Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 474

# PHYSICS CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER 2:
CHAPTER 2:
Kinematics of linear motion
Kinematics of linear motion
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
Kinematics of linear motion
Kinematics of linear motion
2.1 Linear Motion
2.2 Uniformly Accelerated Motion
2.3 Free Falling Body
2.4 Projectile Motion
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
3
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

## Define Define and distinguish between and distinguish between

i. i. distance and displacement distance and displacement
ii. ii. speed and velocity speed and velocity
iii. iii. instantaneous velocity, average velocity and uniform instantaneous velocity, average velocity and uniform
velocity. velocity.
iv. iv. instantaneous acceleration, average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration, average acceleration and
uniform acceleration. uniform acceleration.

Sketch Sketch graphs of displacement-time, velocity-time and graphs of displacement-time, velocity-time and
acceleration-time. acceleration-time.

Determine Determine the distance travelled, displacement, velocity the distance travelled, displacement, velocity
and acceleration from appropriate graphs. and acceleration from appropriate graphs.
Learning Outcome:
2.1 Linear Motion
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
4
2.1. Linear motion (1-D)
2.1.1. Distance, d

scalar quantity.

is defined as the length of actual path between two points length of actual path between two points.

For example :

## The length of the path from P to Q is 25 cm.

P
Q
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
5

vector quantity

is defined as the distance between initial point and final the distance between initial point and final
point in a straight line point in a straight line.

## The S.I. unit of displacement is metre (m).

Example 1:
An object P moves 20 m to the east after that 10 m to the south
and finally moves 30 m to west. Determine the displacement of P
relative to the original position.
Solution : Solution :
2.1.2 Displacement,s

N
E
W
S
O
P

20 m
10 m
10 m 20 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
6
The magnitude of the displacement is given by
and its direction is
2.1.3 Speed, v

## is defined the rate of change of distance rate of change of distance.

scalar quantity.

Equation:
interval time
distance of change
speed =
t
d
v =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
7

is a vector quantity.

## The S.I. unit for velocity is m s

-1
.
Average velocity, Average velocity, v v
av av

## is defined as the rate of change of displacement the rate of change of displacement.

Equation:

Its direction is in the same direction of the change in same direction of the change in
displacement displacement.
2.1.4 Velocity, v

interval time
nt displaceme of change
=
av
v
t
s
v
av
=
1 2
1 2
av
t t
s s
v

=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
8
Instantaneous velocity, Instantaneous velocity, v v

## is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of the instantaneous rate of change of

displacement displacement.

Equation:

## An object is moving in uniform velocity moving in uniform velocity if

t
s
0 t
v

=
limit
constant =
dt
ds
dt
ds
v =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
9

Therefore
Q
s
t
0
s
1
t
1
The gradient of the tangent to the curve at point Q
= the instantaneous velocity at time, t = t
1
Gradient of s-t graph = velocity
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
10

vector quantity

## The S.I. unit for acceleration is m s

-2
.
Average acceleration, Average acceleration, a a
av av

Equation:

## Its direction is in the same direction of motion same direction of motion.

The acceleration acceleration of an object is uniform uniform when the magnitude magnitude
of velocity changes at a constant rate and along fixed of velocity changes at a constant rate and along fixed
direction. direction.
2.1.5 Acceleration,
a

interval time
velocity of change
=
av
a
1 2
1 2
av
t t
v v
a

=
t
v
a
av
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
11
Instantaneous acceleration, Instantaneous acceleration, a a

is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of velocity instantaneous rate of change of velocity.

Equation:

## An object is moving in uniform acceleration moving in uniform acceleration if

t
v
0 t
a

=
limit
constant =
dt
dv
2
2
dt
s d
dt
dv
a = =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
12
Deceleration, Deceleration, a a

## is a negative acceleration negative acceleration.

The object is slowing down slowing down meaning the speed of the object speed of the object
decreases with time decreases with time.

Therefore
v
t
Q
0
v
1
t
1
The gradient of the tangent to the curve at point Q
= the instantaneous acceleration at time, t = t
1
Gradient of v-t graph = acceleration
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
13
Displacement against time graph ( Displacement against time graph (s-t s-t) )
2.1.6 Graphical methods
s
t
0
s
t
0
(a) Uniform velocity
(b) The velocity increases with time
with time
(c)
s
t 0
Q
R
P
The direction of
velocity is changing.
Gradient at point R is negative.
Gradient at point Q is zero.
The velocity is zero.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
14
Velocity versus time graph ( Velocity versus time graph (v-t v-t) )

## The gradient at point C is negative a < 0(slowing down)

t
1
t
2
v
t 0
(a)
t
2
t
1
v
t 0
(b)
t
1
t
2
v
t
0
(c)
Uniform velocity
Uniform
acceleration
Area under the v-t graph = displacement
B
C
A
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
15

## From the equation of instantaneous velocity,

Therefore
dt
ds
v =

= vdt ds

=
2
1
t
t
vdt s
graph under the area ded sha t v s =
Simulation 2.1
Simulation 2.2 Simulation 2.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
16
A toy train moves slowly along a straight track according to the
displacement, s against time, t graph in figure 2.1.
a. Explain qualitatively the motion of the toy train.
b. Sketch a velocity (cm s
-1
) against time (s) graph.
c. Determine the average velocity for the whole journey.
d. Calculate the instantaneous velocity at t = 12 s.
Example 2 :
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
t (s)
2
4
6
8
10
s (cm)
Figure 2.1 Figure 2.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
17
Solution : Solution :
0 to 6 s :
6 to 10 s :
10 to 14 s :
b.
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
t (s)
0.68
1.50
v (cm s
1
)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
18
Solution : Solution :
c.
d.
1 2
1 2
t t
s s
v
av

=
s 14 to s 10 from velocity average = v
1 2
1 2
t t
s s
v

=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
19
A velocity-time (v-t) graph in figure 2.2 shows the motion of a lift.
a. Describe qualitatively the motion of the lift.
b. Sketch a graph of acceleration (m s
-1
) against time (s).
c. Determine the total distance travelled by the lift and its
displacement.
d. Calculate the average acceleration between 20 s to 40 s.
Example 3 :
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 t (s)
-4
-2
2
4
v (m s
1
)
Figure 2.2 Figure 2.2
40 45 50
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
20
Solution : Solution :
a. 0 to 5 s : Lift moves upward from rest with
acceleration of 0.4 m s
2
.
5 to 15 s : The velocity of the lift from 2 m s
1
to
4 m s
1
but the acceleration to 0.2 m s
2
.
15 to 20 s : Lift
20 to 25 s : Lift
25 to 30 s : Lift
30 to 35 s : Lift moves
35 to 40 s : Lift moving
40 to 50 s :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
21
Solution : Solution :
b.
t (s) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0
-0.4
-0.2
0.2
0.6
a (m s
2
)
-0.6
-0.8
0.8
0.4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
22
Solution : Solution :
c. i.
0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 t (s)
-4
-2
2
4
v (m s
1
)
40 45 50
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5
v-t of graph under the area distance Total =
5 4 3 2 1
A A A A A + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 5 15
2
1
4 5
2
1
4 10 5
2
1
10 4 2
2
1
5 2
2
1
distance Total + + + + + + + =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
23
Solution : Solution :
c. ii.
d.
v-t of graph under the area nt Displaceme =
5 4 3 2 1
A A A A A + + + + =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 5 15
2
1
4 5
2
1
4 10 5
2
1
10 4 2
2
1
5 2
2
1
nt Displaceme + + + + + + + =
1 2
1 2
t t
v v
a
av

=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
24
Figure 2.3 Figure 2.3
1. Figure 2.3 shows a velocity versus time graph for an object
constrained to move along a line. The positive direction is to
the right.
a. Describe the motion of the object in 10 s.
b. Sketch a graph of acceleration (m s
-2
) against time (s) for
the whole journey.
c. Calculate the displacement of the object in 10 s.
ANS. : 6 m ANS. : 6 m
Exercise 2.1 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
25
2. A train pulls out of a station and accelerates steadily for 20 s
until its velocity reaches 8 m s
1
. It then travels at a constant
velocity for 100 s, then it decelerates steadily to rest in a further
time of 30 s.
a. Sketch a velocity-time graph for the journey.
b. Calculate the acceleration and the distance travelled in
each part of the journey.
c. Calculate the average velocity for the journey.
Physics For Advanced Level, 4
th
edition, Jim Breithaupt, Nelson
Thornes, pg.15, no. 1.11
ANS. : 0.4 m s ANS. : 0.4 m s
2 2
,0 m s ,0 m s
2 2
,-0.267 m s ,-0.267 m s
2 2
, 80 m, 800 m, 120 m; , 80 m, 800 m, 120 m;
6.67 m s 6.67 m s
1 1
. .
Exercise 2.1 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
26
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Derive and apply Derive and apply equations of motion with uniform equations of motion with uniform
acceleration: acceleration:
Learning Outcome:
2.2 Uniformly accelerated motion
at u v + =
2
2
1
at ut s + =
as u v 2
2 2
+ =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
27
2.2. Uniformly accelerated motion

## From the definition of average acceleration, uniform (constant constant)

acceleration is given by
where v : final velocity
u

: initial velocity
a : uniform (constant) acceleration
t : time
at u v + =
(1)
t
u v
a

=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
28

2.4:

## From the graph,

The displacement after time, s = shaded area under the
graph
= the area of trapezium

Hence,
velocity
0
v
u
time
t
Figure 2.4 Figure 2.4
( )t v u
2
1
s + =
(2)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
29

## From eq. (2),

( ) [ ]t at u u s + + =
2
1
(3)
2
2
1
at ut s + =
( ) at u v =
( )
t
s
u v
2
= +
multiply
( ) ( ) ( ) at
t
s
u v u v

= +
2
as u v 2
2 2
+ =
(4)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
30

Notes:

equations (1) (4) can be used if the motion in a straight motion in a straight
line with constant acceleration. line with constant acceleration.

## For a body moving at constant velocity, ( ( a a = 0) = 0) the

equations (1) and (4) become
Therefore the equations (2) and (3) can be written as
u v =
vt s = constant velocity constant velocity
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
31
A plane on a runway takes 16.2 s over a distance of 1200 m to
take off from rest. Assuming constant acceleration during take off,
calculate
a. the speed on leaving the ground,
b. the acceleration during take off.
Solution : Solution :
a. Use
Example 4 :
s 2 . 16 = t
? = v
( )t v u s + =
2
1

0 = u
m 1200 = s
? = a

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
32
Solution : Solution :
b. By using the equation of linear motion,
as u v 2
2 2
+ =
OR OR
2
2
1
at ut s + =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
33
A bus travelling steadily at 30 m s
1
along a straight road passes a
stationary car which, 5 s later, begins to move with a uniform
acceleration of 2 m s
2
in the same direction as the bus. Determine
a. the time taken for the car to acquire the same velocity as the
bus,
b. the distance travelled by the car when it is level with the bus.
Solution : Solution :
a. Given
Use
Example 5 :
2 1
ms 2 0; ; constant s m 30

= = = =
c c b
a u v
c c c c
t a u v + =
1
s m 30

= =
b c
v v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
34
b.
From the diagram,
c
b
1
s m 30

=
b
v
0 =
c
u
s 0 =
b
t s 5 =
b
t
2
s m 2

=
c
a
b
b
v
b
c
b
v
t t
b
=
b c
s s =
b c
s s =
b b c c c c
t v t a t u = +
2
2
1
Therefore
t v s
b c
=
; t t
b
= 5 = t t
c
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
35
A particle moves along horizontal line according to the equation
Where s is displacement in meters and t is time in seconds.
At time, t =2.00 s, determine
a. the displacement of the particle,
b. Its velocity, and
c. Its acceleration.
Solution : Solution :
a. t =2.00 s ;
Example 6 :
t t t s
2 3
2 4 3 + =
t t t s
2 3
2 4 3 + =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
36
Solution : Solution :
b. Instantaneous velocity at t = 2.00 s,
Use
Thus
dt
ds
v =
( ) t t t
dt
d
v 2 4 3
2 3
+ =
( ) ( ) 2 2.00 8 2.00 9
2
+ = v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
37
Solution : Solution :
c. Instantaneous acceleration at t = 2.00 s,
Use
Hence
dt
dv
a =
( ) 8 2.00 18 = a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
38
1. A speedboat moving at 30.0 m s
-1
approaches stationary
buoy marker 100 m ahead. The pilot slows the boat with a
constant acceleration of -3.50 m s
-2
by reducing the throttle.
a. How long does it take the boat to reach the buoy?
b. What is the velocity of the boat when it reaches the buoy?
No. 23,pg. 51,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern
physics, Serway & Jewett,6
th
edition.
ANS. : 4.53 s; 14.1 m s ANS. : 4.53 s; 14.1 m s
1 1
2. An unmarked police car travelling a constant 95 km h
-1
is
passed by a speeder traveling 140 km h
-1
. Precisely 1.00 s
after the speeder passes, the policemen steps on the
accelerator; if the police cars acceleration is 2.00 m s
-2
, how
much time passes before the police car overtakes the
speeder (assumed moving at constant speed)?
No. 44, pg. 41,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern
physics, Douglas C. Giancoli,3
rd
edition.
ANS. : 14.4 s ANS. : 14.4 s
Exercise 2.2 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
39
3. A car traveling 90 km h
-1
is 100 m behind a truck traveling
75 km h
-1
. Assuming both vehicles moving at constant
velocity, calculate the time taken for the car to reach the
truck.
No. 15, pg. 39,Physics for scientists and engineers with modern
physics, Douglas C. Giancoli,3
rd
edition.
ANS. : 24 s ANS. : 24 s
4. A car driver, travelling in his car at a constant velocity of
8 m s
-1
, sees a dog walking across the road 30 m ahead. The
drivers reaction time is 0.2 s, and the brakes are capable of
producing a deceleration of 1.2 m s
-2
. Calculate the distance
from where the car stops to where the dog is crossing,
assuming the driver reacts and brakes as quickly as
possible.
ANS. : 1.73 m ANS. : 1.73 m
Exercise 2.2 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
40
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Describe and use Describe and use equations for free falling body. equations for free falling body.

For For upward and downward upward and downward motion, use motion, use
a a = = g g = = 9.81 m s 9.81 m s
2 2
Learning Outcome:
2.3 Free falling body
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
41
2.3. Free falling body

is defined as the vertical motion of a body at constant the vertical motion of a body at constant
acceleration, acceleration, g g under gravitational field under gravitational field without air without air
resistance resistance. .

## known as acceleration due to gravity acceleration due to gravity or free-fall free-fall

acceleration acceleration or gravitational acceleration gravitational acceleration.

## the value is g g = 9.81 m s = 9.81 m s

2 2

the direction is towards the centre of the earth towards the centre of the earth
(downward). (downward).

Note:

## In solving any problem involves freely falling bodies or free

fall motion, the assumption made is ignore the air assumption made is ignore the air
resistance resistance.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
42

Sign convention:

## Table 2.1 shows the equations of linear motion and freely

falling bodies.
Table 2.1 Table 2.1
Linear motion Freely falling bodies
at u v + =
gt u v =
as 2 u v
2 2
+ =
gs 2 u v
2 2
=
2
at
2
1
ut s + =
2
gt
2
1
ut s =
+
-
+
-
From the sign convention
thus,
g a =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
43

## An example of freely falling body is the motion of a ball thrown

vertically upwards with initial velocity, u as shown in figure 2.5.

## Assuming air resistance is negligible, the acceleration of the

ball, a = g when the ball moves upward and its velocity velocity
decreases to zero decreases to zero when the ball reaches the maximum maximum
height, height, H H.
H
u
v
velocity = 0
Figure 2.5 Figure 2.5
u v =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
44

## The graphs in figure 2.6 show

the motion of the ball moves
up and down.
Derivation of equations Derivation of equations

## At the maximum height or

displacement, H where t = t
1
,
its velocity,
hence
therefore the time taken for
the ball reaches H,
Figure 2.6 Figure 2.6
t
0
v
u
u
t
1
2t
1
t
0
a
g
t
1
2t
1
t
s
0
H
t
1
2t
1
v =0
gt u v =
1
gt u = 0
0 = v
g
u
t
1
=
Simulation 2.4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
45

use either
maximum height,

## Another form of freely falling bodies expressions are

2
1 1
gt ut s
2
1
=
gs u v
2 2
2 =
Where s = H
gH u 2 0
2
=
OR OR
g
u
H
2
2
=
gt u v =
gs u v 2
2 2
=
2
2
1
gt ut s =
gt u v
y y
=
y y y
gs u v 2
2 2
=
2
2
1
gt t u s
y y
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
46
A ball is thrown from the top of a building is given an initial velocity
of 10.0 m s
1
straight upward. The building is 30.0 m high and the
ball just misses the edge of the roof on its way down, as shown in
figure 2.7. Calculate
a. the maximum height of the stone from point A.
b. the time taken from point A to C.
c. the time taken from point A to D.
d. the velocity of the stone when it reaches point D.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 7 :
A
B
C
D
u =10.0 m s
1
30.0 m
Figure 2.7 Figure 2.7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
47
Solution : Solution :
a. At the maximum height, H, v
y
= 0 and u = u
y
= 10.0 m s
1
thus
b. From point A to C, the vertical displacement, s
y
= 0 m thus
y
2
y
2
y
gs u v 2 =
2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
A
B
C
D
u
30.0 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
48
Solution : Solution :
c. From point A to D, the vertical displacement, s
y
= 30.0 m thus

By using
2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
A
B
C
D
u
30.0 m
2a
4ac b b
2

= t
OR
Time dont Time dont
have have
negative negative
value. value.
a b
c
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
49
Solution : Solution :
d. Time taken from A to D is t = 3.69 s thus
From A to D, s
y
= 30.0 m
Therefore the balls velocity at D is
A
B
C
D
u
30.0 m
gt u v
y y
=
( ) ( ) ( ) 3.69 9.81 10.0 =
y
v
OR
y
2
y
2
y
gs u v 2 =
( ) ( )( ) 30.0 9.81 2 10.0 =
2 2
y
v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
50
A book is dropped 150 m from the ground. Determine
a. the time taken for the book reaches the ground.
b. the velocity of the book when it reaches the ground.
(given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution : Solution :
a. The vertical displacement is
s
y
= 150 m
Hence
Example 8 :
u
y
= 0 m s
1
150 m
m 150 =
y
s
2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
51
Solution : Solution :
b. The books velocity is given by

Therefore the books velocity is
gt u v
y y
=
OR
y
2
y
2
y
gs u v 2 =
m 150 =
y
s
0 =
y
u
? =
y
v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
52
1. A ball is thrown directly downward, with an initial speed of
8.00 m s
1
, from a height of 30.0 m. Calculate
a. the time taken for the ball to strike the ground,
b. the balls speed when it reaches the ground.
ANS. : 1.79 s; 25.6 m s ANS. : 1.79 s; 25.6 m s
1 1
2. A falling stone takes 0.30 s to travel past a window 2.2 m tall
as shown in figure 2.8.
From what height above the top of the windows did the stone
fall?
ANS. : 1.75 m ANS. : 1.75 m
Exercise 2.3 :
m 2.2
Figure 2.8 Figure 2.8
to travel this
distance took
0.30 s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
53
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Describe and use Describe and use equations for projectile, equations for projectile,

Calculate Calculate time of flight, maximum height, range, time of flight, maximum height, range,
maximum range, instantaneous position and velocity. maximum range, instantaneous position and velocity.
Learning Outcome:
2.4 Projectile motion
u u
x
cos =
u u
y
sin =
0 =
x
a
g a
y
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
54
2.4. Projectile motion

y
= g

x
= 0

## The path followed by a projectile is called trajectory is shown in

figure 2.9.
v
u

s
x
= R
s
y
=H
u
x
v
2y
u
y
v
1x
v
1y
v
2x
v
1

1
v
2

2
t
1
t
2
B
A
P
Q
C
y
x
Figure 2.9 Figure 2.9
Simulation 2.5
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
55

## The x-component of velocity x-component of velocity along AC (horizontal) at any

point is constant, constant,

The y-component (vertical) of velocity varies y-component (vertical) of velocity varies from one
point to another point along AC.
but the y-component of the initial velocity is given by
u u
x
cos =
u u
y
sin =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
56

## Table 2.2 shows the x and y-components, magnitude and

direction of velocities at points P and Q.
Velocity Point P Point Q
x-comp.
y-comp.
magnitude
direction
1 1
gt u v
y y
=
u u v
x x 1
cos = =
2 2
gt u v
y y
=
u u v
x x 2
cos = =
( ) ( )
2
y 1
2
x 1 1
v v v + =

=

x 1
y 1
1
1
v
v
tan
( ) ( )
2
y 2
2
x 2 2
v v v + =

=

x 2
y 2
1
2
v
v
tan
Table 2.2 Table 2.2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
57

where

## y-component of the displacement,

Use
2.4.1 Maximum height, H
u u v v
x x
cos = = =
0 =
y
v
y y y
gs u v 2
2 2
=
( ) gH u 2 sin 0
2
=
g
u
H
2
sin
2 2

=
H s
y
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
58

At maximum height, H

Time, t = t and v
y
= 0

Use
2.4.2 Time taken to reach maximum height, t
gt u v
y y
=
( ) ' sin 0 t g u =
g
u
t
sin
' =
2.4.3 Flight time, t (from point A to point C)
' 2 t t =
g
u
t
sin 2
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
59

## From the displacement formula with uniform velocity, thus the

x-component of displacement along AC is
2.4.4 Horizontal range, R and value of R maximum
t u s
x x
=
cos u v u
x x
= =
( ) ( ) t u R = cos
( )

=
g
u
u R

sin 2
cos
( ) cos sin 2
2
g
u
R =
and
R s
x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
60

thus

## = = 45 45 and sin 2 sin 2

= = 1 1
therefore
cos sin 2 2 sin =
2 sin
2
g
u
R =
g
u
R
2
max
=
Simulation 2.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
61

Figure 2.10 shows a ball bearing rolling off the end of a table
with an initial velocity, u in the horizontal direction.

