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A(n) _____ refers to a set of physical and psychological responses that help us fight a threat or flee from it. A. patellar reflex B. fight-or-flight response C. tendon reflex D. involuntary response Which of the following bodily changes occurs when the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system? A. The liver reduces the amount of glucose it releases to the muscles. B. Saliva and mucus dry up, decreasing the size of the air passages to the lungs. C. The spleen releases more red blood cells to help carry oxygen. D. The body's metabolism decreases in order to conserve energy for physical action. The hypothalamus activates the adrenal-cortical system by releasing _____, which signals the pituitary gland to secrete _____, the body's "major stress hormone." A. cortisol; adrenaline B. corticotropin-release factor; adrenaline C. cortisol; adrenocorticotropic hormone D. corticotropin-release factor; adrenocorticotropic hormone Which of the following hormones is often used as a measure of stress? A. Cortisol B. Thyroxine C. Serotonin D. Renin What is the difference between an adaptive fear response and a maladaptive anxiety response? A. Maladaptive fear responses subside once the threat ends, whereas adaptive anxiety persists after the threat passes. B. Maladaptive responses are out of proportion to the threat, whereas adaptive responses are appropriate to the situation. C In adaptive fear, people take extreme steps to protect themselves from the threat, whereas in . maladaptive anxiety individuals throw caution into the wind. D. Adaptive fear can lead to anticipatory anxiety, while maladaptive anxiety can lead to generalized anxiety disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder are by definition the consequences of: A. structural brain damage. B. feelings of inadequacy. C. experiencing extreme stressors. D. childhood trauma. Which of the following statements is true regarding PTSD? A. Common events, such as traffic accidents, are rarely associated with PTSD. B. About 25 percent of adults will develop PTSD at some time in their lives. C. Even the mildest symptoms of PTSD prevent normal functioning. D. Women are at greater risk of experiencing PTSD than men.

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Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since then, she has been dreaming about the attack and often wakes up screaming and crying. According to Janie, she feels as though she is reliving the attack in each dream. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. showing signs of paranoia and delusions. Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since the attack, she has withdrawn from family and friends. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. showing signs of paranoia and delusions.

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10. Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since the attack, she has been overly cautious and watchful. The smallest noise startles her. If someone looks at her "strangely," she becomes very anxious. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. demonstrating deluded thinking. 11. PTSD sufferers may report "_____" about having lived through the traumatic event or about things they had to do to survive. A. dehumanization B. survivor guilt C. hysteria D. cognitive bias 12. Which of the following statements is true regarding acute stress disorder? A. It is diagnosed when symptoms arise within one month of exposure to the stressor and last no longer than six months. B The sufferer of acute stress disorder persistently avoids reminders of the trauma and is constantly . aroused, but does not reexperience the trauma. C. To receive the diagnosis, individuals must exhibit at least one dissociative symptom. D. In acute stress disorder, dissociative symptoms are common, including detachment, derealization, and depersonalization. 13. Which of the following disorders consists of emotional and behavioral symptoms such as depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or antisocial behaviors that occur within 3 months of the experience of a stressor? A. Agoraphobia B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Social phobia D. Adjustment disorder 14. Two months ago, Mark's mother passed away unexpectedly. Since her death, he has been unable to function at school, has lost interest in extracurricular activities, and gets agitated easily. Mark may be exhibiting the symptoms of which disorder? A. Adjustment disorder B. Acute stress disorder C. Posttraumatic stress disorder D. Bereavement disorder

15. Which of the following is least likely to cause PTSD? A. Natural disaster B. Child birth C. Physical abuse D. War-related trauma 16. Which of the following environmental, social, and psychological factors increases an individual's vulnerability to PTSD? A. Having a strong support network of friends and family B. Having experienced the traumatic event first-hand C. Having adopted a non-avoidant coping strategy to deal with the traumatic event D. Never having experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression before the traumatic event 17. _____ to be diagnosed with PTSD and most of the other anxiety disorders including panic disorder, social phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. A. Men are more likely than women B. Women are more likely than men C. Men and women are equally likely D. Women are slightly less likely than men 18. People in Latino cultures report a syndrome known as _____, which might include trembling, heart palpitations, a sense of heat in the chest rising into the head, difficulty moving limbs, loss of consciousness, memory loss, paresthesia, chest tightness, dyspnea, dizziness, and faintness. A. ataque de nervios B. amok C. mal de ojo D. susto 19. A study of 942 adults in rural Mexico found that 21 percent of the women and 10 percent of the men had chronic ______ (de Snyder, Diaz-Perez, & Ojeda, 2000). The authors suggest that among underprivileged Latino communities, particularly women, _____ expresses the anger and frustration of "being at the bottom" and provides temporary release from the everyday burdens of life. A. amok; amok B. nervios; nervios C. susto; susto D. mal de ojo; mal de ojo 20. Which of the following statements is true regarding cross-cultural and gender differences in PTSD symptoms? A. Mexican women are less likely to feel helpless than Mexican men after a traumatic event. B. Mexican men are less likely to get the material support they need after a traumatic event compared to Mexican women. C. The tendency to dissociate in response to severe stress is extremely rare among Latinos. D. Evidence suggests that sex roles are more egalitarian among African Americans than among Caucasians. 21. Which of the following is true regarding the brain areas of PTSD sufferers? A. The amygdala appears to be less responsive to emotional stimuli. B. The medial prefrontal cortex tends to be unregulated. C. The hippocampus may shrink due to overexposure to neurotransmitters and hormones. D. The medial prefrontal cortex is more active in the case of severe symptoms of PTSD. 22. When not exposed to trauma reminders, the resting levels of cortisol among PTSD sufferers tend to be: A. somewhat higher than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. B. much higher than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. C. lower than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. D. similar to the cortisol levels of people without PTSD.

23. _____ may cause memories of the traumatic event to be planted more firmly in memory. A. Higher levels of cortisol B. Damage to the amygdala C. The sluggish reactions of the HPA axis D. The overexposure of the brain to epinephrine, norepinephrine, and other neurochemicals 24. Which of the following is a heritable risk factor for PTSD? A. Overdeveloped medial prefrontal cortex B. Fraternal twins among first-degree relatives C. Abnormally low cortisol levels D. Higher volume of the hippocampus 25. Patrick is a Vietnam veteran who has a recurring nightmare of being on the frontline. Any sound that remotely resembles gunfire causes anxiety. Although he has been suffering for years with this problem, he has decided to seek treatment. His psychologist has suggested that he identify the thoughts and situations that evoke anxiety and rank them. His psychologist helps him work through each situation by using relaxation techniques. This technique is called: A. behavior modulation. B. systematic desensitization. C. rational-emotive behavioral therapy. D. flooding. 26. Which of the following biological treatments has been successful in dealing with PTSD symptoms such as nightmares, irritability, and sleep problems? A. MAOIs and SSRIs B. SSRIs and benzodiazepines C. Benzodiazepines and tricyclics D. Tricyclics and barbiturates 27. What diagnosis is given when panic attacks become a common occurrence, when the attacks are not usually provoked by any particular situation, and when a person begins to worry about having the attacks and changes behaviors as a result of this worry? A. Generalized anxiety disorder B. Panic disorder C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Separation anxiety disorder 28. Which of the following statements is true regarding panic disorder? A People with panic disorder often fear they have life-threatening illnesses, though they are less likely to . have a personal or family history of serious chronic illness. B. Many people with panic disorder feel ashamed of it and try to hide it from others. C. About 28 percent of people will develop panic disorder at some time, usually between late adolescence and the mid-thirties. D. People with panic disorder may become demoralized and depressed but rarely do they become suicidal. 29. Approximately one-third to one-half of the people diagnosed with panic disorder also develop _____. A. claustrophobia B. agoraphobia C. PTSD D. acute distress disorder. 30. The translation of the Greek term agoraphobia means: A. fear of dark places. B. fear of the marketplace. C. fear of all places. D. fear of closed places.

