

4. varies individually and depends on cabin pressure altitude

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Question 89 of 573
Number: 634 Question: After a decompression to 43 000 FT the TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) will be approximately: 1. 60-90 seconds 2. 30-45 seconds

3. 5-15 seconds 4. 45-60 seconds

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Question 90 of 573
Number: 635 Question: Flights immediately after SCUBA-diving (compressed gas mixtures, bottles) (>10 m depth) 1. should be avoided because hypoxia may develop 2. are allowed if you fly no higher than 38000 FT

3. are forbidden 4. can be performed without any danger

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Question 91 of 573
Number: 636 Question: Pain in the Joints ("bends") is a symptom of: 1. air-sickness 2. barotrauma 3. hypoxia

4. decompression sickness

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Question 92 of 573
Number: 638 Question: You suffered a rapid decompression without the appearance of any decompression sickness symptoms. What should you do before flying ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

seek prompt aeromedical advice seek aeromedical advice only if the symptoms become apparent nothing, you may fly immediately delay your next flight for 6 hours

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Question 93 of 573
Number: 639 Question: Flying immediately following a dive with SCUBA diving equipment (> 10 m depth) is forbidden because it: 1. will always lead to hypoxia 2. has no influence on altitude flights 3. prevents any dangers caused by DCS (decompression sickness) when climbing to altitudes not exceeding 30 000 FT

4. can cause decompression sickness even when flying at pressure altitudes below 18 000 FT

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Question 94 of 573
Number: 642 Question: Symptoms of decompression sickness 1. are flatulence and pain in the middle ear 2. are only relevant when diving 3. can only develop at altitudes of more than 40000 FT

4. are bends, chokes, creeps and neurological symptoms

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Question 95 of 573
Number: 643 Question: Decompression sickness symptoms may develop due to

1. 2. 3. 4.

cabin pressure loss when flying at higher altitudes (above 18000 FT) emergency descents without cabin pressure loss fast flights from a high-pressure zone into a low pressure area when flying an unpressurised aeroplane sudden pressure surges in the cabin at altitudes below 18000 FT

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Question 96 of 573
Number: 644 Question: The function of the Eustachian tube is to equalise the pressure between the:

1. sinuses of the nose and the external atmosphere 2. nose, throat and the external atmosphere 3. sinuses

4. middle ear and the external atmosphere

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Question 97 of 573
Number: 645 Question: Disruptions of pressure equalization in air-filled cavities of the head (nose, ear etc.) are called: 1. hypoxia 2. embolism 3. hyperventilation

4. barotrauma

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Question 98 of 573
Number: 646 Question: Barotrauma caused by gas accumulation in the stomach and intestines can lead to: 1. barosinusitis 2. decompression sickness 3. barotitis

4. pressure pain or flatulence

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Question 99 of 573
Number: 647 Question: What counter-measure can be used against barotrauma of the middle ear? 1. Stop climbing, start descent 2. Pilots should apply anti-cold remedies prior every flight to prevent barotrauma in the middle ear 3. Increase rate of descent 4. Close the mouth, pinch the nose tight and blow out thereby increasing the pressure in the mouth and

throat. At the same time try to swallow or move lower jaw

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Question 100 of 573


Number: 652 Question: A barotrauma of the middle ear

1. is to be expected during rapid decompressions, but an emergency descent immediately following the decompression will eliminate the problem

2. is more likely, when the pilot is flying with a respiratory infection and during descent 3. is only caused by large pressure changes during climb 4. causes severe pain in the sinuses

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Question 101 of 573


Number: 653 Question: Trapped intestinal gases can cause severe pain. When is this the case?

1. 2. 3. 4.

More frequent when flying above 18 000 FT in a non-pressurized aircraft. Only in pressurized aircraft when flying at higher flight levels. During descent as well as during climb, when the cabin pressure altitude is exceeding 2 000 FT At lower altitudes.

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Question 102 of 573


Number: 655 Question: Barotrauma of the middle ear most likely will occur 1. when climbing 2. in sudden steep turns 3. during a long high altitude flight

4. when descending rapidly

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Question 103 of 573


Number: 656 Question: Barotrauma of the middle ear is usually accompanied by

1. 2. 3. 4.

a reduction in hearing ability and the feeling of increasing pressure pain in the joints dizziness noises in the ear

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Question 104 of 573


Number: 657 Question: The risk of barotrauma of the middle ear is more likely to occur 1. with colds and slow ascents

2. with colds and rapid descents 3. when subjected to the Somatogravic Effect 4. with colds and fast climbs

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Question 105 of 573


Number: 658 Question: The Seat-of-the-Pants Sense involves receptors in the 1. utriculus and sacculus 2. skin only

3. muscles, tendons and joints sensitive to the position and movement of body parts 4. semicircular canals

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Question 106 of 573


Number: 659 Question: Equalization of pressure is limited between the middle ear and the ambient, when: 1. barotrauma exists in the sinuses

2. the eustachian tube is blocked 3. you breath through the mouth 4. the nose is pinched

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Question 107 of 573


Number: 660 Question: A barotrauma of the middle ear is: 1. an acute or chronic trauma to the middle ear caused by a difference of pressure on either side of the

eardrum 2. a dilatation of the Eustachian tube 3. an infection of the middle ear caused by rapid decompression 4. a bacterial infection of the middle ear

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Question 108 of 573


Number: 661 Question: A pilot approaching an upsloping runway 1. establishes a higher than normal approach speed 2. establishes a slower than normal approach speed with the risk of stalling out

3. is performing a steeper than normal approach, landing long

4. may feel that he is higher than actual. This illusion may cause him to land short.

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Question 109 of 573


Number: 664 Question: What illusion may occur if an aircraft is flying into fog, snow or haze? 1. Objects will appear closer than they really are 2. Objects seem to move slower than in reality 3. Objects will appear bigger in size than in reality

4. Objects seem to be farther away than in reality

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Question 110 of 573


Number: 666 Question: Adaptation is 1. the adjustment of the crystalline lens to focus light on the retina 2. the change of the diameter of the pupil 3. the reflection of the light at the cornea

4. the adjustment of the eyes to high or low levels of illumination

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Question 111 of 573


Number: 667 Question: The time required for complete adaptation is 1. for high levels of illumination 10 minutes and for low levels of illumination 30 minutes 2. for day and night: 30 min 3. for night 10 sec and for day 30 min

4. for high levels of illumination 10 sec and for full dark adaptation 30 min

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Question 112 of 573


Number: 668 Question: The requirement of good sunglasses is to 1. fit to the pilots individual taste 2. increase the time for dark adaptation 3. eliminate distortion in aircraft windshields

4. absorb enough visible light to eliminate glare without decreasing visual acuity

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Question 113 of 573


Number: 670 Question: Scanning at night should be performed by: 1. concentrated fixation on an object (image must fall on the fovea)

2. slight eye movements to the side of the object 3. avoiding food containing Vitamin A 4. scanning with one eye open

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Question 114 of 573


Number: 672 Question: A pilot accustomed to landing on a wide runway may find, when approaching to a narrow runway, that he/she is at a: 1. lower height and the impression of landing slow

2. greater height than he actually is with the tendency to land short 3. lower than actual height with the tendency to overshoot 4. greater height and the impression of landing short

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Question 115 of 573


Number: 673 Question: Flickering light when reflected from spinning rotor blades

1. 2. 3. 4.

can cause spatial disorientation and/or nausea has no effect should be avoided, because it may destroy the optic nerve can be avoided when the strobe-lights are switched on

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Question 116 of 573


Number: 674 Question: Alcohol, even when taken in minor quantities 1. may improve the mental functions, so that the symptoms of hypoxia are much better to be identified

2. can make the brain cells to be more susceptible to hypoxia

3. will have no effect at all 4. will stimulate the brain, making the pilot resistant to hypoxia

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Question 117 of 573


Number: 675 Question: A pilot approaching a runway which is narrower than normal may feel he is at a greater height than he actually is. To compensate he may fly a 1. compensatory glide path and land long

2. flatter than normal approach with the tendency to undershoot 3. higher than normal approach with the tendency to overshoot 4. compensatory glide path and stall out

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Question 118 of 573


Number: 676 Question: The proprioceptive senses ("Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense") 1. can neither be used for motor coordination in IMC and VMC 2. is a natural human instinct, always indicating the correct attitude

3. may give incorrect information, when outside visual reference is lost 4. can be used, if trained, to avoid spatial disorientation in IMC

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Question 119 of 573


Number: 677 Question: When assessing an individual's risk of developing coronary artery disease, the following factors may contribute: 1.obesity 2.chronic stress 3.smoking 4.family history

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 2 and 3 are correct, 1 and 4 are false Only 3 is correct, 1, 2 and 4 are false

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Question 120 of 573


Number: 681 Question: Hypoxia can affect night vision 1. and causes the Coriolis Effect

2. at approximately 5 000 ft

3. less than day vision 4. and causes the autokinetic phenomena

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Question 121 of 573


Number: 684 Question: The metabolisation of alcohol 1. can be influenced by easily obtained medication 2. can be accelerated even more by coffee 3. is accelerated by consuming alcohol with a meal

4. is a question of time

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Question 122 of 573


Number: 685 Question: What does not impair the function of the photosensitive cells? 1. Toxic influence (alcohol, nicotine, medication) 2. Oxygen deficiency 3. Acceleration

4. High speed

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Question 123 of 573


Number: 686 Question: The fovea is 1. the area of the blind spot (optic disc)

2. the area of best day vision and no night vision at all 3. the area of best day vision and best night vision 4. where the optic nerves come together with the pupil

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Question 124 of 573


Number: 689 Question: The retina of the eye 1. is the light-sensitive inner lining of the eye containing the photoreceptors essential for vision

2. only regulates the light that falls into the eye 3. is the muscle, changing the size of the crystalline lens 4. filters the UV-light

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Question 125 of 573


Number: 690 Question: The Eustachian tube is the passage way between the 1. sinuses and the throat 2. nose, throat and the external auditory canal 3. nose, throat and inner ear

4. throat and the middle ear

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Question 126 of 573


Number: 691 Question: Which force(s) affect(s) the otoliths in the utriculus and sacculus? 1. Gravity alone 2. Angular acceleration 3. Linear acceleration and angular acceleration

4. Gravity and linear acceleration

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Question 127 of 573


Number: 693 Question: Flying a coordinated level turn will 1. first give the impression of climb , then the impression of descent 2. make the body`s pressure receptors feel an increased pressure along the body`s vertical axis

3. make the seat-of-the-pants sense feel a decreased pressure along the body`s vertical axis 4. make the blood being pooled in the head

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Question 128 of 573


Number: 695 Question: Which sensations does a pilot get, when he is rolling out of a prolonged level turn? 1. Flying straight and level 2. Climbing 3. Turning into the original direction

4. Turning in the opposite direction

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Question 129 of 573


Number: 697 Question: How can a pilot overcome vertigo, encountered during a real or simulated instrument flight? 1. Establish and maintain an effective instrument cross-check. 2. Always believe the instruments; never trust your sense of feeling. 3. Ignore arising illusions. 4. Move the head sidewards and back and forth to "shakeoff" illusions. 1. 1and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false 2. Only 4 is correct

3. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 4. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 130 of 573


Number: 1128 Question: A large number of medical preparations can be bought without a doctors prescription. In relation to using these preparations, which of the following is correct: 1. They have no side effects which would give problems to a pilot during flight 2. They will cause a condition of over-arousal 3. The side effects of these types of preparations are sufficiently negligible as to be ignored by pilots 4. A pilot using any of these preparations should get professional advice from an aviation medical

specialist if he intends to fly and self-medicate at the same time

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Question 131 of 573


Number: 1129 Question: The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture. This is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Daltons law Grahams law Boyle Mariottes law Henry`s law

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Question 132 of 573


Number: 1130 Question: The cabin pressure in airline operation is 1. normally between 2 000 to 3 000 feet

2. normally between 6 000 to 8 000 feet

3. always equivalent to sea level 4. normally between 4 000 to 5 000 feet

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Question 133 of 573


Number: 1143 Question: Carbon monoxide is always present in the exhaust gases of engines. If a pilot is exposed to carbon monoxide, which of the following responses is correct? 1. When exposed to carbon monoxide for a long period of time, the body will adapt to it and no adverse physical effects are experienced 2. Carbon monoxide can only affect pilots if they are exposed to it for a long period of time. 3. A short exposure to relatively high concentrations of carbon monoxide can seriously affect a pilots

ability to operate an aircraft. 4. Carbon monoxide is easily recognised by odour and taste.

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Question 134 of 573


Number: 1298 Question: When stopping the rotation of a spin we have the sensation 1. of the immediate stabilization of the aircraft 2. of turning in the same direction

3. that we are starting a spin in the opposite direction 4. of the sharp dipping of the nose of the aircraft

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Question 135 of 573


Number: 1299 Question: When accelerating in level flight we could experience the sensation of a 1. descent 2. spin

3. climb 4. turn

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Question 136 of 573


Number: 1300 Question: Any prolonged exposure to noise in excess of 90 db can result in:

1. noise induced hearing loss

2. a ruptured ear drum 3. presbycusis (effects of aging) 4. conductive hearing loss

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Question 137 of 573


Number: 1302 Question: The human ear is capable of perceiving vibrations between the frequencies

1. 2. 3. 4.

20 - 20000 Hz 30 - 15000 dB 20000 - 40000 Hz 0 - 16 Hz

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Question 138 of 573


Number: 1303 Question: The intensity of a sound is measured in

1. 2. 3. 4.

decibels hertz curies cycles per second

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Question 139 of 573


Number: 1304 Question: The ozone-layer is situated in the 1. troposphere 2. ionosphere

3. stratosphere 4. thermosphere

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Question 140 of 573


Number: 1307 Question: The barometric pressure has dropped to 1/2 of the pressure at sea level at 1. 10 000 feet 2. 30 000 feet

3. 18 000 feet

4. 25 000 feet

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Question 141 of 573


Number: 1308 Question: Which of the following laws explains bubbles of nitrogen coming out of solution in body tissues due to a decrease in atmospheric pressure? 1. Boyles law 2. Daltons law

3. Henrys law 4. Gay Lussacs law

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Question 142 of 573


Number: 1309 Question: The normal rate of breathing when at rest is 1. 32 to 40 cycles a minute 2. 60 to 100 cycles a minute 3. 25 to 30 cycles a minute

4. 12 to 20 cycles a minute

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Question 143 of 573


Number: 1310 Question: The main function of the red blood cells is 1. the cellular defence of the body 2. to participate in the process of coagulation of the blood 3. to contribute to the immune response of the body

4. to transport oxygen

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Question 144 of 573


Number: 1311 Question: Altitude-hypoxia, when breathing ambient air, should not usually occur (indifferent phase)

1. 2. 3. 4.

below 3 000 m up to 5 000 m between 5 000 m and 7 000 m between 3 000 m and 5 000 m

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Question 145 of 573


Number: 1312 Question: "The Bends" as a symptom of decompression sickness consists of: 1. loss of peripheral vision

2. pain in the joints 3. pain in the thorax and a cough 4. CNS-disturbances

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Question 146 of 573


Number: 2943 Question: What are the main effects of a lack of sleep on performance?

1. It increases fatigue, reduces concentration and increases the risk of sensory illusions 2. It increases fatigue and concentration difficulties, but facilitates stress management by muscular relaxation 3. It reduces concentration and fatigue only with sleep loss greater than 48 hours 4. It causes muscular spasms

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Question 147 of 573


Number: 2987 Question: Which of the following statements are correct ? -1: Modern aircraft allow for 50 - 60% relative humidity in the cabin air under any conditions of flight, which is satisfactory for the body -2: Thirst is a belated symptom of dehydration -3: Dehydration may lead to clinical manifestations such as dizziness and fatigue -4: Drinking excessive quantities of water must be avoided since resistance to periods of low hydration will otherwise be lost

1. 2. 3. 4.

2,3 1,2,4 1,4 2,3,4

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Question 148 of 573


Number: 2989 Question: With regard to central vision, which of the following statements are correct ? -1: It is due to the functioning of rods -2: It enables details, colours and movement to be seen -3: Its very active both during the day and at night -4: It represents a zone where about 150.000 cones per mm are located to give high resolution capacity 1. 1,2,4

2. 2,4 3. 1,3 4. 2,3,4

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Question 149 of 573


Number: 2990 Question: Which of the following statements concerning information is correct ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

70% of information processed by man enters via the visual channel 40% of information processed by man enters via the visual channel The kinesthetic channel provides the most important information for flying Hearing is the sense which collects most information in man

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Question 150 of 573


Number: 2991 Question: What is the procedure above 10.000 ft altitude when faced with explosive decompression?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Don an oxygen mask and descend to below 10,000 ft First inform ATC Check the cabin altitude, don an oxygen mask and maintain level flight Descend to below 10,000 ft and signal an emergency

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Question 151 of 573


Number: 2992 Question: What is the approximate Time of Useful Consciousness for a seated pilot following a rapid decompression at 35,000 ft ? 1. 12 seconds 2. 5 minutes 3. 3 seconds

4. 45 seconds

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Question 152 of 573


Number: 2993 Question: What is the Time of Useful Consciousness ?

1. The length of time during which an individual can act with both mental and physical efficiency,

measured from the moment at which he/she loses his/her available oxygen supply 2. The time taken to become aware of hypoxia due to gradual decompression 3. The period of time between the start of hypoxia and the moment that the pilot becomes aware of it 4. The pilot's reaction time when faced with hypoxia

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Question 153 of 573


Number: 2995 Question: Which is the procedure to be followed when symptoms of decompression sickness occur? 1. Only the prompt supply of oxygen is necessary 2. Descend to the lowest possible level and wait for the symptoms to disappear before climbing again 3. Only medical treatment is of use

4. Descend to the lowest possible level and land as soon as possible

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Question 154 of 573


Number: 2996 Question: What is decompression sickness? 1. The formation of air bubbles in bodily tissues, with no consequences for people's capabilities 2. A frequent disorder in commercial aviation due to the pressurisation curve of modern aircraft 3. A condition resulting from the formation of nitrogen bubbles in bodily tissues and fluids after a cabin

pressure loss at high altitude 4. A disorder which is solely encountered below 18,000 ft

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Question 155 of 573


Number: 2998 Question: Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is caused by: 1. reduced mobility of the ossicles

2. damage to the sensitive membrane in the cochlea due to overexposure to noise 3. a blocked Eustachian tube 4. pressure differences on both sides of the eardrum

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Question 156 of 573


Number: 2999 Question: Excessive exposure to noise can damage:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the sensitive membrane in the cochlea the semi circular canals the eardrum the ossicles

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Question 157 of 573


Number: 3000 Question: The inner ear is able to perceive: 1. angular acceleration 2. linear acceleration 3. noise 1. 2 and 3 are correct, 1 is false 2. 2 is correct, 1 and 3 are both false

3. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct 4. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 is false

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Question 158 of 573


Number: 3001 Question: Angular accelerations are perceived by: 1. the cochlea 2. the receptors in the skin and the joints 3. the otholiths

4. the semi circular canals

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Question 159 of 573


Number: 3002 Question: The otoliths in the inner ear are sensitive to: 1. angular acceleration

2. linear acceleration and gravity 3. constant speed only 4. angular speed

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Question 160 of 573


Number: 3003 Question: Visual disturbances can be caused by: 1. hyperventilation 2. hypoxia 3. hypertension 4. fatigue

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2 and 4 are correct 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 2, 3 and 4 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 161 of 573


Number: 3004 Question: Disorientation is more likely to occur when the pilot is: 1. flying in IMC 2. frequently changing between inside and outside references 3. flying from IMC into VMC 4. approaching over still water at night 1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2. 2, 3 and 4 are correct 3. 1, 3 and 4 are correct

4. 1, 2 and 4 are correct

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Question 162 of 573


Number: 3005 Question: Positive linear acceleration when flying in IMC may cause a false sensation of: 1. pitching down

2. pitching up 3. vertigo 4. apparent sideward movement of objects in the field of vision

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Question 163 of 573


Number: 3006 Question: Linear acceleration when flying straight and level in IMC may give the illusion of: 1. yawing 2. spinning 3. descending

4. climbing

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Question 164 of 573


Number: 2468 Question: Incapacitation is most dangerous when it is : 1. intense

2. sudden 3. obvious

4. insidious

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Question 165 of 573


Number: 2298 Question: Hyperventilation is due to an excessive rate of breathing and can produce the following symptoms: 1. reduced heart rate and increase in visual acuity 2. blue finger-nails and lips

3. dizziness, tingling sensation in the fingers and toes, nausea and blurred vision 4. a state of overconfidence and reduced heart rate

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Question 166 of 573


Number: 2299 Question: In order to get rid of excess nitrogen following scuba diving, subsequent flights should be delayed 1. 3 hours after non decompression diving 2. 48 hours after a continuous ascent in the water has been made 3. 36 hours after any scuba diving

4. 24 hours

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Question 167 of 573


Number: 2300 Question: During flight in IMC, the most reliable sense which should be used to overcome illusions is the: 1. visual sense by looking outside 2. vestibular sense

3. visual sense, interpreting the attitude indicator 4. "Seat-of-the-pants-Sense"

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Question 168 of 573


Number: 2301 Question: Spatial disorientation will be most likely to occur during flight:

1. 2. 3. 4.

if the brain receives conflicting information and the pilot does not believe the instruments when flying in and out of clouds and the pilot maintains good instrument cross check when flying in bright sunlight above a cloud layer when flying in light rain below the ceiling

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Question 169 of 573


Number: 2302 Question: The chemical substance responsible for addiction to tobacco is

1. 2. 3. 4.

nicotine the combination of nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide tar carbon monoxide

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Question 170 of 573


Number: 2303 Question: It is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold. The reason for this is: 1. although the change in air pressure during a climb at lower altitudes is very small, it increases rapidly at high altitudes. If the tissue in the Eustachian tube of the ear is swollen, gentle descents at high altitude would result in damage to the ear drum 2. swollen tissue in the inner ear will increase the rate of metabolic production resulting in hyperventilation 3. because it will seriously affect peripheral vision 4. the tissue around the nasal end of the Eustachian tube is likely to be swollen thus causing difficulty in equalising the pressure within the middle ear and the nasal/throat area. Pain and damage to the

eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents

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Question 171 of 573


Number: 10116 Question: During hyperventilation 1. alkalinity level of the blood is reduced 2. nitrogen concentration of the blood is above normal

3. acidity level of the blood is reduced 4. oxygen concentration of the blood is below normal

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Question 172 of 573


Number: 10117 Question: What is meant by presbycusis? 1. Gradual onset of long-sightedness with age. 2. Total loss of hearing in both ears due to disease.

3. Gradual loss of hearing with age. 4. Total loss of hearing in one ear due to use of a headset in the cockpit.

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Question 173 of 573


Number: 10118 Question: On experiencing a vestibular illusion in straight and level flight, it is recommended that:

1. 2. 3. 4.

you avoid head movements and rely on your instruments you close your eyes for a moment so that the oculo-vestibular conflict disappears you rely on your sensations only, as humans are much more reliable than flight instruments you tilt your head to the side opposite to the turn to nullify the stimulus causing the illusion

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Question 174 of 573


Number: 10119 Question: Among the symptoms of hypoglycaemia are: 1. Difficulty in focussing on near-by objects 2. Severe eye and head aches

3. Headache and lack of concentration 4. Double vision and puffiness around the eyes

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Question 175 of 573


Number: 10120 Question: To prevent gastro-intestinal problems in tropical climates you should: 1. not eat salad or raw vegetables 2. always peel fruit 3. only eat food that has been properly cooked 4. avoid ice-cream Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 2 and 4 2. 1, 2 and 3 3. 1 and 2

4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

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Question 176 of 573


Number: 10121 Question: To resynchronize a circadian rhythm, it takes more time after: 1. north-south flights

2. eastbound flights 3. south-north flights 4. westbound flights

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Question 177 of 573


Number: 12527 Question: Flying a non-pressurized light aircraft at 9 000 feet your passenger develops blue lips: 1. you will attempt to calm him/her and occupying the passenger with suitable tasks. 2. you supply him with extra oxygen, but do not reduce altitude as the partial pressure of oxygen never results in symptoms below 10 000 feet.

3. assuming he is suffering from hypoxia you reduce altitude and supply him/her with oxygen. 4. assuming he is hyperventilating you order him to stop breathing while you supply additional oxygen.

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Question 178 of 573


Number: 12525 Question: Flights immediately after SCUBA-diving, using compressed gas, to depths greater than 10 metres: 1. can be performed without any danger 2. are allowed if you fly no higher than 38000 FT 3. should be avoided because hypoxia may develop

4. are to be avoided because of the possibility of decompression sickness

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Question 179 of 573


Number: 12500 Question: Spatial disorientation will be most likely to occur during flight: 1. when flying in bright sunlight above a cloud layer

2. if the brain receives conflicting information and the pilot does not believe the instruments 3. when flying in and out of clouds and the pilot maintains good instrument cross check 4. when flying in light rain below the ceiling

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Question 180 of 573


Number: 12502 Question: Smoking 3 cigarettes in 1 hour at sea level will:

1. 2. 3. 4.

cause a lower degree of hypoxic tolerance. not affect night vision when flying at sea level. prevent serious hyperventilation due to sedation effect of nicotine. increase your G-tolerance considerably by increasing blood pressure.

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Question 181 of 573


Number: 12506 Question: Records of radiation are normally kept for flights above: 1. 55,000 ft 2. 45,000 ft 3. 40,000 ft

4. 49,000 ft

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Question 182 of 573


Number: 12508 Question: Presbyopia causes a: 1. lack of empty field 2. lack of vitamin A 3. mis-shapened cornea

4. decrease of accommodation

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Question 183 of 573


Number: 12509 Question: Presbycusis results in: 1. will not affect a pilot's hearing if he/she is wearing ear-plugs all the time 2. reduction in the perception of all tones equally 3. reduction in the perception of low tones first

4. reduction in the perception of high tones first

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Question 184 of 573


Number: 12510

Question: Presbycusis causes initial loss of: 1. conductive hearing. 2. low and high tones equally. 3. low tones.

4. high tones.

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Question 185 of 573


Number: 12512 Question: Pilots should not take antihistamines because they may cause: 1. Drowsiness and dizziness 2. Hypoglycaemia 3. Hyperventilation 4. Flatulence Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 3 and 4 2. 1 and 3 3. 2, 3 and 4

4. only 1

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Question 186 of 573


Number: 12514 Question: Physiological problems due to increasing altitude are caused by: 1. increased atmospheric pressure

2. decreased atmospheric pressure 3. accelerations 4. disorientation

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Question 187 of 573


Number: 12516 Question: Resonance of the body parts can result from: 1. angular velocity 2. vibrations from 16 Hz to 18 kHz 3. acceleration along the longitudinal body axis

4. vibrations from 1 to 100 Hz

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Question 188 of 573


Number: 12538 Question: Hyperventilation is:

1. an increased heart rate caused by an increasing blood pressure 2. a reduction of partial oxygen pressure in the brain 3. a normal compensatory physiological reaction to a drop in partial oxygen pressure (i.e. when climbing

a high mountain) 4. an increased heart rate caused by a decreasing blood-pressure

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Question 189 of 573


Number: 12540 Question: How will hyperventilation cause the acid-base balance of the blood to be affected? 1. Hyperventilation causes too much CO2 to be removed from the blood causing the level of carbonic acid to rise. 2. Hyperventilation causes too much oxygen to be removed from the blood causing the level of carbonic acid to rise. 3. Hyperventilation causes too much oxygen to be removed from the blood causing the level of carbonic acid to fall. 4. Hyperventilation causes too much CO2 to be removed from the blood causing the level of carbonic

acid to fall.

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Question 190 of 573


Number: 12541 Question: How does an increase in altitude affect the haemoglobin oxygen saturation? 1. As altitude increases, the haemoglobin oxygen saturation will remain constant at 57% from 24000 ft.

2. As altitude increases, the haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreases. 3. As altitude increases, the haemoglobin oxygen saturation with remain constant at 97.5% from 10000 ft. 4. As altitude increases, the haemoglobin oxygen saturation increases.

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Question 191 of 573


Number: 12543 Question: How can vertigo be prevented in conditions of good visibility? 1. By closing the eyes momentarily 2. By avoiding blinking 3. By looking approximately 5 to one side of an object

4. By looking at the horizon

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Question 192 of 573


Number: 12544 Question: How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported throughout the body? 1. Metabolism 2. Diffusion

3. Circulation 4. Oxidisation

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Question 193 of 573


Number: 12547 Question: State the conditions which cause the "black hole effect" and the danger to flight safety. 1. The "black hole effect" can be caused by flying over featureless terrain on the approach to an airfield which can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it is, leading to a high approach being flown. 2. The "black hole effect" can be caused by flying under instruments with poor cockpit lighting and can lead to disorientation. 3. The "black hole effect" can be caused by flying over water at night on the approach to an airfield which can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it is, leading to a high approach being flown. 4. The "black hole effect" can be caused by flying over water at night on the approach to an airfield which can create the illusion that the aircraft is at a higher altitude than it is, leading to a low

approach being flown.

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Question 194 of 573


Number: 12548 Question: Having a cold or an infection of the upper respiratory tract you: 1. must be careful when flying because the infection may cause hyperglycemia. 2. may accept to fly an ambulance flight because "Sinus squeeze" is rare and represents a minor danger to aviation. 3. should not fly because the infection may cause hypoxia due to congestion in the nose. 4. should not fly because the congestion of the frontal sinuses may cause great pain which can seriously

affect your ability to control yourself and the aircraft.

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Question 195 of 573


Number: 12549 Question: Haemoglobin has an affinity for carbon monoxide of ...............times over oxygen 1. 50 - 75 2. 5 - 10 3. 500 - 1,000

4. 210 - 250

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Question 196 of 573


Number: 12551 Question: Glaucoma is due to: 1. Drop in pressure of the liquid around the eye

2. Increase in pressure of the liquid within the eye 3. Excess light on the eyeball 4. Damage to the eyeball due to high altitude

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Question 197 of 573


Number: 12552 Question: Galactic Radiation is: 1. Unsteady and reasonably predictable 2. Steady but unpredictable 3. Unsteady and unpredictable

4. Steady and reasonably predictable

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Question 198 of 573


Number: 12553 Question: Free running circadian rhythms normally have a cycle of approximately: 1. 8 hours 2. 6 hours 3. 36 hours

4. 25 hours

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Question 199 of 573


Number: 12555 Question: Flying immediately following a dive with SCUBA diving equipment to a depth greater than 10 metres is not advisable because:

1. can cause decompression sickness even when flying at pressure altitudes below 18 000 FT

2. prevents any dangers caused by DCS (decompression sickness) when climbing to altitudes not exceeding 30 000 FT 3. will always lead to hypoxia 4. has no influence on altitude flights

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Question 200 of 573


Number: 12556 Question: Hepatitis 'A' is transmitted through: 1. bacteria in the form of spores via a puncture in the skin. 2. insect bites. 3. droplets in the air cause by the breath of an infected person.