## Vertical component along path AB.

2.4.5 Horizontal projectile
h
x
A B
u
u
v
x
v
y
v
Figure 2.10 Figure 2.10
constant velocity, = = =
x x
v u u
x s
x
= nt, displaceme
0 u
y
= velocity, initial
h s
y
= nt, displaceme
Simulation 2.7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
62
Time taken for the ball to reach the floor (point B), Time taken for the ball to reach the floor (point B), t t

## By using the equation of freely falling bodies,

Horizontal displacement, Horizontal displacement, x x

## Use condition below :

2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
2
gt 0 h
2
1
=
g
h
t
2
=
The time taken for the
ball free fall to point A
The time taken for the
ball to reach point B
=
(Refer to figure 2.11)
Figure 2.11 Figure 2.11
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
63

## Since the x-component of velocity along AB is constant, thus

the horizontal displacement, x

Note :

## In solving any calculation problem about projectile motion,

the air resistance is negligible air resistance is negligible.
t u s
x x
=

=
g
h
u x
2
and x s
x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
64
Figure 2.12 shows a ball thrown by superman
with an initial speed, u = 200 m s
-1
and makes an
angle, = 60.0 to the horizontal. Determine
a. the position of the ball, and the magnitude and

direction of its velocity, when t = 2.0 s.
Example 9 :
Figure 2.12 Figure 2.12
x
O
u
= 60.0
y
R
H
v
2y
v
1x
v
1y v
2x
Q
v
1
P
v
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
65
b. the time taken for the ball reaches the maximum height, H and
calculate the value of H.
c. the horizontal range, R
d. the magnitude and direction of its velocity when the ball
reaches the ground (point P).
e. the position of the ball, and the magnitude and direction of its
velocity at point Q if the ball was hit from a flat-topped hill with
the time at point Q is 45.0 s.
(given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution : Solution :
The component of Initial velocity :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
66
Solution : Solution :
a. i. position of the ball when t = 2.0 s ,
Horizontal component :
Vertical component :
therefore the position of the ball is
2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
t u s
x x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
67
Solution : Solution :
a. ii. magnitude and direction of balls velocity at t = 2.0 s ,
Horizontal component :
Vertical component :
Magnitude,
Direction,
gt u v
y y
=
1
x x
u v

= = s m 100
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
153 100 + = + =
y x
v v v

=

100
153
tan tan
1 1
x
y
v
v

PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
68
Solution : Solution :
b. i. At the maximum height, H :
Thus the time taken to reach maximum height is given by
ii. Apply
gt u v
y y
=
0 =
y
v
gt t u s
y y
2
1
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
69
Solution : Solution :
c. Flight time = 2(the time taken to reach the maximum height)
Hence the horizontal range, R is
d. When the ball reaches point P thus
The velocity of the ball at point P,
Horizontal component:
Vertical component:
( ) 17.6 2 = t
t u s
x x
=
1
1
s m 100

= =
x x
u v
0 =
y
s
gt u v
y y
=
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
70
Solution : Solution :
Magnitude,
Direction,
therefore the direction of balls velocity is
e. The time taken from point O to Q is 45.0 s.
i. position of the ball when t = 45.0 s,
Horizontal component :

( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
172 100 + = + =
y x
v v v

=

100
172
tan tan
1
1
1
1
x
y
v
v

300

=
from positive x-axis anticlockwise from positive x-axis anticlockwise
t u s
x x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
71
Solution : Solution :
Vertical component :
therefore the position of the ball is (4500 m, (4500 m, 2148 m) 2148 m)
e. ii. magnitude and direction of balls velocity at t = 45.0 s ,
Horizontal component :
Vertical component :
2
y y
gt t u s
2
1
=
gt u v
y y
=
2
1
2
s m 100

= =
x x
u v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
72
Solution : Solution :
Magnitude,
Direction,
therefore the direction of balls velocity is
( ) ( )
2 2
2
269 100 + = v
2
2
2
2 2 y x
v v v + =

=

x
y
v
v

2
2
1
tan
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
73
A transport plane travelling at a constant velocity of 50 m s
1
at an
altitude of 300 m releases a parcel when directly above a point X
on level ground. Calculate
a. the flight time of the parcel,
b. the velocity of impact of the parcel,
c. the distance from X to the point of impact.
(given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution : Solution :
Example 10 :
300 m
d
1
s m 50

= u
X
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
74
Solution : Solution :
The parcels velocity = planes velocity
thus
a. The vertical displacement is given by
Thus the flight time of the parcel is
1
s m 50

= = u u
x
1
s m 50

= u
and
1
s m 0

=
y
u
2
2
1
gt t u s
y y
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
75
Solution : Solution :
b. The components of velocity of impact of the parcel:
Horizontal component:
Vertical component:
Magnitude,
Direction,
therefore the direction of parcels velocity is
1
s m 50

= =
x x
u v
( ) ( ) 7.82 9.81 0 =
y
v
gt u v
y y
=

=

50
6.7 7
tan tan
1 1
x
y
v
v

( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
6.7 7 50 + = + =
y x
v v v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
76
Solution : Solution :
c. Let the distance from X to the point of impact is d.
Thus the distance, d is given by
t u s
x x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
77
Figure 2.13 Figure 2.13
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. A basketball player who is 2.00 m tall is standing on the floor
10.0 m from the basket, as in figure 2.13. If he shoots the
ball at a 40.0 angle above the horizontal, at what initial
speed must he throw so that it goes through the hoop without
striking the backboard? The basket height is 3.05 m.
ANS. : 10.7 m s ANS. : 10.7 m s
1 1
Exercise 2.4 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
78
2. An apple is thrown at an angle of 30 above the horizontal
from the top of a building 20 m high. Its initial speed is
40 m s
1
. Calculate
a. the time taken for the apple to strikes the ground,
b. the distance from the foot of the building will it strikes
the ground,
c. the maximum height reached by the apple from the
ground.
ANS. : 4.90 s; 170 m; 40.4 m ANS. : 4.90 s; 170 m; 40.4 m
3. A stone is thrown from the top of one building toward a tall
building 50 m away. The initial velocity of the ball is 20 m s
1

at 40 above the horizontal. How far above or below its
original level will the stone strike the opposite wall?
ANS. : 10.3 m below the original level. ANS. : 10.3 m below the original level.
Exercise 2.4 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 2
79
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 3 :
Force, Momentum and Impulse
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
1
MOMENTUM AND
IMPULSE
CHAPTER 3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3

## 3.2 Conservation of linear momentum

2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
3
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

## Define Define impulse and use F-t graph to

determine impulse

Use Use
Learning Outcome:
3.1 Momentum and impulse
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
4
3.1.1 Linear momentum,

is defined as the product between mass and velocity the product between mass and velocity.

is a vector quantity.

Equation :

## The S.I. unit of linear momentum is kg m s kg m s

-1 -1
.

The direction of the momentum direction of the momentum is the same same as the direction direction
of the velocity of the velocity.

## It can be resolve into vertical (y) component and horizontal (x)

component.
p

v m p

=
x
p
p

y
p

mv p p
x
cos cos = =
mv p p
y
sin sin = =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
5
3.1.2 Impulse,

Let a single constant force, constant force, F F acts on an object in a short time
interval (collision), thus the Newtons 2
nd
law can be written as

is defined as the product of a force, the product of a force, F F and the time, and the time, t t
OR the change of momentum the change of momentum.

is a vector quantity vector quantity whose direction direction is the same same as the
constant force constant force on the object.
J

constant = = =

dt
p d
F F

1 2
p p p d dt F J

= = =
momentum final :
2
p

where
momentum initial :
1
p

force impulsive : F

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
6

## The S.I. unit of impulse is N s N s or kg m s kg m s

1 1
.

If the force force acts on the object is not constant not constant then

## Since impulse and momentum are both vector quantities, then it

is often easiest to use them in component form :
dt F dt F J
av
t
t

= =

2
1
where force impulsive average :
av
F

( ) ( )
x x x 1 x 2
x
av x
u v m p p dt F J = = =
( ) ( )
y y y 1 y 2
y
av y
u v m p p dt F J = = =
( ) ( )
z z z 1 z 2
z
av z
u v m p p dt F J = = =
consider 2-D consider 2-D
collision only collision only
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
7

## When two objects in collision, the impulsive force, F against

time, t graph is given by the Figure 3.20.
1
t
2
t
Figure 3.20 Figure 3.20
t
0
F
Shaded area under the Ft graph = impulse
Picture 3.1
Picture 3.2
Picture 3.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
8
A 0.20 kg tennis ball strikes the wall horizontally with a speed of
100 m s
1
and it bounces off with a speed of 70 m s
1
in the
opposite direction.
a. Calculate the magnitude of impulse delivered to the ball by the
wall,
b. If the ball is in contact with the wall for 10 ms, determine the
magnitude of average force exerted by the wall on the ball.
Solution : Solution :
Example 3.1 :
Wall (2)
1 1
1
s m 100

=
1
u
1 1
1
s m 70

=
1
v
0
2 2
= = u v
kg 0.20
1
= m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
9
Solution : Solution :
a. From the equation of impulse that the force is constant,
Therefore the magnitude of the impulse is 34 N s 34 N s.
b. Given the contact time,
1 2
p p dp J = =
( )
1 1 1
u v m J =
dt F J
av
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
10
An estimated force-time curve for a tennis ball of mass 60.0 g
struck by a racket is shown in Figure 3.21. Determine
a. the impulse delivered to the ball,
b. the speed of the ball after being struck, assuming the ball is
being served so it is nearly at rest initially.
Example 3.2 :
0.2 1.8
( ) ms t
0
( ) kN F
1.0
18
Figure 3.21 Figure 3.21
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
11
Solution : Solution :
a. From the force-time graph,
b. Given the balls initial speed,
graph under the area t F J =
0 = u
( ) u v m dp J = =
kg 10 60.0
3
= m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
12
1. A steel ball with mass 40.0 g is dropped from a height of
2.00 m onto a horizontal steel slab. The ball rebounds to a
height of 1.60 m.
a. Calculate the impulse delivered to the ball during impact.
b. If the ball is in contact with the slab for 2.00 ms, determine

the average force on the ball during impact.
ANS. : 0.47 N s; 237. 1 N ANS. : 0.47 N s; 237. 1 N
2. A golf ball (m = 46.0 g) is struck with a force that makes an
angle of 45 with the horizontal. The ball lands 200 m away
on a flat fairway. If the golf club and ball are in contact for
7.00 ms, calculate the average force of impact. (neglect the
air resistance.)
ANS. : 293 N ANS. : 293 N
Exercise 3.1 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
13
Figure 3.22 Figure 3.22
3.
A tennis ball of mass, m = 0.060 kg and a speed,
v = 28 m s
1
strikes a wall at a 45 angle and rebounds with
the same speed at 45 as shown in Figure 3.22. Calculate
the impulse given by the wall.
ANS. : 2.4 N s to the left or ANS. : 2.4 N s to the left or 2.4 N s 2.4 N s
Exercise 3.1 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
14
3.2 Conservation of linear momentum

14
3.2.1 Principle of conservation of linear momentum

states In an isolated (closed) system, the total momentum In an isolated (closed) system, the total momentum
of that system is constant of that system is constant.
OR
When the net external force on a system is zero, the total When the net external force on a system is zero, the total
momentum of that system is constant momentum of that system is constant.

In a Closed system,
From the Newtons second law, thus
0 = =

dt
p d
F

0 =

0 = p d

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
15

## According to the principle of conservation of linear momentum,

we obtain
OR
The total of initial momentum = the total of final momentum The total of initial momentum = the total of final momentum

=
f i
p p

constant = p

constant =
x
p
constant =
y
p
Therefore then
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
16
Linear momentum in one dimension collision Linear momentum in one dimension collision
Example 3.3 :
Figure 3.14 shows an object A of mass 200 g collides head-on with
object B of mass 100 g. After the collision, B moves at a speed
of 2 m s
-1
to the left. Determine the velocity of A after Collision .
Solution Solution : :
1
s m 6

=
A
u
A
B
1
s m 3

=
B
u
Figure 3.14 Figure 3.14

=
f i
p p

1
s m 6 ; kg 0.100 ; kg 0.200

= = =
A B A
u m m
1 1
s m 2 ; s m 3

= =
B B
v u
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
17
Linear momentum in two dimension collision Linear momentum in two dimension collision
Example 3.4 :
A tennis ball of mass m
1
moving with initial velocity u
1
collides with
a soccer ball of mass m
2
initially at rest. After the collision, the
tennis ball is deflected 50 from its initial direction with a velocity v
1

as shown in figure 3.15. Suppose that m
1
= 250 g, m
2
= 900 g,
u
1
= 20 m s
1
and v
1
= 4 m s
1
. Calculate the magnitude and
direction of soccer ball after the collision.
Figure 3.15 Figure 3.15
1
u

## Before collision After collision

m
1
m
2
m
1
1
v

50
Simulation 3.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
18
Solution : Solution :
From the principle of conservation of linear momentum,
The x-component of linear momentum,

=
f i
p p

x 2 2 x 1 1 x 2 2 x 1 1
v m v m u m u m + = +
; s m 20 ; kg 0.900 ; kg 0.250
1
= = =
1 2 1
u m m

0 ; s m 4 ; 0
1
5 v u
1 1 2
= = =

=
fx ix
p p

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
19
Solution : Solution :
The y-component of linear momentum,
Magnitude of the soccer ball,
Direction of the soccer ball,
y y
v m v m
2 2 1 1
0 + =

=
fy iy
p p

( ) ( )
2
y 2
2
x 2 2
v v v + =

=

4.84
0.851
tan tan
1
x 2
y 2
1
2
v
v

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
20
1. An object P of mass 4 kg moving with a velocity 4 m s
1
collides
elastically with another object Q of mass 2 kg moving with a
velocity 3 m s
1
towards it.
a. Determine the total momentum before collision.
b. If P immediately stop after the collision, calculate the final
velocity of Q.
c. If the two objects stick together after the collision, calculate
the final velocity of both objects.
ANS. : 10 kg m s ANS. : 10 kg m s
1 1
; 5 m s ; 5 m s
1 1
to the right; 1.7 m s to the right; 1.7 m s
1 1
to the right to the right
2. A marksman holds a rifle of mass m
r
= 3.00 kg loosely in his
hands, so as to let it recoil freely when fired. He fires a
bullet of mass m
b
= 5.00 g horizontally with a velocity 300 m s
-1
.
Determine
a. the recoil velocity of the rifle,
b. the final momentum of the system.
ANS. : ANS. : 0.5 m s 0.5 m s
1 1
; U think. ; U think.
Exercise 3.2 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
21
3.
In Figure 3.16 show a 3.50 g bullet is fired horizontally at two
blocks at rest on a frictionless tabletop. The bullet passes
through the first block, with mass 1.20 kg, and embeds
itself in the second block, with mass 1.80 kg. Speeds of
0.630 m s
1
and 1.40 m s
-1
, respectively, are thereby given
to the blocks. Neglecting the mass removed from the first
block by the bullet, determine
a. the speed of the bullet immediately after it emerges from
the first block and
b. the initial speed of the bullet .
ANS. : 721 m s ANS. : 721 m s
1 1
; 937.4 m s ; 937.4 m s
1 1
Figure 3.16 Figure 3.16
1.20 kg 1.80 kg
0.630 m s
-1
1.40 m s
-1
Before
After
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
22
Figure 3.17 Figure 3.17
4. A ball moving with a speed of 17 m s
1
strikes an identical ball
that is initially at rest. After the collision, the incoming ball has
been deviated by 45 from its original direction, and the struck
ball moves off at 30 from the original direction as shown in
Figure 3.17. Calculate the speed of each ball after the collision.
ANS. : 8.80 m s ANS. : 8.80 m s
1 1
; 12.4 m s ; 12.4 m s
1 1
Exercise 3.2 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
23
3.2.2 Collision

is defined as an isolated event in which two or more bodies an isolated event in which two or more bodies
(the colliding bodies) exert relatively strong forces on each (the colliding bodies) exert relatively strong forces on each
other for a relatively short time other for a relatively short time.

## Inelastic (non-elastic) collision Inelastic (non-elastic) collision

PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
24
Elastic collision Elastic collision

is defined as one in which the total kinetic energy (as well as one in which the total kinetic energy (as well as
total momentum) of the system is the same before and after total momentum) of the system is the same before and after
the collision the collision.

## Figure 3.18 shows the head-on collision of two billiard balls.

1 1
2 2
Before collision
At collision
After collision
1 1
2 2
2 2
u m
1 1
u m
1 1
2 2
2 2
v m
1 1
v m
Figure 3.18 Figure 3.18
Simulation 3.4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
25

## The properties of elastic collision properties of elastic collision are

a. The total momentum is conserved total momentum is conserved.
b. The total kinetic energy is conserved total kinetic energy is conserved.
OR

=
f i
p p

=
f i
K K
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
v m v m u m u m
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
+ = +
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
26
Inelastic (non-elastic) collision Inelastic (non-elastic) collision

is defined as one in which the total kinetic energy of the one in which the total kinetic energy of the
system is not the same before and after the collision (even system is not the same before and after the collision (even
though the total momentum of the system is conserved) though the total momentum of the system is conserved).

## Figure 3.19 shows the model of a completely inelastic completely inelastic

collision collision of two billiard balls.

1 1
2 2
At collision
After collision
(stick together)
1 1
2 2
v
Figure 3.19 Figure 3.19
Before collision 1 1
2 2
1 1
u m
0 =
2
u
2
m
Simulation 3.5
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
27

Caution:

Not all Not all the inelastic collision is stick together stick together.

## In fact, inelastic collisions include many situations many situations in which

the bodies do not stick bodies do not stick

## The properties of inelastic collision properties of inelastic collision are

a. The total momentum is conserved total momentum is conserved.
b. The total kinetic energy is not conserved total kinetic energy is not conserved because some of
the energy is converted to internal energy internal energy and some of it is
transferred away by means of sound or heat sound or heat. But the total total
energy is conserved energy is conserved.
OR

=
f i
p p

=
f i
E E
energy losses + =
f i
K K
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
28
Ball A of mass 400 g and velocity 4 m s
-1
collides with ball B of
mass 600 g and velocity 10 m s
-1
. After collision, A and B will move
together. Determine the final velocity of both balls if A and B
moves in the opposite direction initially
Solution : Solution :
m m
A A
= 0.4 kg, u = 0.4 kg, u
A A
= 4 m s = 4 m s
-1 -1
, m , m
B B
= 0.6 kg, u = 0.6 kg, u
B B
= -10 m s = -10 m s
-1 -1
, ,
inelastic collision inelastic collision
By using the principle of conservation of linear momentum, thus
Example 3.5 :
Before collision A A
B B
B
u
A
u
After collision A A B B
? = v

=
f i
p p

v m m u m u m
B A B B A A
) ( + = +
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
29
Solution : Solution :
Final velocity of both balls is - 4.4 m s
-1
B A
B B A A
m m
u m u m
v
+
+
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
30
A ball A of mass 1 kg moving at a velocity of 4 m s
-1
collides with
ball B of mass 2 kg which at rest. Calculate the velocity of both
balls after collision if the collision is an elastic collision.
Solution : Solution :
Given m
A
= 1 kg, u
A
= 4 m s
-1
, m
B
= 2 kg,
u
B
= 0 m s
-1
, elastic collision

Example 3.6 :
Before collision A A
B B
1
0

= ms u
B
A
u
After collision A A
B B
? =
B
v
? =
A
v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
31
Solution : Solution :
Apply principle of conservation of momentum,

Apply principle of conservation of kinetic energy,

B B A A B B A A
v m v m u m u m + = +
) ( 2 ) ( 1 ) 0 ( 2 ) 4 ( 1
B A
v v + = +
2 2 2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
B B A A A A
v m v m u m + =
2 2 2
) ( ) ( ) (
B B A A A A
v m v m u m + =
1
B
s m v 2 - 4

=
A
v
..(1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
32
2 2 2
) ( 2 ) ( 1 ) 4 ( 1
B A
v v + =
Solution :
Solution :
2
2
16
B A
v v + = ..(2)
Substitute equation (1) into equation (2)
2
2
2 ) 2 4 ( 16
B B
v v + =
2
2
2 ) 2 ( 4 16
B B
v v + =
2
2
) 2 ( 2 8
B B
v v + =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
33
Substitute into equation (1),
2
3 8
B B
v v =
1
67 . 2

= ms v
B
(2.67) 2 - 4 =
A
v
Solution :
Solution :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 3
34
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 4 :
Forces
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
1
CHAPTER 4:
FORCES
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4. FORCES
4.1 Basic of Forces and Free Body Diagram
4.2 Newtons Laws of Motion
2
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
3
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Identify the forces acting on a body in different situations.
Weight
Tension
Normal force
Friction
Determine weight, static friction and kinetic friction
Draw free body diagram
Determine the resultant force
Learning Outcome:
4.1 Basic of Forces and Free Body Diagram
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
4.1 Basic of Forces and Free Body Diagram
Weight,
is defined as the force exerted on a body under gravitational
field.
It is a vector quantity.
It is dependant on where it is measured, because the value of g
varies at different localities on the earths surface.
It always directed toward the centre of the earth or in the same
direction of acceleration due to gravity, g.
The S.I. unit is kg m s
-2
or Newton (N).
Equation:
g m W

=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
5
Tension, T
The tension force is the force that is transmitted through a
string, rope, cable or wire when it is pulled tight by forces
acting from opposite ends. The tension force is directed
along the length of the wire and pulls equally on the objects
on the opposite ends of the wire.
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
Figure 4.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
66
Normal (reaction) force,
is defined as a reaction force that exerted by the surface to
an object interact with it and the direction always
perpendicular to the surface.
An object lies at rest on a flat horizontal surface as shown in
Figure 4.2.
R or N

N
g m W

=

= = 0 mg N F
y
mg N =
Therefore
Figure 4.2
Action: weight of an object is exerted on the
horizontal surface
Reaction: surface is exerted a force, N on the
object
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
A free body diagram is defined as a diagram
showing the chosen body by itself, with vectors
drawn to show the magnitude and directions of all
the forces applied to the body by the other bodies
that interact with it.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
7
Friction
is defined as a force that resists the motion of one surface
relative to another with which it is in contact.
is independent of the area of contact between the two surfaces..
is directly proportional to the reaction force.
OR
Coefficient of friction,
is defined as the ratio between frictional force to reaction
force.
OR
is dimensionless and depends on the nature of the surfaces.
N f
N f =
force frictional : f
friction of t coefficien :
force reaction : N
where
N
f
=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
8
There are three types of frictional force :
Static, f
s
(frictional force act on the object before its move)
Kinetic, f
k
(frictional force act on the object when its move)
Rolling, f
r
(frictional force act on the object when its rolling)
Caution:
The direction of the frictional force exerted by a surface
on an object is always in the opposite direction of the
motion.
The frictional and the reaction forces are always
perpendicular.
N f
k k
=
N f
s s
=
N f
r r
=
s k r
f f f < < where
thus
s k r
< <
Can be ignored
Simulation 4.1
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 4.1:
A mass is resting on a flat surface which has a normal force of
98N, with a coefficient of static friction of 0.35. What force
would it take to move the object?
9
Solution: N = 98N,
s
= 0.35
N f
s s
=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
10
Example 4.2:
A 15 kg piece of wood is placed on top of another piece of
wood. There is 35N of static friction measured between them.
Determine the coefficient of static friction between the two
pieces of wood.
Solution: N = mg = 15(9.81) = 147.15 N, F
s
= 35 N
N
f
s
s
=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Example 4.3
A dock worker loading crates on a ship finds that a 15 kg crate,
initially at rest on a horizontal surface, requires a 50 N
horizontal force to set it in motion. However, after the crate is in
motion, a horizontal force of 30 N is required to keep it moving
with a constant speed. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 ms
-2
.
Find the coefficient of kinetic friction.
11
Solution:
Mass of crate = m = 15 kg
Force required to set the crate in motion = F
1
= 50 N
Force required to keep the crate in moving at constant speed =
f
k
= 30 N
Acceleration of gravity = g = 9.81 ms
-2
Normal force, N = mg = =
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
12
Solution:
From
N
f
k
k
=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
Resultant force
Is defined as a single force that represents the combined
effect of two or more forces
13 13
The figure above shows three forces F
1
, F
2
and F
3
acted on a
particle O. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the
resultant force on particle O.
Example 4.4:
y
30
o
O
) N 30 (
2
F

) N 10 (
1
F

30
o
x
) N 40 (
3
F

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
14
30
o
Solution :
O
y
x
3
F

30
o
y 3
F

+ + = =
3 2 1
F F F F F
r

+ =
y x r
F F F

x x x x
F F F F
3 2 1

+ + =

y y y y
F F F F
3 2 1

+ + =

x
F
2

1
F

2
F

60
o
y
F
2

x 3
F

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
15
Vector x-component y-component
1
F

3
F

2
F

N 0
1
=
x
F
1 1
F F
y
=
N 0 1
1
=
y
F

60 cos 30
2
=
x
F
N 15
2
=
x
F

60 sin 30
2
=
y
F
N 6 2
2
=
y
F

30 cos 40
3
=
x
F
N 34.6
3
=
x
F

30 sin 40
3
=
y
F
N 20
3
=
y
F
Vector
sum
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
16
y
x
O
Solution :
The magnitude of the resultant force is
and
Its direction is 162 from positive x-axis OR 18 above negative x-
axis.
( ) ( )
2 2

+ =
y x r
F F F
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
y
F
F

1
tan
y
F

x
F

162
r
F

18
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
17
1. Given three vectors P, Q and R as shown in Figure 4.3.
Calculate the resultant vector of P, Q and R.
ANS. : 49.4 m s
2
; 70.1 above + x-axis
Exercise 4.1:
Figure 4.3
y
x
0
50
( )
2
s m 10

R

( )
2
s m 35

P

( )
2
s m 24

Q

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
18
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
State Newtons First Law
Define mass as a measure of inertia.
Define the equilibrium of a particle.
Apply Newtons First Law in equilibrium of forces
State and apply Newtons Second Law
State and apply Newtons Third Law.
Learning Outcome:
4.2 Newtons laws of motion
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ = = =
t d
v d
m
t d
m d
v mv
t d
d
t d
dp
F
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
19
4.2 Newtons laws of motion
4.2.1 Newtons first law of motion
states an object at rest will remain at rest, or continues to
move with uniform velocity in a straight line unless it is
acted upon by a external forces
OR
The first law gives the idea of inertia.