31. Ruth is afraid of being in large open places. She is especially worried that she will not be able to leave the area if she begins to panic. Ruth is most likely experiencing _____. A. social phobia B. agoraphobia C. acute distress disorder D. claustrophobia 32. Which of the following theories have been integrated into a model to explain the factors associated with panic disorders? A. Biological and psychological B. Psychological and social C. Social and biological D. Biological, psychological, and social 33. Family history studies reveal that about _____ of first-degree relatives of people with panic disorder also have panic disorder. A. 10 percent B. 20 percent C. 30 percent D. 40 percent 34. People with panic disorder show dysregulation of norepinephrine systems in an area of the brainstem called the: A. basal tencephalon. B. locus ceruleus. C. nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. D. reticular formation. 35. In women prone to panic attacks, fluctuations in _____ levels might cause imbalances or dysfunction of the serotonin or GABA systems, leading to panic attacks. A. progesterone B. testosterone C. estriol D. epinephrine 36. Cognitive theorists suggest that people who experience panic attacks engage in all of the following behaviors EXCEPT: A. paying close attention to their bodily sensations. B. reasoning that the attack is only a temporary response. C. misinterpreting bodily sensations in a negative way. D. engaging in snowballing catastrophic thinking. 37. Sally believes that the bodily symptoms she experiences during a panic attack have harmful consequences. This is known as _____. A. existential anxiety B. neurotic anxiety C. simple anxiety D. anxiety sensitivity 38. Virginia is very aware of her body's cues that signal a panic attack. This heightened awareness is known as _____. A. conditioned avoidance response B. introjective awareness C. interoceptive awareness D. anxiety sensitivity

39. When the bodily cues that occur at the beginning of panic attacks become conditioned stimuli signaling new attacks, the process is known as: A. classical conditioning. B. interoceptive conditioning. C. operant conditioning. D. observational learning. 40. Which of the following is true regarding the integrated model of panic disorder? A. Many people who experience panic disorders have recurrent panic attacks because of structural damage to the brain. B. Panic disorders seem to develop as a result of a biological vulnerability to a hypersensitive fight-orflight response. C People will not typically develop a panic disorder if they engage in constant catastrophizing cognitions . about their physiological symptoms. D Avoidance of situations that evoke panic attacks remains isolated to those specific situations, and has . no occasion to generalize to other situations. 41. Jacob has been diagnosed with panic disorder without agoraphobia. He took his medication regularly until he was laid off from his job and then stopped because he could no longer afford to pay for it. Soon after discontinuing his medication, he began to experience recurrent panic attacks. Which drug is Jacob most likely taking? A. SSRIs B. Tricyclic antidepressants C. Benzodiazepines D. Phenothiazines 42. Jacob has been diagnosed with panic disorder without agoraphobia. He has been taking his medicine regularly, but has begun to experience side effects such as constipation and difficulty urinating. He also noticed that he has gained weight rather quickly. Which drug is Jacob most likely taking for his panic symptoms? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. Phenothiazines D. SSRIs 43. Side effects such as sexual dysfunction, tremors, insomnia, and drowsiness are associated with which drug used to treat panic attacks? A. Phenothiazines B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SSRIs 44. Which of the following suppresses the central nervous system and influences functioning in the GABA, norepinephrine, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SSRIs 45. Which of the following treatments can interfere with cognitive and motor functioning? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SNRIs

46. Terrence has been seeing a psychologist for his recurrent panic attacks. His therapist teaches him relaxation techniques to help him gain control over his anxiety symptoms. Terrence is also taught to identify the thoughts that are intrusive and exacerbate his symptoms. He is encouraged to note these thoughts in a daily journal. Terrence's therapist is most likely using which technique to treat his panic disorder? A. Cognitive-behavioral therapies B. Humanistic therapies C. Behavioral therapies D. Cognitive therapies 47. Which of the following treatments is most effective in preventing relapse in clients with panic disorders? A. B. C. D. Cognitive therapies Biological therapies Behavioral therapies Cognitive-behavioral therapies

48. Almost _____ of people with a specific phobia never seek treatment. A. 20 percent B. 40 percent C. 60 percent D. 90 percent 49. Tina and her parents live on a farm where field mice are very common. One night, a mouse crawled on Tina while she was sleeping. The experience frightened Tina so badly that she now avoids any situation where she might come across a mouse. She always checks her bed carefully each night. Tina is most likely exhibiting behaviors related to _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia 50. Bradley was 12 years old when lightning struck his family's house. Now he becomes very anxious every time the sky darkens. If a storm begins, he exhibits panic symptoms and frantically searches for an area in the house where he feels safe. Bradley is most likely suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia 51. Susan is deathly afraid of the wind since she and her family survived Hurricane Ike. She gets very worried and panicky when the sky gets dark and the wind begins to blow. Susan is most likely experiencing: A. a situational type phobia. B. an animal type phobia. C. a social phobia. D. a natural environment type phobia. 52. When June was 7 years old, she and her mother were stuck in an elevator. Several other people were in the elevator as well. The elevator became hot and stuffy, and breathing became difficult. June remembers experiencing shortness of breath, palpitations, and dizziness. Now June refuses to ride elevators. When she is with other people, she makes excuses to use the stairs. June is probably suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia

53. Janelle is terrified of needles and the sight of blood. When she was younger, she had to have several stitches because of a bicycle accident. The cut on her forehead was deep and bled profusely. At the sight of blood, Janelle feels her blood pressure and heart rate drop, and on one occasion, she even fainted. Most likely Janelle is suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. social phobia C. a blood-injection-injury type phobia D. a natural environment type phobia 54. Which of the following phobias is more likely to run in families? A. Natural environment type phobias B. Blood-injection-injury type phobias C. Situational type phobias D. Animal type phobias 55. Anna is terrified of speaking in public. She always finds an excuse to avoid public speaking or gets someone to speak for her. Once Anna had a full-blown panic attack when her boss called on her unexpectedly to speak at a meeting. Anna is probably exhibiting symptoms of: A. a situational type phobia. B. an animal type phobia. C. social phobia. D. a natural environment type phobia. 56. Which of the following statements is true regarding social phobia? A. Social phobia is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of about 3 percent in the United States. B. Social phobia tends to develop in either late adolescence or early adulthood. C. Over 90 percent of adults with social phobia report severe childhood trauma that contributed to their symptoms. D. Social phobia often co-occurs with mood disorders, other anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder. 57. In Japan, the term _____ describes an intense fear of interpersonal relations and is characterized by shame about and persistent fears of causing others offense, embarrassment, or even harm through one's personal inadequacies. A. qi-gong psychotic reaction B. shenkui C. taijin kyofu-sho D. shenjing shuairuo 58. Which of the following statements is true about taijin kyofu-shothe fear of interpersonal relations? A. It is most frequently encountered among young women. B. It reflects concerns about embarrassing oneself, rather than offending others. C. It is in line with the Japanese emphasis on deference to others. D. It is the fear of meeting people from different cultures. 59. According to Freudian theory, phobias develop: A. as a result the ego's inability to satisfy the id. B. when unconscious anxiety is displaced onto a neutral or symbolic object. C. when the preconscious state of mind becomes tied to the conscious state of mind. D. when sexual urges and drives are retarded or suppressed. 60. Little Hans' behavior was representative of which phobia? A. Animal type phobias B. Natural environment type phobias C. Social phobia D. Situational type phobias

