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# SHUNT CAPACITOR BANK

R Y B
series reactor

NCT

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## GENERAL FEATURES 1. Shunt capacitors will provide reactive power

compensation to the low Lagging Power Factor loads and hence improve the overall Power Factor of the system. 2. Capacitor banks are double star type and of capacity 5, 10, 20, 30MVAR at 66KV and 110KV Voltage level. In case of 11KV class capacitor bank, the capacity is normally around 2.9MVAR. 3. Number of capacitor cells will be connected in series parallel combination to form a Bank. The star points of the Bank will not be earthed. 4. Number of cells in series and voltage class of each cell will determine the Voltage class of the Bank. 5. Number of cells connected in parallel across each such cell in series will determine the MVAR capacity of the Bank. 6. Since different parallel combinations operate at different voltages, the structures used for mounting these parallel combinations will be isolated from each other by mounting on insulators.

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7. Earlier, the capacity of each capacitor cell used for the Bank was around 100KVAR. The protection for each cell was HRC fuse and mounted externally. 8. For example, a 30MVAR 72.5KV class capacitor bank used for 66KV side was having 288 numbers of cells each of 105KVAR, 10.5KV class. 9. For each Star in each phase, 12cells in parallel, 4 such parallel combinations in series ie. 12x4= 48 cells. For each phase, 48x2 stars=96 cells. For the complete Bank, 96x3phases=288cells. combinations in Since there are class 4 parallel be series, voltage would

4x10.5KV=42KV ph-neutral. 42KVx3=72.5KV phasephase. At 66KV, the bank can deliver 25MVAR. 10. The voltage rating of the Bank is above the rated normal Voltage so that the cells are not subjected to over voltage during their service. 11. Now, the cells of higher capacity are available and with internal fuse thus decreasing the number of cells per bank. 12. For example, a 20MVAR 66KV class capacitor bank will be having 60 numbers of cells each of 402KVAR, 8.4KV class.

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13. For each Star in each phase, 2 cells in parallel, 5 such parallel combinations in series ie. 2x5= 10 cells. For each phase, 10x2stars=20 cells. For the complete Bank, 20x3phases=60cells. combinations in Since there voltage are class 5 parallel be series, would

5x8.4KV=42KV ph-neutral. 42KVx3=72.5KV phasephase. At 66KV, the bank can deliver 20MVAR. 14. A 2.9MVAR 12.1KV class capacitor bank used for 11KV will be having 12 numbers of cells each of 242KVAR, 6.986KV class. 15. For each Star in each phase, 2 cells in parallel, one parallel combination ie. 1x2= 2 cells. For each phase, 2x2stars=4 combination cells. of For the voltage complete class Bank, be 4x3phases=12cells. Since there is only one parallel cells, would 1x6.986KV=6.986KV ph-neutral. 6.986KVx3=12.1KV

phase-phase. At 11KV, the bank can deliver 2.4MVAR. 16. To prevent high in rush currents during energizing the Capacitor Bank, series reactors approximately rated for about 7.5% to 10% of the capacitor rating is provided to each phase.

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17. The main protection for the capacitor bank is the unbalance current protection or neutral displacement protection wherein, a current operated relay is connected to the secondary of a CT connected between the neutrals of the two star points (neutral CT) of the Bank. 18. If any of the unit/s fails or un-balance occurs due to any problem in the connections to any of the unit, the voltage distribution among the capacitor cells changes and the units in parallel with that unit will be stressed by higher voltage. 19. In such case, a neutral current will flow in the neutral from one star point to the other which is sensed by the NDR (Neutral Displacement Relay) through the Neutral CT and trips the Capacitor Bank Circuit Breaker there by preventing further damages. 20. Since the capacitor cells used are of oil filled type, due care should be taken to see that there are no oil leakages in cells.