= = 0 F F
nett

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
20
4.2.2 Inertia
Inertia
is defined as the tendency of an object to resist any change
in its state of rest or motion.
is a scalar quantity.
Mass, m
is defined as a measure of a bodys inertia.
is a scalar quantity.
The S.I. unit of mass is kilogram (kg).
The value of mass is independent of location.
If the mass of a body increases then its inertia will increase.
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
21
Figures 4.4a and 4.4b show the examples of real experience of
inertia.
Figure 4.4
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
22
4.2.3 Equilibrium of a particle
is defined as the vector sum of all forces acting on a particle
(point) must be zero.
The equilibrium of a particle ensures the body in translational
equilibriumand its condition is given by
This is equivalent to the three independent scalar equations
along the direction of the coordinate axes,
There are two types of equilibrium of a particle. It is
Static equilibrium (v=0)body remains at rest (stationary).
Dynamic equilibrium (a=0)body moving at a uniform
(constant) velocity.

= = 0
nett
F F

Newtons first
law of motion

= = = 0 , 0 , 0
z y x
F F F
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
23
Problem solving strategies for equilibrium of a
particle
The following procedure is recommended when dealing with
problems involving the equilibrium of a particle:
Sketch a simple diagram of the system to help
conceptualize the problem.
Sketch a separate free body diagram for each body.
Choose a convenient coordinate axes for each body and
construct a table to resolve the forces into their
components.
Apply the condition for equilibrium of a particle in
component form :
Solve the component equations for the unknowns.

= 0
x
F

= 0
y
F and
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
24 24
A load of 250 kg is hung by a cranes cable. The load is pulled by a
horizontal force such that the cable makes a 30 angle to the
vertical plane. If the load is in the equilibrium, calculate
a. the magnitude of the tension in the cable,
b. the magnitude of the horizontal force. (Given g =9.81 m s
2
)
Solution :
Example 4.5:

30
F

## Free body diagram of the load :

g m

y
T

30

60
x
T
kg 250 = m
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
25
Solution :
1
st
method :
a.
Since the load is in the equilibrium, then
Thus
b. By substituting eq. (2) into eq. (1), therefore

= 0
x
F 0 60 cos =

T F
kg 250 = m
Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
g m

0
( )( ) 9.81 250 = mg
F

F
0
T

60 cos T

60 sin T
2453 =

= 0 F

(1)
(2)

= 0
y
F
0 2453 60 sin =

T
( ) 0 60 cos 2833 =

F
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
26

30
Solution :
2
nd
method :
a. Since the load is in the equilibrium, then a closed triangle of
forces can be sketched as shown below.
b.

30 sin =
T
F
kg 250 = m

30 cos =
T
mg

30 sin
2833
=
F
F

g m

## From the closed triangle of forces, hence

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
27
Calculate the magnitude and direction of a force that balance the
three forces acted at point A as shown in Figure 4.5.
Example 4.6:
N 12 =
1
F
N 20 =
2
F
N 30 =
3
F

30.0

55.0

45.0
A
Figure 4.5
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
28
Solution :
To find a force to balance the three forces means the system must
be in equilibrium hence
N 30 N; 20 N; 12 = = =
3 2 1
F F F
Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
1
F

55.0 cos 12
F

x
F
y
F
6.88 =

55.0 sin 12
9.83 =
2
F

30.0 cos 20
17.3 =

30.0 sin 20
10.0 =
3
F

45.0 cos 30
21.2 =

45.0 sin 30
21.2 =
0

=
x
F
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
29
Solution :
The magnitude of the force,
and its direction,
0

=
y
F
0 21.2 10.0 9.83 = + +
y
F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
y
2
x
F F F 1.37 31.6 + = + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
y
1
F
F
tan
|
.
|

\
|
=

31.6
1.37
tan
1

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
30
30
A window washer pushes his scrub brush up a vertical window at
constant speed by applying a force F as shown in Figure 4.6.
The brush weighs 10.0 N and the coefficient of kinetic friction is

k
= 0.125. Calculate
a. the magnitude of the force F ,
b. the normal force exerted by the window on the brush.
Example 4.7:
F

50.0
Figure 4.6
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
31
Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the brush :
The brush moves up at constant speed (a=0) so that
Thus
0.125 ; N 10.0 = =
k
W
W

k
f

constant
speed
Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
F

50.0 cos F
k
f

0
N
k

50.0 sin F
W

0 10.0
N

N
0
N 0.125 =

= = 0 a m F

50.0 cos F N = 0

=
x
F
(1)
(2)
10.0 0.125 50.0 sin = N F

0

=
y
F

50.0
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
32
Solution :
a. By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus
b. Therefore the normal force exerted by the window on the brush
is given by
( ) 10.0 50.0 cos 0.125 50.0 sin =

F F

50.0 cos F N =
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
33
Exercise 4.2:
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1.
The system in Figure 5.8 is in equilibrium, with the string at the
centre exactly horizontal. Calculate
a. the tensions T
1
, T
2
and T
3
.
b. the angle u.
ANS. : 49 N, 28 N, 57 N; 29
Figure 4.7
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
34
Exercise 4.2:
2.
A 20 kg ball is supported from the ceiling by a rope A. Rope B
pulls downward and to the side on the ball. If the angle of A to
the vertical is 20 and if B makes an angle of 50 to the vertical
as shown in Figure 4.8, Determine the tension in ropes A and B.
ANS. : 134 N; 300 N
Figure 4.8
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
35
Exercise 4.2:
3.
A block of mass 3.00 kg is pushed up against a wall by a force
P that makes a 50.0 angle with the horizontal as show in
Figure 4.9. The coefficient of static friction between the block
and the wall is 0.250. Determine the possible values for the
magnitude of P that allow the block to remain stationary.
ANS. : 31.8 N; 48.6 N
Figure 4.9
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
36
Newtons second law of motion
states the rate of change of linear momentum of a moving
body is proportional to the resultant force and is in the
same direction as the force acting on it
OR
its can be represented by
dt
p d
F

where
momentum linear in change : p d

interval time : dt
force resultant :

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
37
From the Newtons 2
nd
law of motion, it also can be written as
Case 1:
Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity but with
changing mass. For example : Rocket

dt
v d
m
dt
dm
v F

+ =

dt
p d
F

( )

dt
v m d
F

dt
v d
m
dt
dm
v F

+ =

mv p =
an
d
0
dt
v d
=

dt
dm
v F

and
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
38
Case 2:
Object at rest or in motion with constant velocity and constant
mass.
Thus
dt
v d
m
dt
dm
v F

+ =

Newtons 1
st
law of motion
0 = =

dt
p d
F

constant = p

0
dt
dm
= 0
dt
v d
=

0 F =

where and
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
39
Case 3:
Object with constant mass but changing velocity.
The direction of the resultant force always in the same
direction of the motion or acceleration.
dt
v d
m
dt
dm
v F

+ =

0
dt
dm
= an
d
a m F

dt
v d
m F

dt
v d
a

= and
where
object an of mass : m
on accelerati : a
force resultant :

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
40
Newtons 2
nd
law of motion restates that The acceleration of
an object is directly proportional to the nett force acting on
it and inversely proportional to its mass.
OR
One newton(1 N) is defined as the amount of nett force that
gives an acceleration of one metre per second squared to a
body with a mass of one kilogramme.
OR 1 N = 1 kg m s
-2
Notes:
is a nett force or effective force or resultant force.
The force which causes the motion of an object.
If the forces act on an object and the object moving at
uniform acceleration (not at rest or not in the
equilibrium) hence
a m F F
nett

= =

m
F
a

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
41
Newtons third law of motion
states every action force has a reaction force that is equal
in magnitude but opposite in direction.
For example :
When the student push on the wall it will push back with the
same force. (refer to Figure 4.10)
BA AB
F F

=
A (hand)
B (wall)
BA
F

AB
F

Figure 4.10
is a force by the hand on the wall (action) Where
is a force by the wall on the hand (reaction)
BA
F

AB
F

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
42
When a book is placed on the table. (refer to Figure 4.11)
If a car is accelerating forward, it is because its tyres are
pushing backward on the road and the road is pushing
forward on the tyres.
A rocket moves forward as a result of the push exerted on it
by the exhaust gases which the rocket has pushed out.
In all cases when two bodies interact, the action and reaction
forces act on different bodies.
Figure 4.11
Force by the book on the table (action)
Force by the table on the book (reaction)
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
43
Applications of Newtons 2
nd
law of motion
From the Newtons second law of motion, we arrived at equation
There are five steps in applying the equation above to solve
problems in mechanics:
Identify the object whose motion is considered.
Determine the forces exerted on the object.
Draw a free body diagram for each object.
is defined as a diagram showing the chosen body by
itself, with vectors drawn to show the magnitude and
directions of all the forces applied to the body by the
other bodies that interact with it.
Choose a system of coordinates so that calculations may be
simplified.
Apply the equation above,
Along x-axis:
Along y-axis:

= = ma F F
nett
x
x
ma F

=
y y
ma F
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
44
Three wooden blocks connected by a rope of negligible mass are
being dragged by a horizontal force, F in Figure 4.12.
Suppose that F = 1000 N, m
1
= 3 kg, m
2
= 15 kg and m
3
= 30 kg.
Determine
a. the acceleration of blocks system.
b. the tension of the rope, T
1
and T
2
.
Neglect the friction between the floor and the wooden blocks.
Example 4.8:
Figure 4.12
1
T

m
1
m
2
m
3
2
T

w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
45
Solution :
a. For the block, m
1
= 3 kg
For the block, m
2
= 15 kg
For the block, m
3
= 30 kg
a

= = a m T F F
1 1 x
(1)

= = a m T T F
2 2 1 x
(2)
1
T

m
1
m
2
m
3
2
T

= = a T F
1 x
3 1000
1
T

= = a T T F
2 1 x
15
2
T

= = a m T F
3 2 x
(3)
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
46
Solution :
a. By substituting eq. (3) into eq. (2) thus
Eq. (1)(4) :
b. By substituting the value of acceleration into equations (4) and
(3), therefore
0 45 = a T
1
(4)
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
47
Two objects of masses m
1
= 10 kg and m
2
= 15 kg are connected
by a light string which passes over a smooth pulley as shown in
Figure 4.13. Calculate
a. the acceleration of the object of mass 10 kg.
b. the tension in the each string.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution :
a. For the object m
1
= 10 kg,
Example 4.9:
Figure 4.13
m
1
m
2
1
T

g m W
1 1

= = a m g m T F
1 1 1 y
(1) a g T 10 10 =
a

where T T T
2 1
= =
Simulation 4.2
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
48
Solution :
a. For the object m
2
= 15 kg,
Eq. (1) + (2) :
b. Substitute the value of acceleration into equation (1) thus
Therefore
2
T

g m W
2 2

= = a m T g m F
2 2 2 y
(2) a g T 15 15 = +
a

= = a T g F
y
15 15
( ) ( ) 1.96 10 9.81 10 = T
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
49
Two blocks, A of mass 10 kg and B of mass 30 kg, are side by side
and in contact with each another. They are pushed along a smooth
floor under the action of a constant force F of magnitude 200 N
applied to A as shown in Figure 4.14. Determine
a. the acceleration of the blocks,
b. the force exerted by A on B.
Solution :
a. Let the acceleration of the blocks is a. Therefore
Example 4.10:
( )

+ = a m m F
B A x
N 200 kg; 30 kg; 10 = = = F m m
B A
Figure 4.14
A
B
F

( )a m m F
B A
+ =
Simulation 4.3
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
50
Solution :
b. For the object A,
From the Newtons 3
rd
law, thus
OR
For the object B,

= = a m F F F
A BA x
( ) 5.0 10 200 =
BA
F
F

BA
F

A
B
AB
F

= = a m F F
B AB x
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
51
1. A block is dragged by forces, F
1
and F
2
of the magnitude
20 N and 30 N respectively as shown in Figure 4.15. The
frictional force f exerted on the block is 5 N. If the weight of
the block is 200 N and it is move horizontally, determine the
acceleration of the block.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
ANS. : 1.77 m s
2
Exercise 4.3:

50
a

1
F

2
F

20
Figure 4.15
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
52
2. One 3.5 kg paint bucket is hanging by a massless cord from
another 3.5 kg paint bucket, also hanging by a massless cord
as shown in Figure 4.16. If the two buckets are pulled upward
with an acceleration of 1.60 m s
2
by the upper cord, calculate
the tension in each cord.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
ANS. : 39.9 N; 79.8 N
Exercise 4.3:
Figure 4.16
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 4
53
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 5 :
Work, Energy and Power
w
w
w
.
k
m
p
h
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
CHAPTER 5
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
1
CHAPTER 5:
Work, Energy and Power
(3 Hours)
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
2
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
(a) Define and use work done by a force.
(b) Determine work done from the force-
displacement graph.
Learning Outcome:
5.1 Work (1 hour)
s F W

- =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
3
5.1 Work, W
Work done by a constant force
is defined as the product of the component of the
force parallel to the displacement times the
displacement of a body.
OR
is defined as the scalar (dot) product between
force and displacement of a body.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
4
s F W

- =
( ) Fs s F W cos cos = =
force of magnitude : F
body the of nt displaceme : s
s F

## and between angle the :

Where,
Mathematically :
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
5
It is a scalar quantity.
Dimension :
The S.I. unit of work is kg m
2
s
2
or joule (J).
The joule (1 J) is defined as the work done by a force of 1 N
which results in a displacement of 1 m in the direction of
the force.
| | | || | s F W =
| |
2 2
T ML

= W
2 2
s m kg 1 m N 1 J 1

= =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
6
Work done by a variable force
Figure 5.1 shows a force, F whose magnitude
changes with the displacement, s.
For a small displacement, As
1
the force remains
almost constant at F
1
and work done therefore
becomes AW
1
=F
1
As
1
.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
7
To find the total work done by a variable force, Wwhen the
displacement changes from s=s
1
to s=s
2
, we can divide the
displacement into N small successive displacements :
As
1
, As
2
, As
3
, , As
N
Thus
F
N
F
4
As
4
As
N
s
1
s
2
F/N
s
0
F
1
As
1
AW
1
N N 2 2 1 1
s F s F s F W A + + A + A = ...
Figure 5.1
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
8
When N , As 0, therefore
}
=
2
1
s
s
Fds W
graph nt displaceme - force under the area the = W
F/N
s/m
s
1
s
2
0
Work = Area
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
9
Applications of works equation
Case 1 :
Work done by a horizontal force, F on an object (Figure 4.2).
Case 2 :
Work done by a vertical force, F on an object (Figure 4.3).

0 =
F

Figure 5.2
Fs W cos =
Fs W =
and

90 =
Fs W cos =
J 0 = W
and
F

Figure 5.3
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
10
Case 3 :
Work done by a horizontal forces, F
1
and F
2
on an object
(Figure 5.4).
Case 4 :
Work done by a force, F and frictional force, f on an object
(Figure 5.5).
0 cos

s F W
1 1
=
0 cos

s F W
2 2
=
( )s F W W
nett nett
= =
1
F

2
F

Figure 5.4
( ) s F s F W W W
2 1 2 1
+ = + =

2 1 nett
F F F + = ( )s F F W
2 1
+ =

and
cos ma f F F
nett
= =
( )s F W
nett nett
=
( )s f F W
nett
= u cos
mas W
nett
=
f

u
Figure 5.5
s

and
OR
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
11
Caution :
Work done on an object is zero when F = 0 or s= 0 and
u = 90.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
12
Sign for work.
If 0<u <90 (acute angle) then cosu > 0 (positive value)
therefore
W> 0 (positive) work done on the system ( by
the external force) where energy
is transferred to the system.
If 90<u <180 (obtuse angle) then cosu <0 (negative
value) therefore
W< 0 (negative) work done by the system
where energy is transferred
from the system.
u cos Fs W =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
13
You push your physics reference book 1.50 m along a horizontal
table with a horizontal force of 5.00 N. The frictional force is 1.60 N.
Calculate
a. the work done by the 5.00 N force,
b. the work done by the frictional force,
c. the total work done on the book.
Solution :
a. Use works equation of constant force,
Example 5.1 :
m 1.50 = s
N 5.00 = F
N 1.60 = f
cos Fs W
F
=

0 =
and
Example 5.1 :
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
14
Solution :
b.
c.
fs W
f
cos =

+ =
f F
W W W
OR

= s F W
nett
( )

= s f F W

180 =
and
( )( )

180 cos 1.50 1.60 =
f
W
( )

+ = 2.40 7.50 W
( )( )

## = 1.50 1.60 5.00 W

CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
15
A box of mass 20 kg moves up a rough plane which is inclined to
the horizontal at 25.0. It is pulled by a horizontal force F of
magnitude 250 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box
and the plane is 0.300.
a. If the box travels 3.80 m along the plane, determine
i. the work done on the box by the force F,
ii. the work done on the box by the gravitational force,
iii. the work done on the box by the reaction force,
iv. the work done on the box by the frictional force,
v. the total work done on the box.
b. If the speed of the box is zero at the bottom of the plane,
calculate its speed when it is travelled 3.80 m.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 5.2 :
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
16
Solution :
a. Consider the work done along inclined plane, thus
i.
m 3.80 0.300; ; N 250 ; kg 20 = = = = s F m
k
s F W
x F
cos =

0 =
and
( )( )

0 cos 3.80 25 cos 250 =
F
W

25

25
k
f

g m W

=
y
F

25 cos mg
x
F

25 sin mg
a

25
x
y
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
17
Solution :
a. ii.
iii.
iv.
( ) s mg W
g
cos 25 sin

=

180 =
and
( )( ) ( )( )

180 cos 3.80 25 sin 9.81 20 =
g
W
Ns W
N
cos =

90 =
and
s f W
k f
cos =

180 =
and
( )

180 cos s N W
k f
=
( )s mg F W
k f

25 cos 25 sin + =
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 3.80 25 cos 9.81 20 25 sin 250 0.300

+ =
f
W
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
18
Solution :
a. v.
b. Given
By using equation of work for nett force,
Hence by using the equation of linear motion,

+ + + =
f N g F
W W W W W
( ) ( )

## + + + = 323 0 315 861 W

= mas W
( ) ( ) 3.80 20 223 a =
as u v
2 2
2 + =
0 = u
( )( ) 3.80 2.93 2 0 + =
2
v
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
19
A horizontal force F is applied to a 2.0 kg radio-controlled car as it
moves along a straight track. The force varies with the
displacement of the car as shown in Figure 5.6. Calculate the work
done by the force F when the car moves from 0 to 7 m.
Solution :
Example 5.3 :
5
4
7
0
5
3 6
(N) F
5 (m) s
Figure 5.6
graph under the area s F W =
( ) ( ) ( )( ) 4 6 7
2
1
5 3 5 6
2
1
+ + = W
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
20
Exercise 5.1 :
1. A block of mass 2.50 kg is pushed 2.20 m along a frictionless
horizontal table by a constant 16.0 N force directed 25.0 below
the horizontal. Determine the work done on the block by
a. the applied force,
b. the normal force exerted by the table, and
c. the gravitational force.
d. Determine the total work on the block.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
ANS. : 31.9 J; (b) & (c) U think; 31.9 J
2. A trolley is rolling across a parking lot of a supermarket. You
apply a constant force to the trolley as it
undergoes a displacement . Calculate
a. the work done on the trolley by the force F,
b. the angle between the force and the displacement of the
trolley.
ANS. : 150 J; 108
( )N j

40 i

30 = F

( )m j

3.0 i

9.0 = s

## CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

21
Exercise 5.1 :
3.
Figure 5.7 shows an overhead view of three horizontal forces
acting on a cargo that was initially stationary but that now
moves across a frictionless floor. The force magnitudes are
F
1
= 3.00 N, F
2
= 4.00 N and F
3
= 10.0 N. Determine the total
work done on the cargo by the three forces during the first
4.00 m of displacement.
ANS. : 15.3 J
3
F

1
F

2
F

y
x

35

50
Figure 5.7
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
22
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
(a) Define and use kinetic energy,
(b) Define and use potential energy:
i. gravitational potential energy,
ii. elastic potential energy for spring,
(c) State and use the principle of conservation of energy.
(d) Explain the work-energy theorem and use the related
equation.
Learning Outcome:
2
2
1
mv K =
mgh U =
2
2
1
kx U =
5.2 Energy And Conservation Of Energy
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
23
Energy is defined as the systems ability to do work.
The S.I. unit for energy is same to the unit of work (joule, J).
The dimension of energy
is a scalar quantity.
Table 5.1 summarises some common types of energy.
| | | |
2 2
= = T ML Work nergy E
Forms of
Energy
Description
Chemical
Energy released when chemical bonds between atoms
and molecules are broken.
Electrical Energy that is associated with the flow of electrical charge.
Heat
Energy that flows from one place to another as a result of
a temperature difference.
Internal
Total of kinetic and potential energy of atoms or molecules
within a body.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
24
Forms of
Energy
Description
Table 5.1
Nuclear Energy released by the splitting of heavy nuclei.
Mass
Energy released when there is a loss of small amount
of mass in a nuclear process. The amount of energy
can be calculated from Einsteins mass-energy
equation, E = mc
2
Radiant Heat Energy associated with infra-red radiation.
Sound
Energy transmitted through the propagation of a series
of compression and rarefaction in solid, liquid or gas.
Mechanical
a. Kinetic
b. Gravitational
potential
c. Elastic
potential
Energy associated with the motion of a body.
Energy associated with the position of a body in a
gravitational field.
Energy stored in a compressed or stretched spring.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
25
Conservation of energy
5.2.1 Kinetic energy, K
is defined as the energy of a body due to its motion.
Equation :
Work-kinetic energy theorem
Consider a block with mass, m moving along the horizontal
surface (frictionless) under the action of a constant nett force,
F
nett
undergoes a displacement, s in Figure 4.8.
2
2
1
mv K =
body a of energy kinetic : K
body a of speed : v
body a of mass : m
where
s

nett
F

m
Figure 5.8

= = ma F F
nett
(1)
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
26
By using an equation of linear motion:
By substituting equation (2) into (1), we arrive
Therefore
states the work done by the nett force on a body equals the
change in the bodys kinetic energy.
as u v 2
2 2
+ =

s
u v
a
2
2 2

=
(2)

2
2 2
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
s
u v
m F
nett
i f nett
K K mu mv s F = =
2 2
2
1
2
1
K W
nett
A =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
27
A stationary object of mass 3.0 kg is pulled upwards by a constant
force of magnitude 50 N. Determine the speed of the object when it
is travelled upwards through 4.0 m.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution :
The nett force acting on the object is given by
By applying the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
Example 5.4 :
0 m; 4.0 ; N 50 ; kg 3.0 = = = = u s F m
F

g m

g m

( )( ) 9.81 3.0 50 = = mg F F
nett
i f nett
K K W =
0
2
1
2
= mv s F
nett
( )( ) ( )
2
3.0
2
1
4.0 20.6 v =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
28
A block of mass 2.00 kg slides 0.750 m down an inclined plane that
slopes downward at an angle of 36.9 below the horizontal. If the
block starts from rest, calculate its final speed. You can ignore the
friction. (Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution :
Example 5.5 :
s

36.9
0 m; 0.750 ; kg 2.00 = = = u s m
N

g m

36.9

36.9 sin mg

36.9 cos mg
a

x
y
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
29
Solution :
Since the motion of the block along the incline surface thus nett
force is given by
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus

36.9 sin mg F
nett
=
0 m; 0.750 ; kg 2.00 = = = u s m
( )( )

36.9 sin 9.81 2.00 =
nett
F
i f nett
K K W =
0
2
1
2
= mv s F
nett
( )( ) ( )
2
2.00
2
1
0.750 11.8 v =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
30
An object of mass 2.0 kg moves along the x-axis and is acted on
by a force F. Figure 5.9 shows how F varies with distance
travelled, s. The speed of the object at s = 0 is 10 m s
1
.
Determine
a. the speed of the object at s = 10 m,
b. the kinetic energy of the object at s = 6.0 m.
Example 5.6 :
10
5
0
6 4 10
(N) F
7
(m) s
Figure 5.9
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
31
Solution :
a.
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
1
s m 10 kg; 2.0

= = u m
m 10 to m 0 from graph under the area s F W =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( ) 5 7 10 6 10
2
1
10 4 6
2
1
+ + + = W
i f
K K W =
2 2
2
1
2
1
mu mv W =
( ) ( )( )
2
2
10 2.0
2
1
2.0
2
1
32.5 = v
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
32
Solution :
b.
By using the work-kinetic energy theorem, thus
m 6 to m 0 from graph under the area s F W =
( )10 4 6
2
1
+ = W
i f
K K W =
2
2
1
mu K W
f
=
( )( )
2
10 2.0
2
1
50 =
f
K
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
33
Exercise 5.2 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. A bullet of mass 15 g moves horizontally at velocity of
250 m s
1
.It strikes a wooden block of mass 400 g placed at rest
on a floor. After striking the block, the bullet is embedded in the
block. The block then moves through 15 m and stops. Calculate
the coefficient of kinetic friction between the block and the floor.
ANS. : 0.278
2. A parcel is launched at an initial speed of 3.0 m s
1
up a rough
plane inclined at an angle of 35 above the horizontal. The
coefficient of kinetic friction between the parcel and the plane is
0.30. Determine
a. the maximum distance travelled by the parcel up the plane,
b. the speed of the parcel when it slides back to the starting
point.
ANS. : 0.560 m; 1.90 m s
1
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
34
5.2.2 Potential Energy
is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because
of its position, shape and state.
Gravitational potential energy, U
is defined as the energy stored in a body or system because
of its position.
Equation :
The gravitational potential energy depends only on the height
of the object above the surface of the Earth.
mgh U =
energy potential nal gravitatio : U
position initial the from body a of height : h
where
body a of mass : m
gravity to due on accelerati : g
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
35
Work-gravitational potential energy theorem
Consider a book with mass, m is dropped from height, h
1
to
height, h
2
as shown in the Figure 5.10.
states the change in gravitational potential energy as
the negative of the work done by the gravitational force.