61. Freud explained Hans' phobia with which of the following processes? A. Electra complex B. Oedipus complex C. Anal fixation D. Oral fixation 62. Which of the following behavioral theories has been useful in explaining the maintenance of phobias? A. B. C. D. Observational learning Operant conditioning Social-cognitive learning Social learning

63. In Watson's experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned stimulus was ______. A. the white rat B. Little Albert C. the loud noise D. the startle and fear response 64. In Watson's experiment with Little Albert, the conditioned stimulus was _____. A. the white rat B. Little Albert C. the loud noise D. the startle and fear response 65. June has been avoiding riding elevators since she was 7 years old. When she is with other people, she makes excuses to use the stairs. June's fear of elevators is being maintained by _____. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. partial reinforcement D. absolute reinforcement 66. Theorists who argue that phobias can develop through observational learning posit: A. that the phobic behaviors are responses to aversive stimuli. B. that fear responses are generated when the behaviors are positively reinforced. C. that people learn phobic behaviors by modeling the behaviors of others. D. that classical conditioning must be coupled with observational learning. 67. Trudy's mother is afraid of bees. Her mother always screams and runs away every time she sees them. Trudy, seeing her mother's response, also runs and screams every time she sees a bee. In this case, Trudy's behavior can be explained by which theory? A. Social-cognitive learning B. Classical conditioning C. Observational learning D. Operant conditioning 68. The idea that people learn to fear or avoid selected objects or situations that are vestiges of evolutionary history, and individuals are biologically prepared to quickly associate fear responses with certain objects is called _____. A. traditional classical conditioning B. evolutionary classical conditioning C. biological classical conditioning D. prepared classical conditioning

69. According to prepared classical conditioning theory, Rachel is more likely to be afraid of which of the following? A. Flowers B. Snakes C. Trees D. Flying 70. The most significant problem with the behavioral theory of phobias is that: A. most phobias do not have an evolutionary basis and are not part of our collective unconscious. B. phobias should disappear once the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. C. many people with phobias cannot identify traumatic events that triggered their phobias. D. observational learning helps in the maintenance of phobias more than operant conditioning. 71. Which of the following is true concerning cognitive theorists? A. Cognitive theorists view social phobia as merely a behavioral problem with no cognitive factors contributing to the behavior. B. Cognitive theorists suggest that social phobias are rooted in early childhood experiences. C. Cognitive theorists argue that people with social phobia tend to focus on the negative events in a social situation. D Cognitive theorists posit that people with social phobia externalize their anxiety of the social situation . and make others uncomfortable. 72. According to the cognitive theories of phobias, people with social phobias: A. are blind to potentially threatening social cues. B. have very low standards for their social performance. C. evaluate their own behavior harshly. D. are not in touch with their internal feelings 73. Children with a genetic predisposition toward anxiety or who are behaviorally inhibited may not develop a specific phobia, unless: A. they experience some traumatic event. B. the behavior is positively reinforced by the environment. C. the parenting they receive exacerbates their anxiety. D. the performance of the behavior reduces their anxiety. 74. Which of the following would be most useful in treating blood-injection-injury phobias? A. Systematic sensitization B. Modeling C. Applied tension technique D. Flooding 75. Drake has a fear of dogs. As part of his therapy, Drake has to first observe his therapist petting a dog and then, when instructed, must do the same. Which behavioral treatment is being used in this situation? A. Systematic desensitization B. Modeling C. Flooding D. Applied tension technique 76. What differentiates flooding from systematic desensitization? A. The effectiveness of the treatment B. The use of relaxation techniques C. The intensity of exposure to the feared stimuli D. The therapist's level of participation

77. Julie has been diagnosed with ornithophobiathe fear of birds. For her treatment, her therapist makes her sit in a room filled with caged birds for an hour. Which behavioral treatment in being used in this situation? A. Systematic desensitization B. Modeling C. Flooding D. Applied tension technique 78. In _____, individuals can practice their feared behaviors in front of others while the therapist coaches them in the use of relaxation techniques. A. psychodynamic therapy B. group-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy C. behavioral therapy D. cognitive-biological therapy 79. People diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A. know their anxiety is provoked by uncontrollable circumstances. B. are often excessively worried about almost all situations. C. only worry about the safety and security of their family members. D. see their anxiety and worry as part of their personality. 80. Judith worries daily about whether her husband made it safely to work, how her children are getting on in school, what she should cook for dinner, and if the family will be satisfied with the meal she prepares. Judith is sluggish most of the time, and has trouble concentrating on positive things. Most likely Judith is suffering from: A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. social phobia. C. GAD. D. adjustment disorder. 81. Which of the following applies to GAD? A. People with GAD often feel tired due to chronic muscle tension and sleep loss. B. GAD most commonly begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. C. GAD has a lifetime prevalence of about 25 percent in women and men. D. Other anxiety disorders generally do not co-occur with GAD. 82. Cognitive theorist suggests that people with GAD focus on threats at both the _____ levels. A. unconscious and conscious B. conscious and preconscious C. preconscious and subconscious D. subconscious and unconscious 83. According to cognitive theory, which of the following statements is true regarding people diagnosed with GAD? A. They are always anticipating a negative event, and they tend to think it through. B. They believe that worrying can help them avoid bad events by motivating them to engage in problem solving. C They actively conjure up visual images of what they worry about, as a way of habituating to the . negative emotions associated with the event. D. Their chronic anxiety is the result of having had highly controlled and predictable experiences in their childhood. 84. _____ is believed to be deficient in people diagnosed with GAD. A. Serotonin B. GABA C. Norepinephrine D. Dopamine

85. The _____ drugs such as Xanax, Librium, Valium, and Serax provide short-term relief from anxiety symptoms, but their side effects and addictiveness preclude long-term use. A. SSRI B. tricyclic antidepressant C. SNRI D. benzodiazepine 86. _____ are thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that are persistent, that uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness, and that cause significant anxiety or distress, whereas _____ are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform. A. Obsessions; compulsions B. Motives; drives C. Compulsions; obsessions D. Drives; motives 87. Lee is a high school teacher. He has difficulty grading his papers because he constantly checks and rechecks the student's answers. He fears that he has made a mistake in the calculations. Lee's checking routines are not isolated to his students' work. He also checks the locks on his classroom door several times before leaving school, and performs these checking rituals at home as well. Lee is most likely exhibiting: A. acute stress disorder. B. posttraumatic stress disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. generalized anxiety disorder. 88. Which of the following is an example of an obsession? A. Repeatedly checking the locks on all doors B. Constantly thinking about cleanliness and contamination C. Washing hands several times a day D. Spending hours sorting and resorting possessions 89. Which of the following is an example of a compulsion? A. Repeatedly checking the locks on all doors B. Constantly thinking about cleanliness and contamination C. Spending hours thinking about the orderliness of the house D. Thinking incessantly about how a loved one could be harmed 90. Which of the following statements is true regarding obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? A. People with OCD do not know that their thoughts and behaviors are irrational. B Obsessional thoughts are distressing to people with OCD, and engaging in compulsive behaviors can . be time-consuming or harmful. C. Children with OCD often confide in their parents about their obsessive-compulsive habits. D. The prevalence of OCD seems to differ greatly across countries that have been studied. 91. What is meant by the statement "often, the link between the obsession and the compulsion is the result of magical thinking'"? A. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will give them extraordinary abilities. B. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will reduce their levels of anxiety. C. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will benefit the society at large. D.The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will ward off danger to themselves or others.