4. food or water which has been contaminated.

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Question 201 of 573


Number: 12557 Question: Alcohol degrades: 1. Stage 2 sleep

2. Paradoxical sleep 3. Stage 3 and 4 sleep 4. Slow wave sleep

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Question 202 of 573


Number: 12561 Question: Among the measures that a pilot should take when in an area where gastro-intestinal upsets are endemic is: 1. avoidance of curries or gassy foods. 2. avoidance of cooked meats. 3. avoidance of cooked fruits.

4. avoidance of ice in cold drinks.

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Question 203 of 573


Number: 12562 Question: Among the factors which can cause illusions while taxiing are: 1. distance from the edge of the taxiway and cockpit lighting. 2. distance from the edge of the taxiway and taxi lighting. 3. visibility and distance.

4. relative movement and cockpit height above the ground.

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Question 204 of 573


Number: 12563 Question: Among the factors which affect visual acuity are:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Hypoxia, age and angular distance from the fovea Colour blindness, alcohol and amount of light available Colour blindness, visibility and angular distance from the fovea Smoking, colour blindness and angular distance from the fovea

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Question 205 of 573


Number: 12564 Question: Among the factors which affect night vision are: 1. age, cabin altitudes above 5 000 ft, smoking and lack of vitamin C. 2. age, cabin altitudes above 5 000 ft, smoking and lack of vitamin E. 3. age, cabin altitudes above 5 000 ft, smoking and lack of vitamin B.

4. age, cabin altitudes above 5 000 ft, smoking and alcohol.

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Question 206 of 573


Number: 12565 Question: A pilot should not fly immediately after donating blood because:

1. 2. 3. 4.

you have an increased susceptibility to fainting your blood-pressure is too low after blood-donation your heart rate is too low after blood-donation the chance you get the bends is higher after blood-donation

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Question 207 of 573


Number: 12567 Question: An illusion of obtaining greater height above ground can occur when: 1. decelerating at low altitude. 2. flying over high terrain in low visibility. 3. accelerating at low altitude.

4. suddenly flying over small trees after prolonged flying over tall trees.

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Question 208 of 573


Number: 12568 Question: After a cabin pressure loss at approximately 35 000 FT the TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) will be approximately: 1. 10-15 seconds 2. 5 minutes or more

3. 30 -40 seconds 4. 3-4 minutes

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Question 209 of 573


Number: 12570 Question: Smoking cigarettes reduces the capability of the blood to carry oxygen because: 1. carbon monoxide increases the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli 2. the smoke of one cigarette can cause an obstruction in the respiratory tract 3. carbon monoxide in the smoke of cigarettes assists diffusion of oxygen in the alveoli

4. haemoglobin has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it has for oxygen

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Question 210 of 573


Number: 12571 Question: A pilot, climbing in a non-pressurised aircraft and without using supplemental oxygen will pass the "critical threshold" at approximately: 1. 38 000 ft 2. 12 000 ft 3. 16 000 ft

4. 20 000 ft

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Question 211 of 573


Number: 12572 Question: Tetanus is transmitted through: 1. Insect bites 2. Droplets in the air cause by the breath of an infected person 3. Food or water which has been contaminated

4. Bacteria in the form of spores via a puncture in the skin

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Question 212 of 573


Number: 12575 Question: Among the factors that increase tolerance to long-duration g forces are:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Bending forward or supine body position and tensing of the abdominal muscles Correct use of pilot's harness and tensing of the abdominal muscles Tensing the leg muscles and correct use of pilot's harness Anti-g suits and correct use of pilot's harness

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Question 213 of 573


Number: 12576 Question: Astigmatism is caused by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

A mis-shapened cornea A lack of vitamin A A lack of accommodation A lack of empty field

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Question 214 of 573


Number: 12577 Question: By 'long duration acceleration', we mean that it lasts more than:

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 second 20 seconds 5 minutes 1 minute

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Question 215 of 573


Number: 12578 Question: Below 70,000 ft., what gas makes up the major part of the atmosphere ? 1. Carbon dioxide

2. Nitrogen 3. Ozone

4. Oxygen

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Question 216 of 573


Number: 12580 Question: Barotrauma of the sinuses of the nose

1. 2. 3. 4.

is caused by differences in pressure between the sinus cavities and the outside air pressure is an irritation of the sinuses caused by the over-use of nasal sprays is only caused by colds and their effects only arises in flying and not in diving

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Question 217 of 573


Number: 12581 Question: Barotrauma is caused by an increase or decrease in the volume of the gases contained in the body's cavities. Which, in practice, are the most frequent locations of such problems? 1. Dental cavities, outer ear and eyes

2. Facial sinuses, middle ear and dental cavities 3. Facial sinuses, outer ear and stomach 4. Inner ear, facial sinuses and stomach

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Question 218 of 573


Number: 12582 Question: Autokinesis can give the pilot the impression that: 1. lights are further away than in fact they are. 2. the aircraft is climbing

3. a star is another aircraft 4. lights from ships are stars

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Question 219 of 573


Number: 12583 Question: At which altitude is it necessary to breathe 100% oxygen under pressure after a rapid decompression ? 1. Approximately 14 000 ft. 2. Approximately 50 000 ft.

3. Approximately 40 000 ft.

4. Approximately 20 000 ft.

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Question 220 of 573


Number: 12585 Question: At rest the cardiac output (the quantity of blood the heart pumps in one minute) of an adult is approximately: 1. 75 litres/min

2. 5 litres/min 3. 45 litres/min 4. 450 ml/min

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Question 221 of 573


Number: 12587 Question: Approximately how long will a blood/alcohol level of 60 mgm/100ml take to return to normal ? 1. 20 hours 2. 1 hour 3. 12 hours

4. 4 hours

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Question 222 of 573


Number: 12589 Question: Any prolonged exposure to noise in excess of 90 db can result in: 1. a ruptured ear drum 2. conductive hearing loss

3. noise induced hearing loss 4. presbycusis (effects of aging)

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Question 223 of 573


Number: 12595 Question: At which altitude (within the "indifferent zone") may a degradation of night vision occur?

1. 2. 3. 4.

From approximately 1 600m 3 000m - 5 000m up to 5 000m 5 000m - 7 000m

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Question 224 of 573


Number: 12597 Question: If a stop-over is more than 24 hours, the correct action is to: 1. Stay on home time and, on arrival, move to the new time 2. No adjustment is necessary

3. Move to the new time as soon as possible 4. Stay on home time

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Question 225 of 573


Number: 12598 Question: Cholera can be transmitted through: 1. Droplets in the air cause by the breath of an infected person 2. Insect bites 3. Bacteria in the form of spores via a puncture in the skin

4. Food or water which has been contaminated

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Question 226 of 573


Number: 12599 Question: Hypoxia is: 1. often produced during steep turns when pilots turn their heads in a direction opposite to the direction in which the aircraft is turning 2. a physical condition caused by a lack of oxygen saturation in the blood while hyperventilating. 3. a condition of lacking oxygen in the brain causing the circulatory system to compensate by decreasing the heart rate. 4. a physical condition caused by a lack of oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues, leading to mental and muscular disturbances, causing impaired thinking, poor judgement and slow reactions

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Question 227 of 573


Number: 12600 Question: A pilot may suffer from hypoxia 1. if he/she is flying an unpressurised airplane at an altitude of 15 000 feet and breathing 100 % oxygen 2. after decompression to 30 000 feet and using 100 % oxygen via an oxygen mask

3. after decompression at high altitude and not using additional oxygen in time

4. if his rate of climb exceeds 5 000 ft/min

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Question 228 of 573


Number: 12601 Question: The system which controls breathing, digestion, heart rate, etc., over which there is no voluntary control, is: 1. the critical nervous system 2. non-existent, as all these functions are under conscious control 3. the local nervous system

4. the autonomic nervous system

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Question 229 of 573


Number: 12603 Question: The sleep pattern is closely associated with: 1. Heart rate 2. Glucose level 3. Blood pressure

4. Body temperature

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Question 230 of 573


Number: 12605 Question: The risk of spatial disorientation increases when: 1. the pilot is buckled tightly to his/her seat and cannot sense the attitude changes of the aircraft by the Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense 2. information from the vestibular organ in the inner ear are ignored

3. there is contradictory information between the instruments and the vestibular organs 4. the pilot is performing an effective instrument cross-check and is ignoring illusions

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Question 231 of 573


Number: 12606 Question: Hypoxia can affect night vision 1. and causes the Coriolis Effect 2. and causes the autokinetic phenomena

3. at approximately 5 000 ft

4. less than day vision

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Question 232 of 573


Number: 12607 Question: The procedure to be followed in the event of decompression when flying above 10,000 ft must:

1. allow for the rapid supply of oxygen in order to prevent hypoxia 2. make it possible to eliminate the risk of fogging due to the sudden pressure changes 3. allow for a rapid descent independent from sufficient supply of oxygen in order to prevent disorders due to hypoxia 4. make it possible to prevent hyperventilation owing to the inhalation of 100 % oxygen

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Question 233 of 573


Number: 12608 Question: The primary symptom of Decompression sickness/illness is: 1. red coloured cheeks and lips 2. neurological damages to the CNS

3. the Bends 4. the Chokes

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Question 234 of 573


Number: 12611 Question: The Peripheral Nervous System passes information from the: 1. brain to the sensory stores through sensory nerves 2. brain to all parts of the body through sensory and autonomic nerves 3. brain to all parts of the body through sensory nerves

4. sensory inputs to the CNS through sensory and motor nerves

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Question 235 of 573


Number: 12612 Question: The "Leans" or Somatogyral illusion can be caused by: 1. Bunting the aircraft 2. A carrier take-off

3. Reducing bank following a prolonged turn 4. Going into a turn too quickly

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Question 236 of 573


Number: 12617 Question: A pilot may get the illusion of low altitude on approach although the aircraft is on the correct glidepath: 1. when the runway is unusually narrow 2. depending on the approach speed of the aircraft

3. when the runway is wider than he is used to 4. on night approaches only

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Question 237 of 573


Number: 12618 Question: A pilot can prevent hypoxia by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

using additional oxygen when flying above 10000 ft not exceeding a cabin pressure altitude of 20000 ft relying on the body's built in warning system recognizing any stage of hypoxia swallowing, yawing and applying the Valsalva method

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Question 238 of 573


Number: 12621 Question: The Somatogravic illusion gives the pilot a false impression of:

1. 2. 3. 4.

climbing or descending. descending and turning to the left. descending and turning to the right. climbing and turning to the right.

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Question 239 of 573


Number: 12625 Question: A "Graveyard-Spin" is: 1. a spin maneuver that should only be performed by well trained pilots. 2. an illusion caused by misperception of being higher than you really are when performing a spin. Thus the recovery tends to be dangerously low. 3. a spin in which the pilot, on recovery, tends to re-enter the spin due to the somatogyral illusion where

the vestibular system no longer senses radial acceleration.

4. a fatal accident caused by a state of spinning the fluid in the brain.

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Question 240 of 573


Number: 12626 Question: Illusions that pilots experience in conditions of fog or mist are that: 1. Objects appear closer than they really are and lead to shallow approaches. 2. Objects appear closer than they really are and lead to steep approaches.

3. Objects appear further away than they really are and can lead to steep approaches. 4. Objects appear further away than they really are and lead to shallow approaches.

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Question 241 of 573


Number: 12627 Question: A human breathing 100% oxygen at 33 700 ft is the equivalent of breathing air at: 1. 21 300 ft

2. sea level 3. 10 000 ft 4. 8 000 ft

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Question 242 of 573


Number: 12629 Question: If warned of an imminent thunderstorm: 1. no specific action is advised with regards to the adjustment of the brightness of cockpit lights. 2. cockpit lights should be turned off. 3. cockpit lights should be dimmed.

4. cockpit lights should be turned up.

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Question 243 of 573


Number: 12633 Question: "Greyout" occurs in case of: 1. + gX 2. - gZ 3. + gY

4. + gZ

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Question 244 of 573


Number: 15472 Question: On average most human adults require approximately how many hours sleep per night? 1. 4 hrs 2. 10 hrs

3. 8 hrs 4. 6 hrs

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Question 245 of 573


Number: 15819 Question: Tattooing and immunization with the use of improperly sterilized needles or syringes may expose the receiver to which of the following? 1. Diabetes 2. Hypertension 3. Osteoarthritis

4. Hepatitis B or C

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Question 246 of 573


Number: 15765 Question: If a crew is having a stop-over for less than 24hrs before returning to their homebase, what coping strategy should be used for jet lag? 1. Change eating and sleeping cycle to stop-over (destination) time. 2. Only have meals when it is daylight and sleep when it is dark, to ensure sufficient sleep credit. 3. Eat light meals only and have regular naps instead of proper sleep.

4. Maintain eating and sleeping cycle based on home time.

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Question 247 of 573


Number: 15738 Question: In the case of fire in flight most fatalities are caused by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Suffocation from fumes caused by aircraft furnishing and wiring. Cardiac arrest caused by stress and fear. Inhalation of hydrogen fumes. Burns.

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Question 248 of 573


Number: 15884 Question: Hypoglycaemia can be caused by: 1. otic barotraumas. 2. excessive g forces.

3. not eating regularly or fasting. 4. excessive sugar in the blood.

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Question 249 of 573


Number: 1799 Question: The type of hypoxia, which occurs at altitude is a explained by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Daltons law Boyle Mariottes law Grahams law Henrys law

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Question 250 of 573


Number: 1801 Question: Carbon monoxide, a product of incomplete combustion, is toxic because 1. it disturbs gaseous diffusion at the alveoli capillary membrane 2. it prevents the absorption of food from the digestive tract

3. it competes with oxygen in its union with haemoglobin 4. it prevents the excretion of catabolites in the kidneys

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Question 251 of 573


Number: 1802 Question: Hyperventilation causes

1. 2. 3. 4.

a reduction of carbon dioxide in the blood acidosis hypochondria an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood

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Question 252 of 573


Number: 1803 Question: Anxiety and fear can cause 1. spatial disorientation 2. hypoglycaemia

3. hyperventilation 4. hypoxia

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Question 253 of 573


Number: 1805 Question: One of the first effects to be noticed on gradual exposure to high positive radial accelerations is

1. 2. 3. 4.

grey-out black-out red-vision loss of consciousness

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Question 254 of 573


Number: 1811 Question: To prevent vertigo in flight we should 1. look towards the sides when we make a turn 2. keep breathing normally

3. not move the head suddenly while we are turning 4. breath deeply but control the respiratory frequency

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Question 255 of 573


Number: 1812 Question: When flying at night the first sense to be affected by a slight degree of hypoxia is the 1. cochlea 2. proprioceptive sensitivity 3. sense of balance

4. vision

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Question 256 of 573


Number: 1815

Question: The carcinogen (a substance with the ability to produce modifications in cells which develop a cancer) in cigarettes is 1. lead 2. carbon monoxide 3. nicotine

4. tar

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Question 257 of 573


Number: 1816 Question: One of the substances present in the smoke of cigarettes can make it significantly more difficult for the red blood cells to transport oxygen and as a consequence contributes to hypoxia. Which substance are we referring to? 1. Tar 2. Carbon dioxide 3. Carbonic anhydride

4. Carbon monoxide

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Question 258 of 573


Number: 1817 Question: The group of tiny bones (the hammer, anvil and stirrup) are situated in 1. the inner ear 2. the outer ear 3. the maxillary sinus

4. the middle ear

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Question 259 of 573


Number: 1818 Question: The semicircular canals form part of the 1. ear drum 2. external ear 3. middle ear

4. inner ear

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Question 260 of 573

Number: 1819 Question: It is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold. The reason for this is: 1. swollen tissue in the inner ear will prevent the air from ventilating through the tympanic membrane

2. pain and damage to the eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents 3. swollen tissue in the Eustachian tube will cause permanent hearing loss 4. gentle descents at high altitude can result in damage to the ear drum

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Question 261 of 573


Number: 1820 Question: The Coriolis effect in spatial disorientation occurs as a result of: 1. on stimulating the cochlea intensely 2. stimulation of the saccule and the utricle (otoliths) of the inner ear 3. absence of semicircular canal stimulation

4. simultaneous stimulation of several semicircular canals

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Question 262 of 573


Number: 1822 Question: The part(s) of the eye responsible for night vision 1. is the cornea 2. are the cones 3. are rods and cones

4. are the rods

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Question 263 of 573


Number: 1823 Question: The fovea 1. is an area in which rods predominate 2. is sensitive to very low intensities of light 3. is the area responsible for night vision

4. is an area in which cones predominate

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Question 264 of 573


Number: 1824 Question: When the optical image forms in front of the retina; this results in:

1. 2. 3. 4.

myopia presbyopia astigmatism hypermetropia

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Question 265 of 573


Number: 1828 Question: The re-adjustment of the biological rhythms after a time shift is normally more difficult

1. 2. 3. 4.

with flights towards the East with flights towards the North with flights towards the South with flights towards the West

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Question 266 of 573


Number: 1829 Question: During paradoxical sleep 1. physical restoration and recuperation takes place 2. respiration is very regular 3. the rhythm of the heart is very regular

4. rapid eye movements can be observed

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Question 267 of 573


Number: 1884 Question: Noise induced hearing loss is influenced by

1. 2. 3. 4.

the duration and intensity of a noise the intensity of the noise but not its duration the suddenness of onset of a noise the duration of a noise but not its intensity

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Question 268 of 573


Number: 1885 Question: In order to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease, exercise should:

1. 2. 3. 4.

double the resting heart rate for at least 20 minutes, three times a week double the resting heart rate for at least an hour, five times a week be avoided since raising the heart rate shortens the life of the heart triple the resting heart rate for 20 minutes, once a week

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Question 269 of 573


Number: 1886 Question: Which of the following is most true? 1. Regular exercise is beneficial to general health, and is the only effective way to lose weight 2. Regular exercise and reduction in calorie consumption are both essential in order to lose weight 3. Regular exercise is beneficial to general health, but the most efficient way to lose weight is by

reducing calorie consumption 4. Regular exercise is an impediment to losing weight since it increases the metabolic rate

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Question 270 of 573


Number: 1887 Question: The physiological rhythms of a pilot in a new time zone will resynchronise to this new time zone at a rate of about 1. 3 - 3.5 hours a day 2. 4 - 4.5 hours a day 3. 2 - 2.5 hours a day

4. 1 - 1.5 hours a day

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Question 271 of 573


Number: 3357 Question: During gas exchange, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

lower than in the blood lower than the pressure of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric air. the same as in the atmospheric air higher than the pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood

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Question 272 of 573


Number: 3358 Question: The rate and depth of breathing is primarily regulated by the concentration of:

1. water vapour in the alveoli 2. oxygen in the cells

3. carbon dioxide in the blood 4. nitrogen in the air

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Question 273 of 573


Number: 3360 Question: A pressurized cabin helps to prevent: 1. decompression sickness 2 .the problem of expansion of gases in the intestines 3. hypoxia 4. coronary desease

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2 and 3 are correct. 1, 3 and 4 are correct. 2, 3 and 4 are correct. 1, 2 and 4 are correct.

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Question 274 of 573


Number: 3361 Question: Healthy people are usually capable of compensating for a lack of oxygen up to: 1. 25,000 feet

2. 10,000 - 12.000feet 3. 20,000 feet 4. 15,000 feet

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Question 275 of 573


Number: 3362 Question: When flying above 10.000 feet hypoxia arises because:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the partial oxygen pressure is lower than at sea level. the percentage of oxygen is lower than at sea level the composition of the air is different from sea level the composition of the blood changes

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Question 276 of 573


Number: 3363

Question: Saturation of oxygen in the blood at sea level is approximately 98%. This saturation decreases with: 1. decreasing air pressure 2. carbon monoxide poisoning 3. increasing altitude 4. increasing air pressure 1. 2, 3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false 2. 1, 2 and 4 are correct, 3 is false 3. 1, 3 and 4 are correct, 2 is false

4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

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Question 277 of 573


Number: 3364 Question: Hypoxia is a situation in which the cells

1. 2. 3. 4.

have a shortage of oxygen are saturated with nitrogen have a shortage of carbon dioxide are saturated with oxygen

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Question 278 of 573


Number: 3365 Question: The severity of hypoxia depends on the: 1. rate of decompression 2. physical fitness 3. flight level 4. individual tolerance 1. 1 and 3 are correct, 2 and 4 are false 2. 1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 3. 2,3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false

4. 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

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Question 279 of 573


Number: 3366 Question: Which of the following statements concerning hypoxia is correct? 1. It is never a problem at altitudes below 25.000 ft. 2. It has little effect on the body, because the body can always compensate for it.

3. It is a potential threat to safety. 4. It activates the senses and makes them function better.

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Question 280 of 573

Number: 3367 Question: Early symptoms of hypoxia could be: 1. euphoria 2. decreased rate and depth of breathing 3. lack of concentration 4. visual disturbances 1. 1,2,3 and 4 are correct 2. 1,2 and 4 are correct

3. 1,3 and 4 are correct 4. 1,2 and 3 are correct

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Question 281 of 573


Number: 3368 Question: One of the most dangerous symptoms of hypoxia concerning flight safety is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

impaired judgement hyperventilation, causing emotional stress cyanosis, reducing then pilots ability to hear reduced coordination of limb movements, causing the pilot to spin

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Question 282 of 573


Number: 3369 Question: Which of the following symptoms can indicate hypoxia? 1. Blue lips and finger nails. 2. Euphoria. 3. Flatulence. 4 .Unconsciousness..

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2 and 4 are correct. 1, 3 and 4 are correct. 1, 2 and 3 are correct. 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

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Question 283 of 573


Number: 3370 Question: Among the functions below, which is the most sensitive to hypoxia? 1. Motor coordination. 2. Hearing. 3. Speech.

4. Night vision.

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Question 284 of 573

Number: 3371 Question: You are crossing the Alps in a non-pressurised aircraft at an altitude of 15.000 feet. You do not use the oxygen mask because you feel fine. This is unsafe, because: 1. the blood-pressure can get too high 2. you will get the bends

3. your judgement could be impaired 4. the blood-pressure can get too low

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Question 285 of 573


Number: 3372 Question: During a night flight at 10,000 feet you notice that your visual acuity has decreased. In this case you can increase your acuity by: 1. dim the instrument lights

2. breathing extra oxygen through the oxygen mask. 3. closing one eye 4. scanning sectors of the field of vision

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Question 286 of 573


Number: 3373 Question: During flight all crewmembers have one or more of the following symptoms: 1. blue lips 2. mental disturbances 3. tingling sensations in arms and/or legs 4. reduction of peripheral vision Which is the possible cause? 1. Glaucoma. 2. Hypothermia. 3. Hypoglycaemia.

4. Hypoxia.

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Question 287 of 573


Number: 3374 Question: Which measure(s) will help to compensate for hypoxia? 1. Descend below 10 000 FT. 2. Breathe 100 % oxygen. 3. Climb to or above 10 000 FT. 4. Reduce physical activities. 1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false

3. 1, 2 and 4 are correct 4. only 1 is correct

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Question 288 of 573


Number: 3892 Question: Someone who has anaemia has:

1. 2. 3. 4.

not enough functional haemoglobin not enough platelets not enough white blood cells not enough plasma

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Question 289 of 573


Number: 3893 Question: The average pulse of a healthy adult at rest is about: 1. 90 to 100 beats/min

2. 60 to 80 beats/min 3. 110 to 150 beats/min 4. 30 to 50 beats/min

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Question 290 of 573


Number: 3895 Question: With a heart rate of 72 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 70 ml the cardiac output is about: 1. 7 litres/min 2. 6 litres/min 3. 8 litres/min

4. 5 litres/min

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Question 291 of 573


Number: 3896 Question: At rest the cardiac output (the quantity of blood the heart pumps in one minute) of an adult is approximately: 1. 75 litres/min

2. 5 litres/min 3. 450 ml/min 4. 45 litres/min

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Question 292 of 573


Number: 3897 Question: The heart muscle is supplied with blood by: 1. the pulmonary veins 2. the auricles

3. the coronary arteries 4. ventricles

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Question 293 of 573


Number: 3898 Question: The normal arterial blood-pressure of a healthy adult at rest is (systolic/diastolic): 1. 220/180 mm Hg 2. 180/120 mm Hg 3. 80/20 mm Hg

4. 120/80 mm Hg

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Question 294 of 573


Number: 3899 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? The blood-pressure which is measured during flight medical checks is the pressure

1. 2. 3. 4.

in the artery of the upper arm (representing the pressure at heart level) in the muscles of the upper arm in the veins of the upper arm in all the blood-vessels of the body (representing the pressure in the whole body)

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Question 295 of 573


Number: 3900 Question: Blood-pressure depends on: 1. the cardiac output 2. the resistance of the capillaries Which of the following lists all the correct answers ? 1. 1 is correct 2 is false 2. 1 and 2 are both false

3. 1 and 2 are correct 4. 1 is false 2 is correct

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Question 296 of 573


Number: 3901 Question: The blood-pressure depends on: 1. the work of the heart 2. the peripheral resistance 3. the elasticity of the arterial walls 4. the blood volume and viscosity 1. 1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

2. 1,2,3 and 4 are correct 3. 2,3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false 4. 1,3 and 4 are correct, 2 is false

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Question 297 of 573


Number: 3902 Question: Changes in blood-pressure are measured by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

pressoreceptors pacemakers adrenal glands arteriols

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Question 298 of 573


Number: 3903 Question: The pressoreceptors are located in 1. the intestines 2. the lungs

3. the carotid and aortic arterial vessels 4. the heart

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Question 299 of 573


Number: 3904 Question: When the pressoreceptors signal a lowering of the blood-pressure there are adaptation mechanisms which result in: 1. an increase of respiratory activity 2. the arteriols to constrict 3. an increase of cardiac output 4. the heart rate to rise 1. 1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 2. 1,2 and 4 are correct, 3 is false

3. 2,3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false 4. 1,3 and 4 are correct, 2 is false

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Question 300 of 573


Number: 3905 Question: The physiological effects of accelerations to the human body depend on: 1. the duration of the Gforces 2. the onset rate of the G-forces 3. the magnitude of the G-forces 4. the direction of the G-forces. 1. 2,3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false 2. 1and 4 are correct, 3 is false 3. 1,2,3 are correct, 4 is false

4. 1,2,3 and 4 are correct

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Question 301 of 573


Number: 3906 Question: Positive g will cause the blood flow to the brain to: 1. first increase, then decrease

2. decrease 3. remain constant 4. increase

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Question 302 of 573


Number: 3907 Question: During sustained positive G-forces the order of symptoms you can expect is: 1. grey-out, unconsciousness, black-out and tunnel vision

2. grey-out, tunnel vision, black-out and unconsciousness. 3. black-out, grey-out, tunnel vision and unconsciousness. 4. unconsciousness, black-out, tunnel vision and grey out.

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Question 303 of 573


Number: 3909 Question: The normal rate of breathing of an adult at rest is about: 1. 72 cycles per minute 2. 4 cycles per minute

3. 16 cycles per minute 4. 32 cycles per minute

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Question 304 of 573

Number: 3910 Question: The volume of air exchanged during a normal breathing cycle (tidal volume) is about: 1. 150 ml of air 2. 350 ml of air 3. 75 ml of air

4. 500 ml of air

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Question 305 of 573


Number: 3911 Question: When exhaling, the expired air contains: 1. more nitrogen than the inhaled air 2. more oxygen than the inhaled air

3. more carbon dioxide than the inspired air 4. less water vapour than the inhaled air

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Question 306 of 573


Number: 3912 Question: The primary factor in controlling the rate and depth of breathing is the: 1. partial pressure of oxygen in the blood 2. total air pressure in the blood

3. pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood 4. partial pressure of nitrogen

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Question 307 of 573


Number: 3913 Question: The transfer of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood can be described by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the law of diffusion Boyle's Law Henry's Law Dalton's Law

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Question 308 of 573


Number: 3914 Question: The transfer of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli can be described by:

1. Henry's Law 2. Dalton's Law

3. the law of diffusion 4. Boyles Law

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Question 309 of 573


Number: 3916 Question: Hyperventilation is: 1. a too high percentage of nitrogen in the blood 2. a too high percentage of oxygen in the blood.