1
h
g m

g m

2
h
s
Figure 5.10
( )
2 1 g
h h mg mgs W = =
The work done by the gravitational force
(weight) is
f i g
U U mgh mgh W = =
2 1
( ) U U U W
i f g
A = =
U W A =
Therefore in general,
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
36
Negative sign in the equation indicates that
When the body moves down, h decreases, the
gravitational force does positive work because AU <0.
When the body moves up, h increases, the work done
by gravitational force is negative because AU >0.
For calculation, use
i f
U U U W = = A
energy potential nal gravitatio final :
f
U
where
force nal gravitatio a by done work : W
energy potential nal gravitatio initial :
i
U
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
37
In a smooth pulley system, a force F is required to bring an
object of mass 5.00 kg to the height of 20.0 m at a constant
speed of 3.00 m s
1
as shown in Figure 5.11. Determine
a. the force, F
b. the work done by the force, F.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Example 5.7 :
Figure 5.11
F

m 20.0
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
38
Solution :
a. Since the object moves at the constant
speed, thus
b. From the equation of work,
1
s m 3.00 constant m; 20.0 kg; 5.00

= = = = = v h s m
0 =
nett
F
mg F =
F

g m

g m

Constant
speed
Fs W cos =

0 =
and
OR
Fs W cos =
mgh U W = =

0 =
and
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
39
Elastic potential energy, U
s
is defined as the energy stored in in elastic materials as the
result of their stretching or compressing.
Springs are a special instance of device which can store
elastic potential energy due to its compression or
stretching.
Hookes Law states the restoring force, F
s
of spring is
directly proportional to the amount of stretch or
compression (extension or elongation), xif the limit of
proportionality is not exceeded
OR
x F
s

kx F
s
=
spring of force restoring the :
s
F
) ( n compressio or stretch of amount the :
i f
-x x x
constant force or constant spring the : k
where
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
40
Negative sign in the equation indicates that the direction of F
s
is always opposite to the direction of the amount of stretch or
compression (extension), x.
Case 1:
The spring is hung vertically and its is stretched by a suspended
object with mass, m as shown in Figure 5.12.
The spring is in equilibrium, thus
Initial position
Final position
s
F

g m W

=
x
Figure 5.12
mg W F
s
= =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
41
Figure 5.13
(Equilibrium position)
Case 2:
The spring is attached to an object and it is stretched and
compre5sed by a force, F as shown in Figure 5.13.
s
F

0 = x
0 = x
s
F

x
x
negative is
s
F
positive is x
positive is
s
F
negative is x
0 =
s
F
0 = x
The spring is in equilibrium,
hence
F F
s

=
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
42
Caution:
For calculation, use :
Dimension of spring constant, k :
The unit of k is kg s
2
or N m
1
From the Hookes law (without sign), a restoring force, F
s
against extension of the spring, x graph is shown in Figure 5.14.
F kx F
s
= =
| |
| |
| |
2
s
MT
x
F
k

= =
force applied : F where
F
s
F
0
x
1
x
graph under the area x F W
s
=
1
Fx W
2
1
= ( )
1 1
x kx W
2
1
=
s
2
1
U kx W = =
2
1
Figure 5.14
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
43
The equation of elastic potential energy, U
s
for compressing or
stretching a spring is
The work-elastic potential energy theorem,
Notes :
Work-energy theorem states the work done by the nett
force on a body equals the change in the bodys total
energy
OR
x F
2
1
kx
2
1
U
s
2
s
= =

= A =
i f nett
E E E W
s
U W A =
2
i
2
f si sf
kx
2
1
kx
2
1
U U W = =
OR
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
44
A force of magnitude 800 N caused an extension of 20 cm on a
spring. Determine the elastic potential energy of the spring when
a. the extension of the spring is 30 cm.
b. a mass of 60 kg is suspended vertically from the spring.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution :
From the Hookes law,
a. Given x=0.300 m,
Example 5.8 :
m 0.200 N; 800 = = x F
kx F F
s
= =
( ) 0.20 800 k =
2
2
1
kx U
s
=
( )( )
2
3
0.300 10 4
2
1
=
s
U
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
45
Solution :
b. Given m=60 kg. When the spring in
equilibrium, thus
Therefore
0 =
nett
F
mg F
s
=
mg kx=
( ) ( )( ) 9.81 60 10 4
3
= x
2
2
1
kx U
s
=
( )( )
2
3
0.147 10 4
2
1
=
s
U
s
F

g m W

=
x
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
46
5.2.3 Principle of conservation of energy
states in an isolated (closed) system, the total energy of
that system is constant.
According to the principle of conservation of energy, we get
The initial of total energy = the final of total energy
Conservation of mechanical energy
In an isolated system, the mechanical energy of a system is the
sum of its potential energy, U and the kinetic energy, K of the
objects are constant.
OR

=
f i
E E
constant = + = U K E
OR
f f i i
U K U K + = +
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
47
Before After
cm 30
x
Figure 5.15
A 1.5 kg sphere is dropped from a height of
30 cm onto a spring of spring constant,
k = 2000 N m
1
. After the block hits the
spring, the spring experiences maximum
compression, x as shown in Figure 5.15.
a. Describe the energy conversion
occurred after the sphere is
dropped onto the spring until the
spring experiences maximum
compression, x.
b. Calculate the speed of the sphere just
before strikes the spring.
c. Determine the maximum compression, x.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Example 5.9 :
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
48
The spring is not stretched
hence U
s
= 0. The sphere is
at height h
1
above ground
with speed, v just before
strikes the spring. Therefore
The sphere is at height h
2
above the ground after
compressing the spring by x.
The speed of the sphere at
this moment is zero. Hence
The spring is not stretched
hence U
s
= 0. The sphere is
at height h
0
above ground
therefore U = mgh
0
and it is
stationary hence K = 0.
(2)
v
1
h
(3)
x
2
h
cm 30 = h
0
h
(1)

=
0 1
mgh E

+ =
2
1 2
mv
2
1
mgh E
+ =
2
2 3
kx
2
1
mgh E
Solution :
a.
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
49
Solution :
b. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the
situation (1) and (2),
( )
2
1 0
mv h h mg
2
1
=

=
2 1
E E
2
1 0
mv mgh mgh
2
1
+ =
( )( ) 0.30 9.81 2 = v
1
m N 2000 m; 0.30 kg; 1.5

= = = k h m
and
( )
1 0
h h h =
gh v 2 =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
50
Solution :
c. Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the
situation (2) and (3),
( )
2 2
2 1
kx mv h h mg
2
1
2
1
= +

=
3 2
E E
2
2
2
1
kx mgh mv mgh
2
1
2
1
+ = +
1
m N 2000 m; 0.30 kg; 1.5

= = = k h m
and ( )
2 1
h h x =
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
2
2
2000
2
1
2.43 1.5
2
1
9.81 1.5 x x = +
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
51
A bullet of mass, m
1
=5.00 g is fired into a wooden block of mass,
m
2
=1.00 kg suspended from some light wires as shown in Figure
5.16. The block, initially at rest. The bullet embeds in the block, and
together swing through a height, h=5.50 cm. Calculate
a. the initial speed of the bullet.
b. the amount of energy lost to the surrounding.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 5.10 :
Figure 5.16
1
m
2
m
2 1
m m +
h
1
u
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
52
(1)
1
m
2
m
1
u
0 =
2
u
(3)
h
2 1
m m +
0 =
12
v
(2)
2 1
m m +
12
u
m 10 5.50 kg; 1.00 kg; 10 5.00
2 3
= = = h m m
2 1

=
3 2
E E
( )( ) ( )gh m m u m m
2 1 12 2 1
+ = +
2
2
1
( )( )
2
10 5.50 9.81 2 2

= = gh u
12
U K =
Solution :
a.
Applying the principle of conservation of energy involving the
situation (2) and (3),
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
53
Solution :
Applying the principle of conservation of linear momentum
involving the situation (1) and (2),
b. The energy lost to the surrounding, Q is given by
m 10 5.50 kg; 1.00 kg; 10 5.00
2 3
= = = h m m
2 1

=
2 1
p p

( )
12 2 1 1 1
u m m u m + =
( ) ( )( ) 1.04 1.00 10 5.00 10 5.00
3 3
+ =

1
u

=
2 1
E E Q
( )( )
2
2
1
2
1
12 2 1
2
1 1
u m m u m Q + =
( )( ) ( )( )
2
3
2
3
1.04 1.00 10 5.00
2
1
209 10 5.00
2
1
+ =

Q
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
54
Objects P and Q of masses 2.0 kg and 4.0 kg respectively are
connected by a light string and suspended as shown in Figure
5.17. Object Q is released from rest. Calculate the speed of Q at
the instant just before it strikes the floor.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 5.11 :
Figure 5.17
P
Q
m 2
Smooth
pulley
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
55
Solution :
Applying the principle of conservation of mechanical energy,
0 m; 2 kg; 4.0 kg; 2.0
Q P
= = = = u h m m

=
f i
E E
2
Q
2
P P Q
2
1
2
1
v m v m gh m gh m + + =
Q P P Q
K K U U + + =
Initial
P
Q
m 2
Smooth
pulley
P
Q
m 2
Smooth
pulley
v
v
Final
( )( )( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
4.0
2
1
2.0
2
1
2 9.81 2.0 2 9.81 4.0 v v + + =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
56
Exercise 5.3 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. If it takes 4.00 J of work to stretch a spring 10.0 cm from its
initial length, determine the extra work required to stretch it an
ANS. : 12.0 J
2. A book of mass 0.250 kg is placed on top of a light vertical
spring of force constant 5000 N m
1
that is compressed by 10.0
cm. If the spring is released, calculate the height of the book rise
from its initial position.
ANS. : 10.2 m
3. A 60 kg bungee jumper jumps from a bridge. She is tied to a
bungee cord that is 12 m long when unstretched and falls a total
distance of 31 m. Calculate
a. the spring constant of the bungee cord.
b. the maximum acceleration experienced by the jumper.
ANS. : 100 N m
1
; 22 m s
2
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
57
Exercise 5.3 :
4.
A 2.00 kg block is pushed against a light spring of the force
constant, k = 400 N m
-1
, compressing it x =0.220 m. When the
block is released, it moves along a frictionless horizontal surface
and then up a frictionless incline plane with slope u =37.0 as
shown in Figure 5.18. Calculate
a. the speed of the block as it slides along the horizontal
surface after leaves the spring.
b. the distance travelled by the block up the incline plane before
it slides back down.
ANS. : 3.11 m s
1
; 0.81 m
Figure 5.18
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
58
Exercise 5.3 :
5.
A ball of mass 0.50 kg is at point A with initial speed, u =4 m s
1
at a height of 10 m as shown in Figure 5.19 (Ignore the frictional
force). Determine
a. the total energy at point A,
b. the speed of the ball at point B where the height is 3 m,
c. the speed of the ball at point D,
d. the maximum height of point C so that the ball can pass over
it.
ANS. : 53.1 J; 12.4 m s
1
; 14.6 m s
1
; 10.8 m
u
m 10
A
B
C
D
Figure 5.19
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
59
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
(a) Define and use power:
Average power,
Instantaneous Power,
(b) Derive and apply the formulae
(c) Define and use mechanical efficiency,
and the consequences of heat dissipation.
Learning Outcome:
5.3 Power and mechanical efficiency (1 hour)
dt
dW
P =
v F P

- =
t
W
P
av
A
A
=
100% =
input
output
P
P

## CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

60
5.3 Power and mechanical efficiency
5.3.1 Power, P
is defined as the rate at which work is done.
OR the rate at which energy is transferred.
If an amount of work, W is done in an amount of time At by a
force, the average power, P
av
due to force during that time
interval is
The instantaneous power, P is defined as the instantaneous
rate of doing work, which can be write as
t
E
t
W
P
av
A
A
A
A
= =
dt
dW
t
W
P =
A
A
=
A 0 t
limit
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
61
is a scalar quantity.
The dimension of the power is
The S.I. unit of the power is kg m
2
s
3
or J s
1
or watt (W).
Unit conversion of watt (W), horsepower (hp) and foot pounds
per second (ft. lb s
1
)
Consider an object that is moving at a constant velocity v along
a frictionless horizontal surface and is acted by a constant force,
F directed at angle u above the horizontal as shown in Figure
5.20. The object undergoes a displacement of ds.
| |
| |
| |
3 2
2 2
T ML
T
T ML
t
W
P

= = =
A
A
1
s lb ft. 550 W 746 hp 1

= =
Figure 5.20
F

u
s d

## CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

62
Therefore the instantaneous power, P is given by
OR
dt
dW
P =
v F P

- =
( )ds F dW cos =
Fv P cos =
and
( )
dt
ds F
P
cos
=
dt
ds
v = and
where
v F

## and between angle the :

force of magnitude : F
velocity of magnitude : v
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
63
An elevator has a mass of 1.5 Mg and is carrying 15 passengers
through a height of 20 m from the ground. If the time taken to lift
the elevator to that height is 55 s. Calculate the average power
required by the motor if no energy is lost. (Use g = 9.81 m s
2
and
the average mass per passenger is 55 kg)
Solution :
M= mass of the elevator + mass of the 15 passengers
M= 1500 + (5515) = 2325 kg
According to the definition of average power,
Example 5.12 :
t
Mgh
P
av
A
=
t
E
P
av
A
A
=
s 55 m; 20 = = t h
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
64
An object of mass 2.0 kg moves at a constant speed of 5.0 m s
1
up a plane inclined at 30 to the horizontal. The constant frictional
force acting on the object is 4.0 N. Determine
a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force,
b. the rate of work done against the frictional force,
c. the power supplied to the object. (Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution :
Example 5.13 :
N 4.0 constant; s m 5.0 kg; 2.0
1
= = = =

f v m

30
f

g m W

=

30 cos mg

30 sin mg
v

30
x
y
s

## CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER

65
Solution :
a. the rate of work done against the gravitational force is given by
( )
t
s mg
t
W
g
cos 30 sin

=
A
A
N 4.0 constant; s m 5.0 kg; 2.0
1
= = = =

f v m

180 =
and
( )
t
s
mg
t
W
g

30 sin =
A
A
t
s
v = and
( )v mg
t
W
g

30 sin =
A
A
( )( ) ( )( ) 5.0 30 sin 9.81 2.0

=
A
A
t
W
g
OR
v F
t
W
g
g
cos =
A
A
( )

180 cos 30 sin v mg
t
W
g
=
A
A
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
66
Solution :
b. The rate of work done against the frictional force is
c. The power supplied to the object, P
supplied
= the power lost against gravitational and frictional forces, P
lost
N 4.0 constant; s m 5.0 kg; 2.0
1
= = = =

f v m

180 =
and
fv
t
W
f
cos =
A
A
t
W
t
W
P
f g
A
A
+
A
A
=
supplied
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
67
5.3.2 Mechanical efficiency, q
Efficiency is a measure of the performance of a machines,
engine and etc...
The efficiency of a machine is defined as the ratio of the useful
(output) work done to the energy input.
is a dimensionless quantity (no unit).
Equations:
100% =
in
out
E
W

OR
100% =
in
out
P
P

where
system by the produced power :
out
P
system a to supplied power :
in
P
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
68
Notes :
In practice, P
out
<P
in
hence q <100%.
The system loses energy to its surrounding because it may
have encountered resistances such as surface friction or
air resistance.
The energy which is dissipated to the surroundings, may
be in the form of heat or sound.
A 1.0 kW motor is used to lift an object of mass 10 kg vertically
upwards at a constant speed. The efficiency of the motor is 75 %.
Determine
a. the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding.
b. the vertical distance travelled by the object in 5.0 s.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 5.14 :
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
69
Solution :
a. The output power of the motor is given by
Therefore the rate of heat dissipated to the surrounding is
b.
Since the speed is constant hence the vertical distance in 5.0 s
is
W 1000 75%; kg; 10.0 = = =
in
P m
% 100 =
in
out
P
P

100
1000
75 =
out
P
750 1000 dissipated heat of Rate = =
out in
P P
Fv P
out
cos =

0 =
where and
mg F =

0 cos mgv P
out
=
t
h
v =
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
70
Exercise 5.4 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. A person of mass 50 kg runs 200 m up a straight road inclined
at an angle of 20 in 50 s. Neglect friction and air resistance.
Determine
a. the work done,
b. the average power of the person.
ANS. : 3.3610
4
J; 672 W
2. Electrical power of 2.0 kW is delivered to a motor, which has an
efficiency of 85 %. The motor is used to lift a block of mass
80 kg. Calculate
a. the power produced by the motor.
b. the constant speed at which the block being lifted vertically
upwards by the force produced by the motor.
(neglect air resistance)
ANS. : 1.7 kW; 2.17 m s
1
CHAPTER 5 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
71
Exercise 5.4 :
3.
A car of mass 1500 kg moves at a constant speed v up a road
with an inclination of 1 in 10 as shown in Figure 5.21. All
resistances against the motion of the car can be neglected. If
the engine car supplies a power of 12.5 kW, calculate the
speed v.
ANS. : 8.50 m s
1
Figure 5.21
10
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
1
CHAPTER 6:
Circular motion
(3 Hours)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
2
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Describe graphically the uniform circular motion.
In terms of velocity with constant magnitude (only the
direction of the velocity changes).
Learning Outcome:
6.1 Uniform circular motion (1 hour)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
3
6.1 Uniform circular motion
is defined as a motion in a circle (circular arc) at a constant
speed.
Consider an object which does move with uniform circular
motion as shown in Figure 6.1.
Figure 6.1
r

O
s
The length of a circular arc, s is given
by
r s =
path circular the of radius : r
subtends arc which the angle :
where
radian in circle the of centre the to
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
4
It is directed tangentially to the circular path and always
perpendicular to the radius of the circular path as shown in
Figure 6.2.
In uniform circular motion, the magnitude of the linear velocity
(speed) of an object is constant but the direction is
continually changing.
The unit of the tangential (linear) velocity is m s
1
.
6.1.1 Linear (tangential) velocity ,
r
O
v

r
v

r
v

Figure 6.2
v

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
5
The linear velocity, v is difficult to measure but we can measure
the period, T of an object in circular motion.
Period, T
is defined as the time taken for one complete revolution
(cycle/rotation).
The unit of the period is second (s).
Frequency, f
is defined as the number of revolutions (cycles/rotations)
completed in one second.
The unit of the frequency is hertz (Hz) or s
1
.
Equation :
Let the object makes one complete revolution in circular motion,
thus
the distance travelled is (circumference of the circle),
the time interval is one period, T.
T
f
1
=
r t 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
6
From the definition of speed,
If therefore
Note:
The unit of angular velocity (angular frequency) is rad s
1
Unit conversion of angle, u :
interval time
distance of change
= v
T
r
v
t
=
2
OR
rf v t = 2
f
T
t =
t
= 2
2
r v =
path circular the of radius : r
frequency) (angular locity angular ve :
where

= t
= t
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
7
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Define and use centripetal acceleration and use
centripetal acceleration,
Define and solve problem on centripetal force,
Learning Outcome:
6.2 Centripetal force (2 hours)
r
v
a
2
c
=
r
mv
F
2
c
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
8
Figure 6.3 shows a particle moving with constant speed in a
circular path of radius, r with centre at O. The particle moves
from A to B in a time, At.
6.2.1 Centripetal (radial) acceleration,
r c
a a

or
Figure 6.3
1
v

2
v

## The arc length AB is given by

The velocities of the particle at A
and B are v
1
and v
2
respectively
where
u r s =
r
s
= u
v v v
2 1
= =

(1)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
9
Let PQ and PR represent the velocity vectors v
1
and v
2
respectively, as shown in Figure 6.4.
Then QR represent the change in velocity vector Av of the
particle in time interval At. Since the angle between PQ and PR
is small hence
By equating (1) and (2) then
1 2
v v v