92. Biological theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder have focused on a circuit in the brain involved in: A. activating moral behaviors. B. regulating thoughts and emotions. C. executing primitive patterns of behavior. D. filtering incoming stimuli. 93. According to biological theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulses are carried to a part of the basal ganglia called the _____, which allows the strongest of the impulses to flow through to the thalamus. A. hippocampus B. pons C. caudate nucleus D. locus ceruleus 94. According to cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD, all of the following are true regarding people diagnosed with OCD EXCEPT: A they may be depressed or generally anxious much of the time, so even minor negative events are more . likely to invoke intrusive, negative thoughts. B they judge their negative, intrusive thoughts as more unacceptable than most people would and become . more anxious and guilty about having them. C they appear to believe that they should be able to control all thoughts, and have trouble accepting that . everyone has horrific notions from time to time. D they believe that having intrusive thoughts means they are going crazy, but they do not equate having . the thoughts with actually engaging in the behaviors. 95. People with OCD often get some relief from their symptoms when they take drugs that better regulate the neurotransmitter _____. A. GABA B. epinephrine C. norepinephrine D. serotonin 96. According to cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD, compulsions develop largely through _____. A. interoceptive conditioning B. observational learning C. classical conditioning D. operant conditioning 97. Which of the following statements is true regarding the biological treatments for OCD? A. Benzodiazepines are useful in most cases. B. Patients generally do not relapse once they discontinue medication. C. Antidepressant drugs affecting serotonin levels help reduce symptoms of OCD. D. Controlled studies suggest that placebos are more effective than antidepressant medication. 98. _____ involves repeatedly exposing the client to the focus of the obsession and preventing compulsive responses to the resulting anxiety. A. Flooding B. Psychodynamic therapy C. Rational-emotive behavior therapy D. Exposure and response prevention therapy 99. In exposure and response prevention therapy, repeated exposure to the content of the obsession: A. stabilizes the client's anxiety about the obsession. B. extinguishes the client's anxiety about the obsession. C. reinforces the client's anxiety about the obsession. D. builds up the client's anxiety about the obsession.

100.In exposure and response prevention therapy, by preventing a person from engaging in compulsive behavior: A. the client's "magical thinking" is reinforced. B. the client's compulsive behavior is strengthened. C. the client's anxiety about the compulsive behavior builds up. D. the client learns that not engaging in the compulsive behavior does not lead to a terrible result. 101.Which of the following is a good example of the use of exposure and response prevention therapy? A. A person afraid of germs is allowed to clean his or her hands as often as desired. B. A person afraid of flying is taught to first imagine buying an airline ticket. C. A person afraid of having a disorganized room is taught to reappraise her or his current room in a more positive way. D. A person afraid of contamination is asked to hold a dirty handkerchief for more than an hour. 102.Differentiate between adaptive fear responses and maladaptive anxiety responses.

103.What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? Describe the three symptoms that are necessary for a diagnosis of PTSD. What are the types of experiences that can cause a person to develop PTSD? Briefly explain the environmental, social, and psychological factors that can increase a person's vulnerability to PTSD.

104.Describe some of the biological factors that are related to PTSD.

105.What are the symptoms of a panic attack? What impact does panic disorder have on the people diagnosed with it? Describe the cognitive theory of panic disorder.

106.What are the biological treatments that have been developed for panic disorder? What are some of the side effects of the drugs used to treat people diagnosed with panic disorder?

107.Briefly describe the four categories of phobias. Provide examples of each.

108.How would a behavioral therapist interpret phobias? Describe the treatments a behavioral therapist might recommend to overcome phobias.

109.What are the key features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? Describe the cognitive theories of GAD.

110.What are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? Describe some of the symptoms of this disorder.

111.Describe the biological and cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD.

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(p. 113)

A(n) _____ refers to a set of physical and psychological responses that help us fight a threat or flee from it. A. patellar reflex B. fight-or-flight response C. tendon reflex D. involuntary response
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #1

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(p. 113)

Which of the following bodily changes occurs when the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system? A. The liver reduces the amount of glucose it releases to the muscles. B. Saliva and mucus dry up, decreasing the size of the air passages to the lungs. C. The spleen releases more red blood cells to help carry oxygen. D. The body's metabolism decreases in order to conserve energy for physical action.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #2

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(p. 113)

The hypothalamus activates the adrenal-cortical system by releasing _____, which signals the pituitary gland to secrete _____, the body's "major stress hormone." A. cortisol; adrenaline B. corticotropin-release factor; adrenaline C. cortisol; adrenocorticotropic hormone D. corticotropin-release factor; adrenocorticotropic hormone
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #3

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(p. 113)

Which of the following hormones is often used as a measure of stress? A. Cortisol B. Thyroxine C. Serotonin D. Renin
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #4

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(p. 115)

What is the difference between an adaptive fear response and a maladaptive anxiety response? A. Maladaptive fear responses subside once the threat ends, whereas adaptive anxiety persists after the threat passes. B. Maladaptive responses are out of proportion to the threat, whereas adaptive responses are appropriate to the situation. C In adaptive fear, people take extreme steps to protect themselves from the threat, whereas in . maladaptive anxiety individuals throw caution into the wind. D. Adaptive fear can lead to anticipatory anxiety, while maladaptive anxiety can lead to generalized anxiety disorder.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #5

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(p. 116)

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder are by definition the consequences of: A. structural brain damage. B. feelings of inadequacy. C. experiencing extreme stressors. D. childhood trauma.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #6

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Which of the following statements is true regarding PTSD? A. Common events, such as traffic accidents, are rarely associated with PTSD. B. About 25 percent of adults will develop PTSD at some time in their lives. C. Even the mildest symptoms of PTSD prevent normal functioning. D. Women are at greater risk of experiencing PTSD than men.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #7

8.
(p. 117)

Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since then, she has been dreaming about the attack and often wakes up screaming and crying. According to Janie, she feels as though she is reliving the attack in each dream. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. showing signs of paranoia and delusions.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #8

9.
(p. 117)

Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since the attack, she has withdrawn from family and friends. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. showing signs of paranoia and delusions.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #9

10.
(p. 117)

Janie's house was broken into and the perpetrator brutally attacked her. Since the attack, she has been overly cautious and watchful. The smallest noise startles her. If someone looks at her "strangely," she becomes very anxious. Janie is most likely: A. experiencing emotional numbness and detachment. B. exhibiting hypervigilance and chronic arousal. C. reexperiencing the trauma. D. demonstrating deluded thinking.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #10

11.
(p. 117)

PTSD sufferers may report "_____" about having lived through the traumatic event or about things they had to do to survive. A. dehumanization B. survivor guilt C. hysteria D. cognitive bias
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #11

12.
(p. 117)

Which of the following statements is true regarding acute stress disorder? A. It is diagnosed when symptoms arise within one month of exposure to the stressor and last no longer than six months. B The sufferer of acute stress disorder persistently avoids reminders of the trauma and is constantly . aroused, but does not reexperience the trauma. C. To receive the diagnosis, individuals must exhibit at least one dissociative symptom. D. In acute stress disorder, dissociative symptoms are common, including detachment, derealization, and depersonalization.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #12

13.
(p. 117)

Which of the following disorders consists of emotional and behavioral symptoms such as depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or antisocial behaviors that occur within 3 months of the experience of a stressor? A. Agoraphobia B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Social phobia D. Adjustment disorder
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #13

14.
(p. 117)

Two months ago, Mark's mother passed away unexpectedly. Since her death, he has been unable to function at school, has lost interest in extracurricular activities, and gets agitated easily. Mark may be exhibiting the symptoms of which disorder? A. Adjustment disorder B. Acute stress disorder C. Posttraumatic stress disorder D. Bereavement disorder
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #14

15.
(p. 119120)

Which of the following is least likely to cause PTSD? A. Natural disaster B. Child birth C. Physical abuse D. War-related trauma
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #15

16.
(p. 121)