3. an increased lung ventilation 4. a decreased lung ventilation

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Question 310 of 573


Number: 3917 Question: Hyperventilation is: 1. a decreased lung ventilation

2. an increased lung ventilation 3. a too high percentage of oxygen in the blood. 4. a too high percentage of nitrogen in the blood

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Question 311 of 573


Number: 3918 Question: If somebody starts breathing faster and deeper without physiological need

1. 2. 3. 4.

the blood turns more alkaline the blood pressure in the brain will rise significantly the acid-base balance of the blood will not change the blood turns more acid

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Question 312 of 573


Number: 3921 Question: When hyperventilating you should:

1. 2. 3. 4.

control your rate and depth of breathing use the oxygen mask descend apply the Valsalva method

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Question 313 of 573


Number: 3922 Question: A pilot can overcome hyperventilation by: 1. increasing the rate and depth of breathing to eliminate harmful carbon dioxide

2. controlling the rate and depth of breathing and/or breathing into a bag 3. the use of drugs stabilizing blood pressure 4. depending on instruments

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Question 314 of 573


Number: 3923 Question: You can overcome hyperventilation by breathing into a plastic or paper bag. The intention is: 1. to increase the amount of nitrogen in the lungs

2. to raise the level of CO2 in the blood as fast as possible 3. to reduce blood pressure 4. to prevent you from exhaling too much oxygen

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Question 315 of 573


Number: 3924 Question: Raising the sensory threshold of a sensory organ means: 1. a greater selectivity 2. a lesser selectivity

3. a lesser sensitivity 4. a greater sensitivity

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Question 316 of 573


Number: 3925 Question: Subcutaneous pressure receptors are stimulated by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the pressure created on the corresponding body parts when sitting, standing or lying down the condition of the body itself environmental stressors a touch on the skin indicating the true vertical

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Question 317 of 573


Number: 3926 Question: The proprioceptors do not orient an individual to his/her surroundings, but informs him/her of 1. our surroundings

2. the relative motion and relative position of his body parts 3. the condition in the body itself 4. a touch on the skin

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Question 318 of 573


Number: 3927 Question: A stereotype and involuntary reaction of the organism on stimulation of receptors is called: 1. change of stimulation level

2. reflex 3. data processing 4. control system

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Question 319 of 573


Number: 3928 Question: The amount of light which strikes the retina is controlled by: 1. the lens 2. the ciliary body

3. the pupil 4. the cornea

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Question 320 of 573


Number: 3929 Question: When focussing on near objects: 1. the pupil gets larger 2. the shape of lens gets flatter

3. the cornea gets smaller

4. the shape of lens gets more spherical

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Question 321 of 573


Number: 3930 Question: The ability of the lens to change its shape is called: 1. adaptation 2. depth perception

3. accommodation 4. binocular vision

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Question 322 of 573


Number: 3931 Question: The mechanism of accommodation is controlled by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the functioning of the ciliary muscle around the lens the diameter of the pupil the elasticity of the optic nerves the functioning of the muscles of the eye

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Question 323 of 573


Number: 3932 Question: Presbyopia is: 1. myopia 2. short sightedness 3. high intraocular pressure

4. long sightedness linked with age

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Question 324 of 573


Number: 3933 Question: Visual acuity during flight at high altitudes can be affected by: 1. anaemia 2. smoking in the cockpit 3. carbon monoxide poisoning 4. hypoxia 1. 1,3 and 4 are correct 2. 1,2 and 3 are correct

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 4. 2,3 and 4 are correct

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Question 325 of 573


Number: 3934 Question: Glaucoma 1. can lead to total blindness 2. can lead to undetected reduction of the visual field 3. reduces visual acuity in its final stage 1. 1 is correct, 2 and 3 are false

2. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 3. 1 and 3 are correct, 2 is false 4. 2 and 3 are correct, 1 is false

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Question 326 of 573


Number: 3935 Question: Glaucoma is: 1. disturbed colour vision 2. disturbed night vision

3. high intra-ocular pressure

Question 327 of 573


Number: 3937 Question: The peripheral vision is important for:

1. 2. 3. 4.

detecting moving objects colour vision visual acuity binocular vision

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Question 328 of 573


Number: 3938 Question: Although we have a field of vision of more than 180 it is important during flight to use the scanning technique, because 1. the reduction in the field of vision with decreasing altitude is due to a lack of vitamin A 2. only in the peripheral area of the retina resolution is good enough to see an object clearly 3. it is tiring to look continually in the same direction

4. only in the foveal area resolution is good enough to see an object clearly

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Question 329 of 573


Number: 3939 Question: The time an eye needs to adapt fully to the dark is about: 1. 10 minutes

2. 25 - 30 minutes 3. 10 seconds 4. 5 minutes

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Question 330 of 573


Number: 3940 Question: The photosensitive cells being responsible for night vision are called: 1. the fovea

2. the rods 3. the cones and the rods 4. the cones

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Question 331 of 573


Number: 3941 Question: When flying through a thunderstorm with lightning you can protect yourself from flashblindness by: a) turning up the intensity of cockpit lights b) looking inside the cockpit c) wearing sunglasses d) using face blinds or face curtains when installed 1. a) and b) are correct, c) and d) are false 2. a), b) and c) are correct, d) is false 3. c) and d) are correct, a) and b) are false

4. a), b), c) and d) are correct

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Question 332 of 573


Number: 3942 Question: Which scanning technique should be used when flying at night?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Look to the side (10 - 15 deg) of the object. Blink your eyes. Look with one eye. Look directly at the object.

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Question 333 of 573


Number: 3943 Question: The Eustachian tube connects the: 1. auditory duct and the inner ear 2. middle ear and the inner ear

3. middle ear and the throat 4. semi circular canals

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Question 334 of 573


Number: 3944 Question: Coriolis illusion, causing spatial disorientation is the result of: 1. undergoing positive G 2. gazing in the direction of a flashing light 3. normal deterioration of the semicircular canals with age

4. simultaneous head movements during aircraft manoeuvres

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Question 335 of 573


Number: 3945 Question: When turning in IMC , head movements should be avoided as much as possible. This is a prevention against: 1. autokinesis

2. coriolis illusion 3. pressure vertigo 4. oculogyral illusion

Question 336 of 573


Number: 3946 Question: A pilot who is trying to pick up a fallen object from the cockpit floor during a tight turn, may experience: 1. autokinetic illusion 2. pressure vertigo

3. coriolis illusion 4. barotrauma

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Question 337 of 573


Number: 3947 Question: Empty field myopia is caused by: 1. ozone at altitude 2. flying over mountainous terrain

3. lack of distant focal points 4. atmospheric perspective

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Question 338 of 573


Number: 3948 Question: When a pilot is starring at an isolated stationary light for several seconds in the dark he might get the illusion that: 1. the colour of the light is varying 2. the size of the light is varying

3. the light is moving 4. the intensity of the light is varying

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Question 339 of 573


Number: 3949 Question: When you stare at a single light against the dark (i.e.. an isolated star) you will find the light appears to move after some time. This phenomenon is called: 1. coriolis illusion 2. leans

3. autokinetic phenomenon 4. black hole illusion

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Question 340 of 573


Number: 3950 Question: How is haze effecting your perception? 1. Objects seem to be closer than in reality. 2. Objects will give better contrast. 3. Haze makes the eyes to focus at infinity

4. Objects seem to be further away than in reality.

Question 341 of 573


Number: 3951

Question: The 'Black hole' phenomenon occurs during approaches at night and over water, jungle or desert. When the pilot is lacking visual cues other than those of the aerodrome there is an illusion of 1. being too low, flying a steeper approach than normal

2. being too high and too far away, dropping low and landing short 3. being too close, landing long 4. climbing

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Question 342 of 573


Number: 3952 Question: You fly VFR from your home base (runway width 27 m), to an international airport (runway width 45 m). On reaching your destination there is a risk of performing a: 1. low approach with undershoot 2. high approach with undershoot

3. high approach with overshoot 4. low approach with overshoot

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Question 343 of 573


Number: 3953 Question: You fly VFR from your home base (runway width 45 m) to a small airfield (runway width 27 m). On reaching your destination there is a risk of performing a: 1. low approach with overshoot 2. high approach with undershoot 3. high approach with overshoot

4. low approach with undershoot

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Question 344 of 573


Number: 3954 Question: 1. In case of conflicting information you can always trust your Seat- of-the-Pants-Sense. 2. In case of conflicting information between the sensory organs and the instruments you must believe the instruments. 1. 1 and 2 are correct

2. 1 is false, 2 is correct 3. 1 is correct, 2 is false 4. 1 and 2 are false

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Question 345 of 573


Number: 3956 Question: Which procedure is recommended to prevent or overcome spatial disorientation? 1. Get adapted to low levels of illumination before flying and use off-center vision all the time.

2. Rely entirely on the indications of the flight instruments. 3. Rely on the Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense. 4. Tilt your head to the side to get better information from the semicircular canals.

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Question 346 of 573


Number: 3957 Question: How can a pilot prevent spatial disorientation in flight? 1. Rely on the "seat of the pants" sense.

2. Establish and maintain a good instrument cross check. 3. Always try to catch outside visual cues. 4. Rely on good situational awareness believing your natural senses.

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Question 347 of 573


Number: 3958 Question: If you are subjected to an illusion during night flying you should: 1. dim the cockpit lighting

2. continue on instruments 3. use your oxygen mask 4. scan the surroundings

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Question 348 of 573


Number: 3959 Question: If you are disorientated during night flying you must: 1. check your rate of breathing - do not breathe too fast 2. look outside 3. descend

4. rely on your instruments

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Question 349 of 573


Number: 3960

Question: A passenger complains about a painful inflated belly at 8.000 feet. You advise him to: 1. unbuckle and massage the belly 2. stand up and let go the gases out of the intestines 3. eat less gas forming food and avoid carbonhydrated beverages before flight in the future 4. drink a lot of water throughout the flight 1. only 4 is correct 2. 1 and 3 not advisable

3. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 4. 2, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 350 of 573


Number: 3961 Question: On ascent the gases in the digestive tract will 1. stay the same 2. be absorbed by tissues and blood

3. expand 4. shrink

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Question 351 of 573


Number: 3962 Question: Having a serious cold it is better not to fly, due to the extra risk of: 1. flatulence 2. pain in the ear during descent 3. vertigo 4. pain in the nasal sinuses 1. 1,2 and 4 are correct

2. 2,3 and 4 are correct 3. 1 and 2 are correct 4. 1,3 and 4 are correct

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Question 352 of 573


Number: 3963 Question: Having a serious cold, you are going to fly. What can you expect? 1. hypoxia 2. chokes 3. bends

4. pain in the sinuses

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Question 353 of 573


Number: 3964 Question: Pain in the middle ear during descent may be eased by: 1. using an oxygen mask 2. increasing the rate of descent 3. blocking the effected ear with the palm of your hand

4. levelling off and possibly climbing

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Question 354 of 573


Number: 3967 Question: Which symptom does not belong to the following list: Bends, Chokes, Creeps, Leans 1. chokes

2. leans 3. bends 4. creeps

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Question 355 of 573


Number: 3968 Question: The symptoms caused by gas bubbles under the skin following a decompression are called: 1. leans 2. bends 3. chokes

4. creeps

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Question 356 of 573


Number: 3969 Question: Symptoms caused by gas bubbles in the lungs, following a decompression are called: 1. bends 2. leans

3. chokes 4. creeps

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Question 357 of 573


Number: 3970

Question: Some hours after a rapid decompression at FL 300 you experience pain in the joints. Which of following answers is correct? 1. This phenomenon is treated by breathing 100% nitrogen. 2. This phenomenon is treated by physiotherapy. 3. This symptom indicates decompression sickness and will disappear when you take some exercise. 4. You should ask for medical advice (flight surgeon) since this is a symptom of decompression sickness.

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Question 358 of 573


Number: 3971 Question: Tolerance to decompression sickness is decreased by: 1. SCUBA diving 2. Obesity 3. Age 4. Body height 1. 1, 3 and 4 are correct 2. 2 and 4 are correct 3. only 4 is correct

4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 359 of 573


Number: 3972 Question: Decompression symptoms are caused by: 1. low carbon dioxide pressure of inhaled air 2. release of locked gases from joints 3. low oxygen pressure of inhaled air

4. dissolved gases from tissues and fluids of the body

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Question 360 of 573


Number: 3973 Question: In the event of rapid decompression the first action for the flight deck crew is: 1. transmit mayday call 2. descent to the higher of 10000 ft or MSA 3. carry out check for structural damage

4. don oxygen masks and ensure oxygen flow

5. dissolved gases from tissues and fluids of the body

Question 360 of 573


Number: 3973 Question: In the event of rapid decompression the first action for the flight deck crew is: 5. transmit mayday call 6. descent to the higher of 10000 ft or MSA 7. carry out check for structural damage

8. don oxygen masks and ensure oxygen flow

Question 361 of 573


Number: 3975 Question: The following actions are appropriate when faced with symptoms of decompression sickness: 1. climb to higher level 2. descent to the higher of 10000 ft or MSA and land as soon as possible 3. breathe 100 % oxygen 4. get medical advice about recompression after landing 1. 1 and 4 are correct 2. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

3. 2, 3 and 4 are correct 4. 1 and 3 are correct

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Question 362 of 573


Number: 3976 Question: Decompression sickness can be prevented by: 1. avoiding cabin altitudes above 18 000 FT 2. maintaining cabin pressure below 8 000FT when flying at high altitudes 3. performing physical exercises before and during the flight 4. breathing 100 % oxygen for 30 min prior and during the flight

1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2. only 3 is correct

3. 1, 2 and 4 are correct 4. 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

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Question 363 of 573


Number: 3978 Question: Following a rapid decompression at 30.000 feet, the time of useful consciousness would be about: 1. 5 to 10 minutes 2. 3 to 5 minutes 3. 10 to 12 minutes

4. between 45 seconds and 1 minute 30 seconds

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Question 364 of 573


Number: 3979 Question: After a rapid decompression at 35 000 feet, the time of useful consciousness is about: 1. 15 seconds or less 2. 10 minutes. 3. 5 minutes.

4. 30 to 60 seconds

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Question 365 of 573


Number: 3980 Question: After SCUBA diving (more than 30 feet of depth) you have to wait a period of time before flying again. This period is at least: 1. 6 hours 2. 48 hours

3. 24 hours 4. 12 hours

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Question 366 of 573


Number: 3981 Question: Flying immediately after SCUBA diving involves the risk of getting: 1. stress 2. hypoxia 3. hyperventilation

4. decompression sickness without having a decompression

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Question 367 of 573


Number: 3982 Question: Which statement is correct regarding alcohol in the human body? 1. An increase of altitude decreases the adverse effect of alcohol.

2. Judgement and decision making can be affected even by a small amount of alcohol. 3. When drinking coffee, the human body metabolizes alcohol at a faster rate than normal. 4. A small amount of alcohol increases visual acuity.

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Question 368 of 573


Number: 3983 Question: Which statement is correct? 1. Smokers have a greater chance of suffering from coronary heart disease 2. Smoking tobacco will raise the individuals physiological altitude during flight 3. Smokers have a greater chance of contracting lung cancer 1. 1 and 3 are correct, 2 is false 2. 2 and 3 are correct, 1 is false 3. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 is false

4. 1,2 and 3 are correct

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Question 369 of 573


Number: 3984 Question: Smoking cigarettes reduces the capability of the blood to carry oxygen because: 1. carbon monoxide in the smoke of cigarettes assists diffusion of oxygen in the alveoli 2. the smoke of one cigarette can cause an obstruction in the respiratory tract 3. carbon monoxide increases the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli

4. haemoglobin has a greater affinity for carbon monoxide than it has for oxygen

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Question 370 of 573


Number: 3985 Question: CO (carbon monoxide) present in the smoke of cigarettes can lead to: 1. reduction of time of useful consciousness 2. hypoxia at a lower altitude than normal 1. 1 and 2 are both false

2. 1 and 2 are both correct 3. 1 is correct, 2 is false 4. 1 is false, 2 is correct

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Question 371 of 573


Number: 3986 Question: Carbon monoxide in the human body can lead to: 1. loss of muscular power 2. headache 3. impaired judgement 4. pain in the joints 5. loss of consciousness 1. 1, 2, 3, 4 are correct 2. 1, 2 and 4 are correct

3. 1, 2 , 3 and 5 are correct 4. 2 and 3 are correct, 1 is false

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Question 372 of 573


Number: 3987 Question: Adverse effects of carbon monoxide increase as: 1. altitude decreases

2. altitude increases 3. relative humidity decreases 4. air pressure increases

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Question 373 of 573


Number: 3988 Question: The human circadian rhythm is based on a cycle of about: 1. 48 hours 2. 1.5 hours 3. 12 hours

4. 25 hours

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Question 374 of 573


Number: 3989 Question: Disturbance of the biological clock is most likely to appear after a: 1. bad night's sleep 2. day flight Amsterdam - New York 3. day flight Amsterdam - Johannesburg 4. night flight New York Amsterdam

1. 2. 3. 4.

2 and 4 are correct 1,2 and 3 are correct 1,2,3 and 4 are correct 1 and 3 are correct

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Question 375 of 573


Number: 3991 Question: Sleeplessness or the disruption of sleeping patterns 1. can lead to symptoms of drowsiness, irritability and lack of concentration 2. will make an individual more prone to make errors 1. 1 is not correct, 2 is correct 2. 1 is correct, 2 is not correct 3. 1 and 2 are both not correct

4. 1 and 2 are both correct

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Question 376 of 573


Number: 3992 Question: Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. A person experiencing sleep loss is unlikely to be aware of personal performance degradation 2. Performance loss may be present up to 20 minutes after awaking from a short sleep (nap) 1. 1 and 2 are both false 2. 1 is correct, 2 is false

3. 1 and 2 are both correct 4. 1 is false, 2 is correct

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Question 377 of 573


Number: 3993 Question: The sleep cycles repeat during the course of a night's sleep. 1. Each succeeding cycle contains a greater amount of REM-sleep. 2. Frequent interruption of the REM-sleep may be harmful. 1. 1 isfalse, 2 is correct 2. 1 is correct, 2 is false 3. 1 and 2 are both false

4. 1 and 2 are both correct

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Question 378 of 573


Number: 4017 Question: If someone hyperventilates due to stress his/her blood will become: 1. more saturated with carbon dioxide 2. more acid

3. more alkaline 4. less saturated with oxygen

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Question 379 of 573


Number: 4019 Question: What can be said concerning the following two statements? 1. Euphoria can be a symptom of hypoxia. 2. Someone in an euphoric condition is more prone to error.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 and 2 are both correct 1 and 2 are both false 1 is correct, 2 is false 1 is false, 2 is correct

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Question 380 of 573


Number: 3643 Question: Oxygen, combined with haemoglobin in blood is transported by 1. white blood cells 2. blood plasma

3. red blood cells 4. platelets

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Question 381 of 573


Number: 3644 Question: Haemoglobin is: 1. in the platelets 2. in the white blood cells

3. in the red blood cells 4. dissolved in the plasma

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Question 382 of 573


Number: 3758 Question: Which of the following systems are involved in motion sickness ? -1: Hearing -2: The vestibular system -3: Vision -4 The proprioceptive senses "Seat-of-the-Pants-Sense") -5: The gastrointestinal system

1. 2. 3. 4.

2,3,4,5 1,2,5 1,2,3 2,3,4

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Question 383 of 573


Number: 3761

Question: Which of the following illusions are brought about by conflicts between the visual system and the vestibular system ? -1: Illusions concerning the attitude of the aircraft -2: Autokinetic illusion (fixed point viewed as moving) -3: Illusions when estimating the size and distance of objects -4 : Illusions of rotation 1. 2 2. 3,4

3. 1,4 4. 2,3,4

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Question 384 of 573


Number: 3762 Question: The vestibular system is composed of -1: two ventricles -2: a saccule -3: a utricle -4: three semicircular channels 1. 1,3,4

2. 2,3,4 3. 2,3 4. 1,4

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Question 385 of 573


Number: 3763 Question: Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct ? - 1: The retina has rods on its peripheral zone and cones on its central zone - 2: The retina has cones and the crystalline lens has rods - 3: The rods allow for night-vision - 4: The cones are located on the peripheral zone of the retina

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,3 2,3 4 1

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Question 386 of 573


Number: 3764 Question: In order to perceive colour vision, it is necessary: 1. for there to be a sufficient amount of light (ambient luminosity) 2. at night to look at the point to be observed at an angle of 15 3. to allow the eye a period of time to get used to the light 4. to avoid white light. 1. 3 2. 1, 2, 3 3. 2,4

4. 1

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Question 387 of 573


Number: 3765 Question: The retina allows for colour perception as a result of the: 1. rods located in its peripheral zone 2. rods located in its central part 3. crystalline lens

4. cones located in its central part

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Question 388 of 573


Number: 3766 Question: Accommodation, which enables a clear image to be obtained, is accomplished by which of the following?

1. 2. 3. 4.

The crystalline lens The cones The retina The rods

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Question 389 of 573


Number: 3772 Question: Which of the following mechanisms regulate body temperature when exposed to extreme high environmental temperatures? -1: Shivering -2: Vaso-constriction of peripheral blood vessels -3: Sweating -4: Vaso-dilation of peripheral blood vessels 1. 2,3 2. 1

3. 3,4 4. 1,3,4

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Question 390 of 573


Number: 3773 Question: The following can be observed when the internal body temperature falls below 35C: 1. profuse sweating 2. the appearance of intense shivering 3. mental disorders, and even coma

4. shivering, will tend to cease, and be followed by the onset of apathy

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Question 391 of 573


Number: 3774 Question: We can observe the following in relation to a state of hypothermia: 1. greater capacity for adaptation than in a hot atmosphere 2. widespread pain in the joints

3. reasoning problems as soon as body temperature falls below 37C 4. a substantial increase in internal body temperature whereas peripheral temperature at the skin is stable

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Question 392 of 573


Number: 3777 Question: With regard to decompression sickness associated with flight, we know that:

1. 2. 3. 4.

age, obesity and scuba diving are risk factors physical activity after decompression reduces the risks of decompression sickness symptoms gender is the prime risk factor, with two out of every three women being sensitive to it SCUBA diving does not pose any problem for a subsequent flight

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Question 393 of 573


Number: 3778 Question: The procedure to be followed in the event of decompression when flying above 10,000 ft must: 1. make it possible to eliminate the risk of fogging due to the sudden pressure changes

2. allow for the rapid supply of oxygen in order to prevent hypoxia 3. allow for a rapid descent independent from sufficient supply of oxygen in order to prevent disorders due to hypoxia 4. make it possible to prevent hyperventilation owing to the inhalation of 100 % oxygen

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Question 394 of 573


Number: 3779 Question: What is the "Time of Useful Consciousness" for a rapid decompression at 25,000 ft ? 1. About 18 seconds 2. About 30 seconds 3. Between 25 seconds and 1 minute 30 seconds

4. Between 3 and 5 minutes depending on the physical activities of the subjected pilot

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Question 395 of 573


Number: 3780 Question: The Time of Useful Consciousness may vary according to: 1: physical activity of the subjected crew 2: the experience of the pilot on the type of aircraft in question 3: the strength and time of decompression 4: the time of day 1. 1,2 2. 3,4 3. 4

4. 1,3

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Question 396 of 573


Number: 3789 Question: What is the main problem caused by positive (+Gz) accelerations?

1. 2. 3. 4.

A pooling of blood in the lower portions of the body, and hence less blood available An improvement of peripheral vision Hyperoxygenation of the blood which may lead to sensory disorders An increase in blood pressure in the upper part of the body (above heart-level)

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Question 397 of 573


Number: 3791 Question: Which of the following statements are correct ? 1 Hypothermia affects physical and mental abilities. 2 Man has effective natural protection against intense cold. 3 Shivering makes it possible to combat the cold to a certain extent, but uses up a lot of energy 4 Disorders associated with hypothermia appear at a body temperature of less than 35C.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,3,4 2,4 2,3,4 1,2,3

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Question 398 of 573


Number: 3793 Question: Rods (scotopic visual cells) allow for: 1. good, virtually instantaneous night-vision (scotopic vision) 2. red vision, both during the day and at night

3. good night-vision after adaptation to darkness (30 min)

4. precise vision of contours and colours

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Question 399 of 573


Number: 3794 Question: Of the following alternatives, which effects are due to positive acceleration (+ Gz)? - 1: Decrease in heart rate - 2: Pooling of blood into lower parts of the body - 3: Drop in blood pressure above heart-level 4: Downward displacement or deformation of soft or mobile organs 1. 1 2. 1,2,3

3. 2,3,4 4. 1,3,4

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Question 400 of 573


Number: 3795 Question: What is hypoxia ? 1. The total absence of oxygen in the blood of the body 2. A state characterised by an excessive supply of oxygen which may be due to maladjustment of the mask 3. Any condition where the oxygen concentration of the body is below normal limits or where the

oxygen available to the body cannot be used due to some pathological condition 4. The respiratory symptom associated with altitude decompression sickness

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Question 401 of 573


Number: 3796 Question: To optimise one's night-vision performance, it is necessary: - 1: to spend some time getting adapted to low levels of illumination - 2: to increase the instrument panel lighting by reducing the cockpit lighting - 3: not to focus on the point to be observed - 4: to avoid blinding sources of light 1. 1,2,4 2. 2,3,4 3. 2

4. 1,3,4

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Question 402 of 573


Number: 3797 Question: Visual perception of depth at close to medium distance is primarily due to

1. 2. 3. 4.

binocular vision peripheral vision the high sensitivity of the retina interactions between cones and rods

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Question 403 of 573


Number: 3798 Question: What could be symptoms of hypoxia (when flying without oxygen) above 12,000 ft? 1. Headache, thirst, somnolence, collapse 2. Euphoria, headache, improvement in judgement, loss of consciousness 3. Trembling, increase in body temperature, convulsions, slowing of the rate of breathing

4. Headache, fatigue, dizziness, lack of coordination

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Question 404 of 573


Number: 3801 Question: Autokinetic illusion is: 1. poor interpretation of the surrounding world 2. a conflict between the visual system and bodily sensations 3. the sensation during a radial acceleration of seeing a fixed reference point moving into the opposite direction of the acceleration 4. an illusion in which a stationary point of light, if stared at for several seconds in the dark, may -

without a frame of reference - appear to move

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Question 405 of 573


Number: 3802 Question: Which of the following statements are correct: -1: Scuba diving may be practiced without restriction -2: Many medicines have effects which are incompatible with flight safety -3: An adequate amount of fluid should be drunk when flying -4: Alcohol has no effect on the inner ear. 1. 1, 3 and 4 are correct 2. 2, 3 and 4 are correct 3. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

4. 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 406 of 573

Number: 3806 Question: The ability of the human eye to read alphanumeric information: 1. is limited to daytime using the rod cells 2. is governed by peripheral vision over an area of approximately 20 degrees of angle

3. is limited to the foveal area of the retina 4. is almost equally shared by the entire retina

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Question 407 of 573


Number: 3808 Question: Which of the following statements about hyperthermia is correct ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Complete adaptation to the heat in a hot country takes about a fortnight. Performance is not impaired by an increase in body temperature to 40C or more. Vasodilatation is the only mechanism which is capable of reducing body temperature. Evaporation is more effective when ambient humidity is high.

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Question 408 of 573


Number: 3809 Question: The atmospheric pressure at 18,000 feet altitude is half the atmospheric pressure at sea level. In accordance with this statement, 1. the partial oxygen pressure at that altitude will also drop to 1/2 of the pressure of oxygen at sea level

2. the partial oxygen pressure at that altitude will be doubled 3. the oxygen saturation of the blood at that altitude will drop by 50 % too 4. the oxygen percentage of the air at that altitude will drop by one half also

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Question 409 of 573


Number: 3810 Question: You climb from 0 to 50.000 ft and measure the decrease of the pressure per 5.000 ft. The absolute difference in barometric pressure is greatest between:

1. 2. 3. 4.

0 and 5.000 feet 5.000 and 10.000 feet 45.000 and 50.000 feet 10.000 and 15.000 feet

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Question 410 of 573

Number: 3812 Question: The volume percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere at 30.000 feet remains at 21 %; but the partial pressure of oxygen:

1. 2. 3. 4.

decreases with decreasing barometric pressure increases by expansion decreases significantly with lower temperatures remains constant, independent from altitude

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Question 411 of 573


Number: 3813 Question: Air at an altitude of 18.000 feet contains, approximately: 1. 10% oxygen 2. 5% oxygen

3. 21% oxygen 4. 15% oxygen

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Question 412 of 573


Number: 3814 Question: Dry air is a mixture of gases. Their volume percentage is about:

1. 2. 3. 4.

21% oxygen,78% nitrogen, 1% other gases 25% oxygen, 74% nitrogen, 1% other gases 19% oxygen, 80% nitrogen, 1% other gases 18% oxygen, 80% nitrogen, 2% other gases

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Question 413 of 573


Number: 3816 Question: Boyle's law is directly applicable in case of:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the expansion of trapped gasses in the human body with increasing altitude the occurrence of hypoxia with increasing altitude hyperventilation with increasing altitude the occurrence of decompression sickness at high altitude

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Question 414 of 573


Number: 3817

Question: Dalton's law explains the occurrence of: 1. bends

2. altitude hypoxia 3. creeps 4. decompression sickness

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Question 415 of 573


Number: 3818 Question: Henry's Law explains the occurrence of:

1. 2. 3. 4.

decompression sickness hypoxia hyperventilation diffusion

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Question 416 of 573


Number: 3820 Question: Our body takes its energy from: 1: minerals 2: protein 3: carbonhydrates 4: vitamins 1. 1,3 2. 1,4 3. 1,2,3,4

4. 2,3

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Question 417 of 573


Number: 3821 Question: What is meant by metabolism? 1. Exchange of substances between the lung and the blood 2. Information exchange 3. Transfer of chemical messages

4. The generation and utilisation of energy by the body's cells and tissues

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Question 418 of 573


Number: 3822 Question: One of the waste products of the metabolic process in the cell is: 1. fat

2. carbon dioxide 3. sugar 4. protein

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Question 419 of 573


Number: 3823 Question: The body loses water via: 1. the skin and the lungs 2. the kidneys Which of the following lists all the correct answers ? 1. 1 is correct and 2 is not correct 2. 1 is not correct and 2 is correct 3. both are false

4. 1 and 2 are correct

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Question 420 of 573


Number: 3824 Question: Under normal circumstances, which gas will diffuse from the blood to the alveoli: 1. oxygen 2. nitrogen

3. carbon dioxide 4. carbon monoxide

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Question 421 of 573


Number: 3826 Question: The thin walls of capillaries are permeable for: 1. platelets 2. protein 3. red blood cells

4. gases

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Question 422 of 573


Number: 3827 Question: The circulatory system, amongst other things, allows for: 1. transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide 2. transportation of information by chemical substances Which of the following lists all the correct statements ?