=
2
v

1
v

P Q
R
Figure 6.4
( ) ( ) PQ QR u A =
u v v =
v
v
= u
(2)
v
v
r
s
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
10
Dividing by time, At, thus
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
t
v
v
1
t
s
r
1
v
a
r
v
=

r
v
a
2
c
=
path circular of radius : r
on accelerati l centripeta :
c
a where
velocity gential) linear(tan : v
OR e e v r a
2
c
= =
frequency) (angular locity angular ve :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
11
c
a

c
a

c
a

c
a

c
a

c
a

Figure 6.5
The centripetal acceleration is defined as the acceleration of
an object moving in circular path whose direction is
towards the centre of the circular path and whose
magnitude is equal to the square of the speed divided by
The direction of centripetal (radial) acceleration is always
directed toward the centre of the circle and perpendicular to
the linear (tangential) velocity as shown in Figure 6.5.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
12
For uniform circular motion, the magnitude of the centripetal
acceleration always constant but its direction continuously
changes as the object moves around the circular path.
Because of
therefore we can obtain the alternative expression of centripetal
acceleration is
2
2
c
T
r
a
t
=
4
T
r
v
t
=
2
( )
r
a
2
T
r
c
t
=
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
13
A motorbike moving at a constant speed 20.0 m s
1
in a circular
track of radius 25.0 m. Calculate
a. the centripetal acceleration of the motorbike,
b. the time taken for the motorbike to complete one revolution.
Solution :
a. From the definition of the centripetal acceleration, thus
b. From the alternate formula of the centripetal acceleration, hence
Example 6.1 :
m 25.0 ; s m 20.0
1
= =

r v
r
v
a
2
c
=
2
2
c
T
r
a
t
=
4
( )
25.0
20.0
2
=
c
a
( )
2
25.0 4
16.0
T
2
t
=
T
r
v
t
=
2
OR
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
14
A car initially travelling eastward turns north by travelling in a
circular path at uniform speed as shown in Figure 6.6. The length
of the arc ABC is 235 m and the car completes the turn in 36.0 s.
Determine
a. the acceleration when the car is at B located at an angle of
35.0,
b. the cars speed,
c. its average acceleration during the 36.0 s interval.
Example 6.2 :
Figure 6.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
15
Solution :
a. The period of the car is given by
The radius of the circular path is
Therefore the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is
s 36.0 m, 235 = = t s
ABC
( ) 36.0 4 4 = = t T
s 144 = T
r s
ABC
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
2

235 r
2
2
c
T
r
a
t
=
4 ( )
( )
2
2
144
150 4
=
c
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
16
Solution :
b. From the definition of the speed, thus
c. 1
st
method :
By using the triangle method for vector addition, thus the change
in the velocity is given by
s 36.0 m, 235 = = t s
ABC
t
s
t
s
v
ABC
=
A
A
=
36.0
235
= v
C
v

A
v

A C
v v v

= A
( ) ( )
2
A
2
C
v v v + = A
( ) ( )
2 2
6.53 6.53 + = Av

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
17
Solution :
Therefore the magnitude of the average acceleration is
and its direction :
s 36.0 m, 235 = = t s
ABC
t
v
a
av
A
A
=
36.0
9.24
=
av
a
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

A
C
1
v
v
tan
|
.
|

\
|

=

6.53
6.53
tan
1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
18
Solution :
c. 2
nd
method :
x-component :
y-component :
s 36.0 m, 235 = = t s
ABC
( )
t
v v
t
v
a
Ax Cx x
x
av

=
A
A
=
( )
( )
36.0
6.53 0
=
x
av
a
( )
t
v v
t
v
a
Ay Cy y
y
av

=
A
A
=
( )
( )
36.0
0 6.53
=
y
av
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
19
Solution :
Therefore the magnitude of the average acceleration is
and
s 36.0 m, 235 = = t s
ABC
( ) ( )
2
y
av
2
x
av av
a a a + =
( ) ( )
2 2
0.181 0.181 + =
av
a
( )
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

x
av
y
av
1
a
a
tan
|
.
|

\
|

=

0.181
0.181
tan
1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
20
A boy whirls a marble in a horizontal circle of radius 2.00 m and at
height 1.65 m above the ground. The string breaks and the marble
flies off horizontally and strikes the ground after traveling a
horizontal distance of 13.0 m. Calculate
a. the speed of the marble in the circular path,
b. the centripetal acceleration of the marble while in the circular
motion.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution :
Example 6.3 :
1.65 m
Before
13.0 m
u

After
u

r =2.00 m
1.65 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
21
Solution :
a. From the diagram :
The time taken for the marble to strike the ground is
The initial speed of the marble after the string breaks is equal to
the tangential speed of the marble in the horizontal circle.
Therefore
0 ; = =
y x
u u u
( )
2
9.81
2
1
0 1.65 t =
2
2
1
gt t u s
y y
=
m 1.65 ; m 13.0 = =
y x
s s
( ) 0.580 13.0 u =
t u s
x x
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
22
Solution :
b. From the definition of the centripetal acceleration, thus
r
u
r
v
a
c
2 2
= =
( )
2.00
22.4
2
=
c
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
25
6.3 Centripetal force
6.3.1 Equation of centripetal force
From Newtons second law of motion, a force must be
associated with the centripetal acceleration. This force is
known as the centripetal force and is given by
a m F F
nett

= =

c c
a m F

=
e e mv mr
r
mv
F
2
2
c
= = =
c
a a

=
e = e = = v r
r
v
a
2
2
c

where

=
c
F F

and
and
force l centripeta :
c
F
where
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
26
c
a

c
F

c
F

c
F

c
a

c
a

## The centripetal force is defined as a force acting on a body

causing it to move in a circular path of magnitude
and its always directed towards the centre of the circular
path.
Its direction is in the same direction of the centripetal
acceleration as shown in Figure 6.8.
Figure 6.8
r
mv
F
2
c
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
27
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
28
c
F

c
a
v

c
F

c
F

c
a

c
a

0 F
c
=

0 F
c
=

0 a
c
=

0 a
c
=

## If the centripetal force suddenly stops to act on a body in the

circular motion, the body flies off in a straight line with the
constant tangential (linear) speed as show in Figure 6.9.
Note :
In uniform circular motion, the nett force on the system is
centripetal force.
The work done by the centripetal force is zero but the
kinetic energy of the body is not zero and given by
Figure 6.9
2 2 2
mr
2
1
mv
2
1
K e = =
Simulation 6.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
29
As a car makes a turn,
the force of friction
acting upon the turned
wheels of the car
provides centripetal
force required for
circular motion.
As a bucket of water
is tied to a string
and spun in a circle,
the tension force
acting upon the
bucket provides the
centripetal force
required for circular
motion.
As the moon
orbits the Earth,
the force of
gravity acting
upon the moon
provides the
centripetal force
required for
circular motion
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
30
Without a centripetal force, an
object in motion continues along a
straight-line path.
With a centripetal force, an object in
motion will be accelerated and change its
direction.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
31
Note that the centripetal force is proportional to
the square of the velocity, implying that a
doubling of speed will require four times the
centripetal force to keep the motion in a circle.
If the centripetal force must be provided by
friction alone on a curve, an increase in speed
could lead to an unexpected skid if friction is
insufficient.
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
32
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
33
Conical Pendulum
Example 6.4 :
Figure 6.10 shows a conical pendulum
with a bob of mass 80.0 kg on a 10.0 m
long string making an angle of 5.00 to the
vertical.
a. Sketch a free body diagram of the bob.
b. Determine
i. the tension in the string,
ii. the speed and the period of the bob,
iii. the radial acceleration of the bob.
(Given g =9.81 m s
2
)
6.3.2 Examples of uniform circular motion
Figure 6.10
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
34
Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the bob :
b. i. From the diagram,

## 5.00 ; m 10.0 ; kg 80.0 = = = l m

g m

T cos
T sin
0 =
y
F
mg T = cos
c
a

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
35
The centripetal force is contributed
by the horizontal component of the
tension.
Solution :
b. ii.

## 5.00 ; m 10.0 ; kg 80.0 = = = l m

c x
F F =

r
mv
T
2
= sin
l
mv
T
2
sin
sin =
r
l
l
r
= sin
l r sin =
m
Tl
v
2
sin
=
( )( )( )
80.0
5.00 sin 10.0 788
2

= v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
36
Solution :
b. ii. and the period of the bob is given by
iii. From the definition of the radial acceleration, hence

T
r
v
t
=
2
( )
T
l
v
sin 2t
=
( )
T

0.865
t
=
l
v
a
2
r
sin
=
( )

## 5.00 sin 10.0

0.865
2
=
r
a
r
v
a
2
r
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
37
Centre of
circle
Motion rounds a curve on a flat (unbanked) track (for car,
motorcycle, bicycle, etc)
Example 6.5 :
A car of mass 2000 kg rounds a circular turn of radius 20 m. The
road is flat and the coefficient of friction between tires and the road
is 0.70.
a. Sketch a free body diagram of the car.
b. Determine the maximum cars speed without skidding.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the car :
g m

0.70 ; m 20 ; kg 2000 = = = r m
c
a

Picture 6.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
38
Solution :
b. From the diagram in (a),
y-component :
x-component : The centripetal force is provided by the frictional
force between the wheel (4 tyres) and the road.
Therefore
0.70 ; m 20 ; kg 2000 = = = r m

= 0
y
F
mg N =

=
r
mv
F
2
x
r
mv
f
2
=
rg v =
r
mv
mg
2
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
39
T

g m

r
c
a

## Motion in a horizontal circle

Example 6.6 :
A ball of mass 150 g is attached to one end of a string 1.10 m long.
The ball makes 2.00 revolution per second in a horizontal circle.
a. Sketch the free body diagram for the ball.
b. Determine
i. the centripetal acceleration of the ball,
ii. the magnitude of the tension in the string.
Solution :
a. The free body diagram for the ball :
Hz 2.00 ; m 1.10 ; kg 0.150 = = = = f r l m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
40
Solution :
b. i. The linear speed of the ball is given by
Therefore the centripetal acceleration is
ii. From the diagram in (a), the centripetal force enables the ball
to move in a circle is provided by the tension in the string.
Hence
Hz 2.00 ; m 1.10 ; kg 0.150 = = = = f r l m
rf
T
r
v t =
t
= 2
2
( )( ) 2.00 1.10 2t = v
r
v
a
2
c
=
( )
1.10
13.8
2
=
c
a
c c x
ma F F = =

c
ma T =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
41
Motion in a vertical circle
Example 6.7 :
A small remote control car with mass 1.20 kg moves at a constant
speed of v = 15.0 m s
1
in a vertical circle track of radius 3.00 m as
shown in Figure 6.12. Determine the magnitude of the reaction
force exerted on the car by the track at
a. point A,
b. point B.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
m 3.00
v

A
B
Figure 6.12
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
42
Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the car at point A :
1
s m 15.0 ; m 3.00 ; kg 1.20

= = = v r m
g m

A
N

c
a

r
mv
F
2

=
r
mv
mg N
2
A
=
( )( )
( )( )
3.00
15.0 1.20
9.81 1.20
2
=
A
N
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
43
Solution :
b. The free body diagram of the car at point B :
1
s m 15.0 ; m 3.00 ; kg 1.20

= = = v r m
B
N

c
a

r
mv
F
2

=
r
mv
mg N
2
B
= +
( )( )
( )( )
3.00
15.0 1.20
9.81 1.20
2
= +
B
N
g m

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
44
A rider on a Ferris wheel moves in a vertical circle of radius,
r = 8 m at constant speed, v as shown in Figure 6.13. If the time
taken to makes one rotation is 10 s and the mass of the rider is
60 kg, Calculate the normal force exerted on the rider
a. at the top of the circle,
b. at the bottom of the circle.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Example 6.8 :
v
v
Figure 6.13
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
45
Solution :
a. The constant speed of the rider is
The free body diagram of the rider at the top of the circle :
s 10 ; m 8 ; kg 60 = = = T r m
T
r
v
t
=
2 ( )
10
8 2
= v
c
a

g m

t
N

r
mv
F
2

=
r
mv
N mg
2
t
=
( )( )
( )( )
8
5.03 60
9.81 60
2
=
t
N
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
46
Solution :
b. The free body diagram of the rider at the bottom of the circle :
s 10 ; m 8 ; kg 60 = = = T r m
c
a

g m

r
mv
F
2

=
r
mv
mg N
2
b
=
( )( )
( )( )
8
5.03 60
9.81 60
2
=
b
N
b
N

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
47
A sphere of mass 5.0 kg is tied to an inelastic string. It moves in a
vertical circle of radius 55 cm at a constant speed of 3.0 m s
1
as
shown in Figure 6.14. By the aid of the free body diagram,
determine the tension in the string at points A, D and E.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Example 6.9 :
Figure 6.14
A
D
E
3.0 m s
1
3.0 m s
1
3.0 m s
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
48
Solution :
The free body diagram of the sphere at :
Point A,
Point D,
1
s m 0 . 3 ; m 55 . 0 ; kg 0 . 5

= = = v r m
c
a

r
mv
F
2

=
r
mv
mg T
A
2
= +
( )( )
( )( )
0.55
3.0 5.0
9.81 5.0
2
= +
A
T
A
g m

A
T

c
a

D
g m

D
T

r
mv
T
D
2
=
( )( )
0.55
3.0 5.0
2
=
D
T
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
49
Solution :
The free body diagram of the sphere at :
Point E,
Caution :
For vertical uniform circular motion only,
the normal force or tension is maximum at the bottom of
the circle.
the normal force or tension is minimum at the top of the
circle.
1
s m 0 . 3 ; m 55 . 0 ; kg 0 . 5

= = = v r m
c
a

r
mv
mg T
E
2
=
( )( )
( )( )
0.55
3.0 5.0
9.81 5.0
2
=
E
T
E
g m

E
T

PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
50
Exercise 6.2 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. A cyclist goes around a curve of 50 m radius at a speed of
15 m s
1
. The road is banked at an angle u to the horizontal and
the cyclist travels at the right angle with the surface of the road.
The mass of the bicycle and the cyclist together equals 95 kg.
Calculate
a. the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the cyclist,
b. the magnitude of the normal force which the road exerts on
the bicycle and the cyclist,
c. the angle u.
ANS. : 4.5 m s
2
; 1.02 kN; 24.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
51
Exercise 6.2 :
2. A ball of mass 0.35 kg is attached to the end of a horizontal
cord and is rotated in a circle of radius 1.0 m on a frictionless
horizontal surface. If the cord will break when the tension in it
exceeds 80 N, determine
a. the maximum speed of the ball,
b. the minimum period of the ball.
ANS. : 15.1 m s
1
; 0.416 s
Figure 6.14
3. A small mass, m is set on the surface
of a sphere as shown in Figure 6.14.
If the coefficient of static friction is
s
= 0.60, calculate the angle u would
the mass start sliding.
ANS. : 31
m

O
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
52
Exercise 6.2 :
4. A ball of mass 1.34 kg is connected
by means of two massless string to
a vertical rotating rod as shown in
Figure 6.15. The strings are tied to
the rod and are taut. The tension in
the upper string is 35 N.
a. Sketch a free body diagram for
the ball.
b. Calculate
i. the magnitude of the tension
in the lower string,
ii. the nett force on the ball,
iii. the speed of the ball.
ANS. : 8.74 N; 37.9 N (radially
inward); 6.45 m s
1
Figure 6.15
PHYSICS CHAPTER 6
53
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 7 :
Gravitation
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
1
CHAPTER 7:
Gravitation
(2 Hours)
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
In this chapter, we learns about
7.1 Gravitational force and field strength
7.2 Gravitational potential
7.3 Satellite motion in a circular orbit
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
7.1 Gravitational Force and Field
Strength
7.1.1 Newtons law of gravitation
7.1.2 Gravitational Field
7.1.3 Gravitational force and field strength
3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
4
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
State and use the Newtons law of gravitation,
Learning Outcome:
7.1 Newtons law of gravitation (1 hour)
2
2 1
r
m m
G F
g
=
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
5
7.1.1 Newtons law of gravitation
States that a magnitude of an attractive force between two
point masses is directly proportional to the product of their
masses and inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them.
OR mathematically,
2
1
r
F
g

2 1
m m F
g
and
2
2 1
r
m m
F
g

2
2 1
r
m m
G F
g
=
force nal Gravitatio :
g
F
2 and 1 particle of masses : ,
2 1
m m
2 and 1 particle between distance : r
2 2 11
kg m N x10 6.67 Constant nal gravitatio Universal :

= G
where
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
6
The statement can also be shown by using the Figure 7.1.
where
2
2 1
12 21
r
m m
G F F F
g
= = =

1
m
2
m
r
12
F

Figure 7.1
21
F

12
F

## 1 particle on 2 particle by force nal Gravitatio :

21
F

Simulation 7.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
7
Figures 7.2a and 7.2b show the gravitational force, F
g
varies
with the distance, r.
Notes:
Every spherical object with constant density can be
reduced to a point mass at the centre of the sphere.
The gravitational forces always attractive in nature and
the forces always act along the line joining the two point
masses.
g
F
r
0
g
F
2
1
r
0
2 1
m Gm = gradient
Figure 7.2a Figure 7.2b
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
8
A spaceship of mass 9000 kg travels from the Earth to the Moon
along a line that passes through the Earths centre and the Moons
centre. The average distance separating Earth and the Moon is
384,000 km. Determine the distance of the spaceship from the
Earth at which the gravitational force due to the Earth twice the
magnitude of the gravitational force due to the Moon.
(Given the mass of the Earth, m
E
=6.0010
24
kg, the mass of the
Moon, m
M
=7.3510
22
kg and the universal gravitational constant,
G=6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
)
Example 7.1 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
9
Solution :
Given
kg; 10 7.35 kg; 10 6.00
22
M
24
E
= = m m
m 10 3.84 kg; 0 900
8
EM s
= = r m
E
m
M
m
s
m
x
EM
r
x r
EM
Es
F

Ms
F

Ms Es
F 2 = F
( )
2
EM
s M
2
s E
2
x r
m Gm
x
m Gm

=
( )
M
E
2
EM
2
2m
m
x r
x
=

( )
( )( )
22
24
2
8
2
10 7.35 2
10 6.00
10 3.84

=
x
x
m 10 3.32
8
= x
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
10
Two spheres of masses 3.2 kg and 2.5 kg respectively are fixed at
points A and B as shown in Figure 7.3. If a 50 g sphere is placed
at point C, determine
a. the resultant force acting on it.
b. the magnitude of the spheres acceleration.
(Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
)
Example 7.2 :
Figure 7.3
A B
C
cm 8
kg 3.2
kg 2.5
g 50
cm 6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
11
Solution :
a.
The magnitude of the forces on m
C
,
( )( )( )
( )
2
2
3 11
2
AC
C A
A
10 10
10 50 3.2 10 6.67

= =
r
m Gm
F
N 10 1.07
9
A

= F
kg 10 50 kg; .5 2 kg; 3.2
3
C B A

= = = m m m
m 10 10 m; 10 6
2
AC
2
BC

= = r r
0.6 sin =
0.8 cos =
A B
C
m 10 8
2 -

m 10 6
2

m 10 10
2

A
F

B
F

PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
12
Solution :
( )( )( )
( )
2
2
3 11
2
BC
C B
B
10 6
10 50 2.5 10 6.67

= =
r
m Gm
F
N 10 .32 2
9
B

= F
Force x-component (N) y-component (N)
A
F

F cos
A

F sin
A

( )( ) 0.8 10 1.07
9
=
10
10 8.56

=
( )( ) 0.6 10 1.07
9
=
10
10 6.42

=
B
F

B
F
0
9
10 2.32

=
kg 10 50 kg; .5 2 kg; 3.2
3
C B A

= = = m m m
m 10 10 m; 10 6
2
AC
2
BC

= = r r
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
13
Solution :
The magnitude of the nett force is
and its direction is
N 10 8.56
10
=
x
F
( ) ( )

+ =
2 2
y x
F F F
N 10 .96 2 10 .32 2 10 6.42
9 9 10
= =
y
F
( ) ( )
2
9
2
10
10 .96 2 10 8.56

+ =

= N 10 .08 3
9
F
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

10
9
1 1
10 .56 8
10 .96 2
tan tan
x
y
F
F

.9 73 =
(254 from +x axis anticlockwise)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
14
Solution :
b. By using the Newtons second law of motion, thus
and the direction of the acceleration in the same direction of the
nett force on the m
C
i.e. 254 from +x axis anticlockwise.

= a m F
C
( )a
3 9
10 50 10 3.08

=
2 8
s m 10 .16 6

= a
3
9
10 50
10 3.08

= a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
15
is defined as a region of space surrounding a body that has
the property of mass where the attractive force is
experienced if a test mass placed in the region.
Field lines are used to show gravitational field around an object
with mass.
For spherical objects (such as the Earth) the field is radial as
shown in Figure 7.4.
7.1.2 Gravitational Field
M
Figure 7.4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
16
The gravitational field in small region near the Earths surface
are uniform and can be drawn parallel to each other as shown
in Figure 7.5.
The field lines indicate two things:
The arrows the direction of the field
The spacing the strength of the field
Figure 7.5
The gravitational field is a conservative field in which the work done
in moving a body from one point to another is independent of
the path taken.
Note:
New
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
17
Exercise 7.1 :
Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
1. Four identical masses of 800 kg each are placed at the corners
of a square whose side length is 10.0 cm. Determine the nett
gravitational force on one of the masses, due to the other three.
ANS. : 8.210
3
N; 45
2. Three 5.0 kg spheres are located in the xy plane as shown in
Figure 7.6.Calculate the magnitude
of the nett gravitational force
on the sphere at the origin due to
the other two spheres.
ANS. : 2.110
8
N
Figure 7.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
18
Exercise 7.1 :
3.
In Figure 8.7, four spheres form the corners of a square
whose side is 2.0 cm long. Calculate the magnitude and
direction of the nett gravitational force on a central sphere with
mass of m
5
= 250 kg.
ANS. : 1.6810
2
N; 45
Figure 7.7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
19
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Define gravitational field strength as gravitational force per
unit mass,
Derive and use the equation for gravitational field strength.
Sketch a graph of a
g
against r and explain the change in a
g
with altitude and depth from the surface of the earth.
Learning Outcome:
7.1.3 Gravitational force and field strength
m
F
a
g
g
=
2
r
M
G a =
g
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
20
7.1.3 Gravitational field strength,
is defined as the gravitational force per unit mass
of a body (test mass) placed at a point.
OR
It is a vector quantity.
The S.I. unit of the gravitational field strength is N
kg
1
or m s
2
.
g
a

m
F
a
g
g

=
where
strength field nal Gravitatio :
g
a
force nal Gravitatio :
g
F
mass) (test body a of mass : m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
21
It is also known as gravitational acceleration (the free-fall
acceleration).
Its direction is in the same direction of the gravitational force.
Another formula for the gravitational field strength at a point is
given by
m
F
a
g
g
=
and
2
g
r
GMm
F =
2
g
r
GM
a =
mass point and mass st between te distance : r
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
g
1
r
GMm
m
a
where
mass point the of mass : M
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
22
Figure 7.8 shows the direction of the gravitational field strength
on a point S at distance r from the centre of the planet.
2
r
GM
a
g
=
r
M
Figure 7.8
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
23
The gravitational field in the small region near the Earths
surface( r ~ R) are uniform where its strength is 9.81 m s
2
and
its direction can be shown by using the Figure 7.9.
Figure 7.9
2
R
GM
g a
g
= =
Earth the of radius : R where
2
s m 9.81 on accelerati nal gravitatio :

= g
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
24
Determine the Earths gravitational field strength
a. on the surface.
b. at an altitude of 350 km.
(Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
, mass of the Earth,
M= 6.00 10
24
kg and radius of the Earth, R = 6.40 10
6
m)
Solution :
a.
Example 7.3 :
R
M
g a R r
g
= = = m; 10 40 . 6
6
( )
( )
2
6
24 11
2
10 40 . 6
10 00 . 6 10 67 . 6

= =

R
GM
g
The gravitational field strength is
1
kg N 77 . 9

= g OR
2
s m 77 . 9

r
g

## (Towards the centre of the Earth)

PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
25
Solution :
b.
2
g
r
GM
a =
( )
( )
2
6
24 11
10 75 . 6
10 6.00 10 67 . 6