Which of the following environmental, social, and psychological factors increases an individual's vulnerability to PTSD? A. Having a strong support network of friends and family B. Having experienced the traumatic event first-hand C. Having adopted a non-avoidant coping strategy to deal with the traumatic event D. Never having experienced symptoms of anxiety and depression before the traumatic event
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #16

17.
(p. 121)

_____ to be diagnosed with PTSD and most of the other anxiety disorders including panic disorder, social phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. A. Men are more likely than women B. Women are more likely than men C. Men and women are equally likely D. Women are slightly less likely than men
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #17

18.
(p. 122)

People in Latino cultures report a syndrome known as _____, which might include trembling, heart palpitations, a sense of heat in the chest rising into the head, difficulty moving limbs, loss of consciousness, memory loss, paresthesia, chest tightness, dyspnea, dizziness, and faintness. A. ataque de nervios B. amok C. mal de ojo D. susto
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #18

19.
(p. 122)

A study of 942 adults in rural Mexico found that 21 percent of the women and 10 percent of the men had chronic ______ (de Snyder, Diaz-Perez, & Ojeda, 2000). The authors suggest that among underprivileged Latino communities, particularly women, _____ expresses the anger and frustration of "being at the bottom" and provides temporary release from the everyday burdens of life. A. amok; amok B. nervios; nervios C. susto; susto D. mal de ojo; mal de ojo
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #19

20.
(p. 122123)

Which of the following statements is true regarding cross-cultural and gender differences in PTSD symptoms? A. Mexican women are less likely to feel helpless than Mexican men after a traumatic event. B. Mexican men are less likely to get the material support they need after a traumatic event compared to Mexican women. C. The tendency to dissociate in response to severe stress is extremely rare among Latinos. D. Evidence suggests that sex roles are more egalitarian among African Americans than among Caucasians.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #20

21.
(p. 123)

Which of the following is true regarding the brain areas of PTSD sufferers? A. The amygdala appears to be less responsive to emotional stimuli. B. The medial prefrontal cortex tends to be unregulated. C. The hippocampus may shrink due to overexposure to neurotransmitters and hormones. D. The medial prefrontal cortex is more active in the case of severe symptoms of PTSD.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Difficult Nolen - Chapter 05 #21

22.
(p. 123)

When not exposed to trauma reminders, the resting levels of cortisol among PTSD sufferers tend to be: A. somewhat higher than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. B. much higher than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. C. lower than the cortisol levels of people without PTSD. D. similar to the cortisol levels of people without PTSD.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #22

23.
(p. 123)

_____ may cause memories of the traumatic event to be planted more firmly in memory. A. Higher levels of cortisol B. Damage to the amygdala C. The sluggish reactions of the HPA axis D. The overexposure of the brain to epinephrine, norepinephrine, and other neurochemicals
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #23

24.
(p. 124)

Which of the following is a heritable risk factor for PTSD? A. Overdeveloped medial prefrontal cortex B. Fraternal twins among first-degree relatives C. Abnormally low cortisol levels D. Higher volume of the hippocampus
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #24

25.
(p. 124)

Patrick is a Vietnam veteran who has a recurring nightmare of being on the frontline. Any sound that remotely resembles gunfire causes anxiety. Although he has been suffering for years with this problem, he has decided to seek treatment. His psychologist has suggested that he identify the thoughts and situations that evoke anxiety and rank them. His psychologist helps him work through each situation by using relaxation techniques. This technique is called: A. behavior modulation. B. systematic desensitization. C. rational-emotive behavioral therapy. D. flooding.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #25

26.
(p. 124)

Which of the following biological treatments has been successful in dealing with PTSD symptoms such as nightmares, irritability, and sleep problems? A. MAOIs and SSRIs B. SSRIs and benzodiazepines C. Benzodiazepines and tricyclics D. Tricyclics and barbiturates
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #26

27.
(p. 126)

What diagnosis is given when panic attacks become a common occurrence, when the attacks are not usually provoked by any particular situation, and when a person begins to worry about having the attacks and changes behaviors as a result of this worry? A. Generalized anxiety disorder B. Panic disorder C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Separation anxiety disorder
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #27

28.
(p. 126)

Which of the following statements is true regarding panic disorder? A People with panic disorder often fear they have life-threatening illnesses, though they are less likely . to have a personal or family history of serious chronic illness. B. Many people with panic disorder feel ashamed of it and try to hide it from others. C. About 28 percent of people will develop panic disorder at some time, usually between late adolescence and the mid-thirties. D. People with panic disorder may become demoralized and depressed but rarely do they become suicidal.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #28

29.
(p. 126)

Approximately one-third to one-half of the people diagnosed with panic disorder also develop _____. A. claustrophobia B. agoraphobia C. PTSD D. acute distress disorder.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #29

30.
(p. 126)

The translation of the Greek term agoraphobia means: A. fear of dark places. B. fear of the marketplace. C. fear of all places. D. fear of closed places.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #30

31.
(p. 126)

Ruth is afraid of being in large open places. She is especially worried that she will not be able to leave the area if she begins to panic. Ruth is most likely experiencing _____. A. social phobia B. agoraphobia C. acute distress disorder D. claustrophobia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #31

32.
(p. 127)

Which of the following theories have been integrated into a model to explain the factors associated with panic disorders? A. Biological and psychological B. Psychological and social C. Social and biological D. Biological, psychological, and social
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #32

33.
(p. 127)

Family history studies reveal that about _____ of first-degree relatives of people with panic disorder also have panic disorder. A. 10 percent B. 20 percent C. 30 percent D. 40 percent
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #33

34.
(p. 127)

People with panic disorder show dysregulation of norepinephrine systems in an area of the brainstem called the: A. basal tencephalon. B. locus ceruleus. C. nucleus prepositus hypoglossi. D. reticular formation.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #34

35.
(p. 127)

In women prone to panic attacks, fluctuations in _____ levels might cause imbalances or dysfunction of the serotonin or GABA systems, leading to panic attacks. A. progesterone B. testosterone C. estriol D. epinephrine
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #35

36.
(p. 127128)

Cognitive theorists suggest that people who experience panic attacks engage in all of the following behaviors EXCEPT: A. paying close attention to their bodily sensations. B. reasoning that the attack is only a temporary response. C. misinterpreting bodily sensations in a negative way. D. engaging in snowballing catastrophic thinking.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #36

37.
(p. 128)

Sally believes that the bodily symptoms she experiences during a panic attack have harmful consequences. This is known as _____. A. existential anxiety B. neurotic anxiety C. simple anxiety D. anxiety sensitivity
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #37

38.
(p. 128)

Virginia is very aware of her body's cues that signal a panic attack. This heightened awareness is known as _____. A. conditioned avoidance response B. introjective awareness C. interoceptive awareness D. anxiety sensitivity
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #38

39.
(p. 128)

When the bodily cues that occur at the beginning of panic attacks become conditioned stimuli signaling new attacks, the process is known as: A. classical conditioning. B. interoceptive conditioning. C. operant conditioning. D. observational learning.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #39

40.
(p. 128129)

Which of the following is true regarding the integrated model of panic disorder? A. Many people who experience panic disorders have recurrent panic attacks because of structural damage to the brain. B. Panic disorders seem to develop as a result of a biological vulnerability to a hypersensitive fight-orflight response. C.People will not typically develop a panic disorder if they engage in constant catastrophizing cognitions about their physiological symptoms. D Avoidance of situations that evoke panic attacks remains isolated to those specific situations, and . has no occasion to generalize to other situations.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #40

41.
(p. 129)

Jacob has been diagnosed with panic disorder without agoraphobia. He took his medication regularly until he was laid off from his job and then stopped because he could no longer afford to pay for it. Soon after discontinuing his medication, he began to experience recurrent panic attacks. Which drug is Jacob most likely taking? A. SSRIs B. Tricyclic antidepressants C. Benzodiazepines D. Phenothiazines
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #41