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OPERATIONAL POINTS 1. The capacitor Bank should be switched ON whenever the MVAR drawn from the transformer which feeds the capacitor bank equals or exceeds the rating of that capacitor bank. 2. If a 66KV or 110KV class capacitor bank is installed in any 66/11 or 110/33 or 110/11KV sub station, the switching operations of the capacitor bank should be monitored by the shift staff of the nearest 220KV station from where the sub station is fed from, by observing the MVAR drawn from the 220/66KV or 220/110KV transformer/s. 3. If 11KV class capacitor bank is installed in any 66/11 or 110/11KV sub station, the switching operations of the capacitor bank should be monitored by the shift staff of that sub station by observing the MVAR drawn from the 66/11KV or 110/11KV transformer feeding that Capacitor Bank. 4. If ETV meter is provided to the capacitor bank panel, the readings of the Active and Reactive energy recorded in the ETV meter should be recorded daily. The monthly

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MVARH delivered by the capacitor bank should be recorded and furnished to the competent offices. 5. If the capacitor Bank is hand tripped for any reason, allow a time delay of minimum of 5 minutes for energizing the same again so that the capacitor units discharge. 6. During yard inspection in each shift, due care should be taken to see that there are no oil leakages in any of the Capacitor cells.

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GENERAL MAINTENANCE 1. The balance of the capacitor bank is to be checked regularly during preventive maintenance for checking its healthiness by measuring the capacitance values across each parallel combination in each star in each phase and see that the values are almost equal among three phases in each star. 2. Also, three phase 400V power supply may be applied to the capacitor bank and measure all the three phase currents & neutral current if any. 3. All the connections of the capacitor bank are to be tightened regularly to see that there are no loose connections leading to un-balance of the Bank. 4. Check the connections and continuity of the neutral CT to ensure the tripping of Capacitor Bank Circuit Breaker on NDR in case of un-balance. 5. Check for any oil leakage/damage in Capacitor units. 6. Check the tightness of the connections of series reactors.

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IN THE EVENT OF CAPACITOR BANK TRIPPING ON NDR 1. Physical inspection of all the units of the Bank is to be conducted for locating any failed unit/s. 2. If no physical damage is found, the balance of the capacitor bank is to be checked by measuring the capacitance values across each parallel combination in each star in each phase. The values of Capacitance should be almost equal among three phases in each star. 3. If in any parallel combination, the value of capacitance is differing from the values of others, the capacitance of each capacitor unit of that parallel combination should be checked after removing the connections. 4. From doing so, the unit whose capacitance value is drifted will be identified. Such unit will have to be replaced (if spare units are available) for getting the overall balance. 5. If spare units are not available, then the connection of one number of unit in each parallel combination in that phase and also the other two phases in that particular Star should be removed so that balance is obtained.

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6. For example, we will consider a 20MVAR 66KV class capacitor bank having 60 numbers of cells each of 402KVAR, 8.4KV class having 2 cells in parallel, 5 such parallel combinations in series in each Star in each phase, ie. 2x5= 10 cells. For each phase, 10x2stars=20 cells. For the complete Bank, 20x3phases=60cells. 7. If one of the unit of the above Bank is faulty, then the revised configuration of cells will be 2 cells in parallel, 5 such parallel combinations in series in the healthy Star in each phase ie. 2x5=10cellsx3phases=30cells + 1 cell (since the other cell disconnected) in each parallel combination and 5 parallel combinations, 1x5=5cellsx3phases=15 cells in the other star. 8. By doing the above, it can be seen that the total cells in service will be 30 in one star + 15 in the other star totaling 45cells. The capacity of the bank now is 15MVAR at 66KV. 9. Due to non availability of one spare cell, the capacity of the Bank got de-rated by 5MVAR. In such case, a cell having the same rating and capacitance has to be procured to restore the original capacity of the Bank.

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10. The follow up action regarding collecting the offer from the manufacturer, preparation of estimate, getting the same sanctioned, placing of PO by the competent authority on the manufacturer, procuring, connecting the unit and restoring the original capacity after checking balance has to be done by the maintenance engineer of the sub station.

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