=

2
g
s m 78 . 8

= a
(Towards the centre of the Earth)
R M
h R r + =
3 6
10 350 10 40 . 6 + =
m 10 75 . 6
6
= r
g
a

h
r
The gravitational field strength is given by
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
26
The gravitational field strength on the Earths surface is 9.81 N kg
1
.
Calculate
a. the gravitational field strength at a point C at distance 1.5R from
the Earths surface where R is the radius of the Earth.
b. the weight of a rock of mass 2.5 kg at point C.
Solution :
a. The gravitational field strength on the Earths surface is
The distance of point C from the Earths centre is
Example 7.4 :
1
kg N 81 . 9

= g
1
2
kg N 81 . 9

= =
R
GM
g
R R R r 5 . 2 5 . 1 = + =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
27
Solution :
a. Thus the gravitational field strength at point C is given by
b. Given
The weight of the rock is
N 93 . 3 = W
2
C
r
GM
a
g
=
( )
2
5 . 2 R
GM
a
g
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
25 . 6
1
R
GM
g
ma W =
kg 5 . 2 = m
( )( ) 57 . 1 5 . 2 =
( )
1
kg N 57 . 1 81 . 9
25 . 6
1

= =
g
a
(Towards the centre of the Earth)
(Towards the centre of the Earth)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
28
Figure 8.10 shows an object A at a distance of 5 km from the object
B. The mass A is four times of the mass B. Determine the location
of a point on the line joining both objects from B at which the nett
gravitational field strength is zero.
Example 7.5 :
A
B
km 5
Figure 7.10
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
29
Solution :
At point C,
B A
3
4 m; 10 5 M M r = =
( ) 0
nett
=
g
a
( )
2
B
2
3
B
10 5
4
x
M
x
M
=

m 10 .67 1
3
= x
r
A
B
C
x r x
2 g
a

1 g
a

2 1 g g
a a =
( )
2
B
2
A
x
GM
x r
GM
=

PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
30
Outside the Earth ( r > R)
Figure 8.11 shows a test mass which is outside the Earth and at
a distance r from the centre.
The gravitational field strength outside the Earth is
7.1.4 Variation of gravitational field strength on the
distance from the centre of the Earth
R
r
M
Figure 8.11
2
g
r
GM
a =
2
g
1
r
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
31
On the Earth ( r = R)
Figure 7.12 shows a test mass on the Earths surface.
The gravitational field strength on the Earths surface is
R
r
M
Figure 7.12
2
2
g
s m 81 . 9

= = = g
R
GM
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
32
R
r
M
' M
Inside the Earth ( r < R)
Figure 7.13 shows a test mass which is inside the Earth and at
distance r from the centre.
The gravitational field strength inside the Earth is given by
Figure 7.13
2
g
'
r
GM
a =
where
portion spherical of mass the : ' M
radius, of Earth the of r
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
33
By assuming the Earth is a solid sphere and constant
density, hence
Therefore the gravitational field strength inside the Earth is
V
V
M
M

' '
=
( )
( )
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
4
'
R
r
R
r
M
M
= =
t
t
M
R
r
M
3
3
' =
2
3
3
g
r
M
R
r
G
a
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
r
R
GM
a
3
g
= r a
g
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
34
The variation of gravitational field strength, a
g
as a function of
distance from the centre of the Earth, r is shown in Figure 7.14.
Figure 7.14
R
g
a
r
0
R
g
R
GM
a = =
2
g
r a
g
2
g
1
r
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
35
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Define gravitational potential in a gravitational field.
Derive and use the formulae,
Sketch the variation of gravitational potential, V with
distance, r from the centre of the earth.
Learning Outcome:
7.2 Gravitational potential ( hour)
r
GM
V =
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
36
7.2 Gravitational potential
7.2.1 Work done by the external force
Consider an external force, F
is required to bring a test
mass, m from r
1
to r
2
,
as shown in Figure 7.18.
At the distance r
2
from the
centre of the Earth,
The work done by the
external force through
the small displacement
dr is
m
M
1
r
2
r
F

g
F

dr
Figure 7.18
g
F F =

0 cos Fdr dW =
dr F dW
g
=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
37
Therefore the work done by the external force to bring test
mass, m from r
1
to r
2
is
} }
=
2
1
r
r
g
dr F dW
}
=
2
1
2
r
r
dr
r
GMm
W
2
r
GMm
F
g
=
and
2
1
1
r
r
r
GMm W
(

=
}
=
2
1
2
1
r
r
dr
r
GMm W
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

2 1
1 1
2 1
r r
GMm W
r r
where
distance final :
2
r
distance initial :
1
r
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
38
at a point is defined as the work done by an external force in
bringing a test mass from infinity to a point per unit the
test mass.
OR mathematically, V is written as:
It is a scalar quantity.
Its dimension is given by
7.2.2 Gravitational potential, V

m
W
V =
where
mass test the of mass : m
point a at potential nal gravitatio : V
mass test a bringing in done work : W
point a o infinity t from
| |
| |
| | m
W
V = | |
M
T ML
2 2
= V
| |
2 2
T L

= V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
39
The S.I unit for gravitational potential is m
2
s
2
or J kg
1
.
Another formula for the gravitational potential at a point is given
by
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1
1 1
r r m
GMm
V

m
W
V =
and
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2 1
1 1
r r
GMm W
where
=
1
r
and
r r =
2
|
.
|

\
|

=
r m
GMm
V
1 1
r
GM
V =
where
point e between th distance : r
M mass, point the and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
40
The gravitational potential difference between point A and B
(V
AB
) in the Earths gravitational field is defined as the work
done in bringing a test mass from point B to point A per
unit the test mass.
OR mathematically, V
AB
is written as:
B A
BA
AB
-V V
m
W
V = =
where
A. point to B point from
mass test the bringing in done work :
BA
W
A point at potential nal gravitatio :
A
V
B point at potential nal gravitatio :
B
V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
41
Figure 7.19 shows two points A and B at a distance r
A
and r
B
from the centre of the Earth respectively in the Earths
gravitational field.
M
A
B
r
A
r
B
Figure 7.19
The gravitational potential
difference between the points A
and B is given by
B A AB
V V V =
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
B A
AB
r
GM
r
GM
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
A B
AB
1 1
r r
GM V
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
42
The gravitational potential difference between point B and A in
the Earths gravitational field is given by
The variation of gravitational potential, V when the test mass, m
move away from the Earths surface is illustrated by the graph
in Figure 7.20.
m
W
V V V
AB
A B BA
= =
R
R
GM

r
0
V
r
V
1

Note:
The Gravitational potential at infinity
is zero.
0 =

V
Figure 7.20
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
43
When in orbit, a satellite attracts the Earth with a force of 19 kN
and the satellites gravitational potential due to the Earth is
5.4510
7
J kg
1
.
a. Calculate the satellites distance from the Earths surface.
b. Determine the satellites mass.
(Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
, mass of the Earth,
M= 5.9810
24
kg and radius of the Earth , R = 6.3810
6
m)
Solution :
Example 7.7 :
R
g
F

r
h
1 7 3
kg J 10 45 5 N; 10 19

= = . V F
g
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
44
Solution :
a. By using the formulae of gravitational potential, thus
Therefore the satellites distance from the Earths surface is
r
GM
V =
m 10 32 . 7
6
= r
6 6
10 38 . 6 10 32 . 7 + = h
m 10 4 . 9
5
= h
( )( )
r
. .
24 11
7
10 98 5 10 67 6
10 45 . 5

=

R h r + =
1 7 3
kg J 10 45 5 N; 10 19

= = . V F
g
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
45
Solution :
b. From the Newtons law of gravitation, hence
2
r
GMm
F
g
=
kg 2552 = m
( )( )
( )
2
6
24 11
3
10 32 7
10 98 5 10 67 6
10 19

=

.
m . .
1 7 3
kg J 10 45 5 N; 10 19

= = . V F
g
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
46
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
Explain satellite motion with:
velocity,
period,
Learning Outcome:
7.3 Satellite motion in a circular orbit ( hour)
r
GM
v =
GM
r
T
3
2t =
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
47
7.3 Satellite motion in a circular orbit
7.3.1 Tangential (linear/orbital) velocity, v
Consider a satellite of mass, m travelling around the Earth of
mass, M, radius, R, in a circular orbit of radius, r with constant
tangential (orbital) speed, v as shown in Figure 7.22.
Figure 7.22
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
48
The centripetal force, F
c
is contributed by the gravitational force
of attraction, F
g
exerted on the satellite by the Earth.
Hence the tangential velocity, vis given by
c c g
ma F F = =
r
mv
r
GMm
2
2
=
r
GM
v =
where
Earth the of mass : M
from satellite the of distance : r
Earth the of centre the
constant nal gravitatio universal : G
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
49
For a satellite close to the Earths surface,
Therefore
The relationship between tangential velocity and angular
velocity is
Hence , the period, T of the satellite orbits around the Earth is
given by
R r ~
and
2
gR GM =
gR v =
T
r
r v
t
e
2
= =
r
GM
T
r 2
=
t
GM
r
T
3
2t =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
50
Figure 8.23 shows a synchronous (geostationary) satellite which
stays above the same point on the equator of the Earth.
The satellite have the following characteristics:
It revolves in the same direction as the Earth.
It rotates with the same period of rotation as that of the Earth
(24 hours).
It moves directly above the equator.
The centre of a synchronous satellite orbit is at the centre of
the Earth.
It is used as a communication satellite.
7.3.2 Synchronous (Geostationary) Satellite
Figure 8.23
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
51
The weight of a satellite in a circular orbit round the Earth is half of
its weight on the surface of the Earth. If the mass of the satellite is
800 kg, determine
a. the altitude of the satellite,
b. the speed of the satellite in the orbit,
(Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
, mass of the Earth,
M= 6.0010
24
kg, and radius of the Earth , R = 6.4010
6
m)
Example 7.12 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
52
Solution :
a. The satellite orbits the Earth in the circular path, thus
b. The speed of the satellite is given by
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
53
The radius of the Moons orbit around the Earth is 3.8 10
8
m and
the period of the orbit is 27.3 days. The masses of the Earth and
Moon are 6.0 10
24
kg and 7.4 10
22
kg respectively. Calculate
the total energy of the Moon in the orbit.
Solution :
The period of the satellite is
The tangential speed of the satellite is
Example 7.13 :
s m 50 . 9 kg; 120 m; 10 50 . 8
2 6
= = = g m r
T
r
v
t 2
=
1 3
s m 10 24 . 4

= v
( )( ) 3600 5 . 3 = T
s 12600 = T
( )
12600
10 50 . 8 2
6

=
t
v
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
54
Solution :
A satellite orbits the planet in the circular path, thus
c g
F F =

2
2
r
mv
r
GMm
=
s m 50 . 9 kg; 120 m; 10 50 . 8
2 6
= = = g m r
r
GM
v =
2
and
2
gR GM =
r
gR
v
2
2
=
( )
6
2
2
3
10 50 . 8
50 . 9
10 24 . 4

=
R
m 10 01 . 4
6
= R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
55
Exercise 7.2 :
Given G = 6.6710
11
N m
2
kg
2
1. A rocket is launched vertically from the surface of the Earth
at speed 25 km s
-1
. Determine its speed when it escapes from
the gravitational field of the Earth.
(Given g on the Earth = 9.81 m s
2
, radius of the Earth ,
R = 6.38 10
6
m)
ANS. : 2.2410
4
m s
1
2. A satellite revolves round the Earth in a circular orbit whose
radius is five times that of the radius of the Earth. The
gravitational field strength at the surface of the Earth is
9.81 N kg
1
. Determine
a. the tangential speed of the satellite in the orbit,
b. the angular frequency of the satellite.
(Given radius of the Earth , R = 6.38 10
6
m)
ANS. : 3538 m s
1
; 1.1110
4
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
56
Exercise 7.2 :
3. A geostationary satellite of mass 2400 kg is placed
35.92 Mm from the Earths surface orbits the Earth along a
circular path.
Determine
a. the angular velocity of the satellite,
b. the tangential speed of the satellite,
c. the acceleration of the satellite,
d. the force of attraction between the Earth and the satellite,
e. the mass of the Earth.
(Given radius of the Earth , R = 6.38 10
6
m)
ANS. : 7.2710
5
1
; 3.0810
3
m s
1
; 0.224 m s
2
;
537 N ; 6.0010
24
kg
PHYSICS CHAPTER 7
57
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 8 :
Simple Harmonic Motion
w
w
w
.
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
p
h
y
s
i
c
s
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 8:
CHAPTER 8:
Rotational of rigid body
Rotational of rigid body
(8 Hours)
(8 Hours)
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
2
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:
a) Define and describe a) Define and describe: :

av av
) )

av av
) )

## instantaneous angular acceleration ( instantaneous angular acceleration ( ). ).

b) Relate b) Relate parameters in rotational motion with their corresponding parameters in rotational motion with their corresponding
quantities in linear motion. quantities in linear motion. Write and use Write and use : :
c) c) Use Use equations for rotational motion with constant angular equations for rotational motion with constant angular
acceleration. acceleration.
Learning Outcome:
8.1 Rotational Kinematics (2 hour)
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
s=r; v=r; a
t
=r ; a
c
=r
2
=
v
2
r
=
0
t
=
0
t
1
2
t
2

2
=
0
2
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
3
8.1 Parameters in rotational motion
8.1.1 Angular displacement,

is defined as an angle through which a point or line has an angle through which a point or line has
been rotated in a specified direction about a specified axis. been rotated in a specified direction about a specified axis.

## Figure 8.1 shows a point P on a rotating compact disc (CD)

moves through an arc length s on a circular path of radius r
about a fixed axis through point O.
Figure 8.1 Figure 8.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
4

## Others unit for angular displacement is degree ( degree ( ) ) and

revolution (rev) revolution (rev).

Conversion factor :

## Negative Negative if the rotational motion is clockwise clockwise.

=
s
r
OR s=r
where
: angle angular displacement in radian
s: arc length
r : radius of the circle
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
5
Average angular velocity, Average angular velocity,

av av

is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement the rate of change of angular displacement.

Equation :
Instantaneous angular velocity, Instantaneous angular velocity,

is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of angular the instantaneous rate of change of angular
displacement displacement.

Equation :
8.1.2 Angular velocity

av
=

1
t
2
t
1
=

t
=limit
t 0

t
=
d
dt
where
2
: final angular displacement in radian
t : time interval

1
: initial angular displacement in radian
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
6

## It is a vector quantity vector quantity.

The unit of angular velocity is radian per second (rad s radian per second (rad s
-1 -1
) )

Others unit is revolution per minute (rev min revolution per minute (rev min
1 1
or rpm) or rpm)

Conversion factor:

Note :

Every part Every part of a rotating rigid body has the same angular same angular
velocity velocity.
Direction of the angular velocity Direction of the angular velocity

Its direction can be determine by using right hand grip rule right hand grip rule
where
1 rpm =
2
60
1
=

30
1
Thumb Thumb : direction of angular velocity angular velocity
Curl fingers Curl fingers : direction of rotation rotation
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
7

Figures 8.2 and 8.3 show the right hand grip rule for determining
the direction of the angular velocity.
Figure 8.2 Figure 8.2
Figure 8.3 Figure 8.3

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
8
The angular displacement, of the wheel is given by
where in radians and t in seconds. The diameter of the wheel is
0.56 m. Determine
a. the angle, in degree, at time 2.2 s and 4.8 s,
b. the distance that a particle on the rim moves during that time
interval,
c. the average angular velocity, in rad s
1
and in rev min
1
(rpm),
between 2.2 s and 4.8 s,
d. the instantaneous angular velocity at time 3.0 s.
Example 8.1 :
=5t
2
t
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
9
Solution : Solution :
a. At time, t
1
=2.2 s :
At time, t
2
=4.8 s :
r=
d
2
=
0.56
2
=0. 28 m

1
=5 2. 2
2
2. 2

1

2
=54 . 8
2
4. 8

2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
10
Solution : Solution :
b. By applying the equation of arc length,
Therefore
c. The average angular velocity in rad s
1
is given by
r=
d
2
=
0.56
2
=0. 28 m
s=r
s=r=r

s=0. 2811022

av
=

t
=

t
2
t
1

av
=
11022
4. 82. 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
11
Solution : Solution :
c. and the average angular velocity in rev min
1
is
d. The instantaneous angular velocity as a function of time is
At time, t =3.0 s :

av
=

1 s

1 rev

60 s
1 min

=
d
dt

5t
2
t

=
d
dt
=10t 1
=10 3.01
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
12
A diver makes 2.5 revolutions on the way down from a 10 m high
platform to the water. Assuming zero initial vertical velocity,
calculate the divers average angular (rotational) velocity during a
dive.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution : Solution :
Example 8.2 :
u
y
=0

0
=0
10 m
water

1
=2. 5 rev
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
13
Solution : Solution :
From the diagram,
Thus
Therefore the divers average angular velocity is

1
s
y
=10 m
s
y
=u
y
t
1
2
gt
2
10=0
1
2

9. 81

t
2

av
=

0
t

av
=
50
1. 43
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
14
Average angular acceleration, Average angular acceleration,

av av

is defined as the rate of change of angular velocity the rate of change of angular velocity.

Equation :
Instantaneous angular acceleration, Instantaneous angular acceleration,

is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of angular the instantaneous rate of change of angular
velocity velocity.

Equation :
8.1.3 Angular acceleration

av
=

1
t
2
t
1
=

t
=limit
t 0

t
=
d
dt
where

2
: final angular velocity
t : time interval

1
: initial angular velocity
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
15
Figure 8.4 Figure 8.4

2 2
.

Note:

## is positive positive, then the angular

velocity,

is increasing increasing.

## is negative negative, then the angular

velocity,

is decreasing decreasing.
Direction of the angular acceleration Direction of the angular acceleration

and

## in the same direction same direction

as shown in Figure 8.4.

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
16
Figure 8.5 Figure 8.5

and

## have the opposite opposite

direction direction as shown in Figure 8.5.
Example 8.3 :
The instantaneous angular velocity, of the flywheel is given
by
where in radian per second and t in seconds.
Determine
a. the average angular acceleration between 2.2 s and 4.8 s,
b. the instantaneous angular acceleration at time, 3.0 s.

=8t
3
t
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
17
Solution : Solution :
a. At time, t
1
=2.2 s :
At time, t
2
=4.8 s :
Therefore the average angular acceleration is

1
=82. 2
3
2. 2
2

1
=80. 3 rad s
1

2
=8 4. 8
3
4. 8
2

av
=

1
t
2
t
1

av
=
86280.3
4. 82. 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
18
Solution : Solution :
b. The instantaneous angular acceleration as a function of time is
At time, t =3.0 s :
=
d
dt

8t
3
t
2

=
d
dt
=243. 0
2
23. 0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
19
Exercise 8.1 :
1. If a disc 30 cm in diameter rolls 65 m along a straight line
without slipping, calculate
a. the number of revolutions would it makes in the process,
b. the angular displacement would be through by a speck of
gum on its rim.
ANS. : 69 rev; 138 ANS. : 69 rev; 138 rad rad
2. During a certain period of time, the angular displacement of a
swinging door is described by
where is in radians and t is in seconds. Determine the
angular displacement, angular speed and angular acceleration
a. at time, t =0,
b. at time, t =3.00 s.
ANS. : ANS. : 5.00 rad, 10.0 rad s 5.00 rad, 10.0 rad s
1 1
, 4.00 rad s , 4.00 rad s
2 2
1 1
, ,
2 2
=5. 0010. 0t2. 00t
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
20
8.1.2 Relationship between linear and
rotational motion
8.1.2 Relationship between linear velocity, v and
angular velocity,

## When a rigid body is rotates about rotation axis O , every

particle in the body moves in a circle as shown in the Figure 8.6.
v
s

y
x
r
P
O
Figure 8.6 Figure 8.6
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
21

## Point P moves in a circle of radius r with the tangential velocity

v where its magnitude is given by

The direction direction of the linear (tangential) velocity linear (tangential) velocity always
tangent to the circular path tangent to the circular path.

Every particle on the rigid body has the same angular speed same angular speed
(magnitude of angular velocity) but the tangential speed tangential speed is not not
the same same because the radius radius of the circle, r r is changing changing
depend depend on the position of the particle position of the particle.
v=
ds
dt
v=r
d
dt
s=r
v=r
and
Simulation 7.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
22
a
t
a
c
a
x
y
P
O

If the rigid body rigid body is gaining the angular speed gaining the angular speed then the
tangential velocity tangential velocity of a particle also increasing increasing thus two two
component of acceleration acceleration are occurred occurred as shown in
Figure 8.7.
8.1.2 Relationship between tangential acceleration,
a
t
and angular acceleration,
Figure 8.7 Figure 8.7
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
23

## The components are tangential acceleration, tangential acceleration, a a

t t
and
centripetal acceleration, centripetal acceleration, a a
c c
given by
but

The vector sum of centripetal and tangential acceleration vector sum of centripetal and tangential acceleration of
a particle in a rotating body is resultant (linear) acceleration, resultant (linear) acceleration, a a
given by
and its magnitude,
a
t
=
dv
dt
a
t
=r
d
dt
a
t
=r
v=r and
a
c
=
v
2
r
=r
2
=v
a=a
t
a
c
a=

a
t
2
a
c
2
Vector form Vector form
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
24
8.1.3 Rotational motion with uniform
angular acceleration

## Table 8.1 shows the symbols used in linear and rotational

kinematics.
Table 8.1 Table 8.1
Linear
motion
Quantity
Rotational
motion
s Displacement Displacement
u

0
Initial velocity Initial velocity
v

Final velocity Final velocity
a Acceleration Acceleration
t t
Time Time
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
25

## Table 8.2 shows the comparison of linear and rotational motion

with constant acceleration.
Linear motion Rotational motion
a=constant
v=uat
=constant
=
0
t
s=ut
1
2
at
2
=
0
t
1
2
t
2
v
2
=u
2
2as
2
=
0
2
2
s=
1
2

vu

t =
1
2

t
where in radian. Table 8.2 Table 8.2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
26
A car is travelling with a velocity of 17.0 m s
1
on a straight
horizontal highway. The wheels of the car has a radius of 48.0 cm.
If the car then speeds up with an acceleration of 2.00 m s
2
for
5.00 s, calculate
a. the number of revolutions of the wheels during this period,
b. the angular speed of the wheels after 5.00 s.
Solution : Solution :
a. The initial angular velocity is
and the angular acceleration of the wheels is given by
Example 8.4 :
u=17. 0 m s
1
, r=0. 48 m, a=2. 00 m s
2
, t =5. 00 s
u=r
0
17. 0=0. 48
0
2. 00=0. 48
a=r
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
27
Solution : Solution :
a. By applying the equation of rotational motion with constant
angular acceleration, thus
therefore
b. The angular speed of the wheels after 5.00 s is
=
0
t
1
2
t
2
u=17. 0 m s
1
, r=0. 48 m, a=2. 00 m s
2
, t =5. 00 s
=

35. 4

5. 00

1
2

4. 17

5. 00

2
=
0
t
=35. 4 4. 17 5. 00
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
28
The wheels of a bicycle make 30 revolutions as the bicycle
reduces its speed uniformly from 50.0 km h
-1
to 35.0 km h
-1
. The
wheels have a diameter of 70 cm.
a. Calculate the angular acceleration.
b. If the bicycle continues to decelerate at this rate, determine the
time taken for the bicycle to stop.
Solution : Solution :
Example 8.5 :
0.70
2
=0. 35 m,
u=
50. 0 km
1 h