42.
(p. 129)

Jacob has been diagnosed with panic disorder without agoraphobia. He has been taking his medicine regularly, but has begun to experience side effects such as constipation and difficulty urinating. He also noticed that he has gained weight rather quickly. Which drug is Jacob most likely taking for his panic symptoms? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. Phenothiazines D. SSRIs
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #42

43.
(p. 129)

Side effects such as sexual dysfunction, tremors, insomnia, and drowsiness are associated with which drug used to treat panic attacks? A. Phenothiazines B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SSRIs
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #43

44.
(p. 129)

Which of the following suppresses the central nervous system and influences functioning in the GABA, norepinephrine, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SSRIs
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #44

45.
(p. 129)

Which of the following treatments can interfere with cognitive and motor functioning? A. Tricyclic antidepressants B. Benzodiazepines C. MAOIs D. SNRIs
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #45

46.
(p. 129130)

Terrence has been seeing a psychologist for his recurrent panic attacks. His therapist teaches him relaxation techniques to help him gain control over his anxiety symptoms. Terrence is also taught to identify the thoughts that are intrusive and exacerbate his symptoms. He is encouraged to note these thoughts in a daily journal. Terrence's therapist is most likely using which technique to treat his panic disorder? A. Cognitive-behavioral therapies B. Humanistic therapies C. Behavioral therapies D. Cognitive therapies
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #46

47.
(p. 130)

Which of the following treatments is most effective in preventing relapse in clients with panic disorders? A. Cognitive therapies B. Biological therapies C. Behavioral therapies D. Cognitive-behavioral therapies
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #47

48.
(p. 131)

Almost _____ of people with a specific phobia never seek treatment. A. 20 percent B. 40 percent C. 60 percent D. 90 percent
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #48

49.
(p. 131)

Tina and her parents live on a farm where field mice are very common. One night, a mouse crawled on Tina while she was sleeping. The experience frightened Tina so badly that she now avoids any situation where she might come across a mouse. She always checks her bed carefully each night. Tina is most likely exhibiting behaviors related to _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #49

50.
(p. 131132)

Bradley was 12 years old when lightning struck his family's house. Now he becomes very anxious every time the sky darkens. If a storm begins, he exhibits panic symptoms and frantically searches for an area in the house where he feels safe. Bradley is most likely suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #50

51.
(p. 131132)

Susan is deathly afraid of the wind since she and her family survived Hurricane Ike. She gets very worried and panicky when the sky gets dark and the wind begins to blow. Susan is most likely experiencing: A. a situational type phobia. B. an animal type phobia. C. a social phobia. D. a natural environment type phobia.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #51

52.
(p. 132)

When June was 7 years old, she and her mother were stuck in an elevator. Several other people were in the elevator as well. The elevator became hot and stuffy, and breathing became difficult. June remembers experiencing shortness of breath, palpitations, and dizziness. Now June refuses to ride elevators. When she is with other people, she makes excuses to use the stairs. June is probably suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. an animal type phobia C. social phobia D. a natural environment type phobia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #52

53.
(p. 132)

Janelle is terrified of needles and the sight of blood. When she was younger, she had to have several stitches because of a bicycle accident. The cut on her forehead was deep and bled profusely. At the sight of blood, Janelle feels her blood pressure and heart rate drop, and on one occasion, she even fainted. Most likely Janelle is suffering from _____. A. a situational type phobia B. social phobia C. a blood-injection-injury type phobia D. a natural environment type phobia
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #53

54.
(p. 132)

Which of the following phobias is more likely to run in families? A. Natural environment type phobias B. Blood-injection-injury type phobias C. Situational type phobias D. Animal type phobias
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #54

55.
(p. 132133)

Anna is terrified of speaking in public. She always finds an excuse to avoid public speaking or gets someone to speak for her. Once Anna had a full-blown panic attack when her boss called on her unexpectedly to speak at a meeting. Anna is probably exhibiting symptoms of: A. a situational type phobia. B. an animal type phobia. C. social phobia. D. a natural environment type phobia.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #55

56.
(p. 133134)

Which of the following statements is true regarding social phobia? A. Social phobia is relatively common, with a lifetime prevalence of about 3 percent in the United States. B. Social phobia tends to develop in either late adolescence or early adulthood. C. Over 90 percent of adults with social phobia report severe childhood trauma that contributed to their symptoms. D. Social phobia often co-occurs with mood disorders, other anxiety disorders, and avoidant personality disorder.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #56

57.
(p. 134)

In Japan, the term _____ describes an intense fear of interpersonal relations and is characterized by shame about and persistent fears of causing others offense, embarrassment, or even harm through one's personal inadequacies. A. qi-gong psychotic reaction B. shenkui C. taijin kyofu-sho D. shenjing shuairuo
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #57

58.
(p. 134)

Which of the following statements is true about taijin kyofu-shothe fear of interpersonal relations? A. B. C. D. It is most frequently encountered among young women. It reflects concerns about embarrassing oneself, rather than offending others. It is in line with the Japanese emphasis on deference to others. It is the fear of meeting people from different cultures.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #58

59.
(p. 134)

According to Freudian theory, phobias develop: A. as a result the ego's inability to satisfy the id. B. when unconscious anxiety is displaced onto a neutral or symbolic object. C. when the preconscious state of mind becomes tied to the conscious state of mind. D. when sexual urges and drives are retarded or suppressed.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #59

60.
(p. 134; 131)

Little Hans' behavior was representative of which phobia? A. Animal type phobias B. Natural environment type phobias C. Social phobia D. Situational type phobias
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #60

61.
(p. 134)

Freud explained Hans' phobia with which of the following processes? A. Electra complex B. Oedipus complex C. Anal fixation D. Oral fixation
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #61

62.
(p. 134)

Which of the following behavioral theories has been useful in explaining the maintenance of phobias? A. B. C. D. Observational learning Operant conditioning Social-cognitive learning Social learning
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #62

63.
(p. 135)

In Watson's experiment with Little Albert, the unconditioned stimulus was ______. A. the white rat B. Little Albert C. the loud noise D. the startle and fear response
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #63

64.
(p. 135)

In Watson's experiment with Little Albert, the conditioned stimulus was _____. A. the white rat B. Little Albert C. the loud noise D. the startle and fear response
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #64

65.
(p. 135)

June has been avoiding riding elevators since she was 7 years old. When she is with other people, she makes excuses to use the stairs. June's fear of elevators is being maintained by _____. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. partial reinforcement D. absolute reinforcement
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #65

66.
(p. 135)

Theorists who argue that phobias can develop through observational learning posit: A. that the phobic behaviors are responses to aversive stimuli. B. that fear responses are generated when the behaviors are positively reinforced. C. that people learn phobic behaviors by modeling the behaviors of others. D. that classical conditioning must be coupled with observational learning.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #66

67.
(p. 135)

Trudy's mother is afraid of bees. Her mother always screams and runs away every time she sees them. Trudy, seeing her mother's response, also runs and screams every time she sees a bee. In this case, Trudy's behavior can be explained by which theory? A. Social-cognitive learning B. Classical conditioning C. Observational learning D. Operant conditioning
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #67

68.
(p. 135136)

The idea that people learn to fear or avoid selected objects or situations that are vestiges of evolutionary history, and individuals are biologically prepared to quickly associate fear responses with certain objects is called _____. A. traditional classical conditioning B. evolutionary classical conditioning C. biological classical conditioning D. prepared classical conditioning
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #68

69.
(p. 136)