1. 1 is false and 2 is correct 2. both are false 3. 1 is correct and 2 is false

4. 1 and 2 are correct

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Question 423 of 573


Number: 11048 Question: Caffeine may cause an increase in cardiac rate, restlessness/nervousness, insomnia, anxiety and intestinal irritability. Excessive consumption is considered to be in excess of: 1. 150 mg/day 2. 3 mg/day

3. 250 mg/day 4. 40-65 mg/day

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Question 424 of 573


Number: 11049 Question: Carbon monoxide poisoning can be treated by: 1. decreasing the amount of oxygen being combined with the haemoglobin in the blood 2. increasing the amount of nitrogen being physically dissolved in the blood 3. breathing into a paper bag

4. increasing the amount of oxygen being physically dissolved in the blood

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Question 425 of 573


Number: 11052 Question: Hypoxic hypoxia may be caused by: 1. climbing to a high altitude without using additional oxygen 2. malfunction in the oxygen supply system 3. loss of cabin pressurization at high altitude Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 2 and 3 2. 1 and 2 3. 1 and 3

4. 1, 2 and 3

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Question 426 of 573


Number: 11053

Question: In order to avoid hypoglycaemia: 1. a pilot should not take snacks between meals 2. peanuts are recommended because of their high energy value

3. a pilot should eat regularly and ensure he/she has a balanced diet 4. a pilot should never eat sugar or sweets

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Question 427 of 573


Number: 11054 Question: In the case of changes to circadian rhythms, the readjustment to a new time zone:

1. 2. 3. 4.

is most rapid when flying westbound is the same in both westbound and eastbound flights occurs immediately, as circadian rhythms do not change depending on direction of flying is most rapid when flying eastbound

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Question 428 of 573


Number: 11055 Question: In tropical zones, it is recommended that: 1. one eats fruit without peeling them, to ensure a supply of vitamins 2. one eats raw vegetables 3. one uses ice cubes in cold drinks

4. cold drinks be taken from sealed containers

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Question 429 of 573


Number: 11056 Question: Night vision: 1. is insensitive to lightning flashes in storms 2. requires 5 minutes to reach its best performance

3. requires up to 30 minutes to reach its best performance 4. is insensitive to short duration light sources

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Question 429 of 573


Number: 11056 Question: Night vision: 1. is insensitive to lightning flashes in storms

2. requires 5 minutes to reach its best performance 3. requires up to 30 minutes to reach its best performance 4. is insensitive to short duration light sources

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Question 429 of 573


Number: 11056 Question: Night vision: 1. is insensitive to lightning flashes in storms 2. requires 5 minutes to reach its best performance

3. requires up to 30 minutes to reach its best performance 4. is insensitive to short duration light sources

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Question 430 of 573


Number: 11057 Question: On approach, by day, in snowy conditions, without reference to glideslope information: 1. estimation of height and distance is not a problem for a well-trained pilot

2. judgement of height is extremely difficult 3. there is a risk of you entering a spin 4. there is a risk of you underestimating your speed

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Question 431 of 573


Number: 11061 Question: The circulation of blood: 1. transports oxygen to the body cells 2. withdraws waste products from the cells 3. conveys nutrients to the cells Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 1 and 3 2. 1 and 2

3. 1, 2 and 3 4. 2 and 3

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Question 432 of 573


Number: 11063 Question: The dry atmosphere of the flight deck may cause dehydration, which may lead to a reduction in the ability to pay attention. To prevent this, it is appropriate to: 1. drink cool cola drinks 2. drink tea 3. drink plenty of coffee

4. drink sufficient non-carbonated liquids

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Question 433 of 573


Number: 11064 Question: The exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood is due to: 1. changes in atmospheric pressure 2. physical exercise 3. inspiration

4. diffusion

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Question 434 of 573


Number: 11066 Question: The total gas volume of the lung is the sum of: 1. tidal volume 2. inspiratory reserve volume 3. expiratory reserve volume 4. residual volume Which of the following lists the correct combination?

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4 2 and 3 1, 2 and 3 1 and 2

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Question 435 of 573


Number: 11067 Question: To avoid incapacity due to gastro-intestinal problems, it is recommended that a simple, easily digested meal before boarding the aircraft should be accompanied by: 1. wine or beer

2. non-carbonated water 3. no drinks, as fluids are not important 4. carbonated water.

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Question 436 of 573


Number: 11068 Question: To prevent empty field myopia at higher altitudes:

1. it is recommended that a pilot uses short sharp scans, or periodically focuses on a distant object such

as a wingtip or cloud edge 2. it is recommended that a pilot focuses on an object known to be approximately one metre away 3. one should book an appointment with an opthalmologist as soon as possible 4. one should concentrate only on instruments

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Question 437 of 573


Number: 11070 Question: What human function is most sensitive to lack of oxygen? 1. Touch.

2. Night vision. 3. Motor co-ordination. 4. Hearing.

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Question 438 of 573


Number: 11071 Question: What is the name of the functional connection between neurones?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Synapse. Occlusion. By-pass. Interconnnection.

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Question 439 of 573


Number: 11072 Question: Which of the following gases is fundamentally responsible for decompression sickness? 1. Oxygen. 2. Sodium. 3. Carbon dioxide.

4. Nitrogen.

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Question 440 of 573


Number: 12216 Question: You suffered a rapid decompression without the appearance of any decompression sickness symptoms. What should you do before flying ?

1. seek aeromedical advice only if the symptoms become apparent 2. nothing, you may fly immediately 3. delay your next flight for 6 hours

4. seek prompt aeromedical advice

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Question 441 of 573


Number: 12423 Question: Which of the following statements is correct?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Scotopic Vision is vision through the operation of the Rods. Scotopic Vision is vision through the operation of the Cones. Photopic Vision is the same as Peripheral Vision. Scotopic Vision is the same as Photopic Vision.

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Question 442 of 573


Number: 12424 Question: Which of the following statements is correct concerning flight in an environment of low contrast (fog, snow, darkness, haze)? 1. There is no problem to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects.

2. It is difficult to estimate the correct speed and size of approaching objects. 3. It is unlikely that visual illusions occur. 4. It is impossible to detect objects.

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Question 443 of 573


Number: 12425 Question: Which of the following is correct?

1. 2. 3. 4.

70% - 80% of information processed by man enters the visual channel. The Kinestatic channel is the most important channel in flying. 40% of information processed by man enters the visual channel. Hearing is the most important sense for man.

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Question 444 of 573


Number: 12426 Question: Which of the following statements concerning tiredness is correct ? 1. Tiredness is always the result of an intellectual overload

2. Tiredness always effect people of the same age in a similar way 3. Tiredness is the consequence of poor performance

4. Tiredness is a subjective sensation which may result in hypovigilance

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Question 445 of 573


Number: 12427 Question: When accelerating forward the otoliths in the utriculus/sacculus will 1. give the illusion of descending (body tilting downwards, or forwards, nose of the aircraft going down)

2. give the illusion of climbing (body tilting backwards, nose of the a/c going up) 3. give the illusion of straight and level flight 4. give the illusion of banking

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Question 446 of 573


Number: 12429 Question: Which of the following statements concerning barotrauma are correct? 1. It is caused by pressure differentials between gases in hollow cavities of the body and the ambient

pressure 2. It is more likely to occur during ascent then during a rapid descent 3. It is mainly associated with a sink rate which exceeds the ability of the body to balance its internal pressures 4. It is caused by an increase in the partial pressure of oxygen associated with a decrease in altitude

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Question 447 of 573


Number: 12431 Question: Which of the following statements about hyperthermia is correct ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Complete adaptation to the heat in a hot country takes about a fortnight. Performance is not impaired by an increase in body temperature to 40C or more. Vasodilatation is the only mechanism which is capable of reducing body temperature. Evaporation is more effective when ambient humidity is high.

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Question 448 of 573


Number: 12432 Question: Which of the following occurs in man if the internal body temperature increases to 39C? 1. Apathy

2. Considerable dehydration 3. Nothing significant happens at this temperature. The first clinical signs only start to appear at 39C

4. Impairment of physical and mental performance

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Question 449 of 573


Number: 12437 Question: TUC (Time of Useful Consciousness) is: 1. the time between the start of hypoxia and death 2. the length of time during which an individual can act with both mental and physical efficiency;

measured from the moment at which he/she is exposed to hypoxia 3. the time after pressure loss until decompression sickness sets in 4. the time before becoming unconscious at a sudden pressure loss

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Question 450 of 573


Number: 12438 Question: When considering the eating-habits of pilots:

1. 2. 3. 4.

breakfast should bring about 25% of the daily calorie intake high intake of chocolate is recommended before flight to prevent reactional hypoglycemia a heavy supper is best low fibre and low protein/carbohydratediet is ideal

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Question 451 of 573


Number: 12439 Question: What are the main sources of radiation at height? 1. Solar radiation caused by solar flares and Nuclear radiation caused by the earth's natural radiation. 2. Galactic (Cosmic) and Nuclear radiation which are both caused by the earth's natural radiation. 3. Ionisation of the layers in the atmosphere due to the bombardment of Galactic (Cosmic) radiation.

4. Galactic (Cosmic) caused by galactic particles and Solar radiation caused by solar flares.

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Question 452 of 573


Number: 12440 Question: What are the main parts of the Central Nervous System and where is vision processed?

1. The brain and spinal chord are the main parts of the CNS and vision is processed at the cortex.

2. The brain and the brain stem are the main parts of the CNS and vision is processed at the cerebellum. 3. The brain and spinal chord are the main parts of the CNS and vision is processed at the retina. 4. The brain and the brain stem are the main parts of the CNS and vision is processed at the optic nerve centre.

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Question 453 of 573


Number: 12446 Question: Up to what altitude is blood oxygen saturation reduction unlikely to affect a pilot's judgement? 1. 25,000 FT 2. 30,000 FT

3. 10,000 FT 4. 20,000 FT

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Question 454 of 573


Number: 12447 Question: What can cause spatial disorientation? 1. Flying in clear daylight conditions.

2. False perception of orientation of the aircraft with respect to spatial references. 3. Reference to well-defined external visual references, such as the horizon. 4. Damage to the receptor cells in the eyes.

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Question 455 of 573


Number: 12448 Question: Trace elements should be obtained through: 1. Dairy products and vegetables 2. Eating plenty of meat and vegetables 3. Vitamin pills

4. A balanced diet

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Question 456 of 573


Number: 12451 Question: The Vestibular Apparatus consists of the: 1. Eustachian tube and the semi-circular canals

2. Semi-circular canals and the otoliths 3. Eustachian tube and the pinna 4. Cochlea and the auditory nerve

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Question 457 of 573


Number: 12455 Question: Cataract is caused by: 1. A mis-shapened cornea 2. Lack of mobility of the cornea

3. A clouding of the lens 4. A lack of accommodation at the cornea

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Question 458 of 573


Number: 12456 Question: Vision of terrain relief (e.g. hills, valleys, etc.): 1. is possible at only at distances over 200 m due to binocular vision 2. is impossible with only one eye 3. is impossible if a pilot wears sunglasses 4. is based on binocular vision at short distances and the rules of proportion and perspective for objects

that are further away

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Question 459 of 573


Number: 12457 Question: What is the correct action to counteract vertigo? 1. Reduce rate of breathing until all symptoms disappear, then breathe again normally 2. Rely on the information from the semicircular canals, since these will be transmitting correct information 3. Concentrate on the vertical speed indicator

4. Believe the instruments

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Question 460 of 573


Number: 12458 Question: When a pilot suffers from hypothermia (e.g. after loss of cabin heating) his/her demand for oxygen will be:

1. unaffected

2. initially increased 3. raised leading to an increased tolerance to hypoxia 4. reduced giving a better tolerance to hypoxia at higher altitudes

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Question 461 of 573


Number: 12459 Question: What would be the effect if, in a tight turn, one bends down to pick up a pencil? 1. Vertigo. 2. Barotrauma. 3. Inversion Illusion.

4. Coriolis effect.

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Question 462 of 573


Number: 12463 Question: What law(s) governs the oxygen transfer at the alveoli?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Gas Diffusion Laws Henry's Boyle's Charles's

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Question 463 of 573


Number: 12468 Question: What is the approximate Time of Useful Consciousness for a seated pilot following a rapid decompression at 35,000 ft ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

45 seconds 12 seconds 3 seconds 5 minutes

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Question 464 of 573


Number: 12471 Question: What is meant by presbycusis? 1. Total loss of hearing in both ears due to disease.

2. Gradual onset of long-sightedness with age. 3. Total loss of hearing in one ear due to use of a headset in the cockpit.

4. Gradual loss of hearing with age.

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Question 463 of 573


Number: 12468 Question: What is the approximate Time of Useful Consciousness for a seated pilot following a rapid decompression at 35,000 ft ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

45 seconds 12 seconds 3 seconds 5 minutes

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Question 464 of 573


Number: 12471 Question: What is meant by presbycusis? 1. Total loss of hearing in both ears due to disease. 2. Gradual onset of long-sightedness with age.

3. Gradual loss of hearing with age. 4. Total loss of hearing in one ear due to use of a headset in the cockpit.

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Question 465 of 573


Number: 12472 Question: What is hypoxia ? 1. The total absence of oxygen in the blood of the body 2. The respiratory symptom associated with altitude decompression sickness 3. A state characterised by an excessive supply of oxygen which may be due to maladjustment of the mask 4. Any condition where the oxygen concentration of the body is below the limits to meet the needs of

the body tissues

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Question 466 of 573


Number: 12474

Question: What factors can lead to a deterioration in vision? 1. Hypoxia 2. Smoking 3. Poor diet, lacking Vitamin A 4. Exposure to bright lights. Which of the following lists all the correct statements? 1. 1 and 3 2. 1, 3 and 4 3. 2 and 4

4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

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Question 467 of 573


Number: 12475 Question: What diseases can be associated with contaminated water? 1. Tetanus, Typhoid, Cholera, Dysentery. 2. Hydrophobia, Cholera, Dysentery. 3. Tetanus, Typhoid, Cholera.

4. Typhoid, Cholera, Dysentery.

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Question 468 of 573


Number: 12476 Question: What is the effect of increasing altitude on the total pressure and partial pressure of the main gases in the atmosphere? 1. The total pressure remains constant and the partial pressures will decrease. 2. The total pressure will decrease and the partial pressures will increase. 3. The total pressure will decrease and the partial pressures will remain constant.

4. The total pressure will decrease and the partial pressures will decrease.

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Question 469 of 573


Number: 12481 Question: Medical conditions such as high blood pressure, coronary problems and diabetes are associated with: 1. anorexia nervosa

2. obesity 3. hypoxia 4. cholera

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Question 470 of 573

Number: 12482 Question: Loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens due to ageing occurs in: 1. astigmatism 2. hypermetropia 3. myopia

4. presbyopia

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Question 471 of 573


Number: 12483 Question: List the constituent parts of the blood and state their function.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Red cells carry oxygen, white cells are involved in immunity and platelets coagulate blood. Red cells are involved in immunity, white cells carry oxygen and platelets coagulate blood. Red cells coagulate blood, white cells are involved in immunity, and platelets carry oxygen. Red cells carry oxygen, white cells coagulate blood and platelets are involved in immunity.

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Question 472 of 573


Number: 12486 Question: Is it possible to survive depressurized flight at 40 000 feet for more than 10 minutes? 1. No - because the brain can never receive sufficient oxygen at 40000 feet even with an oxygen mask. 2. No - because the partial pressure of oxygen in the lung alveoles at 40000 feet is lower than in the blood, causing oxygen to flow backwards from blood to lungs depleting the brain of its oxygen. 3. Yes - because the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood is independent of that in the lungs.

4. Yes -provided 100% oxygen is immediately available from masks.

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Question 473 of 573


Number: 12487 Question: Physical exercise in high temperatures (tropical climates) may: 1. cause the pilot to collapse, due to an excess of fluid in the body

2. cause painful muscle and abdominal cramps 3. cause dysentery 4. increase a pilot's resistance to decompression sickness

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Question 474 of 573


Number: 12488

Question: Inhaling carbon monoxide can be extremely dangerous during flying. Which of the following statements is correct? 1. Carbon monoxide has no affinity to haemoglobin.

2. Carbon monoxide is odourless and colourless. 3. With increasing altitude the negative effects of carbon monoxide poisoning can be compensated for. 4. Carbon monoxide increases the oxygen saturation in the blood.

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Question 475 of 573


Number: 12490 Question: In-flight incapacitation of a pilot is most frequently caused by: 1. cardio-vascular disorders 2. chronic pulmonary disorders 3. behavioural disorders

4. acute gastrointestinal disorders

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Question 476 of 573


Number: 12497 Question: Preventing hypoxia at altitude is achieved by: 1. reducing the contents of carbon dioxide by filtering the cabin air. 2. pressurizing the air inside the aircraft to achieve oxygen saturation in blood of more than 90%.

3. hyperventilating to increase the intake of oxygen, trading oxygen for carbondioxide. 4. pressurizing the air inside the aircraft to maintain oxygen saturation in blood of 30%.

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Question 477 of 573


Number: 12498 Question: Stimuli must be of a certain strength for the receptors to pick them up. This is called: 1. Sensory filter 2. Sensory strength 3. Sensory volume

4. Sensory threshold

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Question 478 of 573


Number: 12499 Question: By what action could the pressure gradient between the middle and the outer ear be balanced?

1. 2. 3. 4.

By aaswallowing. By breathing in. By coughing. By breathing out.

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Question 478 of 573


Number: 12499 Question: By what action could the pressure gradient between the middle and the outer ear be balanced?

1. By aswallowing. 2. By breathing in. 3. By coughing. 4. By breathing out.

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Question 479 of 573


Number: 12318 Question: The cornea and the crystalline lens of the eye: 1. allow for the regulation of the amount of light admitted into the eye

2. cause the convergence of light rays onto the retina 3. permit the reception and conversion of visual stimuli to images interpreted by the brain 4. keep the retina clean and healthy

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Question 480 of 573


Number: 12319 Question: The following three conditions will decrease your G-tolerance: 1. old age, short body (short stature), an empty stomach. 2. loss of body fluids, full stomach, 20 degrees backward tilted sitting position.

3. obesity, alcohol, sleep deprivation. 4. cold, 30 degrees backward tilted sitting position, short body (short stature).

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Question 481 of 573


Number: 12321 Question: The eye can fully adjust to:

1. 2. 3. 4.

high levels of illumination in 10 seconds and darkness in 30 minutes. high levels of illumination in 30 minutes and darkness in 10 seconds. high levels of illumination in 10 minutes and darkness in 30 minutes. high levels of illumination in 30 minutes and darkness in 10 minutes.

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Question 482 of 573


Number: 12323 Question: The Eustachian tube is the passage way between the 1. nose, throat and inner ear 2. sinuses and the throat 3. nose, throat and the external auditory canal

4. throat and the middle ear

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Question 483 of 573


Number: 12324 Question: The Eustachian tube connects the:

1. 2. 3. 4.

middle ear and the throat semi circular canals middle ear and the inner ear auditory duct and the inner ear

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Question 484 of 573


Number: 12326 Question: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in flight: 1. presents an extremely dangerous situation as the blood may not be able carry sufficient amounts of

oxygen to vital cells and tissues of the body. 2. is a complication when hyperventilating and requires its own special and individual treatment. 3. can be cured by breathing into a plastic bag to retain the carbon monoxide. 4. is usually harmless because oxygen is more easily attached to haemoglobin than carbon monoxide to a magnitude of 200 times.

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Question 485 of 573


Number: 12327

Question: The damaging effects of noise on the pilot depends on: 1. The intensity of the noise 2. The frequency of the noise 3. The exposure time to noise 4. Proper use of the headset in the cockpit Which of the following lists all the correct statements 1. 3 only

2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 3. 2, 3 and 4 4. 1 and 4

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Question 486 of 573


Number: 12328 Question: The human circadian rhythm is based on a cycle of about: 1. 1.5 hours 2. 12 hours 3. 48 hours

4. 25 hours

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Question 487 of 573


Number: 12331 Question: The cabin pressure in airline operation is 1. normally between 2 000 to 3 000 feet 2. always equivalent to sea level

3. normally between 6 000 to 8 000 feet 4. normally between 4 000 to 5 000 feet

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Question 488 of 573


Number: 12333 Question: With hyperventilation, caused by high levels of arousal or overstress: 1. more oxygen will reach the brain 2. peripheral and scotopic vision will be improved 3. finger nails and lips will turn blue ("cyanosis") 4. an increased amount of carbon dioxide is exhaled causing muscular spasms and even unconsciousness

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Question 489 of 573


Number: 12334

Question: With a heart rate of 72 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 70 ml the cardiac output is about: 1. 6 litres/min 2. 8 litres/min 3. 7 litres/min

4. 5 litres/min

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Question 490 of 573


Number: 12335 Question: Why is hypoxia especially dangerous for pilots flying solo? 1. Hypoxia improves night vision therefore the pilot will have no indication of danger.

2. Since the first signs of hypoxia are generally hard to detect. 3. Only a solo pilot is more prone to illusions. 4. In a multi-crew cockpit hypoxia will always be detectable.

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Question 491 of 573


Number: 12336 Question: The effects of Galactic radiation:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Increases with altitude Is unaffected by altitude Remains steady up to 49,000 ft and thereafter increases Decreases with altitude

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Question 492 of 573


Number: 12337 Question: The low level of humidity found in a pressurised aircraft cabin:

1. should be compensated for by drinking water before one gets thirsty 2. should be compensated for by a regular supply of coffee or tea 3. requires a regular supply of water only for those who are in poor health. Healthy people compensate for this naturally. 4. should be compensated for by breathing in to a paper bag

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Question 493 of 573


Number: 12338 Question: The percentage of oxygen in the troposphere in dry air:

1. is variable because oxygen replaces water vapour.

2. is independent of altitude. 3. increases with longitude. 4. is dependent of the partial pressure which is constant above sea level.

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Question 494 of 573


Number: 12339 Question: The ossicles (the malleus, incus and stapes) are: 1. located in the inner ear.

2. located in the middle ear. 3. are not located in the ear. 4. located in the outer ear.

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Question 495 of 573


Number: 12340 Question: The organ which metabolises alcohol from the body is the: 1. kidneys. 2. spleen.

3. liver. 4. pancreas.

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Question 496 of 573


Number: 12341 Question: The normal sleep cycle is approximately every ................minutes 1. 120 2. 60 3. 180

4. 90

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Question 497 of 573


Number: 12342 Question: The normal rate of breathing when at rest is 1. 60 to 100 cycles a minute 2. 32 to 40 cycles a minute

3. 12 to 20 cycles a minute 4. 25 to 30 cycles a minute

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Question 498 of 573


Number: 12343 Question: The most dangerous type of incapacitation in flight is one that: 1. occurs very quickly.

2. develops slowly and gradually (insidious). 3. is temporary. 4. is not severe in its effect.

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Question 499 of 573


Number: 12344 Question: The main reason why it is inadvisable to fly when suffering from a cold is that:

1. 2. 3. 4.

pain and damage to the eardrum can result, particularly during fast descents swollen tissue in the Eustachian tube will cause permanent hearing loss gentle descents at high altitude can result in damage to the ear drum swollen tissue in the inner ear will prevent the air from ventilating through the tympanic membrane

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Question 500 of 573


Number: 12345 Question: The function of the Eustachian tube is to equalise the pressure between the:

1. 2. 3. 4.

middle ear and the external atmosphere sinuses sinuses of the nose and the external atmosphere nose, throat and the external atmosphere

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Question 501 of 573


Number: 12352 Question: The changes in atmospheric gas pressure with altitude are: 1. rises with altitude

2. non-linear, with a higher rate of change at lower levels

3. decreases more slowly at lower altitudes compared with at higher levels 4. decreases in a linear manner with altitude

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Question 502 of 573


Number: 12353 Question: The human vestibular system performs spatial orientation by: 1. comparing the body's position to gravity over the tympanic membrane. 2. measuring fluid movements in the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.

3. measuring linear and radial acceleration within the inner ear. 4. comparing linear and radial speeds of the body to the attitude of the aircraft.

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Question 503 of 573


Number: 12355 Question: Which symptom of hypoxia is the most dangerous for conducting safe flight ? 1. Lack of adaptation. 2. Dizziness. 3. Lack of accommodation.

4. The degradation of reasoning and perceptive functions.

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Question 504 of 573


Number: 12363 Question: Define Hypoxia and explain why living tissues require oxygen. 1. Hypoxia is the lack of sufficient oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues which require carbon dioxide for metabolism. 2. Hypoxia is the lack of sufficient oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues which require oxygen

for oxidation of carbohydrates from food to produce energy. 3. Hypoxia is the lack of sufficient oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues which require oxygen to coagulate the blood in case of infection. 4. Hypoxia is the lack of sufficient oxygen to meet the needs of the body tissues which require oxygen to fight infection or invading bacteria.

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Question 505 of 573


Number: 12364 Question: Decompression sickness/illness is characterized by: 1. headache and dizziness caused by oxygen bubbles due to the low partial pressure of oxygen.

2. over-saturated nitrogen gas molecules in the body tissues. 3. negligible symptoms that need no attention or therapy. 4. muscle pains in small muscles such as the finger and toe muscles, which are also known as the "chokes".

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Question 506 of 573


Number: 12367 Question: Even at normal cabin altitudes (i.e. around 8000 ft) you can get severe abdominal pain and flatulence after eating gas forming foods or fizzy drinks. The correct counter-measure is: 1. use supplemental oxygen

2. descend to a lower altitude 3. perform "valsalva manoeuvre" 4. climb to a higher altitude

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Question 507 of 573


Number: 12372 Question: Conductive hearing loss can be caused by: 1. damage to the ossicles in the middle ear caused by infection or trauma 2. a damage of the auditory nerve 3. an obstruction in the outer ear 4. a ruptured tympanic membrane

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 3 and 4 are correct, 2 is false 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 1, 2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false 2, 3 and 4 are correct, 1 is false

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Question 508 of 573


Number: 12373 Question: Carbon monoxide poisoning 1. only occurs in jet-driven aeroplanes 2. occurs only above 15 degrees OAT 3. is more likely to occur in aeroplanes where the cabin heating is supplied by passing cabin air over the

exhaust manifold(s) 4. is more likely to occur in aeroplanes with twin-engines because of high engine efficiency

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Question 509 of 573

Number: 12374 Question: Carbon Monoxide is particularly dangerous because: 1. Its initial symptoms are not alarming 2. It is colourless 3. It is odourless 4. It is highly toxic 5. Its effects are cumulative 1. 1, 2, 3 and 5 only

2. all of the above 3. 2, 3, 4 and 5 only 4. 2, 3, and 4 only

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Question 510 of 573


Number: 12375 Question: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning leads to hypoxia because:

1. 2. 3. 4.

CO in blood displaces oxygen from the blood corpuscles impairing oxygen transport. the increasing amounts of CO in the lung alveoles gradually reverses oxygen diffusion. CO is far less easily attached (200 times) to haemoglobin than oxygen. accumulation of CO in blood leads to hyperventilation and thus to hypoxia.

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Question 511 of 573


Number: 12380 Question: Which statement is correct ? 1. Oxygen diffusion from the lungs into the blood does not depend on partial oxygen pressure. 2. Oxygen diffusion from the blood into the cells depends on the partial oxygen pressure gradient.

3. The gradient of diffusion is higher at altitude than it is at sea-level. 4. Oxygen is mainly transported in plasma.

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Question 512 of 573


Number: 12383 Question: The body obtains its energy from: 1. minerals, carbohydrates and vitamins.

2. carbohydrates, protein and fats. 3. protein and vitamins. 4. minerals and vitamins.

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Question 513 of 573


Number: 12384

Question: The blood in the pulmonary artery is: 1. rich in both oxygen and carbon dioxide

2. lacking in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide 3. lacking in both oxygen and carbon dioxide 4. rich in oxygen and lacking in carbon dioxide

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Question 514 of 573


Number: 12385 Question: Equalization of air pressure between the outer and the middle ear is: 1. impossible during descent because the pressure within the middle ear is higher than in the ambient air. 2. difficult to achieve when pressure changes are at a low rate.

3. important to prevent pain and loss of hearing during flight. 4. more important during climb because the lower pressure within the middle air can damage the tympanic membrane.

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Question 515 of 573


Number: 12388 Question: The average pulse of a healthy adult at rest is about: 1. 30 to 50 beats/min 2. 110 to 150 beats/min 3. 90 to 100 beats/min

4. 60 to 80 beats/min

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Question 516 of 573


Number: 12389 Question: The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) regulates:

1. 2. 3. 4.

sweating, arterial pressure, body temperature and the General Adaption Syndrome. motor programmes and reflexes. reflexes, body temperature and reasoning. reflexes only.

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Question 517 of 573


Number: 12390

Question: The atmosphere contains the following gases:

1. 2. 3. 4.

78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases 78% oxygen, 21% nitrogen, 1% carbon monoxide, rest: rare gases 78% helium, 21% oxygen, 0,03% carbon dioxide, rest: rare gases 78% helium, 21% oxygen, 1% carbon monoxide, rest: rare gases

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Question 518 of 573


Number: 12391 Question: The ability to withstand g forces is reduced by a number of factors, among these factors are: 1. Physical fitness, heat and hypotension 2. Smoking, obesity and vibrations

3. Low blood sugar, obesity and hypoxia 4. Hypoxia, fatigue and vibrations

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Question 519 of 573


Number: 12392 Question: The ability of the human eye to read alphanumeric information is: 1. almost equally shared by the entire retina

2. limited to the foveal area of the retina 3. governed by peripheral vision over an area of approximately 20 degrees of angle 4. limited to daytime using the rod cells

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Question 520 of 573


Number: 12393 Question: The 5 human senses tend to adapt. 1. This statement is untrue. Touch is the exception. 2. This statement is untrue. None adapt. 3. This statement is untrue. Only sight adapts (ie night flying).

4. This statement is true.

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Question 521 of 573


Number: 12394 Question: Expanded abdominal air following rapid decompression at 30 000 feet: 1. is usually not dangerous because only the partial pressure of the oxygen affects the nervous system.

2. can be reduced if you take drinks with high contents of carbondioxide before take-off. 3. will not cause pain if you evacuate the air via the mouth.

4. may be dangerous causing great pain.