10
3
m
1 km

1 h
3600 s

=13. 9 m s
1
,
v=
35. 0 km
1 h

10
3
m
1 km

1 h
3600 s

=9. 72 m s
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
29
Solution : Solution :
a. The initial angular speed of the wheels is
and the final angular speed of the wheels is
therefore
b. The car stops thus
Hence
u=r
0
13. 9=0.35
0
v=r
9. 72=0. 35

2
=
0
2
2
27. 8
2
=39. 7
2
260
=0

0
=27. 8 rad s
1
and
=
0
t
0=27 .82. 13t
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
30
A blade of a ceiling fan has a radius of 0.400 m is rotating about a
fixed axis with an initial angular velocity of 0.150 rev s
-1
. The
angular acceleration of the blade is 0.750 rev s
-2
. Determine
a. the angular velocity after 4.00 s,
b. the number of revolutions for the blade turns in this time interval,
c. the tangential speed of a point on the tip of the blade at time,

t =4.00 s,
d. the magnitude of the resultant acceleration of a point on the tip
of the blade at t =4.00 s.
Solution : Solution :
a. Given t =4.00 s, thus
Example 8.6 :
r=0. 400 m,
0
=0. 1502=0.300 rad s
1
,
=0.7502=1. 50 rad s
2
=
0
t
=19. 8 rad s
1
=0. 3001.50 4 .00
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
31
Solution : Solution :
b. The number of revolutions of the blade is
c. The tangential speed of a point is given by
=
0
t
1
2
t
2
=

0. 300

4. 00

1
2

1.50

4. 00

2
v=r
v= 0. 400 19. 8
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
32
Solution : Solution :
d. The magnitude of the resultant acceleration is
a=

a
c
2
a
t
2
a=

v
2
r

2
r
2
a=

7. 92
2
0. 400

2
0. 4001. 50
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
33
Calculate the angular velocity of
a. the second-hand,
b. the minute-hand and
c. the hour-hand,
of a clock. State in rad s
-1
.
d. What is the angular acceleration in each case?
Solution : Solution :
a. The period of second-hand of the clock is T = 60 s, hence
Example 8.7 :
=
2
T
=
2
60
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
34
Solution : Solution :
b. The period of minute-hand of the clock is T = 60 min = 3600 s,

hence
c. The period of hour-hand of the clock is T = 12 h = 4.32 10
4
s,

hence
d. The angular acceleration in each cases is
=
2
3600
=
2
4. 3210
4
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
35
A coin with a diameter of 2.40 cm is dropped on edge on a
horizontal surface. The coin starts out with an initial angular speed
of 18 rad s
1
and rolls in a straight line without slipping. If the
rotation slows down with an angular acceleration of magnitude
2
, calculate the distance travelled by the coin before
coming to rest.
Solution : Solution :
The radius of the coin is
Example 8.8 :
d=2. 4010
2
m

0
1
s
=1. 90 rad s
2
1
r=
d
2
=1.2010
2
m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
36
Solution : Solution :
The initial speed of the point at the edge the coin is
and the final speed is
The linear acceleration of the point at the edge the coin is given by
Therefore the distance travelled by the coin is
u=r
0
u=

1. 2010
2

18

v=0 m s
1
a=r
a=

1. 2010
2

1. 90

v
2
=u
2
2as
0= 0.216
2
22. 2810
2
s
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
37
Exercise 8.2 :
1. A disk 8.00 cm in radius rotates at a constant rate of 1200 rev
min
-1
about its central axis. Determine
a. its angular speed,
b. the tangential speed at a point 3.00 cm from its centre,
c. the radial acceleration of a point on the rim,
d. the total distance a point on the rim moves in 2.00 s.
ANS. : ANS. : 126 rad s 126 rad s
1 1
; 3.77 m s ; 3.77 m s
1 1
; 1.26 ; 1.26 10 10
3 3
m s m s
2 2
; 20.1 m ; 20.1 m
2. A 0.35 m diameter grinding wheel rotates at 2500 rpm.
Calculate
a. its angular velocity in rad s
1
,
b. the linear speed and the radial acceleration of a point on the
edge of the grinding wheel.
ANS. : ANS. : 262 rad s 262 rad s
1 1
; 46 m s ; 46 m s
1 1
, 1.2 , 1.2 10 10
4 4
m s m s
2 2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
38
Exercise 8.2 :
3. A rotating wheel required 3.00 s to rotate through 37.0
revolution. Its angular speed at the end of the 3.00 s interval is
-1
. Calculate the constant angular acceleration of the
wheel.
ANS. : ANS. : 13.6 rad s 13.6 rad s
2 2
4. A wheel rotates with a constant angular acceleration of
2
.
a. If the angular speed of the wheel is 2.00 rad s
1
at t =0,
through what angular displacement does the wheel rotate in
2.00 s.
b. Through how many revolutions has the wheel turned during
this time interval?
c. What is the angular speed of the wheel at t = 2.00 s?
ANS. : ANS. : 11.0 rad; 1.75 rev; 9.00 rad s 11.0 rad; 1.75 rev; 9.00 rad s
1 1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
39
Exercise 8.2 :
5. A bicycle wheel is being tested at a repair shop. The angular
velocity of the wheel is 4.00 rad s
-1
at time t = 0 , and its angular
acceleration is constant and equal 1.20 rad s
-2
. A spoke OP on
the wheel coincides with the +x-axis at time t = 0 as shown in
Figure 8.8.
a. What is the wheels angular velocity at t = 3.00 s?
b. What angle in degree does the spoke OP make with the
positive x-axis at this time?
ANS. : ANS. : 0.40 rad s 0.40 rad s
1 1
; 18 ; 18
Figure 8.8 Figure 8.8
x
y
P
O
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
40
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

## Define and use Define and use torque. torque.

State and use State and use conditions for equilibrium of rigid body: conditions for equilibrium of rigid body:
Learning Outcome:
8.2 Equilibrium of a uniform rigid body (2 hour)
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/

= = = 0 , 0 , 0 F F
y x

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
41
8.2.1 Torque (moment of a force),

The magnitude of the torque magnitude of the torque is defined as the product of a the product of a
force and its perpendicular distance from the line of action force and its perpendicular distance from the line of action
of the force to the point (rotation axis) of the force to the point (rotation axis).
OR
Because of
where r : distance between the pivot point (rotation
axis) and the point of application of force.
Thus

Fd =
force the of magnitude : F
arm) (moment distance lar perpendicu : d
torque the of magnitude : where
sin r d =
sin Fr =
r F

## and between angle : where

OR F r

=
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
42

## The dimension of torque is

The unit of torque unit of torque is N m N m (newton metre), a vector product vector product
unlike the joule (unit of work) joule (unit of work), also equal to a newton metre,
which is scalar product scalar product.

## Torque is occurred because of turning (twisting) effects of turning (twisting) effects of

the forces the forces on a body.

## Negative Negative - turning tendency of the force is clockwise clockwise.

The value of torque depends torque depends on the rotation axis rotation axis and the
magnitude of applied force magnitude of applied force.
[ ] [ ][ ]
2 2
T ML d F

= =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
43
Case 1 : Case 1 :

## Consider a force is applied to a metre rule which is pivoted at

one end as shown in Figures 8.9a and 8.9b.
Figure 8.9a Figure 8.9a
F

## Figure 8.9b Figure 8.9b

Pivot point
(rotation axis)
Fd =
r d sin =
Fr Fd sin = =
(anticlockwise)
(anticlockwise)
r
Point of action of a force
Line of action of a force
d
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
44
O
Figure 8.10 Figure 8.10
2

Case 2 : Case 2 :

## Consider three forces are applied to the metre rule which is

pivoted at one end (point O) as shown in Figures 8.10.

Caution :

If the line of action of a force is through the rotation axis line of action of a force is through the rotation axis
then
1
F

1 1 1
r d sin =
3 2 1
+ + =
O
Therefore the resultant (nett)
torque is
3
F

2
F

1
r
0 sin = = =
3 3 3 3 3 3
r F d F
2 2 2
r d sin =
1 1 1 1 1 1
r F d F sin = =
2 2 2 2 2 2
r F d F sin = =
2
r
2 2 1 1
d F d F =
O
Fr sin =
0 =
and

0 =
Simulation 5.1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
45
Determine a resultant torque of all the forces about rotation axis, O
in the following problems.
a.
Example 8.9 :
m 5
N 10 =
2
F
m 5
N 30 =
1
F
m 3
m 3
N 20 =
3
F
m 10
m 6
O
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
46
b.
Example 8.9 :
m 5
N 10 =
2
F
m 5
N 30 =
1
F
m 3
m 3
N 25 =
4
F
N 20 =
3
F
m 10

m 6
O

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
47
m 5 m 5
m 10
m 6
O
Solution : Solution :
a.
Force Torque (N m),
o
=Fd=Frsin
1
F

( ) ( ) 90 3 30 =
2
F

( )( ) 50 5 10 + = +
N 10 =
2
F
N 30 =
1
F
N 20 =
3
F
m 3 =
1
d
m 5 =
2
d
3
F

0
The resultant torque:
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
48
m 5
m 10
m 3
m 6
m 5
Solution : Solution :
b.
Force Torque (N m),
o
=Fd=Frsin
1
F

( ) ( ) 90 3 30 =
2
F

3
3
F

## 0 The resultant torque:

N 10 =
2
F
N 30 =
1
F
0.515
5 3
3
sin
2 2
=
+
=
O
N 20 =
3
F
N 25 =
4
F

m 3 =
1
d

m 5 = r
4
F

0
3
d
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
49
8.2 Equilibrium of a rigid body
8.2.1.1 Non-concurrent forces

is defined as the forces whose lines of action do not pass the forces whose lines of action do not pass
through a single common point. through a single common point.

The forces cause the rotational motion rotational motion on the body.

## The combination of concurrent and non-concurrent forces cause

rolling motion rolling motion on the body. (translational and rotational translational and rotational
motion)

2
F

3
F

1
F

## Figure 8.11 Figure 8.11

4
F

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
50
8.2.1.2 Equilibrium of a rigid body

Rigid body Rigid body is defined as a body with definite shape that a body with definite shape that
doesnt change, so that the particles that compose it stay in doesnt change, so that the particles that compose it stay in
fixed position relative to one another even though a force is fixed position relative to one another even though a force is
exerted on it exerted on it.

If the rigid body is in equilibrium rigid body is in equilibrium, means the body is
translational and rotational equilibrium translational and rotational equilibrium.

There are two conditions two conditions for the equilibrium of forces acting on
a rigid body.

The vector sum of all forces acting on a rigid body must The vector sum of all forces acting on a rigid body must
be zero. be zero.

= = 0
nett
F F

OR

= = = 0 , 0 , 0
z y x
F F F
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
51

The vector sum of all external torques acting on a rigid The vector sum of all external torques acting on a rigid
body must be zero about any rotation axis body must be zero about any rotation axis.

## This is equivalent to the three independent scalar

equations along the direction of the coordinate axes,
Centre of gravity, CG Centre of gravity, CG

is defined as the point at which the whole weight of a body the point at which the whole weight of a body
may be considered to act may be considered to act.

A force that exerts on the centre of gravity exerts on the centre of gravity of an object will
cause a translational motion translational motion.

= = 0
nett

= = = 0 , 0 , 0
z y x

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
52

Figures 8.14 and 8.15 show the centre of gravity for uniform centre of gravity for uniform
(symmetric) object object i.e. rod and sphere

rod rod refer to the midway point between its end midway point between its end.

## sphere sphere refer to geometric centre geometric centre.

2
l
2
l
CG
CG
l
Figure 8.12 Figure 8.12
Figure 8.13 Figure 8.13
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
53
8.2.4 Problem solving strategies for equilibrium of
a rigid body

## The following procedure is recommended when dealing with

problems involving the equilibrium of a rigid body:

## Sketch a simple diagram Sketch a simple diagram of the system to help

conceptualize the problem.

Sketch a separate free body diagram Sketch a separate free body diagram for each body.

Choose a convenient coordinate axes Choose a convenient coordinate axes for each body and
construct a table construct a table to resolve the forces into their
components and to determine the torque by each force.

Apply the condition for equilibrium of a rigid body Apply the condition for equilibrium of a rigid body :

## Solve Solve the equations equations for the unknowns.

= 0
x
F

= 0
y
F ; and

= 0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
54
A hanging flower basket having weight, W
2
=23 N is hung out over
the edge of a balcony railing on a uniform horizontal beam AB of
length 110 cm that rests on the balcony railing. The basket is
counterbalanced by a body of weight, W
1
as shown in Figure 8.14.
If the mass of the beam is 3.0 kg, calculate
a. the weight, W
1
needed,
b. the force exerted on the beam at point O.
(Given g =9.81 m s
2
)
Example 8.10 :
1
W
2
W
A B O
35 cm 75 cm
Figure 8.14 Figure 8.14
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
55
Solution : Solution :
The free body diagram of the beam :
Let point O as the rotation axis.
N 23 ; kg 3 = =
2
W m
0.75 m
A B
O
CG
1
W

2
W

g m

0.35 m
0.55 m 0.55 m
0.20 m 0.20 m
Force y-comp. (N) Torque (N m),
o
=Fd=Frsin
1
W

1
W
g m

( )( ) 9.81 3
( ) ( ) 5.88 0.20 29.4 =
( )
1 1
W W 0.75 0.75 =
2
W

23
( )( ) 8.05 0.35 23 = +
N

N
0
29.4 =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
56
Solution : Solution :
Since the beam remains at rest thus the system in equilibrium.
a. Hence
b.
0 =
y
F
and

= 0
O

## 0 5.88 8.05 0.75 = +

1
W
0 29.4 23 = + N W
1
( ) 0 29.4 23 2.89 = + N
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
57
A uniform ladder AB of length 10 m and
mass 5.0 kg leans against a smooth wall
as shown in Figure 8.15. The height of the
end A of the ladder is 8.0 m from the
rough floor.
a. Determine the horizontal and vertical
forces the floor exerts on the end B of
the ladder when a firefighter of mass
60 kg is 3.0 m from B.
b. If the ladder is just on the verge of
slipping when the firefighter is 7.0 m
up the ladder , Calculate the coefficient

of static friction between ladder and
floor.
(Given g =9.81 m s
2
)
Example 8.11 :
A
B
smooth
wall
rough floor
Figure 8.15 Figure 8.15
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
58
Solution : Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the ladder :
Let point B as the rotation axis.
kg 60 ; kg 5.0 = =
f l
m m
A
B
CG
g m
f

1
N

g m
l

2
N

m 8.0
m 10
m 3.0
m 5.0
Force
x-comp.
(N)
y-comp.
(N)
Torque (N m),

B
=Fd=Frsin
g m
l

1
N
1
N

0.8
10
8
sin = =
s
f
g m
f

49.1 0.6
10
6
sin = =
2
N

s
f

0
589 0
2
N
0
0
m 6.0

## ( ) ( ) sin 5.0 49.1

147 =
0
( ) ( ) sin 3.0 589
1060 =
( ) N
1
sin 10
1
N 8 =
0
0
s
f

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
59
Solution : Solution :
Since the ladder in equilibrium thus
0 =

0 8 1060 147 = +
1
N
N 151 =
1
N
0 =

x
F
0 =
s 1
f N
Horizontal force: Horizontal force:
0 =

y
F
0 589 49.1 = +
2
N
Vertical force: Vertical force:
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
60
m 10
A
B
m 8.0
m 6.0
m 5.0

Solution : Solution :
b. The free body diagram of the ladder :
Let point B as the rotation axis.
0.6 sin 0.8; sin = =
g m
f

g m
l

s
f

m 7.0
Force
x-comp.
(N)
y-comp.
(N)
Torque (N m),

B
=Fd=Frsin
g m
l

1
N
1
N

2 s
N
g m
f

49.1
2
N

s
f

0
589 0
2
N
0
0

## ( ) ( ) sin 5.0 49.1

147 =
0
( ) ( ) sin 7.0 589
2474 =
( ) N
1
sin 10
1
N 8 =
0
0
2
N

1
N

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
61
Solution : Solution :
Consider the ladder stills in equilibrium thus
0 =

0 8 2474 147 = +
1
N
N 328 =
1
N
0 =

x
F
0 =
2 s 1
N N
0 =

y
F
0 589 49.1 = +
2
N
N 638 =
2
N
( ) ( ) 0 638 328 =
s

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
62
Figure 8.16 Figure 8.16
A floodlight of mass 20.0 kg in a park is
supported at the end of a 10.0 kg uniform
horizontal beam that is hinged to a pole as
shown in Figure 8.16. A cable at an angle
30 with the beam helps to support the light.
a. Sketch a free body diagram of the beam.
b. Determine
i. the tension in the cable,
ii. the force exerted on the beam by the
pole.
(Given g =9.81 m s
2
)
Example 8.12 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
63
Solution : Solution :
a. The free body diagram of the beam :

b. Let point O as the rotation axis.
kg 10.0 ; kg 20.0 = =
b f
m m
Force x-comp. (N) y-comp. (N) Torque (N m),
o
=Fd=Frsin
g m
f

( )l 196 0 196
O CG
g m
f

g m
b

T

30
l
l 0.5
g m
b

( )( ) l l 49.1 0.5 98.1 = 0 98.1
T

Tl Tl 0.5 30 sin =

30 cos T

30 sin T
S

x
S
y
S
0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
64
Solution : Solution :
b. The floodlight and beam remain at rest thus
i.

ii.
0 =

## 0 0.5 49.1 196 = + Tl l l

0 =

x
F
0 cos = +
x
S 30 T

N 424 =
x
S
0 =

y
F
0 30 sin 98.1 196 = + +
y
S T

N 49.1 =
y
S
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
65
Solution : Solution :
b. ii. Therefore the magnitude of the force is
and its direction is given by
2
y
2
x
S S S + =
( ) ( )
2 2
S 49.1 424 + =

=

x
y
S
S

1
tan

=

424
49.1
tan
1

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
66
Exercise 8.3 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1.
Figure 8.17 shows the forces, F
1
=10 N, F
2
= 50 N and F
3
=
60 N are applied to a rectangle with side lengths, a = 4.0 cm
and b = 5.0 cm. The angle is 30. Calculate the resultant
torque about point D.
ANS. : -3.7 N m ANS. : -3.7 N m
D
A
B
C

1
F

3
F

2
F

## Figure 8.17 Figure 8.17

a
b
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
67
Figure 8.18 Figure 8.18
Exercise 8.3 :
2.
A see-saw consists of a uniform board of mass 10 kg and
length 3.50 m supports a father and daughter with masses 60
kg and 45 kg, respectively as shown in Figure 8.18. The fulcrum
is under the centre of gravity of the board. Determine
a. the magnitude of the force exerted by the fulcrum on the
board,
b. where the father should sit from the fulcrum to balance the
system.
ANS. : 1128 N; 1.31 m ANS. : 1128 N; 1.31 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
68
3.
A traffic light hangs from a structure as show in Figure 8.19.
The uniform aluminum pole AB is 7.5 m long has a mass of 8.0
kg. The mass of the traffic light is 12.0 kg. Determine
a. the tension in the horizontal massless cable CD,
b. the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted
by the pivot A on the aluminum pole.
ANS. : 248 N; 197 N, 248 N ANS. : 248 N; 197 N, 248 N
Figure 8.19 Figure 8.19
Exercise 8.3 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
69
4.
A uniform 10.0 N picture frame is supported by two light string
as shown in Figure 8.20. The horizontal force, F is applied for
holding the frame in the position shown.
a. Sketch the free body diagram of the picture frame.
b. Calculate
i. the tension in the ropes,
ii. the magnitude of the horizontal force, F .
ANS. : 1.42 N, 11.2 N; 7.20 N ANS. : 1.42 N, 11.2 N; 7.20 N
Exercise 8.3 :
Figure 8.20 Figure 8.20
F

50.0
cm 15.0
cm 30.0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
70

Learning Outcome:
8.3 Rotational dynamics (1 hour)
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define Define the moment of inertia of a rigid body about an axis, the moment of inertia of a rigid body about an axis,

## State and use State and use torque, torque,

=
=
n
1 i
i i
r m I
2
I =
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
71
8.3.1 Centre of mass, moment of inertia
and torque
8.3.1.1 Centre of mass (CM)

is defined as the point at which the whole mass of a body the point at which the whole mass of a body
may be considered to be concentrated may be considered to be concentrated.

Its coordinate ( (x x
CM CM
, , y y
CM CM
) ) is given the expression below:
x
CM
=

i =1
n
m
i
x
i

i =1
n
m
i

; y
CM
=

i=1
n
m
i
y
i

i=1
n
m
i

where
m
i
: mass of the i
th
particle
x
i
: x coordinate of the i
th
particle
y
i
: y coordinate of the i
th
particle
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
72
Two masses, 3 kg and 5 kg are located on the y-axis at y =1 m and
y =5 m respectively. Determine the centre of mass of this system.
Solution : Solution :
Example 8.13 :
0
1 m
y=
5 m
m
1
=3 kg; m
2
=5 kg
m
1
m
2
y
CM
=

i=1
2
m
i
y
i

i =1
2
m
i
=
m
1
y
1
m
2
y
2
m
1
m
2
y
CM
=
3 15 5
35
CM
3. 5 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
73
A system consists of three spheres have the following masses and
coordinates :
(1) 1 kg, (3,2) ; (2) 2 kg, (4,5) and (3) 3 kg, (3,0).
Determine the coordinate of the centre of mass of the system.
Solution : Solution :
The x coordinate of the CM is
Example 8.14 :
m
1
=1 kg; m
2
=2 kg; m
3
=3 kg
x
CM
=

i =1
3
m
i
x
i

i =1
3
m
i
=
m
1
x
1
m
2
x
2
m
3
x
3
m
1
m
2
m
3
x
CM
=
132 43 3
123
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
74
Solution : Solution :
The y coordinate of the CM is
Therefore the coordinate of the CM is
y
CM
=

i=1
3
m
i
y
i

i =1
3
y
i
=
m
1
y
1
m
2
y
2
m
3
y
3
m
1
m
2
m
3
y
CM
=
1 22 53 0
123
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
75

Figure 8.21 shows a rigid body about a fixed axis O with angular
velocity .

is defined as the sum of the products of the mass of each the sum of the products of the mass of each
particle and the square of its respective distance from the particle and the square of its respective distance from the
rotation axis rotation axis.
8.3.1.2 Moment of inertia, I
m
1
m
2
m
n
m
3
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
n
O

## Figure 8.21 Figure 8.21

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
76
OR

## Moment of inertia, Moment of inertia, I I in the rotational kinematics is analogous analogous

to the mass, mass, m m in linear kinematics.

2 2
.

## The S.I. unit S.I. unit of moment of inertia is kg m kg m

2 2
.