According to prepared classical conditioning theory, Rachel is more likely to be afraid of which of the following? A. Flowers B. Snakes C. Trees D. Flying
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #69

70.
(p. 136)

The most significant problem with the behavioral theory of phobias is that: A. most phobias do not have an evolutionary basis and are not part of our collective unconscious. B. phobias should disappear once the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. C. many people with phobias cannot identify traumatic events that triggered their phobias. D. observational learning helps in the maintenance of phobias more than operant conditioning.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #70

71.
(p. 136)

Which of the following is true concerning cognitive theorists? A. Cognitive theorists view social phobia as merely a behavioral problem with no cognitive factors contributing to the behavior. B. Cognitive theorists suggest that social phobias are rooted in early childhood experiences. C. Cognitive theorists argue that people with social phobia tend to focus on the negative events in a social situation. D Cognitive theorists posit that people with social phobia externalize their anxiety of the social . situation and make others uncomfortable.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #71

72.
(p. 136)

According to the cognitive theories of phobias, people with social phobias: A. are blind to potentially threatening social cues. B. have very low standards for their social performance. C. evaluate their own behavior harshly. D. are not in touch with their internal feelings
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #72

73.
(p. 136137)

Children with a genetic predisposition toward anxiety or who are behaviorally inhibited may not develop a specific phobia, unless: A. they experience some traumatic event. B. the behavior is positively reinforced by the environment. C. the parenting they receive exacerbates their anxiety. D. the performance of the behavior reduces their anxiety.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #73

74.
(p. 137)

Which of the following would be most useful in treating blood-injection-injury phobias? A. Systematic sensitization B. Modeling C. Applied tension technique D. Flooding
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #74

75.
(p. 137138)

Drake has a fear of dogs. As part of his therapy, Drake has to first observe his therapist petting a dog and then, when instructed, must do the same. Which behavioral treatment is being used in this situation? A. Systematic desensitization B. Modeling C. Flooding D. Applied tension technique
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #75

76.
(p. 138)

What differentiates flooding from systematic desensitization? A. The effectiveness of the treatment B. The use of relaxation techniques C. The intensity of exposure to the feared stimuli D. The therapist's level of participation
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #76

77.
(p. 138)

Julie has been diagnosed with ornithophobiathe fear of birds. For her treatment, her therapist makes her sit in a room filled with caged birds for an hour. Which behavioral treatment in being used in this situation? A. Systematic desensitization B. Modeling C. Flooding D. Applied tension technique
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #77

78.
(p. 138)

In _____, individuals can practice their feared behaviors in front of others while the therapist coaches them in the use of relaxation techniques. A. psychodynamic therapy B. group-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy C. behavioral therapy D. cognitive-biological therapy
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #78

79.
(p. 139)

People diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD): A. know their anxiety is provoked by uncontrollable circumstances. B. are often excessively worried about almost all situations. C. only worry about the safety and security of their family members. D. see their anxiety and worry as part of their personality.
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #79

80.
(p. 139140)

Judith worries daily about whether her husband made it safely to work, how her children are getting on in school, what she should cook for dinner, and if the family will be satisfied with the meal she prepares. Judith is sluggish most of the time, and has trouble concentrating on positive things. Most likely Judith is suffering from: A. obsessive-compulsive disorder. B. social phobia. C. GAD. D. adjustment disorder.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #80

81.
(p. 140)

Which of the following applies to GAD? A. People with GAD often feel tired due to chronic muscle tension and sleep loss. B. GAD most commonly begins in late adolescence or early adulthood. C. GAD has a lifetime prevalence of about 25 percent in women and men. D. Other anxiety disorders generally do not co-occur with GAD.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #81

82.
(p. 140)

Cognitive theorist suggests that people with GAD focus on threats at both the _____ levels. A. unconscious and conscious B. conscious and preconscious C. preconscious and subconscious D. subconscious and unconscious
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #82

83.
(p. 140141)

According to cognitive theory, which of the following statements is true regarding people diagnosed with GAD? A. They are always anticipating a negative event, and they tend to think it through. B. They believe that worrying can help them avoid bad events by motivating them to engage in problem solving. C They actively conjure up visual images of what they worry about, as a way of habituating to the . negative emotions associated with the event. D. Their chronic anxiety is the result of having had highly controlled and predictable experiences in their childhood.
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84.
(p. 141)

_____ is believed to be deficient in people diagnosed with GAD. A. Serotonin B. GABA C. Norepinephrine D. Dopamine
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #84

85.
(p. 142)

The _____ drugs such as Xanax, Librium, Valium, and Serax provide short-term relief from anxiety symptoms, but their side effects and addictiveness preclude long-term use. A. SSRI B. tricyclic antidepressant C. SNRI D. benzodiazepine
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #85

86.
(p. 143)

_____ are thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses that are persistent, that uncontrollably intrude upon consciousness, and that cause significant anxiety or distress, whereas _____ are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels he or she must perform. A. Obsessions; compulsions B. Motives; drives C. Compulsions; obsessions D. Drives; motives
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #86

87.
(p. 143144)

Lee is a high school teacher. He has difficulty grading his papers because he constantly checks and rechecks the student's answers. He fears that he has made a mistake in the calculations. Lee's checking routines are not isolated to his students' work. He also checks the locks on his classroom door several times before leaving school, and performs these checking rituals at home as well. Lee is most likely exhibiting: A. acute stress disorder. B. posttraumatic stress disorder. C. obsessive-compulsive disorder. D. generalized anxiety disorder.
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Easy Nolen - Chapter 05 #87

88.
(p. 143145)

Which of the following is an example of an obsession? A. Repeatedly checking the locks on all doors B. Constantly thinking about cleanliness and contamination C. Washing hands several times a day D. Spending hours sorting and resorting possessions
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #88

89.
(p. 143145)

Which of the following is an example of a compulsion? A. Repeatedly checking the locks on all doors B. Constantly thinking about cleanliness and contamination C. Spending hours thinking about the orderliness of the house D. Thinking incessantly about how a loved one could be harmed
Blooms: Application Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #89

90.
(p. 144)

Which of the following statements is true regarding obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? A. People with OCD do not know that their thoughts and behaviors are irrational. B. Obsessional thoughts are distressing to people with OCD, and engaging in compulsive behaviors can be time-consuming or harmful. C. Children with OCD often confide in their parents about their obsessive-compulsive habits. D. The prevalence of OCD seems to differ greatly across countries that have been studied.
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91.
(p. 145)

What is meant by the statement "often, the link between the obsession and the compulsion is the result of magical thinking'"? A. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will give them extraordinary abilities. B. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will reduce their levels of anxiety. C. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will benefit the society at large. D. The person with OCD believes that repeating a behavior a certain number of times will ward off danger to themselves or others.
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92.
(p. 145)

Biological theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder have focused on a circuit in the brain involved in: A. activating moral behaviors. B. regulating thoughts and emotions. C. executing primitive patterns of behavior. D. filtering incoming stimuli.
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93.
(p. 145)

According to biological theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulses are carried to a part of the basal ganglia called the _____, which allows the strongest of the impulses to flow through to the thalamus. A. hippocampus B. pons C. caudate nucleus D. locus ceruleus
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94.
(p. 146147)

According to cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD, all of the following are true regarding people diagnosed with OCD EXCEPT: A they may be depressed or generally anxious much of the time, so even minor negative events are . more likely to invoke intrusive, negative thoughts. B they judge their negative, intrusive thoughts as more unacceptable than most people would and . become more anxious and guilty about having them. C they appear to believe that they should be able to control all thoughts, and have trouble accepting . that everyone has horrific notions from time to time. D they believe that having intrusive thoughts means they are going crazy, but they do not equate . having the thoughts with actually engaging in the behaviors.
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95.
(p. 147)