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Question 522 of 573


Number: 12395 Question: Excessive intake of aspirin can cause:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Gastric bleeding Fits Memory impairment Sensory loss

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Question 523 of 573


Number: 12397 Question: Which counter-measure can a pilot use against a barotrauma of the middle ear? 1. Use drugs against a cold 2. Stop chewing and swallowing movements 3. Increase the rate of descent

4. Stop descending, climb again and then descend with reduced sink rate

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Question 524 of 573


Number: 12406 Question: Which is correct? 1. Paradoxic (REM) sleep refreshes the brain, memory and body. 2. Paradoxic (REM) sleep decreases during the night. 1. 1 & 2 2. 1 only

3. Neither 4. 2 only

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Question 525 of 573


Number: 12407 Question: Which of the following is most true? 1. Regular exercise and reduction in calorie consumption are both essential in order to lose weight 2. Regular exercise is an impediment to losing weight since it increases the metabolic rate

3. Regular exercise is beneficial to general health, and is the only effective way to lose weight 4. Regular exercise is beneficial to general health, but the most efficient way to lose weight is by

reducing calorie consumption

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Question 526 of 573


Number: 12409 Question: When the weather is foggy, on approach, a pilot may get a feeling of: 1. aircraft altitude being lower than it actually is 2. his/her eyes focusing on infinity

3. the airfield being further away than actually is 4. his/her visual field shrinking (i.e. tunnel vision)

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Question 527 of 573


Number: 12410 Question: When suffering from Hypoxia short-term memory impairment starts at approximately at: 1. 25,000 ft 2. 18,000 ft 3. 10,000 ft

4. 12,000 ft

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Question 528 of 573


Number: 12411 Question: When scanning, how does the eye move and how is smooth vision achieved? 1. The eyes move in short jerky movements which last for several seconds. Smooth vision is achieved by the cerebellum. 2. The eyes move in short jerky movements called sarades. Smooth vision is created by the cerebellum. 3. The eyes move in short jerky movements which last for approximately 1/3 of a second. Smooth vision is achieved by the optic nerve centre. 4. The eyes move in short jerky movements called saccades. Smooth vision is achieved in the visual

cortex.

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Question 529 of 573


Number: 12413 Question: When might a pilot have the sensation of a nose-low attitude?

1. 2. 3. 4.

When decelerating in straight, horizontal flight. When climbing at greater than 2000 FT / min When turning (angular acceleration). During linear acceleration.

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Question 530 of 573


Number: 12414 Question: When faced with sustained cold temperature, how does the body resist this physical stress? 1. By increasing cardiac frequency.

2. By intense vasoconstriction. 3. By speeding up the metabolic rate in the Autonomic Nervous System. 4. By vasodilatation which permits a greater flow of blood to the periphery.

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Question 531 of 573


Number: 12416 Question: Which is the audible range to human hearing? 1. Between 20 Hz and 20 MHz 2. Between 20 KHz and 20 KHz

3. Between 20 Hz and 20 KHz 4. Between 20 MHz and 20 000MHz

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Question 532 of 573


Number: 12243 Question: Ozone in the air of a pressurized cabin can be eliminated by: 1. avoiding flights along the equator 2. climbing to altitudes above 45,000 ft 3. spraying detergents

4. ozone-converters

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Question 533 of 573


Number: 12245 Question: One of the earliest and most significant features of Hypothermia (extreme cold) is: 1. aggression 2. anxiety

3. aggression and anxiety

4. apathy

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Question 534 of 573


Number: 12250 Question: Night vision is significantly reduced (i.e. a loss of more than 25%) at 15,000 FT in which stage of hypoxia? 1. Indifferent

2. Compensatory 3. Anaemic phase 4. Clinical manifestation phase

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Question 535 of 573


Number: 12257 Question: One of the dangers of extreme cold is that: 1. it degrades the fatty tissues of the body. 2. sleepiness occurs very quickly with a feeling of agitation. 3. sleepiness occurs very slowly with a feeling of altertness.

4. sleepiness occurs associated with a feeling of contentment or apathy.

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Question 536 of 573


Number: 14526 Question: How is yellow fever contracted? 1. By contact with the saliva of infected animals. 2. Excessive use of alcohol. 3. Contaminated food or water.

4. A virus transmitted by an infected mosquito.

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Question 537 of 573


Number: 14527 Question: Otic Barotrauma is worse during the descent than climb because:

1. the air in the middle ear is at a lower pressure than the cabin, this closes the eustation tube so that

the pressure cannot be equalised. 2. during the climb the humidity in the middle ear is greater than the cabin. 3. during the descent the cabin altitude increases faster than the eustation can open. 4. the air pressure in the inner ear increases more slowly than the cabin.

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Question 538 of 573


Number: 14528 Question: Flying with a "common cold": 1. increases the risk of hypertension.

2. may lead to incapacitation due to severe sinus or ear pain. 3. will cause infection in other crew members if you are flying in a pressurised aircraft. 4. is permitted as long as you are on treatment with antibiotics.

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Question 539 of 573


Number: 14529 Question: Sound is measured in: 1. milliamps 2. mmHg 3. milliceverts

4. dB

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Question 540 of 573


Number: 14530 Question: Hearing Tests are carried out during pilot medicals to: 1. detect early presbyopia.

2. detect early signs of deafness. 3. detect vestibular dysfunction. 4. detect reversible NIHL.

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Question 541 of 573


Number: 14531 Question: Noise Induced Hearing Loss: 1. causes Eustationary Tube dysfunction.

2. is not a permanent hearing loss, the nerve cells frequently recover. 3. is also known as presbyacusis and is associated with pressure damage to the middle ear.

4. is a condition resulting in permanent hearing loss of selected frequencies.

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Question 542 of 573


Number: 14532 Question: Presbyopia: 1. is caused by long-termed exposure to stimuli over 90dB. 2. surgical replacement of the lens the usual treatment and is compatible with flying.

3. is common over the age of 50. 4. is partial visual loss due to pressure changes in the eye.

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Question 543 of 573


Number: 14533 Question: Colour Blindness: 1. affects acuity. 2. is more common in first born males. 3. may be treated by laser surgery.

4. may be subtle and only detected using specialised tests.

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Question 544 of 573


Number: 14534 Question: Concerning the light sensitive cells of the eye: 1. cones are centrally located in the lens.

2. the cones detect colour vision and are highly sensitive to hypoxia. 3. blood flow to the rods and cones is maintained even during high g forces. 4. rods are centrally located and increase visual acuity.

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Question 545 of 573


Number: 14535 Question: Pilots should not fly immediately following giving a donation of blood: 1. pilots should not give blood because of the risk of infection.

2. because there is a small increased risk of low blood pressure due to loss of blood volume. 3. the haemoglobin level is too low. 4. there is a risk of bleeding from the needle site during flight.

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Question 546 of 573


Number: 14536 Question: Which of the following statements is true concerning regular physical exercise: 1. it increases pulse rate and stroke volume in the short term 2. it reduces blood pressure and heart rate in the long term 3. it reduces the human tolerance to hypoxia. 1. 1, 3

2. 1, 2, 3. 3. 1, 2 4. 1

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Question 547 of 573


Number: 14537 Question: Heart Attack (myocardial infarction): 1. an individual''s risk of this can not be significantly influenced.

2. is a total blockage of a coronary artery leading to the death of a piece of heart muscle. 3. is not treatable once symptoms develop. 4. is a partial blockage of a coronary artery leading to chest pain on exercise or stress.

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Question 548 of 573


Number: 14538 Question: Hypertension: 1. usually leads to loss of licence. 2. is only treated when symptoms develop. 3. is otherwise known as "white coat syndrome".

4. increases the risk of a heart attack and stroke.

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Question 549 of 573


Number: 14539 Question: Blood pressure is normally measured in:

1. 2. 3. 4.

mmHg Millibars Hectopascals inHg

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Question 550 of 573


Number: 14540 Question: Internal respiration: 1. is the term for respiration inside the pressure cabin. 2. is the process of inflating the lungs during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. 3. is the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lung. 4. is a metabolic process that takes place inside the cells during which oxygen is used and carbon dioxide

produced.

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Question 551 of 573


Number: 14541 Question: During a rapid decompression in a 2 crew aircraft, the other pilot becomes incapacitated, your first action is to: 1. administer oxygen to the other pilot.

2. don your own oxygen mask. 3. call for immediate assistance from cabin crew. 4. commence an emergency descent.

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Question 552 of 573


Number: 14380 Question: How many stages of sleep are there including REM sleep? 1. 2 stages 2. 3 stages 3. 4 stages

4. 5 stages

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Question 553 of 573


Number: 14373

Question: The noise induced damage to a pilot depends on: 1. The intensity of the noise. 2. The frequency of the noise. 3. The duration of the noise 4. Proper usage of the headset.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,2,3,4 3 2,3,4 1,4

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Question 554 of 573


Number: 14227 Question: Can you suffer from aerodontalgia in the descent? 1. Only above 10.000 ft

2. No 3. Only in pressurised aircraft 4. Yes

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Question 555 of 573


Number: 14244 Question: A pilot, height 1.7m and weighing 57kg. She is: 1. obese 2. overweight

3. normal 4. underweight

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Question 556 of 573


Number: 14245 Question: When using the Body Mass Index (BMI) formula - when is a pilot considered as obese ? 1. Over 10 for males; 9 for females 2. Over 20 for males; 19 for females 3. Over 26 for males; 25 for females

4. Over 30 for males; 29 for females

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Question 557 of 573


Number: 14289 Question: Glaucoma:

1. 2. 3. 4.

is a condition detected by pressure testing the eye ball. low pressure in the eye ball leads to decreased blood flow to the retina which can cause visual loss. glaucoma causes red / green colour blindness. visual field loss due to glaucoma can be significantly improved by giving oxygen.

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Question 558 of 573


Number: 14290 Question: The partial pressure of oxygen in inspired air: 1. remains constant at all altitudes. 2. can not be varied when using an oxygen mask.

3. is a highly significant factor in ensuring that oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood. 4. is independent of the proportion of oxygen in the ambient air.

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Question 559 of 573


Number: 14291 Question: Oxygen transport to the tissues:

1. 2. 3. 4.

depends on haemoglobin level and blood flow. will be maintained even during severe hypoxia. is not affected by carbon monoxide. does not depend on haemoglobin levels as oxygen is mainly dissolved in the plasma.

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Question 560 of 573


Number: 14165 Question: During a steady climb above Flight Level 100 if cabin pressurization fails:

1. 2. 3. 4.

The effects of hypoxia may be gradual and difficult to recognise. The onset of anaemia causes hyperventilation. The cabin will cool rapidly. The cabin altitude will descend.

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Question 561 of 573


Number: 14167 Question: Heart attack (myocardial infarction) : 1. Is becoming less common because fewer people smoke 2. Is not treatable

3. Is the commonest cause of death in men over the age of 40 4. Is always preceded by chest pains

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Question 562 of 573


Number: 14168 Question: Which of the following statements is true concerning the pulse rate: 1. It is the only indicator of hypoxia 2. When multiplied by the blood pressure gives the cardiac output 3. It is not affected by emotion

4. It has a normal range of 60-100 beats per minute

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Question 563 of 573


Number: 14169 Question: Carbon dioxide:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Is a normal product of internal respiration. Is approximately 13% of ambient air at Flight Level 180. Is increased in the blood and the brain during hyperventilation May reach toxic levels in the flight deck due to incomplete fuel combustion.

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Question 564 of 573


Number: 15100 Question: Which of the following is true with regards to sleep? 1 - metabolic rate falls 2 - arterial blood pressure falls 3 - the pulse rate decreases 4 - the sensitivity level of the senses is increased 1. 1 and 4 only are correct 2. 1, 3 and 4 only are correct 3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are all correct

4. 1, 2 and 3 only are correct

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Question 565 of 573


Number: 15087 Question: Is it possible to suffer from Aerodontalgia in the descent? 1. Yes. 2. Only in pressurized aircraft.

3. No. 4. Only above 10 000 ft AMSL.

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Question 566 of 573


Number: 14542 Question: The percentage of oxygen in cabin air:

1. 2. 3. 4.

is the same as at sea level. will reduce during a rapid decompression. is proportional to the cabin pressure. varies with cabin altitude.

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Question 567 of 573


Number: 14732 Question: Which counter-measure can a pilot can use against a barotrauma of the middle ear? 1. Use drugs against a cold 2. Stop chewing and swallowing movements 3. Increase the rate of descent

4. Stop descending, climb again and then descend with reduced sink rate

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Question 568 of 573


Number: 14733 Question: The approximate time required for complete adaptation of the eye when moving from darkness to light is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

10 seconds 7 minutes 30 minutes 10 minutes

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Question 569 of 573


Number: 15234 Question: What is the maximum JAA blood/alcohol limit for flight and cabin crew? 1. 10 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood.

2. 20 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood. 3. 80 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood. 4. 40 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood.

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Question 570 of 573


Number: 15300 Question: When travelling in developing and tropical areas of the world, aircrew should avoid : 1. ice cubes in drinks 2. swimming in local lakes or rivers 3. eating unpeeled fruit 4. local ice cream and salads 5. wearing short clothing in the evenings 1. 2, 3, 4 & 5 only. 2. 1, 2, 3, & 4 only. 3. 3 & 4 only.

4. 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5.

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Question 571 of 573


Number: 6527 Question: The retina allows for the acquisition of colours as a result of the: 1. Rods located in its peripheral zone. 2. Crystalline lens. 3. Rods located in its central part.

4. Cones located in its central part.

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Question 572 of 573


Number: 6528 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? 1. 40% of information processed by man enters via the visual channel. 2. Hearing is the sense which collects most information in man.

3. 70% of information processed by man enters via the visual channel. 4. The kinesthetic channel provides the most important information for flying.

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Question 573 of 573


Number: 6529 Question: Noise induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) is: 1. Governed by the intensity of noise above the 103 dB level.

2. Caused by damage to the eardrum or ossicles by noise above 90 dB. 3. Caused by hearing deterioration as part of the process of ageing.

4. Governed by intensity and duration of noise in excess of 90 dB.

03-PSYCHOLOGY

Question 1 of 354
Number: 16789 Question: During the decision making process in the cockpit: 1. habits and routines play no role. 2. the crew should always decide on more than one alternative. 3. a detailed analysis can only be made once, at the moment the problem occurs.

4. the amount of time available has a large influence on the analysis of the situation.

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Question 2 of 354
Number: 16357 Question: Non-verbal communication: 1. is cross-culturally understood. 2. is always clearly interpretable. 3. is used only if verbal clarity is not possible.

4. can serve as a substitute for oral speech.

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Question 3 of 354
Number: 16346 Question: Perception is based upon: 1. solely upon technical ability.

2. information received as well as past experience and knowledge. 3. past experience and knowledge only. 4. information received only.

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Question 4 of 354
Number: 16680 Question: High arousal leads to: 1. faster and more accurate responses. 2. slower and less accurate responses. 3. slower but more accurate responses.

4. faster but less accurate responses.

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Question 5 of 354
Number: 16557 Question: What is the relationship between the perceived level of arousal and the difficulty of a task to be completed? 1. The arousal level should co-incide with the individual's "Break Point" where the task is particularly difficult. 2. All tasks should be completed at the highest arousal regardless of difficulty. 3. At the outset, the level of arousal should be within the optimum range and therefore at a level where

performance does not suffer. 4. Over-arousal is required to complete difficult tasks.

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Question 6 of 354
Number: 16462 Question: With reference to the relationship between arousal and performance, the highest level of performance is achieved when the arousal level is: 1. half way up the arousal curve. 2. half way down the arousal curve.

3. optimum. 4. lowest.

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Question 7 of 354
Number: 16387 Question: The individual's personality: 1. is the tendency to evaluate things in a positive or negative way. 2. changes with a different emotional mood.

3. refers to unique psychological characteristics. 4. is variable and easily changeable.

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Question 8 of 354
Number: 16515 Question: What are the two main categories of fatigue? 1. Normal and Chronic.

2. Normal and Severe.

3. Acute and Chronic. 4. Acute and Sympathetic.

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Question 9 of 354
Number: 11 Question: In his/her behaviour, the "ideal professional pilot" is: 1. neither "person" nor "goal" oriented 2. "goal" rather than "person" oriented

3. both "person" and "goal" oriented 4. "person" rather than "goal" oriented

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Question 10 of 354
Number: 346 Question: The maximum number of unrelated items that can be stored in working memory is: 1. very limited - only 3 items 2. unlimited

3. about 7 items 4. about 30 items

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Question 11 of 354
Number: 350 Question: Flying from Frankfurt to Moscow you will have a lay-over of 4 days. What time measure is relevant for your circadian rhythm on the 3rd day?

1. 2. 3. 4.

LT (local time). UTC (universal time coordinated). ZT (zonal time). MEZ (middle european time).

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Question 12 of 354
Number: 354 Question: Signs of stress include:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Perspiration, dry mouth, dilated pupils, fast breathing. Rising of the blood pressure, pupils narrowing, stabbing pain around the heart. Faster, deep inhalation, stabbing pain around the heart. Lowering of the blood pressure.

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Question 13 of 354
Number: 683 Question: Stress management programmes usually involve:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the prevention and/or the removal of stress the use of psychoactive drugs only the prevention of stress only the removal of stress

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Question 14 of 354
Number: 688 Question: In order to completely resynchronise with local time after zone crossing, circadian rhythms require 1. about one day per 2.5 hours of time shift 2. about one week per 2.5 hours of time shift

3. less time when flying from east to west 4. more time when flying from east to west

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Question 15 of 354
Number: 1108 Question: Working memory: 1. is unlimited in duration 2. varies considerably in size between an expert pilot and a novice pilot

3. is sensitive to interruptions which may erase all or some of its contents 4. is unlimited in size

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Question 16 of 354
Number: 1109 Question: Motivation is an important attribute which contributes to flight safety. Which of the following statements is correct with regards to motivation?

1. A high degree of motivation makes it possible to make up for insufficient knowledge in complete safety 2. A high degree of motivation lowers the level of vigilance 3. Motivation reduces the intensity of sensory illusions

4. Excessive motivation leads to stress which adversely affects performance

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Question 17 of 354
Number: 1110 Question: Which of the following statements is correct regarding decision making? 1. Deciding means being able to come up with original solutions.

2. Deciding means choosing between alternatives. 3. Deciding means applying an automatic procedure. 4. Deciding means imposing one's point of view.

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Question 18 of 354
Number: 1111 Question: Human errors are frequent and may take several forms: 1. representational errors in which the pilot has properly identified the situation and is familiar with the procedure 2. all errors are avoidable through continuous and thorough training 3. a violation is an error which is always involuntary 4. an error can be described as the mismatch between the pilots intention and the result of his/her

actions

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Question 19 of 354
Number: 1113 Question: The quality of learning: 1. depends on long-term memory capacity 2. is independent of the level of motivation 3. is dependent on age and professional role

4. is promoted by feedback on the value of one's own performance

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Question 20 of 354
Number: 1117

Question: Less experienced pilots differ from experienced pilots in the following way: 1. experienced pilots are less routine-minded than young pilots because they know that routine causes mistakes 2. flight planning performance decreases with age, and experience is unable to mask this deficiency 3. task for task, an expert's workload is greater than a novice's one 4. inexperienced pilots refer to information more than experts when carrying out the same task

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Question 21 of 354
Number: 1118 Question: Analysis of accidents involving the human factor in aviation shows that: 1. only front-line operators are involved 2. failure of the human factor is always connected with technical breakdowns 3. only pilot training will make it possible to improve the situation

4. there is hardly ever a single cause responsible

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Question 22 of 354
Number: 1119 Question: What are the three phases of General Adaptation Syndrome ? 1. alarm, resistance, performance,

2. Alarm, resistance, exhaustion. 3. alert, resistance, exhaustion 4. Alert, resistance, performance.

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Question 23 of 354
Number: 1122 Question: Stress occurs: 1 : only in a situation of imminent danger. 2 : only when faced with real, existing and palpable phenomenon. 3 : sometimes via imagination, the anticipation of a situation or its outcome. 4 : because of the similarity with a formerly experienced stressful situation. The correct statement(s) is (are):

1. 2. 3. 4.

3,4 1,2,4 2, 3 1,2

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Question 24 of 354

Number: 1123 Question: Cognitive evaluation which leads to stress is based on:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the evaluation of the situation and the evaluation of capabilities to cope with it the capabilities of the individual and the solutions provided by the environment the evaluation of the capabilities of the individual and the time available the evaluation of the situation and the state of fatigue of the individual

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Question 25 of 354
Number: 1124 Question: Which of the following physical stimuli may cause stress reactions? -1: noise. -2: conflict. -3: temperature. -4: an administrative problem. -5: hunger. The combination of correct statements is: 1. 3,4,5 2. 2,3,5

3. 1,3,5 4. 1,3,4

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Question 26 of 354
Number: 1126 Question: Acute stress quickly leads to 1. a state of overactivation beyond the control of willpower 2. a permanent state of incapacitation 3. a decrease in the amount of resources mobilized to face the situation

4. the mobilization of resources required to cope with the stressor

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Question 27 of 354
Number: 1127 Question: The resistance phase of stress: 1. is very short duration and is unlikely to give a pilot the opportunity to resolve a problem 2. allows fats to be transformed into sugars, thereby prolonging the mobilization of energy in the body

3. may cause a person to die by stopping the defence mechanisms of the body 4. is characterised by the secretion of adrenalin, increased heart rate and blood pressure

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Question 28 of 354
Number: 1131

Question: Human behaviour is determined by: 1. cultural influences only

2. biological characteristics, social environment and cultural influences 3. biological characteristics only 4. the social environment only

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Question 29 of 354
Number: 1134 Question: Pilots are more easily inclined to take greater risks when: 1. making decisions independently of others 2. they are not constrained by time 3. making a flight over unfamiliar territory 4. they are part of a group of pilots and they feel that they are being observed and admired (e.g. air

shows)

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Question 30 of 354
Number: 1135 Question: Judgement is based upon: 1. the ability to interpret the flight instruments 2. the development of skills through constant practice of flight manoeuvres 3. a process involving a pilots attitude to take and to evaluate risks by assessing the situation and

making decisions based upon knowledge, skill and experience 4. a decision-making process involving the 5 physical senses and their use to manually operate the aircraft controls

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Question 31 of 354
Number: 1136 Question: The relevance of check procedures during flight becomes even more important when: 1. flying an aircraft which you have flown many times before 2. conducting a longer flight than you would normally perform

3. flying an unfamiliar type of aircraft and experiencing mental pressure 4. flying an aircraft which you have flown recently

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Question 32 of 354

Number: 1137 Question: Which of the following responses is an example of "habit reversion" (negative habit transfer): 1. Incorrect anticipation of an air traffic controllers instructions 2. habitually missing an item on the checklist or missing the second item when two items are on the same line 3. Turning the aircraft to the left when intending to turn it to the right 4. A pilot who has flown many hours in an aircraft in which the fuel lever points forward for the ON position, may unintentionally turn the fuel lever into the false position, when flying a different

aircraft, where the fuel lever has to point aft to be in the ON position.

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Question 33 of 354
Number: 1138 Question: Although the anticipation of possible events is a good attitude for pilots to acquire, it can sometimes lead to hazardous situations. With this statement in mind, select the response below which could lead to such a hazard: 1. mishearing the contents of a reply from an air traffic controller when a non-standard procedure was

given but a standard procedure was anticipated 2. anticipating the sequence of items on a check list. 3. anticipating that the flight will take longer time than planned 4. anticipating that the weather may deteriorate

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Question 34 of 354
Number: 1139 Question: With regards to stress, as it affects human beings, which of the folowing statements is correct? 1. All forms of stress should be avoided. 2. Reactive stressors relate purely to a pilots physical condition. 3. Self imposed obligations will not create stress.

4. Stressis a term used to describe how a person reacts to demands placed upon him/her.

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Question 35 of 354
Number: 1142 Question: If during flight a pilot is in a mental condition of "optimum arousal" he/she will be: 1. in a confused mental state 2. unprepared to handle a difficult situation 3. approaching a condition of complacency or fatigue

4. prepared best to cope with a difficult task

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Question 36 of 354
Number: 1330 Question: Which of the following statements summarises the impact that motivation may have on attention? 1. Motivation has only a small effect on attention, but it facilitates alertness 2. It only facilitates attention in extreme cases (risk of death) 3. It stimulates attention but may lead to phases of low arousal

4. It increases alertness and attention

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Question 37 of 354
Number: 1331 Question: What are the effects of excesive stress? 1. It has very little immediate effect on vigilance and attention 2. It increases vigilance for a longer period than stress itself, but may focus attention inappropriately

3. It reduces vigilance and focusses attention 4. It activates resources stored in memory

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Question 38 of 354
Number: 1332 Question: The level of automation helps to conserve resources. On the other hand, it may result in: 1. errors in selecting an appropriate plan of action

2. routine errors (slips) 3. mistakes 4. decision-making errors

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Question 39 of 354
Number: 1333 Question: What is the main adverse effect of expectation with regards to perception? 1. Expectation is a tool that allows capture of all relevant information 2. Expectation often guides the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates

are neglected 3. The attention area is enlarged by expectation, however it will therefore lead to uncertainties when a pilot is looking for a decision 4. Expectations always lead to routine errors

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Question 40 of 354
Number: 1334 Question: The acquisition of a motor programme (skill) will mean that: 1. the less behaviour is automated, the less it requires attention and the more it frees resources 2. the more behaviour is automated, the more it requires attention and the more it frees resources 3. the more behaviour is automated, the more it requires attention and the less it frees resources 4. the more behaviour is automated, the less it requires conscious attention and thus the more it frees

mental resources

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Question 41 of 354
Number: 1340 Question: What are the main characteristics of active errors ? They: 1. are detectable only with difficulty by first-line operators 2. have rapid and direct consequences on the action in progress 3. occur at the human/machine interface 4. lie dormant and are undetected at first

1. 2. 3. 4.

2,3 1,4 3,4 1,2

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Question 42 of 354
Number: 1341 Question: The maintenance of man's internal equilibrium is called:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Homeostasis Homeothermy Poikilothermy Heterostasis

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Question 43 of 354
Number: 1318 Question: What strategies can be used to combat human error? -1: Reducing error-prone mechanisms. -2: Improving the way in which error is taken into account in training. -3: Sanctions against the initiators of error. -4: Improving recovery from errors and its consequences. The correct statements are: 1. 2, 3 and 4 2. 1 and 2 3. 3 and 4

4. 1, 2 and 4

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Question 44 of 354
Number: 1319 Question: Concerning the relationship between performance and stress, which of the following statements is correct? 1. A student will learn faster and better under severe stress. 2. A well trained pilot is able to eliminate any kind of stress completely when he is scheduled to fly.

3. A moderate level of stress may improve performance. 4. Domestic stress will not affect the pilot's performance because he is able to leave this type of stress on the ground.

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Question 45 of 354
Number: 1320 Question: Stress is a frequent aspect of the pilot's job. Under which of the following circumstances does it occur? 1. Stress occurs whenever the pilot must revise his plan of action and does not immediately have a solution 2. Stress occurs with inexperienced pilots when the situational demands exceed their individual capabilities 3. Stress occurs if a pilot is convinced that he will not be able to find a solution for the problem he/she faces. 1. 1 is correct, 2 and 3 are false

2. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 3. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 is false 4. Only 1 is false

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Question 46 of 354
Number: 1321 Question: Divided attention is the ability: 1. to execute several mental activities at almost the same time (i.e. when switching attention from outside the aircraft to the airspeed indicator on the instrument panel) 2. to monitor the progress of a motor programme (i.e. flying or taxiing the airplane) on a relatively subconscious level, while making a radio call at the same time (requiring a rather conscious level) 3 .to select information and check if it is relevant to the task in hand. At the same time no other operation can be performed. 4. to delegate tasks to the copilot while concentrating on the procedures 1. 1,2 and 3 are correct, 4 is false

2. 1 and 2 are correct, 3 and 4 are false 3. 1 and 3 are correct, 2 and 4 are false 4. Only 3 is false

Question 47 of 354

Number: 2921 Question: Concerning circadian rhythm disruption (jet lag), adjustment to destination time: 1. Takes longer when travelling west rather than travelling east 2. Takes longer when travelling east rather than travelling west 3. Varies little between individuals 4. Varies substantially among individuals. Which of the following lists all the correct statements ?

1. 2. 3. 4.

2,4 1,3 1,4 2,3

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Question 48 of 354
Number: 2922 Question: What seems to be the main role of Orthodox sleep? 1. It includes physical and mental recuperation associate with fatigue

2. It essentially allows for physical recovery 3. Via physical recovery, it is characterised by an alternation of dream phases and paradoxical phases 4. Its main role is associated with activities of memory activities and restoration of attention capabilities

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Question 49 of 354
Number: 3183 Question: Which of the following operations are performed more effectively by people than by automatic systems ? 1. Qualitative decision-making 2. Waiting for an infrequent phenomenon 3. Monitoring to ensure that certain values are not exceeded 4. Detections of of unusual conditions (smell, noise, etc.) 1. 2,3,4 2. 3,4 3. 1,2

4. 1,4

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Question 50 of 354
Number: 3184 Question: Which of the following operations are performed more effectively by automatic systems than by people ? 1. Waiting for an infrequent phenomenon 2. Long term controlling of a set value (e.g holding of trajectory) 3. Monitoring to ensure that certain values are not exceeded (e.g holding of flight path) 4. Qualitative decision-making

1. 1,2,3 2. 3,4 3. 2,3,4

4. 2,4

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Question 51 of 354
Number: 3185 Question: As a result of automation in cockpits, 1. communication and coordination have clearly improved in man-man and man-machine relations 2. the need for communication between crew members has been decreased 3. communication and coordination call for an even greater effort on the part of the crew members

4. it is easier for the captain to monitor the work of the first officer and vice versa

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Question 52 of 354
Number: 3187 Question: Which of the following drawbacks are associated with automation ? 1. Reduced competence in manually controlling the aircraft 2. Increased likelihood of slips while programming automatic systems 3. Difficulties in adapting to the use of a sidestick 4. General decrease in technical reliability 1. 1,4

2. 1,2 3. 1,3 4. 2,3,4

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Question 53 of 354
Number: 3188 Question: Which of the following are the most favourable solutions to manage phases of reduced or low vigilance (hypovigilance)? 1. Healthy living 2. Use of amphetamines 3. Reducing the intensity of the light 4. Organising periods of rest during the flight

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,4 1,3 3,4 1,2

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Question 54 of 354
Number: 3189 Question: What are main signs indicating the loss of vigilance ? 1. Decrease in sensory perception 2. Increase in selective attention 3. Sensation of muscular heaviness 4. Decrease in complacency Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 1. 1 and 4

2. 2 and 4 3. 2 and 3

4. 1 and 3

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Question 55 of 354
Number: 3190 Question: What is "divided attention"? 1. The adverse effect of motivation which leads to one's attention being dispersed 2. Ease of concentrating on a particular objective 3. Difficulty of concentrating on a particular objective

4. The management of several matters of interest dealt with individually one after the other

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Question 56 of 354
Number: 3191 Question: Which of the following statements concerning hypovigilance is correct ? Hypovigilance : 1. essentially occurs several minutes after the intense take-off phase

2. may occur at any moment of the flight 3. only affects certain personality types 4. tends to occur at the end of the mission as a result of a relaxation in the operators' attention

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Question 57 of 354
Number: 3192 Question: What are the main factors which bring about reduced or low vigilance (hypovigilance) ? 1. The monotony of the task 2. Tiredness and the need for sleep 3. A lack of stimulation 4. Excessive stress

1. 2. 3. 4.