The factors factors which affect the moment of inertia, I of a rigid body:
a. the mass mass of the body,
b. the shape shape of the body,
c. the position position of the rotation axis rotation axis.
I =m
1
r
1
2
m
2
r
2
2
m
3
r
3
2
. .. m
n
r
n
2
=

i=1
n
m
i
r
i
2
I : moment of inertia of a rigid body about rotation axis
m : mass of particle
r : distance from the particle to the rotation axis
where
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
77
Moments of inertia of various bodies Moments of inertia of various bodies

## Table 8.3 shows the moments of inertia for a number of objects

about axes through the centre of mass.
Shape Diagram Equation
I
CM
=MR
2
I
CM
=
1
2
MR
2
Hoop or ring or
thin cylindrical
shell
Solid cylinder or
disk
CM
CM
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
78
CM
Moments of inertia of various bodies Moments of inertia of various bodies

## Table 8.3 shows the moments of inertia for a number of objects

about axes through the centre of mass.
Shape Diagram Equation
I
CM
=
1
12
ML
2
Uniform rod or
long thin rod with
rotation axis
through the
centre of mass.
CM
I
CM
=
2
5
MR
2
Solid Sphere
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
79
Moments of inertia of various bodies Moments of inertia of various bodies

## Table 8.3 shows the moments of inertia for a number of objects

about axes through the centre of mass.
Shape Diagram Equation
I
CM
=
2
3
MR
2
Hollow Sphere or
thin spherical
shell
CM
Table 8.3 Table 8.3
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
80
Four spheres are arranged in a rectangular shape of sides 250 cm
and 120 cm as shown in Figure 8.22.
The spheres are connected by light rods . Determine the moment
of inertia of the system about an axis
a. through point O,
b. along the line AB.
Example 8.15 :
250 cm
60 cm
60 cm
2 kg 3 kg
4 kg
5 kg
O
A B
Figure 8.22 Figure 8.22
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
81
Solution : Solution :
a. rotation axis about point O,
Since r
1
= r
2
= r
3
= r
4
= r thus
and the connecting rods are light therefore
m
1
=2 kg; m
2
=3 kg; m
3
=4 kg; m
4
=5 kg
r
1
0. 6 m
m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
O
r
2
r
4
r
3
1. 25 m
r=

0. 6
2
1.25
2
=1.39 m
I
O
=m
1
r
1
2
m
2
r
2
2
m
3
r
3
2
m
4
r
4
2
I
O
=r
2

m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4

=1.39
2
2345
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
82
Solution : Solution :
b. rotation axis along the line AB,
r
1
= r
2
= r
3
= r
4
= r=0.6 m therefore
m
1
=2 kg; m
2
=3 kg; m
3
=4 kg; m
4
=5 kg
I
AB
=m
1
r
1
2
m
2
r
2
2
m
3
r
3
2
m
4
r
4
2
I
AB
=0. 6
2
2345
m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4
A B
r
1
r
2
r
4
r
3
I
AB
=r
2

m
1
m
2
m
3
m
4

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
83
Relationship between torque, Relationship between torque, and angular acceleration, and angular acceleration,

## Consider a force, F acts on a rigid body freely pivoted on an

axis through point O as shown in Figure 8.23.

## The body rotates in the anticlockwise direction and a nett torque

is produced.
8.3.2 Torque,
m
1
m
2
m
n
r
1
r
2
r
n
O
a
1
a
n
a
2

F
Figure 8.23 Figure 8.23
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
84

A particle of mass, m
1
of distance r
1
from the rotation axis O will
experience a nett force F
1
. The nett force on this particle is

1
is

## The total (nett) torque on the rigid body is given by

F
1
=m
1
a
1
F
1
=m
1
r
1

a
1
=r
1

and

1
=r
1
F
1
sin90

1
=m
1
r
1
2

i =1
n
m
i
r
i
2

=m
1
r
1
2
m
2
r
2
2
.. .m
n
r
n
2

=I

i =1
n
m
i
r
i
2
=I
and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
85

From the equation, the nett torque nett torque acting on the rigid body is
proportional proportional to the bodys angular acceleration angular acceleration.

Note :
Nett torque ,

=I
Nett force,

F=ma
is analogous to the
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
86
Forces, F
1
= 5.60 N and F
2
= 10.3 N are applied tangentially to a
disc with radius 30.0 cm and the mass 5.00 kg as shown in Figure
8.24.
Calculate,
a. the nett torque on the disc.
b. the magnitude of angular acceleration influence by the disc.
( Use the moment of inertia, )
Example 8.16 :
Figure 8.24 Figure 8.24
I
CM
=
1
2
MR
2

F
1
O
30. 0 cm

F
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
87
Solution : Solution :
a. The nett torque on the disc is
b. By applying the relationship between torque and angular
acceleration,
R=0. 30 m; M=5. 00 kg

=
1

=RF
1
RF
2
=R

F
1
F
2

=0. 30 5.6010. 3

1
2
MR
2

=I
1. 41=

1
2
5. 000. 30
2

PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
88
A wheel of radius 0.20 m is mounted on a frictionless horizontal
axis. The moment of inertia of the wheel about the axis is
0.050 kg m
2
. A light string wrapped around the wheel is attached
to a 2.0 kg block that slides on a horizontal frictionless surface. A
horizontal force of magnitude P = 3.0 N is applied to the block as
shown in Figure 8.25. Assume the string does not slip on the
wheel.
a. Sketch a free body diagram of the wheel and the block.
b. Calculate the magnitude of the angular acceleration of the
wheel.
Example 8.17 :
Figure 8.25 Figure 8.25
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
89
Solution : Solution :
a. Free body diagram :
for wheel,
for block,
R=0. 20 m; I =0. 050 kg m
2
; P=3.0 N; m=2.0 kg

W
b

P
a
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
90
Solution : Solution :
b. For wheel,
For block,
By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus

=I
RT=I
T=
I
R
(1)

## F=ma PT=ma (2)

R=0. 20 m; I =0. 050 kg m
2
; P=3.0 N; m=2.0 kg
a=R
P

I
R

=ma and
P

I
R

=mR
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
91
An object of mass 1.50 kg is suspended
from a rough pulley of radius 20.0 cm by light
string as shown in Figure 8.26. The pulley
has a moment of inertia 0.020 kg m
2
the axis of the pulley. The object is released
from rest and the pulley rotates without
encountering frictional force. Assume that
the string does not slip on the pulley. After
0.3 s, determine
a. the linear acceleration of the object,
b. the angular acceleration of the pulley,
c. the tension in the string,
d. the liner velocity of the object,
e. the distance travelled by the object.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
-2
)
Example 8.18 :
Figure 8.26 Figure 8.26
R
1. 50 kg
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
92
Solution : Solution :
a. Free body diagram :
for pulley,
for block,

W
a

S

=I
RT=I =
a
R
and
RT=I

a
R

T=
Ia
R
2
(1)

T
mg

F=ma
mgT=ma
(2)
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
93
Solution : Solution :
a. By substituting eq. (1) into eq. (2), thus
b. By using the relationship between a and , hence
mg

Ia
R
2

=ma
R=0. 20 m; I =0. 020 kg m
2
; m=1. 50 kg;
u=0; t =0. 3 s
a=R
1.50 9.81

0.020 a
0. 20
2

=1.50 a
7. 36=0. 20
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
94
Solution : Solution :
c. From eq. (1), thus
d. By applying the equation of liner motion, thus
e. The distance travelled by the object in 0.3 s is
R=0. 20 m; I =0. 020 kg m
2
; m=1. 50 kg;
u=0; t =0. 3 s
v=uat
v=07.36 0. 3
T=
Ia
R
2
T=
0. 0207. 36
0.20
2
s=ut
1
2
at
2
s=0
1
2

7. 36

0.3

2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
95
Exercise 8.4 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. Three odd-shaped blocks of chocolate have following masses
and centre of mass coordinates: 0.300 kg, (0.200 m,0.300 m);
0.400 kg, (0.100 m. -0.400 m); 0.200 kg, (-0.300 m, 0.600 m).
Determine the coordinates of the centre of mass of the system
of three chocolate blocks.
ANS. : ANS. : (0.044 m, 0.056 m) (0.044 m, 0.056 m)
2. Figure 8.27 shows four masses that are held at
the corners of a square by a very light
frame. Calculate the moment of inertia
of the system about an axis perpendicular
to the plane
a. through point A, and
b. through point B.
ANS. : ANS. : 0.141 kg m 0.141 kg m
2 2
; 0.211 kg m ; 0.211 kg m
2 2
80 cm
80 cm
150 g
150 g
70 g
70 g
40 cm
A
B
Figure 8.27 Figure 8.27
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
96
2. 00 m s
2
T
2
T
1
Exercise 8.4 :
3. A 5.00 kg object placed on a
frictionless horizontal table is
connected to a string that passes
over a pulley and then is fastened
to a hanging 9.00 kg object as in
Figure 8.28. The pulley has a
radius of 0.250 m and moment of
inertia I. The block on the table is
moving with a constant
acceleration of 2.00 m s
2
.
a. Sketch free body diagrams of
both objects and pulley.
b. Calculate T
1
and T
2
the tensions
in the string.
c. Determine I.
ANS. : 10.0 N, 70.3 N; 1.88 kg m ANS. : 10.0 N, 70.3 N; 1.88 kg m
2 2
Figure 8.28 Figure 8.28
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
97
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

## kinetic energy, kinetic energy,

work, work,

power, power,
Learning Outcome:
8.4 Work and Energy of Rotational Motion (2
hours)
K
r
=
1
2
I
2
P=
W=
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
98
8.4 Rotational kinetic energy and power
8.4.1 Rotational kinetic energy, K
r

Figure 8.29.

## Every particle in the body is in the circular motion about point O.

m
1
m
2
m
n
m
3
r
1
r
2
r
3
r
n
O
v
1
v
2
v
3
v
n
Z
Figure 8.29 Figure 8.29
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
99

The rigid body has a rotational kinetic energy which is the total total
of kinetic energy of all the particles in the body of kinetic energy of all the particles in the body is given by
K
r
=
1
2
m
1
v
1
2

1
2
m
2
v
2
2

1
2
m
3
v
3
2
.. .
1
2
m
n
v
n
2
K
r
=
1
2
m
1
r
1
2

1
2
m
2
r
2
2

1
2
m
3
r
3
2

2
. ..
1
2
m
n
r
n
2

2
K
r
=
1
2

m
1
r
1
2
m
2
r
2
2
m
3
r
3
2
. . .m
n
r
n
2

K
r
=
1
2
I
2
K
r
=
1
2

i=1
n
m
i
r
i
2

i =1
n
m
i
r
i
2

=I and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
100

tr

## After comparing both equations thus

For rolling body without slipping rolling body without slipping, the total kinetic energy of total kinetic energy of
the body, the body, K K is given by
K
tr
=
1
2
mv
2

is analogous to
v
v
I
I is analogous to
m
m
K=K
tr
K
r
K
tr
: translational kinetic energy
K
r
: rotational kinetic energy
where
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
101
A solid sphere of radius 15.0 cm and mass 10.0 kg rolls down an
inclined plane make an angle 25 to the horizontal. If the sphere
rolls without slipping from rest to the distance of 75.0 cm and the
inclined surface is smooth, calculate
a. the total kinetic energy of the sphere,
b. the linear speed of the sphere,
c. the angular speed about the centre of mass.
(Given the moment of inertia of solid sphere is and
the gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 8.19 :
I
CM
=
2
5
mR
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
102
Solution : Solution :
a. From the principle of conservation of energy,
R=0. 15 m; m=10. 0 kg

E
i
=

E
f
mgh=K
K=mgs sin25

K=10. 0 9. 81 0. 75 sin25

s=0. 75 m
h=ssin25

v
CM 25

R
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
103
Solution : Solution :
b. The linear speed of the sphere is given by
c. By using the relationship between v and , thus
R=0. 15 m; m=10. 0 kg
K=K
tr
K
r
K=
1
2
mv
2

1
2
I
2
=
v
R
and
K=
1
2
mv
2

1
2

2
5
mR
2

v
R

2
K=
7
10
mv
2
31.1=
7
10

10. 0

v
2
v=R 2.11=0. 15
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
104
The pulley in the Figure 8.30 has a
radius of 0.120 m and a moment of
inertia 0.055 g cm
2
. The rope does not
slip on the pulley rim.
Calculate the speed of the 5.00 kg
block just before it strikes the floor.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Example 8.20 :
2. 00 kg
5. 00 kg
7. 00 m
Figure 8.30 Figure 8.30
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
105
Solution : Solution :
The moment of inertia of the pulley,
m
1
=5. 00 kg; m
2
=2. 00 kg; R=0.120 m; h=7. 00 m
I =0. 055 g1 cm
2

10
3
kg
1 g

10
4
m
2
1 cm
2

=5. 510
9
kg m
2
m
2
m
1
7. 00 m
Initial
m
2
m
1
7. 00 m
v
v
Final

E
i
=U
1

E
f
=K
tr 1
K
tr 2
K
r
U
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
106
Solution : Solution :
By using the principle of conservation of energy, thus

E
i
=

E
f
U
1
=K
tr1
K
tr 2
K
r
U
2
m
1
gh=
1
2
m
1
v
2

1
2
m
2
v
2

1
2
I
2
m
2
gh

m
1
m
2

gh=
1
2
v
2

m
1
m
2

1
2
I

v
R

2
5. 002. 00 9. 81 7. 00=
1
2
v
2
5. 002. 00
1
2

5. 510
9

v
0. 120

2
m
1
=5. 00 kg; m
2
=2. 00 kg; R=0.120 m;
h=7. 00 m; I =5.510
9
kg m
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
107

## Consider a tangential force, F acts on the solid disc of radius R

freely pivoted on an axis through O as shown in Figure 8.31.

## The work done by the tangential force is given by

8.4.2 Work, W
Figure 8.31 Figure 8.31

F
ds
O
d
R
R
dW=Fds
dW=FRd

dW=

2
d
W=

2
d
ds=Rd and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
108

## Work-rotational kinetic energy theorem states

W=

W=

2
d
W=
: torque
: change in angular displacement
where
W : work done
W=K
r
=

K
r

K
r

i
W=
1
2
I
2

1
2
I
0
2
is analogous to the
W=Fs
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
109

## From the definition of instantaneous power,

Caution :

The unit unit of kinetic energy, work and power kinetic energy, work and power in the
rotational rotational kinematics is same same as their unit unit in translational translational
kinematics.
8.4.3 Power, P
P=
dW
dt
dW=d
and
P=
d
dt
P=
d
dt
=
and
is analogous to the
P=Fv
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
110
A horizontal merry-go-round has a radius of 2.40 m and a
moment of inertia 2100 kg m
2
about a vertical axle through its
centre. A tangential force of magnitude 18.0 N is applied to the
edge of the merry-go- round for 15.0 s. If the merry-go-round is
initially at rest and ignore the frictional torque, determine
a. the rotational kinetic energy of the merry-go-round,
b. the work done by the force on the merry-go-round,
c. the average power supplied by the force.
(Given g = 9.81 m s
2
)
Solution : Solution :
Example 8.21 :

F
R=2. 40 m
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
111
Solution : Solution :
a. By applying the relationship between nett torque and angular
acceleration, thus
Use the equation of rotational motion with uniform angular
acceleration,
Therefore the rotational kinetic energy for 15.0 s is

=I
RF=I
2. 4018. 0=2100
=
0
t
=0

2.0610
2

15.0

1
K
r
=
1
2
I
2
K
r
=
1
2

2100

0.309

2
R=2. 40 m; I =2100 kg m
2
; F=18. 0 N;
t =15. 0 s;
0
=0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
112
Solution : Solution :
b. The angular displacement, for 15.0 s is given by
By applying the formulae of work done in rotational motion, thus
c. The average power supplied by the force is
W=
=
0
t
1
2
t
2
P
av
=
W
t
W=2. 4018. 02. 32
R=2. 40 m; I =2100 kg m
2
; F=18. 0 N;
t =15. 0 s;
0
=0
=0
1
2

2. 0610
2

15. 0

2
W=RF
P
av
=
100
15. 0
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
113
At the end of this chapter, students should be able to: At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

Define and use Define and use angular momentum, angular momentum,

State and use State and use the principle of conservation of angular the principle of conservation of angular
momentum momentum
Learning Outcome:
8.5 Conservation of angular momentum (1 hour)
L=I
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
114
8.5 Conservation of angular momentum
8.5.1 Angular momentum,

is defined as the product of the angular velocity of a body the product of the angular velocity of a body
and its moment of inertia about the rotation axis and its moment of inertia about the rotation axis.
OR

## It is a vector It is a vector quantity.

Its dimension is M L M L
2 2
T T
1 1

## The S.I. unit of the angular momentum is kg m kg m

2 2
s s
1 1.

L
where
L=I
L : angular momentum
I : moment of inertia of a body
: angular velocity of a body
is analogous to the
p=mv
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
115

## The relationship between angular momentum, L with linear

momentum, p is given by
vector notation :
magnitude form :

## Newtons second law of motion in term of linear momentum is

hence we can write the Newtons second law in angular form as
and states that a vector sum of all the torques acting on a a vector sum of all the torques acting on a
rigid body is proportional to the rate of change of angular rigid body is proportional to the rate of change of angular
momentum momentum.

L=rp=r mv
L=rpsin=mvr sin
where
:the angle between {r with {v
r : distance from the particle to the rotation axis

F=

F
nett
=
d p
dt

=
nett
=
d

L
dt
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
116

states that a total angular momentum of a system about an a total angular momentum of a system about an
rotation axis is constant if no external torque acts on the rotation axis is constant if no external torque acts on the
system system.
OR
Therefore
8.5.2 Principle of conservation of angular
momentum
I=constant

=
d

L
dt
=0
d

L=0
If the

=0
dL=

L
f

L
i

L
i
=

L
f
and
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
117
A 200 kg wooden disc of radius 3.00 m is rotating with angular
speed 4.0 rad s
-1
about the rotation axis as shown in Figure 8.32
. A 50 kg bag of sand falls onto the disc at the edge of the
wooden disc.
Calculate,
a. the angular speed of the system after the bag of sand falling
onto the disc. (treat the bag of sand as a particle)
b. the initial and final rotational kinetic energy of the system.
Why the rotational kinetic energy is not the same?
(Use the moment of inertia of disc is )
Example 8.22 :

0
Before
R

After
R
Figure 8.32 Figure 8.32
1
2
MR
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
118
Solution : Solution :
a. The moment of inertia of the disc,
The moment of inertia of the bag of sand,

By applying the principle of conservation of angular momentum,
R=3. 00 m;
0
=4 . 0 rad s
1
; m
w
=200 kg; m
b
=50 kg
I
w
=
1
2
m
w
R
2
=
1
2

200

3. 00

2
I
w

0
=

I
w
I
b

I
b
=m
b
R
2
=50 3. 00
2

L
i
=

L
f
I
w
=900 kg m
2
I
b
=450 kg m
2
900 4. 0=900450
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
119
Solution : Solution :
b. The initial rotational kinetic energy,
The final rotational kinetic energy,
thus
It is because the energy is lost in the form of heat from the the energy is lost in the form of heat from the
friction between the surface of the disc with the bag of friction between the surface of the disc with the bag of
sand. sand.
R=3. 00 m;
0
=4 . 0 rad s
1
; m
w
=200 kg; m
b
=50 kg

K
r

i
=
1
2
I
w

0
2
=
1
2

900

4. 0

K
r

f
=
1
2

I
w
I
b

2
=
1
2

900450

2. 67

K
r

i
=7200 J

K
r

K
r

f
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
120
A raw egg and a hard-boiled egg are rotating about the same
axis of rotation with the same initial angular velocity. Explain
which egg will rotate longer.
Solution : Solution :
The answer is hard-boiled egg hard-boiled egg.
Example 8.23 :
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
121
Solution : Solution :
Reason Reason
Raw egg :
When the egg spins, its yolk being denser moves away from the
axis of rotation and then the moment of inertia of the egg increases
because of
From the principle of conservation of angular momentum,
If the I is increases hence its angular velocity, will decreases.
Hard-boiled egg :
The position of the yolk of a hard-boiled egg is fixed. When the egg
is rotated, its moment of inertia does not increase and then its
angular velocity is constant. Therefore the egg continues to spin.
I =mr
2
I=constant
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
122
A student on a stool rotates freely with an angular speed of 2.95 rev
s
1
. The student holds a 1.25 kg mass in each outstretched arm that
is 0.759 m from the rotation axis. The moment of inertia for the
system of student-stool without the masses is 5.43 kg m
2
. When the
student pulls his arms inward, the angular speed increases to 3.54
rev s
1
.
a. Determine the new distance of each mass from the rotation axis.
b. Calculate the initial and the final rotational kinetic energy of the
system.
Solution : Solution :
Example 8.24 :

0
=
2.95 rev
1 s

1 rev

=18. 5 rad s
1
=
3. 54 rev
1 s

1 rev

=22. 2 rad s
1
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
123
Before

0

After
r
a
r
a
Solution : Solution :
r
b
r
b
m
m
m=1. 25 kg;
0
=18. 5 rad s
1
; I
ss
=5. 43 kg m
2
;
r
b
=0.759 m; =22. 2 rad s
1
;
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
124
Solution : Solution :
a. The moment of inertia of the system initially is
The moment of inertia of the system finally is
By using the principle of conservation of angular momentum,
thus
I
i
=I
ss
I
m
I
i
=I
ss

mr
b
2
mr
b
2

=I
ss
2mr
b
2
I
i
=5. 4321.25 0.759
2
=6. 87 kg m
2
I
f
=I
ss
2mr
a
2
=5. 4321. 25r
a
2
I
i

0
=I
f

L
i
=

L
f

6. 87

18.5

5. 432.5r
a
2

22.2

m=1. 25 kg;
0
=18. 5 rad s
1
; I
ss
=5. 43 kg m
2
;
r
b
=0.759 m; =22. 2 rad s
1
;
I
f
=5. 432.5r
a
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
125
Solution : Solution :
b. The initial rotational kinetic energy is given by

and the final rotational kinetic energy is

K
r

i
=
1
2
I
i

0
2
=
1
2

6. 87

18. 5

K
r

i
=1.1810
3
J

K
r

f
=
1
2
I
f

2
=
1
2

5. 432. 5

0. 344

22. 2

2
m=1. 25 kg;
0
=18. 5 rad s
1
; I
ss
=5. 43 kg m
2
;
r
b
=0.759 m; =22. 2 rad s
1
;
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
126
Exercise 8.5 :
Use gravitational acceleration, g = 9.81 m s
2
1. A woman of mass 60 kg stands at the rim of a horizontal
turntable having a moment of inertia of 500 kg m
2
of 2.00 m. The turntable is initially at rest and is free to rotate
about the frictionless vertical axle through its centre. The
woman then starts walking around the rim clockwise (as viewed
from above the system) at a constant speed of 1.50 m s
1

relative to the Earth.
a. In the what direction and with what value of angular speed
does the turntable rotate?
b. How much work does the woman do to set herself and the
turntable into motion?
ANS. : ANS. : 0.360 rad s 0.360 rad s
1 1
,U think; 99.9 J ,U think; 99.9 J
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
127
Exercise 8.5 :
2. Determine the angular momentum of the Earth
a. about its rotation axis (assume the Earth is a uniform solid
sphere), and
b. about its orbit around the Sun (treat the Earth as a particle
orbiting the Sun).
Given the Earths mass = 6.0 x 10
24
kg, radius = 6.4 x 10
6
m
and is 1.5 x 10
8
km from the Sun.
ANS. : ANS. : 7.1 x 10 7.1 x 10
33 33
kg m kg m
2 2
s s
1 1
; 2.7 x 10 ; 2.7 x 10
40 40
kg m kg m
2 2
s s
1 1
3. Calculate the magnitude of the angular momentum of the
second hand on a clock about an axis through the centre of the
clock face. The clock hand has a length of 15.0 cm and a mass
of 6.00 g. Take the second hand to be a thin rod rotating with
angular velocity about one end. (Given the moment of inertia of
thin rod about the axis through the CM is )
ANS. : ANS. : 4.71 x 10 4.71 x 10
6 6
kg m kg m
2 2
s s
1 1
1
12
ML
2
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
128
Linear Motion Relationship Rotational Motion
Summary:
m
v=r =
d
dt
a=
dv
dt
=
d
dt

F=ma

=I
W=Fs W=
v=
ds
dt
a=r
=rF sin
P=Fv P=
p=mv L=I
L=rpsin
I I =

i=1
n
m
i
r
i
2
129
PHYSICS CHAPTER 8
THE END
Next Chapter
CHAPTER 9 :
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/
h
t
t
p
/
/
:
k
m
s
.
m
a
t
r
i
k
.
e
d
u
.
m
y
/