Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

CONTROL FOR HEAT

EXCHANGE
M. B. JENNINGS
CHE 185
FEB 2006
OUTLINE
EXCHANGER DESIGN CONCEPTS
GENERAL CONTROL CONFIGURATION
SPECIFIC TYPES OF PROCESSES
HEAT RECOVERY
REACTORS
DISTILLATION COLUMNS
SINGLE HEAT EXCHANGERS
SHELL & TUBE EXCHANGERS







USED FOR SINGLE PHASE OR TWO PHASE
FLOWS
From: http://www.me.wustl.edu/ME/labs/thermal/me372b5.htm
EXCHANGER FLOW PATTERNS
COCURRENT OR COUNTERCURRENT
LENGTH LENGTH
T
hin
T T
T
hin
T
hout
T
hout
T
cout
T
cout
T
cin
T
cin
MULTIPASS EXHANGERS
1 SHELL- 2 TUBE PASS
EXCHANGER

COMBINED
COUNTERCURRENT
AND COCURRENT FLOW
LENGTH
T
hin
T
T
hout
T
cout
T
cin
CORRECTION FACTORS FOR
MULTIPASS EXCHANGERS
FOR A 1-2 EXCHANGER: Q U A AT
lm
F
T
F
T
F
T
R P , ( )
R
CP
c
CP
h
T
hin
T
hout

T
cout
T
cin

P
T
cout
T
cin

T
hin
T
cin

R 1 =
F
T
R
2
1 + ln
1 P
1 RP
|

\
|
|
.

R 1 ( ) ln
2 P R 1 + R
2
1 +
( )

2 P R 1 + R
2
1 + +
( )

(
(
(

R 1
RULE OF THUMB FOR
DESIGN:
F
T
2 P
1 P
|

\
|
|
.
ln
2 P 2 2
( )

2 P 2 2 +
( )

(
(

F
T
0.75 >
SEE PERRY'S HANDBOOK, CHAPTER 11, FOR EQUATIONS FOR
OTHER EXCHANGER CONFIGURATIONS.
HEAT EXCHANGE LIMITS
FOR PURE COUNTERCURRENT FLOWS






















TEMPERATURE CROSSES ARE NOT
POSSIBLE WITH MULTIPASS EXCHANGERS
ENTHALPY
T
T
hin
T
hout
T
cin
T
cout
APPROACH
TEMPERATURE
ENTHALPY
T
T
hin
T
hout
T
cin
T
cout
TEMPERATURE
CROSS
BASIC CONTROL SCHEMES
FOR SINGLE EXCHANGERS -1
FLUID TEMPERING
EXCHANGER WITH
FEEDBACK
CONTROL
BASIC CONTROL SCHEMES
FOR SINGLE EXCHANGERS - 2
FLUID
TEMPERING
EXCHANGER
WITH FEEDBACK
AND
FEEDFORWARD
CONTROL

GENERAL BLOCK FLOW
DIAGRAM FOR CONTROL LOOP
+
-
S/P ERROR
FEEDBACK
CONTROLLER
PROCESS
MANIPULATED
VARIABLE
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
LOAD
FEEDFORWARD
CONTROLLER
SPECIFIC BLOCK FLOW
DIAGRAM
+
-
S/P
G
C
CONTROLLED
VARIABLE
LOAD
+
-
G
V
G
P
+
-
G
T
G
L
G
T
G
C
FB
CONTROLLER
FF
CONTROLLER
LOAD
TRANSMITTER
SIGNAL
TRANSMITTER
LOAD MODEL
VALVE PROCESS
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS
HEAT RECOVERY
FOR A SIMPLE
SYSTEM
T1 = 170 C
T2 = 70 C
T3 = 30 C
T4 = 20 C
T5 = 100 C
T6 = 120 C
STEAM
COOLING WATER
HEAT RECOVERY WITH
FEEDBACK & FEEDFORWARD
OPTIONS
T1 = 170 C
T2 = 70 C
T3 = 30 C
T4 = 20 C
T5 = 100 C
T6 = 120 C
STEAM
COOLING WATER
TC
FS
TS
FS
TC
TS
REACTOR TEMPERATURE
CONTROL WITH JACKET - 1
FEEDBACK
CONTROL BASED
ON PRODUCT
TEMPERATURE
REACTOR TEMPERATURE
CONTROL WITH JACKET - 2
FEEDFORWARD
CONTROL
BASED ON
JACKET
COOLANT INLET
TEMPERATURE
REACTOR TEMPERATURE
CONTROL - EXTERNAL
EXCHANGER
REACTOR
PUMP
HX
COOLANT
TC
LC
PRODUCT
FEEDS
FS
TS
DISTILLATION CONTROL -
CONDENSER
TC
TS
COOLANT
PRODUCT (D)
REFLUX
TS
PS
CONDENSER
CONDENSATE
RECEIVER
DISTILLATION
COLUMN
DISTILLATION CONTROL -
REBOILER
TS
LC
TC
LS
DISTILLATION COLUMN
REBOILER
BOTTOMS
PRODUCT
STEAM
SUPPLY
LOWESTTRAY
CONCLUSIONS
A FEW TYPES OF CONTROL
CONFIGURATIONS CAN BE APPLIED
TO A WIDE RANGE OF HEAT
EXCHANGE PROCESSES
SPECIFIC TYPES OF UNIT
OPERATIONS MAY BE ABLE TO USE
MORE COMPLEX HEAT EXCHANGE
CONTROL