1,2,3 2,4 3,4 1,3

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Question 58 of 354
Number: 3193 Question: Which of the following statements in regard to motivation is correct? 1. Motivation will reduce the task automation process 2. Too much motivation may result in hypovigilance and thus in a decrease in attention

3. Low motivation will guarantee adequate attention management capabilities 4. Extremely high motivation in combination with excessive stress will limit attention management

capabilities

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Question 59 of 354
Number: 3194 Question: Which of the following describes an autocratic cockpit? 1. The captain's excessive authority considerably reduces communications and consequently the synergy

and cohesion of the crew 2. Each of the members chooses what job to do without telling the others and in the belief that everyone is aware of what he is doing 3. The atmosphere is relaxed thanks to a captain who leaves complete freedom to the various members of the crew 4. Despite the overly strong authority of the captain, everything functions correctly owing to his natural leadership

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Question 60 of 354
Number: 3195 Question: What optimises crew co-operation ? 1. Sharing and common task 2. Confidence in each others capability 3. Precise definition of functions associated with each crew members role 1. 1, 2

2. 1, 2, 3 3. 2, 3 4. 1 only

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Question 61 of 354
Number: 3196 Question: What distinguishes status from role ? 1. While role defines the enjoyment of a hierarchical position and its recognition by the group, status defines - via behaviour- the functions that must be performed by individuals 2. While role defines- via behaviour- the functions that must be performed by individuals, status defines

the hierarchical position and its recognition by the group 3. Unlike status, role is fixed and is modified either by the situation in flight or by the interactions of a new crew 4. Unlike status, role is fixed and is not modified either by the situation in flight or by the interactions of a new crew

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Question 62 of 354
Number: 3200 Question: Which of the following elements make up the personality of an individual ? 1. Heredity 2. Childhood environment 3. Upbringing 4. Past experience 1. 2,3 2. 2,3,4

3. 1,2,3,4 4. 1,2,4

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Question 63 of 354
Number: 3201 Question: What is synergy in a crew ? 1. The uncoordinated action of the crewmembers towards a common objective 2. The coordinated action of unrelated individual performances in achieving a non-standard task 3. A behavioural expedient associated with the desynchronisation of the coordinated actions 4. The coordinated action of all members towards a common objective, in which collective performance

is proving to be more than the sum of the individual performances

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Question 64 of 354
Number: 3202 Question: Which of the following statements concerning conflicts is correct ? 1. The emergence of a conflict always results from calling into question the general abilities of one of the involved parties 2. Conflict management involves the participation of all involved parties in finding an acceptable

collective solution 3. Conflicts are negative in themselves and can only lead to a general detachment of involved parties 4. Whatever the cause of the conflict, its resolution must necessarily involve an additional party if it is to be effective

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Question 65 of 354
Number: 3204 Question: In terms of decision-making, the intention to become integrated into the team, to be recognised as the leader or to avoid conflicts may lead to: 1. an authoritarian approach thus demonstrating ones own ability to lead

2. the attempt to agree on decisions made by other crew members 3. a fast and decisive option 4. the improvement of internal risk assessment capabilities

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Question 66 of 354
Number: 3205 Question: What strategy should be put in place when faced with an anticipated period of stress? 1. A strategy of no commitment 2. A Laissez-faire strategy

3. A strategy of preparing decisions 4. A non-sequenced strategy

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Question 67 of 354
Number: 3206 Question: Which biases relate to human decision making? 1. Personal experience tends to alter the perception of the risk of an event occurring 2. There is a natural tendency to want to confirm our decision even in the face of facts which contradict it 3. The group to which an individual belongs tends to influence the particular decision 4. There is natural tendancy to select only objective facts for decision-making purposes 1. 1,2,4 2. 3,4

3. 1,2,3 4. 1,2

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Question 68 of 354
Number: 3208 Question: Decision-making can be influenced by the following factors: 1. people tend to conform to opinions expressed by a majority within the group they belong to 2. people always keep the future decisions in line with those their superiors have made in the past 3. people more easily tend to select data which meet their expectations 4. people rarely base decisions on their personal preferences but rather on rational information Which of the following lists all the correct answers ? 1. 2,3

2. 1,3 3. 1,4 4. 2,4

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Question 69 of 354
Number: 3210 Question: Decision-making is a concept which represents: 1. a voluntary and conscious process of selection, from among possible solutions, for a given problem

2. an automated or automation-like act of applying defined procedures 3. a spontaneous act of seeking the most effective solution in a given situation when faced with a defined problem 4. an automatic process of selection from among the various solutions to a given problem

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Question 70 of 354
Number: 3212 Question: In decision-making, the selection of a solution depends on: 1. objective and subjective criteria 2. the objective to be achieved 3. the risks associated with each solution 4. the personality of the decisionmaker 1. 4 2. 1, 3 3. 1, 2, 4

4. 1, 2, 3, 4

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Question 71 of 354
Number: 3213 Question: Decision-making results in: 1. a subjective choice between options to achieve a goal 2. a choice always based on the experience of the Pilot in Command 3. a totally objective choice between options to achieve a goal proposed by the Pilot in Command

4. a choice between different options to achieve a goal

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Question 72 of 354
Number: 3218 Question: In problem-solving, what determines the transition from rule-based activities to a knowledgebased activity? 1. Attentional capture 2. The unsuitability of the automated actions 3. Knowledge of rules which apply to the problem posed

4. The unsuitability of the known rules for the problem posed

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Question 73 of 354
Number: 2944 Question: What is the effect of tiredness on attention ? 1. It has no specific effects on attention

2. It reduces the ability to manage multiple matters 3. It increases the ability to manage multiple matters 4. It leads to one's attention being shared between different centres of interest

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Question 74 of 354
Number: 2945 Question: Which of the following statements concerning tiredness is correct ? 1. Tiredness is always the result of an intellectual overload

2. Tiredness is a subjective sensation which may result in hypovigilance 3. Tiredness always effect people of the same age in a similar way 4. Tiredness is the consequence of poor performance

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Question 75 of 354
Number: 2946 Question: Which of the following are strategies for resolving conflict? 1. Seeking arbitration 2. Actively listening to other people 3. Abandoning facts so as to move the conversation to a more emotional level 4. Becoming aware of cultural influences 1. 1,2,3

2. 1,2,4 3. 2,4 4. 2,3,4

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Question 76 of 354
Number: 2947 Question: What elements establish synergy within the crew ? 1. Synergy establishes itself automatically within the crew, right through from briefing to debriefing 2. It is only the captain's status which allows the establishment of synergy within the crew

3. Synergy is independent of the natural individual characteristics of the group members (communication, mutual confidence, sharing of tasks, etc.) 4. Synergy must be built up from the start of the mission (briefing) and be maintained until it comes to

an end (debriefing)

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Question 77 of 354
Number: 2948 Question: Which of the following statements best characterise a synergetic cockpit? 1. Decisions are taken by the captain, but prepared by the crew 2. There is little delegating of tasks 3. Communications are few in number but precise and geared purely to the flight 4. Fluid, consensual boundaries exist in regard to leadership-style, which fluctuate between authority and laissez-faire 1. 2,4 2. 2,3

3. 1,4 4. 1,3,4

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Question 78 of 354
Number: 2949 Question: Which of the following statements best characterise a self-centered cockpit ? 1. Without taking note of what the other members are doing, each one does his own thing while at the

same time assuming that everyone is aware of what is being done or what is going on 2. While decreasing communication, the independence of each member bolsters the crew's synergy 3. The communication between crew members always increases when the captain takes charge of a situation 4. The egoistic and self-centered personality of the captain often leads to a synergetic cockpit

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Question 79 of 354
Number: 2950 Question: What may become the main risk of a "laissez-faire" cockpit ? 1. Increased captain's authority

2. Inversion of authority 3. Disengagement of the co-pilot 4. Appearance of aggressiveness

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Question 80 of 354
Number: 2951 Question: What is characterized by a "laissez-faire" cockpit ? 1. A passive approach by the captain allows decisions, choices and actions by other crew members

2. Each member carries out actions and makes choices informing the other members about them 3. The high level of independence granted to each member by the captain quickly leads to tension between the various crew members 4. The captain's authority rules all the actions or decisions associated with the situation

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Question 81 of 354
Number: 2953 Question: What are the most frequent results of an self-centred captain on the flight deck ? 1. A major risk of authority inversion if the co-pilot is unassertive 2. Performance is very poor as self-centred behaviour leads to an increase of cooperation and efficiency 3. High group performance despite the strained relations 4. In a two-pilot flight deck, the co-pilot is ignored and may react by disengaging, showing delayed

responses or aggression

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Question 82 of 354
Number: 2464 Question: The trend in aeroplane hull-loss rate over the last three decades seems to be related to:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the crew the manufacturer the year of manufacture the number of engines

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Question 83 of 354
Number: 2466 Question: Pilot stress reactions: 1. do not change with the environment or different situations but mainly with the characters themselves

2. differ from pilot to pilot, depending on how a person manages the particular stressors 3. are related to an internationally recognized list of stressors where the top-ten items should be avoided by every means 4. seem to be the same for most pilots

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Question 84 of 354
Number: 2469 Question: One negative aspect of the highly automated cockpit results in: 1. less experienced crews because of more transparent system details 2. constantly high crew overload with regard to the monitoring tasks

3. complacency among the crewmembers 4. pilots disregarding the automatic equipment

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Question 85 of 354
Number: 2476 Question: Which of the following provides the basis of all perceptions? 1. The separation of figure and background. 2. The aural or visual significance attributed in short term memory.

3. The intensity of the stimuli. 4. The aural or visual significance attributed in long term memory.

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Question 86 of 354
Number: 2478 Question: The effect of experience and repetition on performance: 1. is always negative 2. is always beneficial

3. can both be beneficial and negative 4. is never negative

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Question 87 of 354
Number: 2479 Question: Situations particularly vulnerable to "reversion to an earlier behaviour pattern" are: 1. when concentration on a particular task is relaxed 2. when situations are characterised by medium workload 3. when situations are characterised by stress 1. 3 only. 2. 1. and 2. 3. 2. and 3.

4. 1. and 3.

Question 88 of 354
Number: 2480 Question: The most dangerous characteristic of perception is, that it 1. will only occur under conditions of stress 2. can easily be changed 3. will mainly occur under conditions of relaxation

4. is frequently extremely resistant to correction

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Question 89 of 354
Number: 2481 Question: Fixation or tunnel vision is primarily to be expected when: 1. stress is medium 2. stress and motivation are low 3. stress and motivation are medium

4. stress is high

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Question 90 of 354
Number: 2289 Question: The acquisition of a skill comprises three stages (Anderson model): 1. associative, autonomous and expert 2. cognitive, associative and knowledge 3. automatic, cognitive and knowledge

4. cognitive, associative and automatic

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Question 91 of 354
Number: 2290 Question: A pilot can be described as being proficient, when he/she: 1. is able to reduce his/her arousal to a low level during the entire flight 2. is capable of maintaining a high level of arousal during a great bulk of the flight 3. has automated a large part of the necessary flight deck routine operations in order to free his/her

cognitive resources 4. knows how to off-load all his/her resources to the automation of tasks

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Question 92 of 354
Number: 2291 Question: With regard to the practice of English, which of the following statements is correct? 1. It is necessary and sufficient to have a command of any of the official languages of the ICAO. 2. Be familiar with normal procedures in English since only this allows for effective management of any flight's communication. 3. The composition of every crew should be geared to a command of the official aeronautical language of the destination country.

4. All pilots should master it because the aeronautical world needs one common language.

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Question 93 of 354
Number: 2292 Question: Which of the following statements best fits the definition of an active error? Active error is: 1. essentially results from the application of a bad rule or the poor application of a good rule by aeroplane designers 2. rare in front-line actions and difficult to detect owing to the fact that it usually occurs in a complex system of uncontrolled and involuntary deviations

3. produced by the operator and can be rapidly detected 4. produced either by a front-line operator or by a remote operator and results in a hidden or latent consequence at a specific moment of the action

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Question 94 of 354
Number: 2293 Question: What are the main consequences of latent errors? They: -1: remain undetected in the system for a certain length of time. -2: may only manifest themselves under certain conditions. -3: are quickly detectable by the front-line operator whose mental schemas on the instantaneous situation filter out formal errors. -4: lull pilots into a false sense of security The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 1 and 3

2. 1,2 and 4 3. 1 and 2 4. 2, 3 and 4

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Question 95 of 354
Number: 2294 Question: Which of the following statements fits best the concept of latent error? Latent errors: 1. rapidly may be detected via their immediate consequences on the action in progress 2. are mainly associated with the behaviour of front-line operators and are only detected after advanced problem-solving

3. are rarely made by front-line operators, and are consequently readily identified and detected by the monitoring, detection and warning links 4. have been present in the system for a certain length of time and are difficult to identify as a result of

the time lag between the generation and the occurrence of the error

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Question 96 of 354
Number: 12518 Question: In order to limit stress when flying, a pilot should: 1. maintain his competence by practicing his professional skills and learning from past experiences

2. avoid anticipating events during a flight to manage his workload 3. drop activities outside work so as to focus on his work better 4. forget about bad past experiences

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Question 97 of 354
Number: 12519 Question: Expressed as a simple mathematical statement when considering a crew of two, good synergy is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

1+1=>2 1-1=>2 1+1=<2 1 +/- 1 = < 2

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Question 98 of 354
Number: 12501 Question: Cohesion is a major advantage in times of: 1. Achievement

2. Difficulty 3. Success 4. Personal advancement

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Question 99 of 354
Number: 12503 Question: Select from the following list the advantages of teamwork. 1. Workload is lessened 2. Conformity to group norm 3. Flight safety enhanced 4. Risky Shift 5. Work stress is reduced 6. Improved decisionmaking

1. 1, 3, 4 & 5

2. 1, 3, 5 & 6 3. 2, 3, 5 & 6 4. 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6

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Question 100 of 354


Number: 12504 Question: Select from the following list environmental stressors: 1. Heat 2. Humidity 3. Divorce 4. Lack of rest 5. Loss of job 6. Noise 1. 1, 2, 3, 5 & 6 2. 1, 2, 4 & 6

3. 1, 2 & 6 4. 1, 2, 3 & 6

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Question 101 of 354


Number: 12505 Question: Motivation is an important attribute which contributes to flight safety. Which of the following statements is correct with regards to motivation?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Excessive motivation leads to stress which adversely affects performance Motivation reduces the intensity of sensory illusions A high degree of motivation lowers the level of vigilance A high degree of motivation makes it possible to make up for insufficient knowledge in complete safety

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Question 102 of 354


Number: 12507 Question: In decision-making, the selection of a solution depends on: 1. objective and subjective criteria 2. the objective to be achieved 3. the risks associated with each solution 4. the personality of the decisionmaker 1. 1, 3 2. 1, 2, 4 3. 4

4. 1, 2, 3, 4

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Question 103 of 354


Number: 12511 Question: Planning: 1. is dangerous in the cockpit, as it interrupts flight crew creativity 2. allows crew members to anticipate potential risky situations and decide on possible responses

3. is unnecessary in the cockpit, as crew members are so highly trained, they will always know what to do in unusual situations 4. in the cockpit typically results in plans that are always easy to modify when things are not as anticipated

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Question 104 of 354


Number: 12513 Question: Physiological stressors include: 1. Heat, humidity, fatigue, administrative problems 2. Temperature, hunger, thirst, divorce 3. Noise, hunger, conflicts, a death

4. Noise, temperature (low or high), humidity, sleep deprivation

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Question 105 of 354


Number: 12515 Question: Physical Stress takes place when:

1. 2. 3. 4.

outside conditions put a strain upon the homeostatic mechanisms of the body. the perceived demand is greater than the perceived ability. overload of the neurones in the nervous system. the brain can no longer cope due to either quantitative or qualitative overload.

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Question 106 of 354


Number: 12537 Question: Having interrupted the Captain for a sound reason, the co-pilot should: 1. Repeat the interruption twice so that the Captain's attention is focussed on the new information 2. Ensure there is no ATC traffic on the radio that may be causing a possible distraction before continuing 3. Never interrupt his/her Captain at a critical stage of flight

4. Remind him/her of his/her last action before the interruption

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Question 107 of 354


Number: 12539 Question: Human error rates during the performance of a simple and repetitive task can normally be expected to be approximately:

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 in 100 1 in 2000 1 in 200 1 in 500

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Question 108 of 354


Number: 12542 Question: How do you understand the statement 'one cannot not communicate'? 1. You cannot influence your own communication.

2. Being silent as well as inactive are nonverbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning. 3. Communication is always possible. 4. No meaningful communication can occur unless it is by verbal means.

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Question 109 of 354


Number: 12546 Question: Having made an important decision, a Commander of an aircraft should: 1. Explain the reasons for the decision only if asked 2. Explain the reasons for the decision only if time permits in the air

3. Always try to make time to explain the reasons for the decision even if it is after landing 4. As the leader of the crew, never need explain the reasons behind the decision

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Question 110 of 354


Number: 12550 Question: Habits and routine can influence decision-making in a way that: 1. shows a tendency to select the most familiar solution first and foremost, sometimes to the detriment

of achieving the best possible result. 2. professional pilots will never question established procedures. 3. one always selects a choice in accordance with the company's usual practices. 4. habit is the product of experience and should be used as a primary consideration in all decisions.

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Question 111 of 354


Number: 12554 Question: For a normal and healthy person, personality traits are: 1. easy changed by an outside influence. 2. unstable. 3. easy changeable.

4. stable.

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Question 112 of 354


Number: 12558 Question: An authoritative leader of a group will: 1. always be a good listener.

2. tend to become over-loaded in times of high stress or in an emergency. 3. tend never to interfere with the workings of the group and finds delegation easy. 4. be adaptable to different types of groups in any situation.

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Question 113 of 354


Number: 12560 Question: Among the physiological responses to stress are: 1. dry mouth, anxiety and sweating.

2. sweating, dry mouth and breathing difficulties. 3. anxiety, fatigue and fear. 4. increased heart rate, apprehension and sweating.

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Question 114 of 354


Number: 12566 Question: Among the external factors that may contribute to an error, cockpit noise and the restriction of the field of view due to windscreen design correspond to: 1. organisational factors. 2. social factors. 3. psychobiological factors.

4. ergonomic factors.

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Question 115 of 354


Number: 12569 Question: Active errors/failures are committed at: 1. the system/system interface and have an immediate effect 2. the system/system interface and have a delayed effect

3. the human/system interface and have an immediate effect 4. the human/system interface and have a delayed effect

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Question 116 of 354


Number: 12574 Question: A pilot successfully completes a difficult and stressful landing at an aerodrome. The next time a landing is attempted under the same conditions and at the same aerodrome, is the pilot likely to experience: 1. the same stress level as the first landing 2. the pilot should only attempt a landing at the same aerodrome if the conditions are improved

3. a lower level of stress 4. a higher level of stress

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Question 117 of 354


Number: 12579 Question: Before takeoff, a briefing: 1. is not necessary if the crew members know each other 2. must be done systematically in order to refresh the memory of the crew members and to co-ordinate

actions 3. is not necessary when departing from home base because this is routine 4. is not required unless both crew members agree it is essential

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Question 118 of 354


Number: 12584 Question: An example of conflict between status and role is: 1. an ATC Controller interviewing an inexperienced Captain. 2. a Manager interviewing an experienced Captain of an aircraft.

3. a senior Captain acting as co-pilot to a junior Captain of an aircraft. 4. a security officer temporarily standing in for a member of the cabin crew.

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Question 119 of 354


Number: 12586 Question: An experienced pilot: 1. avoids using automated systems as his experience allows him to perform all tasks manually 2. functions exclusively in a reactive manner, as it is not resource-consuming

3. prepares thoroughly for a flight and is able to anticipate the majority of possible problems 4. seeks complex solutions to problems, thus using his capacities up to 100%

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Question 120 of 354


Number: 12588 Question: Approximately ................... of all communication is achieved by factors other than words (metacommunications) 1. 10%

2. 80% 3. 30% 4. 50%

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Question 121 of 354


Number: 12590 Question: Anxiety can affect: 1. Judgement 2. Attention 3. Memory 4. Concentration 1. 1 and 2 only are correct

2. All are correct 3. 1 only is correct 4. 1, 2 and 4 only are correct

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Question 122 of 354


Number: 12591 Question: An unnoticed way-point error entered in an aircraft data base is an example of: 1. Active failure/error 2. Pro-active failure/error

3. Latent failure/error 4. Re-active failure/error

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Question 123 of 354

Number: 12592 Question: An under-confident and self-effacing co-pilot is promoted to Captain. It is not uncommon for such a person have a behavioural pattern which is: 1. easy to adapt to the role of Captain. 2. easy-going but having a reliance on others. 3. confident and self-assuring because of his/her higher status.

4. aggressive if challenged by another member of the crew.

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Question 124 of 354


Number: 12593 Question: An important aspect of Situational Awareness is: 1. When the pilot perceives the instant and immediate situation both inside and outside the cockpit 2. When a pilot is sure that the situation both inside and outside the aircraft is correct 3. When the pilot perceives the situation both inside and outside the aircraft

4. When a pilot's perception equals reality

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Question 125 of 354


Number: 12604 Question: If one error is allowed to effect a whole system, the system is described as: 1. Corrupted 2. Error-prone 3. Error tolerant

4. Vulnerable

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Question 126 of 354


Number: 12609 Question: The phases of learning a Motor Programme are:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cognitive, Associative and Automatic phases Initial, Interim and Final phases Induction, Simulation and Practice phases 1st, 2nd and 3rd phases

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Question 127 of 354


Number: 12610

Question: The phases of General Adaption Syndrome are: 1. Alarm, Resistance and Recovery.

2. Alarm, Resistance and Exhaustion. 3. Emergency, Medial and Recovery. 4. Emergency, Resistance and Exhaustion.

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Question 128 of 354


Number: 12613 Question: The "ideal" cockpit can be termed as: 1. Cohesive 2. Communicative 3. Co-operative

4. Synergistic

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Question 129 of 354


Number: 12614 Question: The "Break Point" is that point after which, if stress continues to rise, 1. performance is enhanced. 2. performance is initially degraded and is then enhanced.

3. performance is degraded. 4. performance peaks and remains at this level.

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Question 130 of 354


Number: 12615 Question: The Skill-based, Rule-based, Knowledge-based Model (Jens Rasmussen) is associated with: 1. motor programmes. 2. risk. 3. personality.

4. behaviour.

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Question 131 of 354


Number: 12616 Question: A Captain running an Autocratic cockpit is normally:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Over-loaded A good leader Under-worked Efficient

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Question 132 of 354


Number: 12619 Question: A person's attitudes define a set of learned dispositions (likes and dislikes) which: 1. is exactly the same as a person's personality 2. cannot be modified through training 3. do not depend on a person's past experiences

4. influence a person's reaction and response to people, situations, etc.

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Question 133 of 354


Number: 12620 Question: A leader who demonstrates a democratic and co-operative style will deal with conflict by: 1. deciding what to do and pushes his own opinion through 2. trying to reconcile all persons involved in the conflict and tries to re-establish a pleasant and friendly atmosphere within the team

3. trying to clarify the reasons and causes of the conflict with all persons involved 4. keeping a neutral position and does not participate in arguing

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Question 134 of 354


Number: 12624 Question: A Captain running a "Laissez-faire" cockpit will: 1. fill a vacuum.

2. make few suggestions or decisions. 3. be an efficient crew member. 4. will encourage a 'sterile' cockpit.

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Question 135 of 354


Number: 12628 Question: "Stereotypes" are preconceptions or prejudices which can lead us to: 1. communicate non-verbally with a stranger.

2. mis-judge individuals even if we have contact with them. 3. act in the same manner in all situations and thus assuring stability. 4. develop better teamwork by standardizing procedures.

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Question 136 of 354


Number: 12632 Question: "Feedback" in communication implies that:

1. 2. 3. 4.

a message is measured and corrected against the original meaning. storing of messages in short time memory is available for later release. the flight crew do not need to talk all the time because the feedback is automatic. readback of a message is rarely necessary except in the case of specific ATC procedures.

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Question 137 of 354


Number: 12634 Question: "Non-verbal communication": 1. rarely causes accidents.

2. constitutes approximately 70% of human communication. 3. means "a sterile cockpit" below 10 000 feet. 4. is unimportant, inherited and cannot be taught.

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Question 138 of 354


Number: 15659 Question: What is a physiological Stressor? 1. An unresolved force acting upon the individual's mental or physical systems. 2. A means of coping with a stressful situation. 3. The body's non-specific response to demands put upon it.

4. A stimulus that produces a change in any of the homeostatic mechanisms of the body.

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Question 139 of 354


Number: 15672 Question: Group norms: 1. diminish the morale of the group. 2. have no influence on the working behaviour of the group.

3. regulate the interaction and the behaviour between the members of a group. 4. are always fixed in a written way and can be looked up.

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Question 140 of 354


Number: 15673 Question: Motivation, crew-climate and "Confirmation Bias" are factors that: 1. have no influence on teamwork.

2. can influence the situational awareness. 3. depend only on personality and are unchangeable. 4. are easy to control.

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Question 141 of 354


Number: 15568 Question: What physical symptoms can be attributed to stress?

1. A sense of well-being and a loss of reality. 2. A false sense of achievement and a severe thirst. 3. A sense of inadequacy and irritability.

4. Insomnia, loss of appetite and a dry mouth.

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Question 142 of 354


Number: 15584 Question: What are the main advantages of the human over the machine? 1. Logic and the use of human senses. 2. Ability to recognize limits on systems being exceeded quicker than a machine and resolve the situation. 3. Ability to recognize system failures and rectify them quicker than a machine.

4. Creativity, innovation, and aptitude to deal with novel situations.

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Question 143 of 354


Number: 15557 Question: What is meant by "passive monitoring" in terms of automation complacency?

1. 2. 3. 4.

A pilot watching what is going on rather than analyzing and constantly checking. A pilot's concentration on one particular area of the system instead of monitoring the whole system. A pilot knowing where the aircraft has been, where it is now, and where it is going to. A plilot's belief in the fallibility of systems and constantly checking and analyzing the situation.

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Question 144 of 354


Number: 15558 Question: Which of the following is an example of human underload? 1. An unexpectedly poor landing at an airfield with which the pilot is familiar in perfect weather

conditions. 2. A good landing at an airfield with which the pilot is familiar in poor weather conditions. 3. An unexpectedly good landing at an airfield with which the pilot is unfamiliar in perfect weather conditions. 4. A poor landing at an airfield with which the pilot is unfamiliar, in marginal weather conditions.

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Question 145 of 354


Number: 15538 Question: Stress can be defined as: 1. the unresolved pressure, strain or force acting upon an individual's physical or mental systems and

the human response. 2. a feeling of well-being enabling difficult tasks to be completed more easily. 3. a physical limit acting upon the individual's physical systems inhibiting completion of any task. 4. a low level of pressure acting on the individual's mental system which inhibits completion of even the simplest tasks.

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Question 146 of 354


Number: 15717 Question: Why are Mnemonics are used in aviation? 1. Because they increase response time. 2. Because they are a tool to avoid illusions.

3. Because they help to increase retention of information. 4. Because they increase motivation.

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Question 147 of 354

Number: 15708 Question: What is "automation complacency"? 1. The circumstance where monitoring and cross-checking is reduced because of the belief in the

infallibility of the automatic systems. 2. No over-ride facility is available on auto-flight selection as there are enough levels of redundancy to cope with any system failure. 3. The circumstance where the pilot flies the aircraft manually because he is unable to rely on the automatic systems flying the aircraft safely. 4. Automation is now so reliable that the human input is no longer necessary

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Question 148 of 354


Number: 15709 Question: What role should automation play with respect to flight safety? 1. Automation should be used as much as possible to replace the pilot who will inevitably make mistakes. 2. Automation should only be used on flights when weather conditions are poor to enhance flight safety.

3. Automation should be used as an aid to the pilot and not as an end in itself. 4. Automation should be used where pilots have to make decisions and manual flying should be compulsory in good weather conditions.

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Question 149 of 354


Number: 15700 Question: In the Alarm stage of response to stress what does the body do? 1. Recognises danger and slows the body down via the autonomic system. 2. Attempts to maintain the body's arousal state to the continuing stress.

3. Recognises the stressor and prepares the body for action. 4. Attempts to repair any damage caused by the stress.

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Question 150 of 354


Number: 15744 Question: Incorrect perception:

1. 2. 3. 4.

can be highly persuasive. will only affect flight deck crew. will only affect one member of the crew at a time. can be easily recognized.

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Question 151 of 354


Number: 15889 Question: Which of the following statements is correct?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Short-term memory is affected by interruptions. Extreme "achievement" motivation in a Captain is an ideal attribute for a Captain of an aircraft. All motivators (both physcial and mental) are subjective. Motivation does not affect performance.

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Question 152 of 354


Number: 2132 Question: Stress may be defined as: 1. a human reaction which one must manage to eliminate

2. a normal phenomenon which enables an individual to adapt to encountered situations 3. a psychological phenomenon which only affects fragile personalities 4. a poorly controlled emotion which leads to a reduction in capabilities

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Question 153 of 354


Number: 2133 Question: What is a stressor?

1. 2. 3. 4.

An external or internal stimulus which is interpreted by an individual as being stressful The adaptation response of the individual to his environment All external stimulation are stressors since they modify the internal equilibrium A psychological problem developed in a situation of danger

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Question 154 of 354


Number: 2134 Question: What may trigger stress in humans?

1. 2. 3. 4.