People with OCD often get some relief from their symptoms when they take drugs that better regulate the neurotransmitter _____. A. GABA B. epinephrine C. norepinephrine D. serotonin
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96.
(p. 147)

According to cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD, compulsions develop largely through _____. A. interoceptive conditioning B. observational learning C. classical conditioning D. operant conditioning
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97.
(p. 147)

Which of the following statements is true regarding the biological treatments for OCD? A. Benzodiazepines are useful in most cases. B. Patients generally do not relapse once they discontinue medication. C. Antidepressant drugs affecting serotonin levels help reduce symptoms of OCD. D. Controlled studies suggest that placebos are more effective than antidepressant medication.
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98.
(p. 147)

_____ involves repeatedly exposing the client to the focus of the obsession and preventing compulsive responses to the resulting anxiety. A. Flooding B. Psychodynamic therapy C. Rational-emotive behavior therapy D. Exposure and response prevention therapy
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99.
(p. 147)

In exposure and response prevention therapy, repeated exposure to the content of the obsession: A. stabilizes the client's anxiety about the obsession. B. extinguishes the client's anxiety about the obsession. C. reinforces the client's anxiety about the obsession. D. builds up the client's anxiety about the obsession.
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100.
(p. 147)

In exposure and response prevention therapy, by preventing a person from engaging in compulsive behavior: A. the client's "magical thinking" is reinforced. B. the client's compulsive behavior is strengthened. C. the client's anxiety about the compulsive behavior builds up. D. the client learns that not engaging in the compulsive behavior does not lead to a terrible result.
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #100

101.
(p. 147)

Which of the following is a good example of the use of exposure and response prevention therapy? A. A person afraid of germs is allowed to clean his or her hands as often as desired. B. A person afraid of flying is taught to first imagine buying an airline ticket. C. A person afraid of having a disorganized room is taught to reappraise her or his current room in a more positive way. D. A person afraid of contamination is asked to hold a dirty handkerchief for more than an hour.
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102.
(p. 115)

Differentiate between adaptive fear responses and maladaptive anxiety responses. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Adaptive fear responsesperson behaves appropriately to confront or avoid threat, responses subside when the threat ends Maladaptive anxiety responsesunrealistic fears, person's response is out of proportion to the threat, people behave in ways that are dangerous or lead to impairment, anxiety persists after the threat passes, can lead to anticipatory anxiety
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #102

103.
(p. 116121)

What is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? Describe the three symptoms that are necessary for a diagnosis of PTSD. What are the types of experiences that can cause a person to develop PTSD? Briefly explain the environmental, social, and psychological factors that can increase a person's vulnerability to PTSD. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: PTSDconsequences of experiencing extreme stressors Symptomsreexperiencing of the traumatic event, emotional numbing and detachment, hypervigilance and chronic arousal Traumas leading to PTSDnatural disasters, human-made disasters (wars, terrorist attacks), physical and sexual abuse Vulnerability to PTSDseverity, duration, and proximity to traumatic event, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression prior to event, coping strategies
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104.
(p. 123124)

Describe some of the biological factors that are related to PTSD. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: PTSD sufferers amygdala responds more actively to emotional stimuli, medial prefrontal cortex is less active, shrinkage in the hippocampus, resting levels of cortisol tend to be lower, HPA axis may be unable to shut down the response of the sympathetic nervous system, overexposure and overconsolidation, altered biological stress responses due to childhood trauma, role of genetics
Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #104

105.
(p. 125126; 127128)

What are the symptoms of a panic attack? What impact does panic disorder have on the people diagnosed with it? Describe the cognitive theory of panic disorder. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Panic attack symptomsheart palpitations, trembling, a feeling of choking, dizziness, intense dread Impact of panic disorder on individualfear they have life-threatening illnesses, believe that they are about to die of a heart attack, seizure, or other physical crisis, "going crazy" or "losing control," shame, feeling demoralized and depressed, chronic generalized anxiety, alcohol abuse, increased risk for suicide attempts Cognitive theoristspeople prone to panic attacks tend to pay close attention to bodily sensations; negatively misinterpret sensations; engage in snowballing catastrophic thinking; develop anxiety sensitivity, interoceptive awareness, and conditioning; develop beliefs about the controllability of symptoms
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #105

106.
(p. 129)

What are the biological treatments that have been developed for panic disorder? What are some of the side effects of the drugs used to treat people diagnosed with panic disorder? Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Tricyclic antidepressantsimproves functioning of the norepinephrine system; influences levels of serotonin; side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, difficulty urinating, constipation, weight gain, sexual dysfunction; tendency for relapse after discontinuation SSRIs and SNRIsside effects include gastrointestinal upset and irritability, initial feelings of agitation, insomnia, drowsiness, tremor, and sexual dysfunction Benzodiazepinessuppress the central nervous system, influence functioning in the GABA; side effects include addictiveness, withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, tremors, insomnia, anxiety, tingling sensations, seizures, paranoia; can also interfere with cognitive and motor functioning
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107.
(p. 131132)

Briefly describe the four categories of phobias. Provide examples of each. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Animal type phobias Natural environment type phobias Situational type phobias Blood-injection-injury type phobias Examples should clearly relate to the concept mentioned
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108.
(p. 134136; 137138)

How would a behavioral therapist interpret phobias? Describe the treatments a behavioral therapist might recommend to overcome phobias. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Classical conditioning leads to the fear of the phobic object, operant conditioning helps maintain it Studies by Watson and Raynor on Little Albert Negative reinforcement Observational learning Prepared classical conditioning Treatmentssystematic desensitization, modeling, applied tension technique, flooding
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109.
(p. 139141)

What are the key features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? Describe the cognitive theories of GAD. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Featuresanxious all the time, focus of worries may shift frequently; physiological symptoms include muscle tension, sleep disturbances, and chronic restlessness; relatively common disorder; tends to be chronic; begins in childhood or adolescence Cognitive theoriespeople are focused on threat at both the conscious and unconscious levels, believe that worrying can help avoid bad events by motivating them to engage in problem solving, actively avoid visual images of what they worry about, respond to situations with automatic thoughts that stir up anxiety, hypervigilant and overreact, unconscious cognitions focus on detecting possible threats in the environment
Blooms: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 #109

110.
(p. 143145)

What are the key features of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? Describe some of the symptoms of this disorder. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: OCDsufferers experience anxiety because of obsessional thoughts and when they cannot carry out compulsive behaviors Featuresbegins at a young age, onset for males is between 6 and 15, and for females between 20 and 29; chronic if left untreated; can be very distressing, time-consuming, and harmful; sufferer may experience depression, panic attacks, phobias, substance abuse Symptomscommon obsessive thoughts include dirt and contamination, aggressive impulses, sexual thoughts, impulses to do something against one's moral code, repeated doubts, "checking" compulsions, "magical thinking," stereotyped and rigid rituals
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111.
(p. 145147)

Describe the biological and cognitive-behavioral theories of OCD. Key terms and concepts that may be included in student responses: Biological theoriesdysfunction in the brain circuit involved in executing primitive patterns of behavior, inability to turn off the primitive impulses, role of serotonin in circuit's functioning, genetic effects Cognitive-behavioral theoriesreduced ability to turn off negative, intrusive thoughts, people with OCD tend to be anxious and depressed, tendency toward rigid, moralistic thinking, believe that they should be able to control all thoughts, believe these thoughts mean they are going crazy, equate having the thoughts with actually engaging in the behaviors
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5 Summary
Category Blooms: Application Blooms: Comprehension Blooms: Knowledge Difficulty: Difficult Difficulty: Easy Difficulty: Medium Nolen - Chapter 05 # of Questions 27 18 66 1 44 66 111