The subjective interpretation an individual gives to a situation experienced Only objective stimulation from environmental factors Only strong stimulation of the sensory organs: a flash of light, noise and the smell of smoke Always the reaction to upsetting emotions caused either by physiological or psychological conditions

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Question 155 of 354


Number: 2135 Question: With regard to the average influence of age on pilot performance, it may be said that age: 1. increases in impact as speed of thought and memory deteriorate 2. sharply reduces performance without, however, affecting cognitive capabilities

3. has little impact when the pilot is able to compensate for it by his/her flight experience 4. has a major impact owing to the impairment of memory

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Question 156 of 354


Number: 2136 Question: Of the following statements, which apply to coordinated cooperation? -1: It allows for synergy in the actions between the captain and the co-pilot. -2: It represents the simultaneous execution of a single action by the various members of the crew. -3: Communication here results in synchronised actions and the natural and easy distribution of responsibilities. -4: Communication is centred around the outside world. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 1 and 4

2. 1 and 3 3. 1,2 and 4 4. 2 and 3

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Question 157 of 354


Number: 2139 Question: Coaction is a mode of coordination which recommends: 1. working parallel to achieve individual objectives 2. the application of procedural knowledge in the conduct of specific actions 3. sustained cooperation on actions and the formulation of commitments concerning flight situations

4. working in parallel to achieve one common objective

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Question 158 of 354


Number: 2262 Question: In order to make communication effective, it is necessary to: -1: avoid the synchronization of verbal and non-verbal channels. -2: send information in line with the receiver's decoding abilities. -3: always concentrate on the informational aspects of the message only.-4 : avoid increasing the number of communication channels, in order to simplify communication. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 2 and 4 are correct 2. 3 and 4 are correct 3. 1,2 and 3 are correct

4. only 2 is correct

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Question 159 of 354


Number: 2263 Question: Which of the following statements regarding interpersonal interactions are correct? -1 If the sender perceives that the receiver is incompetent, he/she will increase the length of the message -2 If the receiver is of non-native tongue, the sender will reinforce what he is saying by using more complicated words so as to optimize understanding -3 If the sender considers the receiver incompetent, he/she tends to simplify the content of the sentences -4 It is much safer to fly with a crew who know each other well because communication will always be excellent. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 1 and 2 are correct 2. 2 and 3 are correct

3. 3 only is correct 4. 3 and 4 are correct

Question 160 of 354


Number: 2264 Question: Professional languages have certain characteristics, for example: -1: They use a limited vocabulary . -2: They are rich and adapted to the context, which sometimes lead to ambiguities. -3: Their grammar is rather complicated and complex. -4: Context provides meaning, therefore reduces the risk of ambiguities.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 and 4 are correct 1 and 3 are correct only 4 is correct 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 161 of 354


Number: 2267 Question: With regard to communication in a cockpit, we can say that:

1. communication uses up resources, thus limiting the resources allocated to work in progress 2. communication is always sufficiently automated to enable an activity with a high workload element to be carried out at the same time 3. all the characteristics of communication, namely output, duration, precision, clarity, etc. are stable and are not much affected by changes in workload 4. communication is only effective if messages are kept short and sufficiently precise to limit their number

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Question 162 of 354

Number: 2273 Question: What are the communication qualities of a good briefing? A good briefing must: -1 : contain as much information and be as comprehensive as possible. -2 : be of a standard type so that it can be reused for another flight of the same type. -3 : be short and precise. -4 : be understandable to the other crew member(s). The correct statement(s) is (are):

1. 2. 3. 4.

2,3 and 4 are correct 1 and 4 are correct 1 and 2 are correct 1, 2 and 4 are correct

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Question 163 of 354


Number: 2274 Question: Which of the following statements concerning check list is correct? 1. The most important items must be placed in the middle of check list so that they come to be examined once attention is focused but before concentration starts to wane 2. All the items of a check list are equally important; their sequence is of no importance 3. The most important items should be placed at the beginning of a check list since attention is usually

focused here 4. The most important items must be placed at the end of check list, allowing them to be kept near at hand so that they are quickly available for any supplementary check

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Question 164 of 354


Number: 2275 Question: Which of the following statements are correct with regard to the design of a check list? -1 : The longer a check list, the more it must be subdivided into logical parts. -2 : The trickiest points must be placed in the middle of the check list. -3 : Check lists must be designed in such a way that they can be lumped together with other tasks. -4 : Whenever possible, a panel scan sequence should be applied -5 : Critical points should have redundancies. The combination of correct statements is: 1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2. 1, 2 and 5 are correct 3. 1, 3 and 5 are correct

4. 1, 4 and 5 are correct

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Question 165 of 354


Number: 2276 Question: The use of check lists should be carried out in such a way that: 1. their execution may be done simultaneously with other actions 2. they should only be carried out when time is available 3. their execution should be combined with other important tasks

4. their execution should not be done simultaneously with other actions

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Question 166 of 354


Number: 2278 Question: According to Rasmussen's model, errors in rule-based control mode are of the following type(s) : 1. handling errors

2. errors of technical knowledge 3. routine errors 4. creative errors

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Question 167 of 354


Number: 2279 Question: According to Rasmussen's model, errors are of the following type(s) in skill-based behaviour: 1. handling errors 2. creative errors 3. knowledge errors

4. routine errors

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Question 168 of 354


Number: 2284 Question: In order to overcome an overload of work during the flight, it is necessary to: -1: know how to use one's own reserve of resources in order to ease the burden on the crew. -2: divide up tasks among the crew. -3: ensure that the long-term memory is used as much as possible as short term memory will add to the stress. -4: drop certain tasks and stick to high-level priorities. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 1 and 3 are correct 2. 3 and 4 are correct

3. 1, 2 and 4 are correct 4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 169 of 354


Number: 2287 Question: The available cognitive resources of the human brain:

1. 2. 3. 4.

are limited and make it impossible to perform two attentional tasks at the same time allow for twin-tasks operation without any loss of effectiveness are limited but make it possible to easily perform several tasks at the same time are virtually unlimited

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Question 170 of 354


Number: 1735 Question: Thinking on human reliability is changing. 1. The individual view of safety has gradually replaced the systemic view of safety 2. It is thought that it will be possible to eliminate errors in the near future

3. Human errors are now considered as being inevitable 4. Human errors can be avoided. All it takes is to be vigilant and to extend one's knowledge

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Question 171 of 354


Number: 1736 Question: Which of the following statements concerning communication is valid? 1. Professional communication means: using a restricted and specific language that is tailored to

minimise misunderstandings. 2. Communication must take priority over any other flight activity under all circumstances 3. Word order is of little importance to its success. Only the words uttered are important. 4. Professional communication means to exchange information as little as possible.

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Question 172 of 354


Number: 1737 Question: Which of the following statements is true? 1. Stress should always be avoided under any circumstances. 2. People are capable of living without stress.

3. Stressors accumulate thus increasing the likelihood of exhaustion. 4. Stressors are independent from each other.

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Question 173 of 354


Number: 1739 Question: In case of in-flight stress, one should: 1. only trust in oneself; being sure to know the own limits

2. use all available resources of the crew 3. always carry out a breathing exercise 4. demonstrate aggressiveness to stimulate the crew

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Question 174 of 354


Number: 1740 Question: The behavioural effects of stress may include: -1: manifestation of aggressiveness. -2: a willingness to improve communication. -3: a willingness for group cohesion. -4: a tendency to withdrawal. The combination of correct statements is: 1. 2,3 and 4 are correct

2. 1 and 4 are correct 3. 1,2 and 3 are correct 4. 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 175 of 354


Number: 1741 Question: The cognitive effects of stress may include: -1: excessive haste. -2: an improvement in memory. 3: a complete block: action is impossible. -4: a risk of focusing on a particular aspect. -5: ease of decisionmaking. -6: an increase in the rate of mistakes 1. 1,2,5

2. 1,3,4,6 3. 3,4,5 4. 2,3,5,6

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Question 176 of 354


Number: 1742 Question: What is the effect of stress on performance ? -1: It always reduces performance. -2: Optimum performance is obtained with optimum arousal. -3: Excessive stress weakens performance. -4: Insufficient stress weakens performance. The combination of correct statements is: 1. 1,3,4 2. 1,2,4 3. 1,2,3

4. 2,3,4

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Question 177 of 354


Number: 1743 Question: What are the characteristics of the alarm phase of the stress reactions? -1: increased arousal level as a result of adrenaline secretion. -2: an increase in heart rate, respiration and release of glucose. -3: a decrease in stress resistance. -4: activation of the digestive system. -5: secretion of cortisol to mobilize attention. The combination of correct statements is: 1. 1,3,5

2. 1,2,3 3. 2,4,5 4. 1,2

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Question 178 of 354


Number: 1745 Question: 'To avoid wrong decisions by the pilot, an aircraft system should at least be able to 1. correct the deviation 2. tolerate the deviation

3. report its malfunction 4. report the deviation

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Question 179 of 354


Number: 1746 Question: When can a system be said to be tolerant to error? When:

1. 2. 3. 4.

the consequences of an error will not seriously jeopardise safety latent errors do not entail serious consequences for safety its safety system is too permeable to error its safety system has taken account of all statistically probable errors

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Question 180 of 354


Number: 1748 Question: Why must flight safety considerations consider the human error mechanism? -1: It is analysis of an incident or accident which will make it possible to identify what error has been committed and by whom. It is the process whereby the perpetrator is made responsible which may lead to elimination of the error. -2: If we have a better understanding of the cognitive error mechanism, it will be possible to adapt procedures, aircraft interfaces, etc. -3: It is error management procedure which enables us to continuously adjust our actions. The better we understand the underlying mechanism of an error, the better will be our means for detecting and reducing future errors. -4: Since error is essentially human, once it has been identified by the use of procedures, a person will be able to anticipate and deal with it automatically in the future. The correct statement(s) is (are): 1. 3 and 4

2. 2 and 3 3. 1 and 4 4. 2 and 4

Question 181 of 354


Number: 1807 Question: The first stage in the information process is 1. perception

2. sensory stimulation 3. the recognition of information 4. selective attention

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Question 182 of 354


Number: 1809 Question: Information stays in the short-term memory 1. less than 1 second 2. around 24 hours

3. about 20 seconds 4. from 5 to 10 minutes

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Question 183 of 354


Number: 1825 Question: Attitudes are defined as: 1. the genetic predispositions for thinking and acting 2. a synonym for behaviour 3. the conditions necessary for carrying out an activity

4. tendencies to respond to people, things or events in a particular manner

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Question 184 of 354


Number: 1826 Question: Within communication, what element suggests that a message has been received and understood ? 1. Synchronization. 2. Coding. 3. Encoding.

4. Feedback.

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Question 185 of 354


Number: 1827 Question: The process of responding to a sender by confirming the reception of a message is called 1. redundancy 2. transference

3. feedback 4. synchronization

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Question 186 of 354


Number: 1832 Question: Motor programmes are: 1. stored routines that enable patterns of behaviour to be executed only under continuous conscious control 2. rules that enable us to deal with preconceived situations 3. rules that enable us to deal with novel situations 4. stored routines that enable patterns of behaviour to be executed without continuous conscious

control

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Question 187 of 354


Number: 1833 Question: Working memory enables us, for example,

1. 2. 3. 4.

to remember a clearance long enough to write it down to ignore messages for other aircraft to remember our own name to store a large amount of visual information for about 0.5 seconds

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Question 188 of 354


Number: 1834 Question: The relationship between arousal and flying performance is 1. approximately sinusoidal 2. approximately exponential

3. approximately the form of an inverted U 4. approximately linear increasing

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Question 189 of 354


Number: 1835 Question: In a complex task high levels of arousal 1. reduce failures 2. lead to better decision-making 3. improve performance

4. narrow the span of attention

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Question 190 of 354


Number: 1836 Question: In the short-term-memory, information is stored for approximately 1. 5 minutes 2. a couple of days 3. 1 hour

4. 20 seconds

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Question 191 of 354


Number: 1837 Question: The 'cocktail party effect' is 1. the tendency not to perceive relevant information

2. the ability to pick up relevant information unintentionally 3. the tendency to believe information that reinforces our mental model of the world 4. the ability to drink too much at social gathering

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Question 192 of 354


Number: 1838 Question: Once a pilot has constructed a mental model he/she tends to: 1. alter that model unnecessarily frequently 2. give undue weight to information that contradicts the model

3. give undue weight to information that confirms the model 4. give equal weight to contradicting and confirming information

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Question 193 of 354


Number: 1839 Question: Very high ambition and need for achievement 1. improves the coping process with personal failures 2. always promote teamwork

3. disturb the climate of cooperation 4. fulfil the requirements of stress resistance

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Question 194 of 354


Number: 1840 Question: Our mental model of the world is based

1. 2. 3. 4.

on both our past experiences and the sensory information we receive entirely on past experiences on both our past experiences and our motor programmes entirely on the sensory information we receive

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Question 195 of 354


Number: 1841 Question: Which of the following tasks are possible to do simultaneously without mutual interference? 1. Talk and rehearse a frequency in working memory. 2. Listen attentively and solve a problem. 3. Read and listen attentively.

4. Maintain manual straight and level flight and solve a problem.

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Question 196 of 354


Number: 1844 Question: A copilot has passed an upgrading course to become a captain. Which psychological consequence is most likely?

1. His/her self-concept is going to change because of new roles and tasks which have to be incorporated.

2. An upgrading never has psychological consequences. 3. His/her self -concept is going to be stabilized because of the higher status as a captain. 4. The increased command authority leads to a higher professionalism.

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Question 197 of 354


Number: 1846 Question: Cognitive and physical rehearsal of actions during training:

1. 2. 3. 4.

It is most important for the acquisition of complex perceptual motor skills is more effective than practical training leads to an increased error rate It is most important for selfcontrol

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Question 198 of 354


Number: 1847 Question: What can a pilot do to avoid automation complacency? 1. Always fly the whole flight manually to remain in man-machine loop 2. Regard the automatic system as additional crew members that needs to be crosschecked as well

3. Nothing, because it is system-inherent 4. Always try to enhance your aviation related knowledge during low workload periods

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Question 199 of 354


Number: 1848 Question: How can the process of learning be enhanced? 1. By reinforcing errors 2. By punishing the learner for unsuccessful trials 3. By increasing the psychological pressure on the student

4. By reinforcing successful performance

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Question 200 of 354


Number: 1850 Question: Mental rehearsal is helpful to improve flying skills 1. only at a certain level of flying experience

2. at all levels of flying proficiency 3. only for instructor pilots 4. only for student pilots

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Question 201 of 354


Number: 1852 Question: What is meant by the term 'complacency'? 1. An agreement between captain and co-pilot due to Crew Resources Management 2. To question possible solutions 3. Physiological effects on pilots because of fear of flying

4. Unjustified self-confidence

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Question 202 of 354


Number: 1854 Question: 'Environmental capture' is a term used to describe which of the following statements? 1.The tendency for a skill to be executed in an environment in which it is frequently exercised, even if it is inappropriate to do so 2.The tendency for a skill acquired in one aircraft type to be executed in a new aircraft type, even if it is inappropriate to do so 3. The tendency for people bo behave in different ways in different social situations 4. The gaining of environmental skills 1. 1, 2 and 3 are correct 2. 2 and 3 are correct

3. 1 and 2 are correct 4. 4 is correct

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Question 203 of 354


Number: 1855 Question: A high degree of cockpit automation may alter the traditional tasks of the pilots in a way, that 1. it is guaranteed that the crew always maintains situational awareness 2. the crew can pay more attention to solve the problem in an abnormal situation without monitoring the automatic systems 3. the attention of the cockpit crew will become reduced with the consequence of 'being out of the loop'

4. Crew Coordination can be neglected on long haul flights without compromizing safety

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Question 204 of 354

Number: 1856 Question: It is desirable to standardize as many patterns of behaviour (operating procedures) as possible in commercial aviation mainly because 1. it makes the flight deck easier to design 2. this lowers the ability requirement in pilot selection

3. such behaviour reduces errors even under adverse circumstances 4. this reduces the amount of training required

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Question 205 of 354


Number: 1857 Question: When a pilot is facing a problem during flight he should

1. 2. 3. 4.

take as much time as he needs and is available to make up his mind avoid making up his mind until the very last minute make up his mind before consulting other crew members always make up his mind quickly to give himself as much spare time as possible

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Question 206 of 354


Number: 1858 Question: Decision making in emergency situations requires firstly: 1. speed of reaction

2. delegation of tasks and crew coordination 3. the whole crew to focus on the problem 4. informing ATC thoroughly about the situation

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Question 207 of 354


Number: 1860 Question: The assessment of risk in a particular situation will be based on 1. external factors only

2. subjective perception and evaluation of situational factors 3. situational factors only 4. the emergency checklist only

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Question 208 of 354


Number: 1861

Question: Once a pilot has developed a certain way of thinking about a problem he will probably 1. find it impossible to get out of that way of thinking, whatever happens 2. find it difficult to stick to his/her interpretation of the data 3. find it easy to interpret the data in different ways 4. find it difficult to get out of that way of thinking and difficult to try a different interpretation of the

data

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Question 209 of 354


Number: 1862 Question: To maintain good situational awareness you should: (1) believe only in your own interpretation of the data (2) gather as much data as possible from every possible source before making inferences (3) question whether your hypothesis still fits the situation as events progress and try to make time to review the situation (4) consider ways of testing your situational hypothesis to see whether it is correct 1. 1 and 4 are correct 2. 1 and 3 are correct

3. 2, 3 and 4 are correct 4. all answers are correct

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Question 210 of 354


Number: 1863 Question: Doing a general briefing in the pre-flight phase the captain should emphasize 1. complete delegation of all duties 2. avoidance of inadequate handling of flight controls 3. departure on schedule

4. particular requirements in the field of crew coordination and co-operation

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Question 211 of 354


Number: 1864 Question: During the pre-flight phase in the cockpit the captain notices that his copilot on the one hand is rather inexperienced and insecure but on the other hand highly motivated. Which kind of leadership behaviouris is most appropriate? 1. The captain lets the copilot fly and gives him detailed instructions what to do 2. The captain lets the copilot fly and encourages him to ask for support 3. The captain flies the first leg by himself and explains each action to the copilot in order to keep him informed about his decisions

4. The captain lets the copilot fly and observes his behaviour without any comments

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Question 212 of 354


Number: 1867 Question: Informal roles within a crew

1. 2. 3. 4.

evolve as a result of the interactions that take place among crew members characterize inefficient crews are explicitly set out by the crew will always impair the captain's influence

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Question 213 of 354


Number: 1869 Question: Which behaviour is most likely to promote a constructive solution of interpersonal conflicts? 1. Responding with counter-arguments.

2. Active listening. 3. Giving up the own point of view. 4. Staying to the own point of view.

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Question 214 of 354


Number: 1870 Question: The team spirit of a cockpit-crew depends most likely on both pilots: 1. having the same political and ideological attitude 2. flying together very often for a long period 3. wearing the same uniform

4. respecting each other and striving for the same goals

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Question 215 of 354


Number: 1871 Question: During the cruising phase of a short-haul flight the captain starts to smoke a cigarette in the cockpit. The flying copilot asks him to stop smoking because he is a non-smoker. The captain tells him: 'This is your problem', and continues smoking. What should the co-pilot do? 1. He should not further discuss this issue but should come back to this conflict during the debriefing

2. He should repeat his worries about smoking in the cockpit and should argue with the captain about this problem until the conflict is solved 3. He should bring a cabin crew member in to arbitrate 4. He should learn to accept the captain smoking cigarettes in the cockpit

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Question 216 of 354


Number: 1872 Question: How would you describe the leadership style of a captain who primarily is interested in a friendly atmosphere within his crew, who is always constructive and encouraging, who usually compromises in interpersonal conflicts, who trusts in the capabilities of his crew-members, and who leaves the crew freedom for own decisions? 1. Low task-orientation and low relationship-orientation 2. High task-orientation and low relationship-orientation 3. High task-orientation and high relationship-orientation

4. Low task-orientation and high relationship-orientation

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Question 217 of 354


Number: 1873 Question: If the co-pilot continuously feels unfairly treated by the Captain, he/she should: 1. point out the problem, concentrate on his/her duties and clarify the matter at a more appropriate

time 2. internally retire and think positive 3. speak up and point out the possible consequences if the unfair behaviour pesists 4. freeze the communication and thus avoid immediate confrontation

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Question 218 of 354


Number: 1875 Question: Which statement is correct? 1. Personal conflict that takes place prior to take-off should wait to be addressed until the end of the flight. 2. Inconsistent communication improves flight safety. 3. Problems in the personal relationships between crew members are likely to hamper the

communication process. 4. There is no relation between inadequate communication and incidents or accidents.

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Question 219 of 354


Number: 1876 Question: What is the sender's frequent reason to communicate implicitly ('between the lines')? 1. The receiver grasps quickly what the sender means. 2. He/she has not to adjust to the communication style of the communication partner. 3. There is no need to make up one's mind before starting to communicate.

4. Afterwards he/she always can claim to have been misunderstood.

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Question 220 of 354


Number: 1877 Question: Metacommunication is defined as 1. having an assessment conversation 2. active listening 3. balancing the own ideas and interests with those of the receiver 4. those tools, other than the actual words, which compliment those words in order to communicate

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Question 221 of 354


Number: 1878 Question: Mark the two most important attributes for a positive leadership style: 1. dominant behaviour 2. excellent role-behaviour 3. mastery of communication skills 4. "Laissez-faire" behaviour 1. 2 and 4

2. 2 and 3 3. 1 and 4 4. 1 and 3

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Question 222 of 354


Number: 1880 Question: Nonverbal communication

1. 2. 3. 4.

supports verbal communication is always used intentionally should be avoided by all means in the cockpit is of no meaning in the cockpit

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Question 223 of 354


Number: 1881 Question: How do you understand the statement 'one cannot not communicate'? 1. No meaningful communication can occur unless it is by verbal means. 2. You cannot influence your own communication. 3. Communication is always possible.

4. Being silent as well as inactive are nonverbal behaviour patterns which express a meaning.

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Question 224 of 354


Number: 1883 Question: Discussing private matters in the cockpit

1. 2. 3. 4.

can improve team spirit decreases the captains role of leadership is appropriate in any phase of flight should be avoided by all means in the cockpit

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Question 225 of 354


Number: 1888 Question: The duration of a period of sleep is governed primarily by

1. 2. 3. 4.

the point within your circadian rhythm at which you try to sleep the duration of your previous sleep the number of points you have in your 'credit/deficit' system the amount of time you have been awake

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Question 226 of 354


Number: 1889 Question: A selective attentional mechanism is required

1. 2. 3. 4.

because of the limited capacity of the central decision maker and working memory because the capacity of the long term memory is limited because of limitations in our store of motor programmes because of the limitations of the sense organs

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Question 227 of 354


Number: 3990 Question: The effects of sleep deprivation on performance: 1. increase with altitude 2. decrease with altitude 3. increase with higher workload 4. decrease with higher workload Which of the following lists all the correct statements ? 1. 1,2 and 3 are correct 2. 2, 3 and 4 are correct

3. 1 and 3 are correct 4. 1, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 228 of 354


Number: 3995 Question: A stress reaction is: 1. the specific stimuli causing a human body to respond 2. the non-specific stimuli causing a human body to respond 3. the specific response of the body to demands placed on a person

4. the non-specific response of the body to demands placed on a person

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Question 229 of 354


Number: 3996 Question: A person being exposed to extreme or prolonged stress factors can perceive: 1. stressors 2. eustress

3. distress 4. coping stress

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Question 230 of 354


Number: 3997 Question: Which of the following list may stress effect? 1. Attention 2. Concentration 3. Memory 4. Judgment

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 2, 3 and 4 are correct 1 and 3 are correct 1 and 2 are correct

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Question 231 of 354


Number: 3998 Question: The biological reaction to stress is identical regardless of the cause of stress. This mechanism occurs in three phases and is referred to, by Selye, as the "General Adaptation Syndrome". The sequence is: 1. exhaustion phase - resistance phase - adaptation phase 2. resistance phase - exhaustion phase - recovery phase

3. alarm phase - denial phase - exhaustion phase

4. alarm phase - resistance phase - exhaustion phase

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Question 232 of 354


Number: 3999 Question: According to the different phases of the "General Adaptation Syndrome" which of the following statement/s is/are correct? 1. During the alarm phase stress hormones (i.e. adrenalin) will cause a massive release of glucose into the blood, an acceleration of pulse and blood pressure as well as an increase in the rate and depth of breathing 2. During the resistance phase the parasympathetic system uses a different type of hormone (cortisol) assisting for the conversion of fat into sugar. 3. During the exhaustion phase the body has to be given time to eliminate the waste products which have been generated excessively during the two preceding phases.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2 and 3 are correct 2 and 3 are correct, 1 is false only 1 is correct 1 and 2 are correct, 3 is false

Question 233 of 354


Number: 4000 Question: If coping with a stress situation is impossible, one will remain in the state of: 1. hypoxia 2. eustress

3. distress 4. adaptation

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Question 234 of 354


Number: 4001 Question: Which of the following statements concerning stress are true ? 1. Adaptation is a new state of equilibrium after having coped with a stressful situation. 2. An individual's anticipation of the situation and his/her perceived abilities to cope with it will determine the type and strength of stress. 1. 1 is true, 2 is false 2. 1 is false, 2 is true 3. 1 and 2 are both false

4. 1 and 2 are both true

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Question 235 of 354


Number: 4003 Question: The level at which a pilot will experience a situation as stressful

1. depends on self-confidence alone 2. depends on the individual's perception of available abilities in comparison to the perceived demands

3. does not depend on his capacity to absorb information 4. depends on the level of demand but not on individual interpretation of the situational demands

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Question 236 of 354


Number: 4004 Question: An identical situation can be experienced by one pilot as exciting in a positive sense and by another pilot as threatening. In both cases: 1. the pilot feeling threatened, will be much more relaxed, than the pilot looking forward to what may happen

2. the arousal level of both pilots will be raised 3. both pilots will experience the same amount of stress 4. both pilots will loose their motor-coordination

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Question 237 of 354


Number: 4005 Question: Which of the following statements is correct? 1. Psychosomatic means that mental and/or emotional stressors can be manifested in physical reactions. 2. Psychosomatic means that a physical problem is always followed by psychological stress. 1. 1 and 2 are both false 2. 1 is false, 2 is correct

3. 1 is correct, 2 is false 4. 1 and 2 are both correct

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Question 238 of 354


Number: 4007 Question: Whilst flying a coordinated turn, most of your activity is 1. knowledge based behaviour 2. rule based behaviour 3. coping behaviour

4. skill based behaviour

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Question 239 of 354

Number: 4009 Question: The choice of the moment you select flaps depending on situation and conditions of the landing is: 1. always automated behaviour

2. skill and/or rule based behaviour 3. pressure based behaviour 4. knowledge based behaviour

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Question 240 of 354


Number: 4010 Question: The ability to monitor information which could indicate the development of a critical situation

1. 2. 3. 4.

is necessary to maintain good situational awareness is responsible for the development of inadequate mental models of the real world is dangerous, because it distracts attention from flying the aircraft makes no sense because the human information processing system is limited anyway

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Question 241 of 354


Number: 4011 Question: Which of the following statements are correct? 1. The first information received determines how subsequent information will be evaluated. 2. If one has made up one's mind, contradictory information may not get the attention it really needs. 3. With increasing stress, attention is limited thereby reducing the flow of information to the central decision maker. 1. 1and 3 are correct 2. 2 and 3 are correct 3. 1 and 2 are correct

4. 1, 2 and 3 are correct

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Question 242 of 354


Number: 4012 Question: In an abnormal situation the pilot has an apparently correct explanation for the problem. The chance that he/she now ignores or devalues other relevant information, not fitting into his/her mental picture is: 1. very rare 2. not possible since correct training should have eliminated this problem 3. not applicable with old and experienced pilots

4. not unusual

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Question 243 of 354


Number: 4013 Question: Which of the following statements are correct? 1. Interesting information is easier to take into consideration for creating a mental picture than boring information. 2.The sequence in which information is presented is also important for the use the pilot makes of it. 1. 1 is not correct, 2 is correct

2. 1 and 2 are both correct 3. 1 and 2 are both not correct 4. 1 is correct, 2 is not correct

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Question 244 of 354


Number: 3743 Question: The main limitation of the long-term memory is: 1. the quantity of data which may be stored 2. the data storage time

3. unless information is accessed from time to time, retrieval of information can be difficult 4. if enough information is entered at the same time, saturation may take place

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Question 245 of 354


Number: 3744 Question: What are the main limits of short-term memory ? It is: -1: very sensitive to interruptions and interference -2: difficult to access -3: limited in size -4: information is lost within approximately 20 seconds unless it is actively or deliberately placed into the long term memory. 1. 1,2 ,3

2. 1,3 ,4 3. 2,4 4. 2 ,3

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Question 246 of 354


Number: 3746 Question: Action plans (SOP's) in a cockpit must: 1. be tailored to the individual pilot's needs in order to facilitate the normal operation of the aircraft 2. be shared by the members of the crew and updated at each modification in order to maintain

maximum synergy 3. only follow the manufacturers proposals and not reflect individual operators cockpit philosophies

4. only be tailored to the type of aircraft, regardless of current MCC procedures

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Question 247 of 354


Number: 3747 Question: Workload essentially depends on: 1. the task and the day's parameters (weather report, aircraft load, type of flight, etc) 2. the pilot's knowledge 3. the pilot's experience and the ergonomics of the system

4. the current situation, the pilot's expertise and the ergonomics of the system

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Question 248 of 354


Number: 3749 Question: Man possesses a system for maintaining his internal equilibrium in the face of variations brought about by external stimulations. This internal equilibrium is called: 1. Heterostasis 2. Isothermy 3. Metastasis

4. Homeostasis

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Question 249 of 354


Number: 3750 Question: Stress is: 1. a phenomenon which is specific to modern man 2. a mechanism by which an individual can respond to situations which he/she may have to face

3. a response by man to his problems, which automatically leads to a reduction in his performance 4. a psychosomatic disease that one can learn to control

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Question 250 of 354


Number: 3753 Question: The individual's perception of stress depends on: 1. the pilot's increasing level of arousal 2. the conditions of the current situation only 3. the objective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it

4. the subjective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it

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Question 251 of 354


Number: 3755 Question: General Adaptation Syndrome is characterised by the following phases: -1: alarm -2: alert phase 3: resistance phase -4: exhaustion phase -5: vigilance phase 1. 2,3,4,5

2. 1,3,4 3. 2,3,4 4. 1,2,4,5

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Question 252 of 354


Number: 3757 Question: The following course of action should be taken if gastrointestinal complaints in flight crew occur before to take-off: -1: take the standard medicines and advise the doctor on returning from the flight -2: assess your own ability to fly, if necessary with the help of a doctor -3: if in doubt about fitness to fly - do not fly! -4: reduce the cabin temperature, and drink before you are thirsty so as to avoid dehydration 1. 1,2,4 2. 1,3

3. 2,3 4. 1,4

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Question 253 of 354


Number: 3759 Question: In the absence of external reference points, the sensation that the vehicle in which you sitting is moving when it is in fact the vehicle directly alongside which is moving is called: 1. autokinetic illusion 2. cognitive illusion 3. somato-gravic illusion

4. illusion of relative movement

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Question 254 of 354


Number: 3783 Question: Safety is often improved by applying the principles of CRM, e.g.: 1. the avoidance of any conflict in order to preserve the crew's synergy 2. abstention from any suggestion which might be untimely 3. unquestioned obedience to all the Captain's decisions

4. expression of doubts or of a different opinion

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Question 255 of 354


Number: 3784 Question: An efficient flight deck (synergetic cockpit) will be observed when: 1. decisions do not need to be discussed because of a common synergy between the crew members

2. decisions are taken by the Captain with the help and participation of the other crew members 3. the plan of action is defined by the Captain because of his experience level 4. the Captain delegates the decision making process to other crew members

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Question 256 of 354


Number: 3785 Question: A non synergistic cockpit: 1. is characterised by a highly efficient crew, communicating appropriately with the outside 2. is not very dangerous as each person checks everything personally

3. is characterised by withdrawn crewmembers and unclear communication 4. always results from an over-relaxed atmosphere

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Question 257 of 354


Number: 3787 Question: CRM (Crew Resource Management) training is: 1. is mainly of relevance to pilots with personality disorders or inappropriate attitudes 2. intended solely to alter an individual's personality; 3. intended to develop effectiveness of crew performance by improving attitudes towards flight safety and

human relationship management 4. not intended to change the individual's attitude at all

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Question 258 of 354


Number: 3788 Question: The confirmation bias of decision making is 1. a tendency to agree with the decision made by the group

2. a tendency to ignore that information which indicates that a hypothesis or decision is poor; 3. a tendency not to look for information which would reassure oneself about a decision 4. a tendency not to seek for information which confirms a judgement

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Question 259 of 354


Number: 3799 Question: Which of the following characteristics apply to short-term memory ? - 1 : It is limited in time and size - 2 : It is unlimited in time and limited in size - 3 : It is stable and insensitive to disturbances - 4 : It is limited in time and unlimited in size 1. 3,4 2. 1,3 3. 2,3

4. 1

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Question 260 of 354


Number: 3800 Question: With regard to short-term memory, we can say that: 1. it holds information for immediate use, and is limited in terms of the time for which it retains data but not in its storage capacity 2. it is a stable form of working memory, and thus not very sensitive to any disturbance 3. it stores mainly procedural knowledge (skills) 4. it is made up of everyday information for immediate use, and is limited in its capacity for storing and

retaining data

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Question 261 of 354


Number: 3805 Question: Which of the following statements about long-term memory are correct? -1: Information is stored in the Semantic, Episodic and Procedural memories. -2: The period of time for which information is retained is limited by the frequency with which this same information is used. -3: It processes information quickly and has an effective mode of access in real time. -4: Ease and speed of access is dependent upon, to a large extent, the frequency with which the information is recalled. 1. 2 and 4 are correct

2. 1 and 4 are correct 3. 1 and 2 are correct 4. 2, 3 and 4 are correct

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Question 262 of 354


Number: 11047 Question: A pilot experiences difficulties in the control of his aircraft and consequently omits to monitor the fuel level. This is caused by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

a lack of attention due to distraction both a lack of attention and a lack of alertness This pilot manages his/her attention well. hypovigilance

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Question 263 of 354


Number: 11050 Question: Decisions made by pilots in a cockpit: 1. are automatic when pilots are experts 2. are always irreversible 3. should always be made as quickly as possible

4. remain valid for a limited time only

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Question 264 of 354


Number: 11051 Question: Environmental sources of stress in the cockpit could be: 1. noise and vibration 2. acceleration 3. radiation 4. extreme temperatures Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 1 and 4

2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 3. 2 and 3 4. 1, 2 and 3

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Question 265 of 354


Number: 11058 Question: Organisational factors which affect or may have some influence on human error are: 1. malfunction of technical systems. 2. fuel-saving policies. 3. rostering. 4. weather phenomena. Which of the following lists all the correct answers? 1. 1 and 2 2. 3 and 4

3. 2 and 3 4. 1 and 4

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Question 266 of 354


Number: 11059 Question: The autocratic leadership style is synonymous with:

1. 2. 3. 4.

an authoritarian style a democratic style a "laissez-faire" style an anarchic style

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Question 267 of 354


Number: 11060 Question: The causes of human error can be abundant and complex. Which of the following factors could contribute to human error? 1. Personality. 2. Motivation and attitudes. 3. Emotional state. 4. External environmental factors. Which of the following lists all of the correct factors ? 1. 2 and 3

2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 3. 2, 3 and 4 4. 1, 2 and 3

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Question 268 of 354


Number: 11069 Question: Waiting for takeoff on the runway, a pilot is informed by the tower that the tail wind component is 12 kt. According to the manual, the limitation is 10 kt max. The pilot makes a decision to take-off anyway, as the runway is long. 1. This is a decision error. 2. This is an error of reasoning. 3. This is neither an error or a violation - the pilot is using his initiative.

4. This is a violation.

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Question 269 of 354


Number: 12419 Question: With regard to short-term memory, we can say that: 1. it holds information for immediate use, and is limited in terms of the time for which it retains data but not in its storage capacity 2. it stores mainly procedural knowledge (skills) 3. it holds information for immediate use, and is limited in its capacity for storing and retaining data

4. it is a stable form of working memory, and thus not very sensitive to any disturbance

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Question 270 of 354


Number: 12421

Question: Which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. REM-sleep becomes shorter with any repeated sleep cycle during the night. 2. REM-sleep is more important for the regeneration of mental functions than all the other sleep stages are.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 is false, 2 is correct 1 is correct, 2 is false 1 and 2 are false 1 and 2 are both correct

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Question 271 of 354


Number: 12422 Question: Which of the following statements is false? 1. Behaviour is generally the outcome of personality and attitude. 2. The initial effects of carbon monoxide poisoning are not immediately alarming. 3. Stress has essentially negative effects and the human will operate efficiently with an absence of stress.

4. Human conflict tends to escalate.

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Question 272 of 354


Number: 12430 Question: Which of the following statements best fits the definition of an active error? Active error is: 1. rare in front-line actions and difficult to detect owing to the fact that it usually occurs in a complex system of uncontrolled and involuntary deviations 2. essentially results from the application of a bad rule or the poor application of a good rule by aeroplane designers

3. produced by the operator and can be rapidly detected 4. produced either by a front-line operator or by a remote operator and results in a hidden or latent consequence at a specific moment of the action

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Question 273 of 354


Number: 12434 Question: Which of the following list are symptoms of fatigue? 1. Diminished accommodation 2. Slowed reactions 3. Long-term memory access problems 4. Being over-talkative 5. Diminished motor skills 1. 1, 2 & 4

2. 1, 2, 3 & 5 3. 2 & 5 only 4. All of the above

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Question 274 of 354


Number: 12436 Question: Which of the following statements fits best the concept of latent error? 1. Latent errors are mainly associated with the behaviour of front-line operators and are only detected after advanced problem-solving 2. Latent errors are rarely made by front-line operators, and are consequently readily identified and detected by the monitoring, detection and warning links 3. Latent errors are detected rapidly 4. Latent errors may have been present in the system for a certain length of time and are difficult to

identify as a result of the time lag between the generation and the occurrence of the error

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Question 275 of 354


Number: 12442 Question: What are the main advantages that the human possesses over those of a machine in the decision making process? 1. The ability to analyse and compare.

2. Creativity, innovation and adaptability. 3. The ability to reach the most advantageous option from a number of choices. 4. The ability to analyse and memorise.

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Question 276 of 354


Number: 12444 Question: We generate Mental Models on:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Past experience and learning 3-D vision Stereopsis Imagination

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Question 277 of 354


Number: 12445 Question: What are two types of attention ? 1. Cognitive and intuitive 2. Divided and behavioural

3. Selective and divided 4. Intuitive and behavioural

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Question 278 of 354


Number: 12452 Question: The use of professional languages offers: 1. better communication even if professionals are not from the same field

2. quick comprehension and simplified grammar 3. longer attention span 4. more precise grammar

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Question 279 of 354


Number: 12453 Question: The use of check lists should be carried out in such a way that: 1. they should only be carried out when time is available

2. their execution should not be done simultaneously with other actions 3. their execution may be done simultaneously with other actions 4. their execution should be combined with other important tasks

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Question 280 of 354


Number: 12454 Question: The unique organisation of characteristics which determine the typical or standard behaviour of an individual is known as:

1. 2. 3. 4.

personality heredity learning development

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Question 281 of 354


Number: 12461 Question: What optimises crew co-operation ? 1. Sharing and common task 2. Confidence in each others capability 3. Precise definition of functions associated with each crew members role 1. 2, 3

2. 1, 2, 3 3. 1 only 4. 1, 2

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Question 282 of 354


Number: 12464

Question: What is the main adverse effect of expectation with regards to perception? 1. Expectations always lead to routine errors 2. The attention area is enlarged by expectation, however it will therefore lead to uncertainties when a pilot is looking for a decision 3. Expectation often guides the focus of attention towards a particular aspect, while possible alternates are

neglected 4. Expectation is a tool that allows capture of all relevant information

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Question 283 of 354


Number: 12465 Question: What are the most frequent results of an self-centred captain on the flight deck ? 1. Performance is very poor as self-centred behaviour leads to an increase of cooperation and efficiency 2. In a two-pilot flight deck, the co-pilot is ignored and may react by disengaging, showing delayed

responses or aggression 3. A major risk of authority inversion if the co-pilot is unassertive 4. High group performance despite the strained relations

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Question 284 of 354


Number: 12466 Question: What is the current approach to human error? 1. Realisation that humans are infallible and that systems and procedures should be brought into line to prevent system/procedural errors. 2. Realisation that humans are fallible and that systems and procedures should be brought into line to prevent system, latent and procedural errors. 3. Realisation that humans are infallible and that systems/procedures should be designed to minimise human error. 4. Realisation that humans are fallible and that systems and procedures should be designed to minimise

human error.

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Question 285 of 354


Number: 12467 Question: The three types of Authority Gradient Cockpits are: 1. Authoritative, Laissez-Faire and Synergistic

2. Autocratic, Laissez-Faire and Synergistic 3. Authoritative, Followership and Synergistic 4. Autocratic, Followership and Synergistic

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Question 286 of 354


Number: 12469 Question: What is self-concept? 1. How you would like to see yourself. 2. How you would like to be seen by other people.

3. How you see yourself. 4. How other people see you.

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Question 287 of 354


Number: 12470 Question: What is meant by the term 'complacency'? 1. To question possible solutions 2. An agreement between captain and co-pilot due to Crew Resources Management 3. Physiological effects on pilots because of fear of flying

4. Unjustified self-confidence

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Question 288 of 354


Number: 12473 Question: What is "divided attention"?

1. 2. 3. 4.

The management of several matters of interest dealt with individually one after the other The adverse effect of motivation which leads to one's attention being dispersed Difficulty of concentrating on a particular objective Ease of concentrating on a particular objective

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Question 289 of 354


Number: 12477 Question: Internal conflict within oneself is termed as: 1. Intermediate-personal conflict 2. Intro-personal conflict 3. Inter-personal conflict

4. Intra-personal conflict

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Question 290 of 354


Number: 12478 Question: In his/her behaviour, the "ideal professional pilot" is: 1. "person" rather than "goal" oriented

2. "goal" rather than "person" oriented

3. both "person" and "goal" oriented 4. neither "person" nor "goal" oriented

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Question 291 of 354


Number: 12479 Question: Mode Error is associated with: 1. Vertigo

2. Automation 3. Check lists 4. Hardware

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Question 292 of 354


Number: 12485 Question: Phobic states or obsessional disorders will: 1. require immediate termination of all flying duties 2. result in the loss of a Class I medical classification after successful treatment 3. always result in permanent loss of a flying licence

4. may require successful treatment before flying may be permitted

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Question 293 of 354


Number: 12489 Question: Information received from the senses is lost: 1. if an additional action takes place (e.g.: pulling a circuit breaker or extinguishing a warning light). 2. within 10 - 20 seconds unless it is rehearsed and deliberately placed in the Long Term Memory.

3. only if you suffer from brain damage or disease. 4. if you choose to store the information in one of the sensory memories (e.g. Iconic or Echoic memories).

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Question 294 of 354


Number: 12491 Question: In the decision-making process, confirmation bias results in: 1. choosing familiar solutions, even if they are not the best ones 2. a tendency to look for approval by other crew-members, or by the ATC 3. overestimating the frequency of some events

4. a tendency to look for information which confirms the validity of the decision

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Question 295 of 354


Number: 12494 Question: In order to make sound decisions it is important to: 1. accept that the Captain, because of his/her authority, tends to be correct.

2. understand why and how we make decisions. 3. avoid situational awareness. 4. keep a low level of stress by excluding non-verbal communication.

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Question 296 of 354


Number: 12495 Question: Stress may cause Regression which can lead to:

1. 2. 3. 4.

correct actions being forgotten and substituted for procedures learnt in the past. an improvement in performance. experimentation and trying out of new ideas. a more efficient use of mental capacity.

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Question 297 of 354


Number: 12496 Question: It is generally considered that the most serious non-professional stressor is:

1. 2. 3. 4.

death of a spouse or partner. marital separation. loss of a job. personal injury or illness.

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Question 298 of 354


Number: 12320 Question: The first cockpit tool that tends to suffer as a result of stress: 1. Cockpit synergy 2. Cockpit cohesion 3. Cockpit entity

4. Cockpit communications

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Question 299 of 354


Number: 12322 Question: The expression "when perception matches reality" describes: 1. Alertness 2. Attention

3. Situational Awareness 4. Vigilance

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Question 300 of 354


Number: 12325 Question: The errors of a motor programme are: 1. Habituation and Error of Commission

2. Action Slip and Environmental Capture (Habituation) 3. Confirmation error and Error of Commission 4. Action Slip and Confirmation Bias

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Question 301 of 354


Number: 12329 Question: The confirmation bias of decision making is 1. a tendency not to look for information which would reassure oneself about a decision 2. a tendency to agree with the decision made by the group 3. a tendency not to seek for information which confirms a judgement

4. a tendency to ignore that information which indicates that a hypothesis or decision is poor;

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Question 302 of 354


Number: 12330 Question: The Cocktail Party Effect is associated with: 1. communications. 2. adaption.

3. attention mechanisms. 4. cohesion.

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Question 303 of 354


Number: 12346 Question: The lowest level of Maslow's Model of the hierarchy of Human Needs is:

1. belonging and affection needs. 2. self-esteem needs. 3. safety and security needs.

4. physiological needs.

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Question 304 of 354


Number: 12347 Question: The General Adaption Syndrome is associated with the: 1. PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) 2. CNS (Central Nervous System) 3. NIHL (Noise Induced Hearing Loss)

4. ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)

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Question 305 of 354


Number: 12348 Question: The long term memory is influenced by:

1. 2. 3. 4.

experience, repetition, suggestion, desires and expectations. short term memory and intelligence only. short term memory only. the time of the day, gender, intelligence and blood pressure.

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Question 306 of 354


Number: 12349 Question: The individual's perception of stress depends on: 1. the conditions of the current situation only 2. the objective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it 3. the pilot's increasing level of arousal

4. the subjective evaluation of the situation and one's abilities to cope with it

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Question 307 of 354


Number: 12350 Question: The choice of words and their packaging become more important in the cockpit of an aircraft because: 1. Loss of situational awareness 2. Loss of perception

3. Loss of body language 4. Loss of hypertext

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Question 308 of 354


Number: 12351 Question: The choice of the moment you select flaps depending on situation and conditions of the landing is: 1. always automated behaviour

2. skill and/or rule based behaviour 3. pressure based behaviour 4. knowledge based behaviour

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Question 309 of 354


Number: 12357 Question: Contrary to a person's personality, attitudes: 1. Are the product of personal disposition and past experience with reference to an object or a situation

2. are essentially driving forces behind changes in personality 3. are non-evolutive adaptation procedures regardless of the result of the actions associated with them 4. form part of personality and, as a result, cannot be changed in an adult

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Question 310 of 354


Number: 12359 Question: During the cruise, at night, when the workload is low, it is recommended that: 1. the lighting in the cockpit be dimmed in order to prevent low vigilance 2. only those instruments that are vital to flying the aircraft be lit in order to avoid dividing one's attention 3. the lighting in the cockpit be dimmed in order to reduce visual fatigue

4. the lighting in the cockpit be increased in order to prevent low vigilance

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Question 311 of 354


Number: 12360 Question: Doing a general briefing in the pre-flight phase the captain should emphasize 1. complete delegation of all duties 2. departure on schedule 3. avoidance of inadequate handling of flight controls

4. particular requirements in the field of crew coordination and co-operation

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Question 312 of 354


Number: 12361 Question: Does noise (above 90 dbs) improve performance? 1. Depends upon the awareness of the individual. 2. Sometimes. 3. Yes.

4. Never.

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Question 313 of 354


Number: 12362 Question: Differences of opinion should be regarded as .................... 1. Confrontational

2. Helpful 3. Stressful 4. Having negative influence on the group and are not to be encouraged

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Question 314 of 354


Number: 12365 Question: Ergonomics are associated with: 1. communications 2. information processing

3. the human/workplace interface 4. cognition

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Question 315 of 354


Number: 12366 Question: CRM and MCC training are designed to improve: 1. Individual efficiency and contribution 2. Individual achievement 3. The quality and a number of individuals' performance

4. The quality of crew performance

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Question 316 of 354


Number: 12368 Question: With too much cohesion, Groupthink can be: 1. positive and far-reaching

2. negative 3. positive 4. popular and positive

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Question 317 of 354


Number: 12369 Question: Communication efficiency is most sensitive to: 1. Packaging of sentences

2. Workload and interruptions 3. Packaging of phrases 4. Packaging of words

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Question 318 of 354


Number: 12371 Question: Cognitive Coping is associated with: 1. eliminating the source of the stressor.

2. ignoring or rationalising the stress factor. 3. taking medicine to relieve the effects of stress. 4. a deliberate removal of the stressor.

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Question 319 of 354


Number: 12376 Question: Decision-making results in: 1. a choice always based on the experience of the Pilot in Command 2. a totally objective choice between options to achieve a goal proposed by the Pilot in Command 3. a subjective choice between options to achieve a goal

4. a choice between different options to achieve a goal

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Question 320 of 354


Number: 12377 Question: The behaviour of a leader depends on:

1. only his/her ability to dominate and be assertive.

2. the situation, the goals and composition of the group. 3. the authority gradient only. 4. his/her ability to prevent discussions among the crew members in order to avoid conflict.

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Question 321 of 354


Number: 12378 Question: The two types of fatigue are: 1. Short-term and oppressive

2. Chronic short-term and acute 3. Heavy and light 4. Oppressive and negative

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Question 322 of 354


Number: 12379 Question: Which statement is correct? 1. Personal conflict that takes place prior to take-off should wait to be addressed until the end of the flight. 2. Inconsistent communication improves flight safety. 3. Problems in the personal relationships between crew members are likely to hamper the communication

process. 4. There is no relation between inadequate communication and incidents or accidents.

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Question 323 of 354


Number: 12381 Question: Which statement about acute or chronic fatigue is INCORRECT?

1. Acute fatigue generally has psychological roots. 2. Chronic fatigue may lead to a person being totally apathetic and indifferent to what goes on around them. 3. Acute fatigue is felt after a period of significant exertion or emotional excitement. 4. Chronic fatigue may be caused by inadequate recuperation from periods of acute fatigue.

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Question 324 of 354


Number: 12387 Question: While flying VFR "wings level" on top of clouds at 10000 feet, your artificial horizon indicates a 20 degree bank. 1. You pull the circuit breaker to the artificial horizon knowing that perceptional illusions called "leans" might severely impair your control of the aircraft.

2. You trust the instrument and level off according to the instrument read-out. 3. No attitude correction is needed since you know that your vision is more reliable than the instrument with regards to spatial orientation. 4. You take the proper action by "leaning" toward the lower end of the artificial horizon, thus compensating for the perceptional illusion.

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Question 325 of 354


Number: 12396 Question: The best method to avoid Confirmation Bias is to: 1. Deliberately confirm that the receiver has understood the information that has been passed to him/her 2. Double-check that you have not fitted the ground over which you are passing to your map 3. Precise and careful pre-flight briefings

4. Search for information that will falsify the hypothesis

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Question 326 of 354


Number: 12398 Question: When can the General Adaption Syndrome activate? 1. Responding to Hypovigilance.

2. Responding to an imaginary threat. 3. Responding to boredom. 4. Responding to Circadian Disrhythmia.

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Question 327 of 354


Number: 12399 Question: Which of the following human error rates can be described and pretty good realistic and pretty good, after methodical training

1. 2. 3. 4.

1 in 1000 times 1 in 100 times 1 in 100000 times 1 in 10000 times

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Question 328 of 354


Number: 12400 Question: Which of the following concepts relating to human reliability is true ? 1. Performance is totally independent of motivation.

2. If equipment is designed in such a way that it can be operated wrongly, then sooner or later, it will be.

3. Response to a particular stressful influence does not vary from one person to another. 4. Expectation has no influence on perception.

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Question 329 of 354


Number: 12401 Question: Which of the following are included in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs? 1. Freedom from pain and danger 2. Expressions of capacities and talents 3. Self-esteem needs 4. Self-fulfilment needs 5. Physiological needs 1. all except 2 2. 1, 2 and 4 only

3. all the above 4. 3, 4 and 5 only

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Question 330 of 354


Number: 12402 Question: Which of the following are either cumulative or tend to escalate? 1. Stress Factors (stressors) 2. Errors 3. The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning 4. Human conflict 5. Colour blindness 1. 2, 3 and 5 only 2. 1, 2 and 3 only

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 4. 1 and 2 only

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Question 331 of 354


Number: 12403 Question: Which of the following answers is correct? 1. Personality is the outward result of behaviour and attitude and is not adaptable. 2. Behaviour is the outward result of personality and attitude and is not adaptable. 3. Personality is the outward result of behaviour and attitude and is adaptable.

4. Behaviour is the outward result of personality and attitude and is adaptable.

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Question 332 of 354


Number: 12404 Question: Which is the most likely of the following scenarios which might lead to a conflict between status and role?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Two Training Captains flying together. A Manager interviewing an experienced Captain of an aircraft. A trainee Air Traffic Officer working with a senior ATC Controller. A security officer temporarily standing in for a member of the cabin crew.

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Question 333 of 354


Number: 12405 Question: Which of the following is most likely to be overlooked should a pilot make a rushed decision? 1. the captain's superior knowledge, justified by his/her status 2. the need to take account of every possible result or outcome

3. analysis of the current actual situation and instead applying a decision prepared beforehand 4. The skills of air traffic controllers.

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Question 334 of 354


Number: 12408 Question: Where on the arousal/performance graph is a pilot best placed to cope with a difficult task without performance degrading? 1. At the "breakpoint".

2. Below the "breakpoint". 3. at any point on the graph. 4. Beyond the "breakpoint".

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Question 335 of 354


Number: 12412 Question: When problem-solving, what determines the transition from rule-based activities to knowledgebased activities?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Unsuitability of known rules for the problem posed. Unsuitability of automated actions. There is never a transition from Rule-based and Knowledge-based behaviour. Knowledge of rules that apply for the problem.

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Question 336 of 354


Number: 12415 Question: The team spirit of a cockpit-crew depends most likely on both pilots: 1. flying together very often for a long period 2. having the same political and ideological attitude

3. respecting each other and striving for the same goals 4. wearing the same uniform

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Question 337 of 354


Number: 12241 Question: Personality is based on: 1. Heredity 2. Upbringing 3. Experience 4. Childhood

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct 2, 3 and 4 only are correct None of the listed answers is correct 1, 2 and 4 only are correct

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Question 338 of 354


Number: 12242 Question: Perceptional illusions are: 1. never caused by the brain's ability to distort normal sense inputs. 2. abnormal and indicate weakness in one or more of the senses.

3. normal and can be prevented by trusting instrument read-out. 4. usually not serious except in bad weather.

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Question 339 of 354


Number: 12244 Question: One of the major protective measures against illusions is: 1. wearing of polaroid sun glasses 2. regular eye tests 3. wearing of good quality sun glasses

4. comprehensive briefing and de-briefing

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Question 340 of 354


Number: 12249 Question: Of the following statements regarding stress, which is correct? 1. Stress and anxiety are the same in every sense. 2. Stress always has a negative effect on performance.

3. Stress may be positive, fatigue is always negative. 4. Stress and fatigue are synonymous.

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Question 341 of 354


Number: 12251 Question: Name the commonest problem of the Long Term Memory and how would you counteract it? 1. Any item can be recalled from the LTM with ease as long as it has been stored correctly. 2. Recent events can become muddled in the LTM. Careful attention to detail associated with with "memory bench marking" will go a long way towards avoiding this tendency. 3. Facts can be stored in the episodic memory instead of the semantic memory. Careful attention in learning will counteract this error. 4. Unless an item is recalled regularly, it becomes more and more difficult to retrieve from the LTM store.

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Question 342 of 354


Number: 14499 Question: A pilot meets the ground engineer in charge on the apron. Although the pilot has not been through flight preparation yet, he nevertheless instructs the engineer as to the amount of fuel to be loaded, since he is used to flying this route. This behaviour results from: 1. a decision bias due to group (social) pressure 2. a confirmation bias

3. a decision bias due to habits (frequency bias) 4. a bias in selecting data

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Question 343 of 354


Number: 14500 Question: The main purpose of lumbar support is to: 1. allow the most comfortable position for the upper spine

2. produce an even pressure of the discs by allowing the lower spine to curve naturally. 3. allow the most comfortable position for the spine and higher neck bones 4. allow the most comfortable position for the spine and shoulder bones

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Question 344 of 354


Number: 15094 Question: During the conflict resolution process it is important to : 1. realise and to accept the conflict. 2. verbalise mutual expectations. 3. search for common agreements. 4. express one's own viewpoint 1. 1 and 4 only are correct. 2. to express its own emotions.

3. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are correct.

4. 1, 2 and 3 only are correct.

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Question 345 of 354


Number: 15139 Question: From the list below which answers are correct ? Feedback gives information about : 1. the sender 2. the sender's intentions 3. the situation 1. 1 and 2 only. 2. 3 only. 3. 2 and 3 only.

4. 1, 2 and 3.

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Question 346 of 354


Number: 15171 Question: Which of the following list of statements concerning stress are correct? 1 - Stress is an inevitable part of human life and in small amounts is necessary to achieve optimum performance. 2 - Each individual has a stress limit which, if exceded, could result in inability to handle even a moderate workload. 3 - Anxiety creates worry which may lead to stress. 4 - Stress is often perceived by the brain as some form of threat which may cause adrenaline to be released into the blood stream.

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 & 4. 1,2 & 3 only. 1, 3 & 4 only. 2, 3 & 4 only.

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Question 347 of 354


Number: 14951 Question: What are the two inputs to a simple model of stress? 1. The value of the task overall and its usefulness in the scheme of things. 2. The value of the task to the pilot and what the pilot can get out of it. 3. The ease of achieving the task and its usefulness in the scheme of things. 4. The perceived demand of the task to the pilot and the pilot's perceived ability to complete the task.

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Question 348 of 354


Number: 14928 Question: How will the successful completion of a stressful task affect a pilot's performance when a similar situation is experienced in the future? 1. Given a similar situation the amount of stress will be the same. 2. Any stress will cause a reduction in performance.

3. The amount of stress experienced will be less. 4. The stress level experienced will be increased.

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Question 349 of 354


Number: 14895 Question: Which of the following is the best definition of episodic memory? 1. It is the memory of events which are held in the short-term memory and can be influenced by the meaning of words and language. 2. It is the memory of events which are held in the short-term memory and can be influenced by suggestion. 3. It is the memory of events which are held in the long-term memory and can be influenced by

suggestion. 4. It is the memory of events which are held in the long-term memory and can be influenced by the meaning of words and language.

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Question 350 of 354


Number: 14896 Question: Which of the following is true with reference to semantic memory? 1. It is the memory of events; it lasts for a longer period of time than episodic memory and tends to be more accurate. 2. It is the memory of events; it lasts for a shorter period of time than episodic memory and tends to be less accurate. 3. It is the meaning of words and general knowledge of the world; it lasts for a shorter period of time than episodic memory and tends to be less accurate. 4. It is the meaning of words and general knowledge of the world; it lasts for a longer period of time and

tends to be more accurate than episodic memory.

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Question 351 of 354


Number: 15197 Question: Which of the following list can cause fatigue? 1 - Sleep loss 2 - Jet lag 3 - Boredom 4 - Low levels of external stimulation

1. 2. 3. 4.

1, 2, 3 and 4. 1, 2, and 4 only. 1 and 3 only. 1, 3, and 4 only.

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Question 352 of 354

Number: 15218 Question: Which of the following list are symptoms of fatigue? 1 - Tiredness 2 - Faster reactions 3 Diminished motor skills 4 - Tunneled concentration 5 - Increased long term memory capacity 1. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 2. 1, and 3 only. 3. 3, 4, and 5 only.

4. 1, 3, and 4 only.

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Question 353 of 354


Number: 15290 Question: Which of the following answers are correct concerning the Long Term Memory ? 1. Long Term memory can be affected by expectation and suggestion 2. Long Term Memory is also known as the Working Memory 3. Long Term Memory is limited to plus or minus 7 pieces of disassociated pieces of information 4. Long Term Memory is where Motor Programmes (skills) are kept 1. 1 and 4 only are correct. 2. 1, 2, 3 and 4 are all correct 3. 2 and 3 only are correct.

4. 1 only is correct

Question 354 of 354


Number: 15321 Question: From the following list of stressors, which are psychological? 1 - noise 2 - loss of spouse or partner 3 - heat 4 - loss of job 5 - vibrations 6 - credit card debt

1. 2. 3. 4.

2, 4, and 6 only. 2, 4, and 5 only 3, 5, and 6 only 1, 3, and 5 only.

Fl