Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 44

La gestion efficace et durable de l'irrigation dans les zones arides pour les petits agriculteurs

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

systmes d'irrigation

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

Efficacit de systmes d'irrigation


Goutte goutte

Par aspersion

Series 1 Series 2

Par inondation

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%
Djibouti, Avril/25/12 3

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Des raisons d'efficacit lev


1. L'eau s'infiltre dans le sol avant qu'il ne puisse s'vaporer ou les eaux de ruissellement 2. L'eau est applique uniquement lorsque cela est ncessaire ( la racine des plantes de)
Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa Djibouti, Avril/25/12 4

justifications pour l'irrigation au goutte goutte


Facile installer Facile concevoir Il peut tre trs conomique Il peut rduire les problmes associs avec un niveau lev d'humidit Travaux basse pression Sauver de l'nergie (42 - 45%) pour le pompage de l'eau Trs appropri pour les cultures de grande valeur (potager)
Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa Djibouti, Avril/25/12 5

justifications pour l'irrigation au goutte goutte


L'irrigation goutte goutte est galement trs propices l'eau de mauvaise qualit (eau sale). Gouttes d'eau aux plantes individuelles signifie galement que la mthode peut tre trs efficaces dans l'utilisation de l'eau. Pour cette raison, il est le plus adapt lorsquil y a un scarit de l'eau

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

Diffrents types de sols se comportent diffremment quand l'irrigation au goutte goutte est applique. La zone de mouillage cre par irrigation goutte goutte affecte le rendement des cultures.

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

Seule la zone racine de chaque plante est mouille. Par consquent, cela peut tre une mthode trs efficace de l'irrigation

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

Travaux basse pression Sauver de l'nergie pour le pompage

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

schma gnral d'un systme

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

10

schma gnral d'un systme pour un petit agriculteur

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

11

schma gnral d'un petit systme domestique

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

12

Pices du systme

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

13

Systme individuel (2x250m2=500m2)

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

14

Systme individuel (4x250m2=1000m2)

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

15

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

16

systme communautaire (simple)

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

17

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

18

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

19

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

20

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

21

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

22

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

23

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

24

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

25

Okra germination in the 2 nd drip irrigation trial-Sudan

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

26

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

27

Vegetable crop
Tomato Potato Brinjal Chilli Cauli Flower

Spacing (cm)
40x75x40x20 (Paired row) 40x75x40x20 (Paired row) 75x20 115x40 50x75x50x40 (Paired row)

Yield increase (%)


50-60 20-30 20-30 30-40 60-80

Saving of water (%)


40-60 40-50 40-60 60-70 30-40

Cabbage
Bottle Gourd French Beans Okra

50x75x50x40 (Paired row)


115x60 90x40 75x20

30-40
30-40 55-65 25-40

50-60
40-50 30-40 20-30

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

28

Entretien

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

29

Sl. No.

Problem

Reasons & identification

Control

Precipitation of calcium and Magnesium salts

Appears as white film in pipes

Precipitates can be removed by acid treatment

Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

As soon as system stops and water evaporates calcium preci-pitates as white Precipitates can be removed by crystals around dripper/drip tape orifice acid treatment and blocks the holes.

Precipitation of iron

Changes in temperature and pH cause Acid treatment to lower the pH iron to oxidise to insoluble ferric form upto or less than 4 and then causing precipitation. Precipitation forms thorough flushing after 24 hrs a red slime mass.

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

30

Sr. Problem No. 4 Precipitation of Manganese

Reasons & identification Manganese can precipitate out as manganese oxide either by chemical or bacterial action and colour of deposit is dark brown or black. These need light to grow and hence are found in all surface storage ponds, wells and in slow moving water. Grow quickly and profusely to pose severe problems. There are chances of algae growth within filters, on ground mains, submains

Control Acid or intermittent Chlorine treatment.

5 Growth of algae within water supply

Effective control by adding copper sulphate to water depending upon its concentration which varies from 0.05 to 2 mg/litre. Intermittent Chlorine injection

6 Growth of algae within the system

Note:-Copper sulphate is very toxic to human beings and animals and hence due precaution should be taken to avoid drinking this water.

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

31

Advantages 1/2
Minimized weed growth Highly uniform distribution of water i.e., controlled by output of each nozzle. Lower labour cost. Variation in supply can be regulated by regulating the valves and drippers. Fertigation can easily be included with minimal waste of fertilizers. Foliage remains dry thus reducing the risk of disease. Usually operated at lower pressure than other types of pressurised irrigation, reducing energy costs
Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

32

Minimized fertilizer/nutrient loss due to localized application and reduced leaching. High water application efficiency. Levelling of the field not necessary. Ability to irrigate irregular shaped fields. Allows safe use of recycled water. Moisture within the root zone can be maintained at field capacity. Soil type plays less important role in frequency of irrigation. Minimized soil erosion.

Advantages 2/2

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

33

Disadvantages 1/2
Expense. Initial cost can be more than overhead systems. Waste. The sun can affect the tubes used for drip irrigation, shortening their usable life. Longevity is variable. Clogging. If the water is not properly filtered and the equipment not properly maintained, it can result in clogging. Drip irrigation might be unsatisfactory if herbicides or top dressed fertilizers need sprinkler irrigation for activation. Drip tape causes extra cleanup costs after harvest. You'll need to plan for drip tape winding, disposal, recycling or reuse. Waste of water, time & harvest, if not installed properly.
Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa Djibouti, Avril/25/12 34

Disadvantages Drip 2/2


Salinity. Most drip systems are designed for high efficiency, meaning little or no leaching fraction. Without sufficient leaching, salts applied with the irrigation water may build up in the root zone, usually at the edge of the wetting pattern. On the other hand, drip irrigation avoids the high capillary potential of traditional surface-applied irrigation, which can draw salt deposits up from deposits below

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

35

Sources alternatives d'nergie

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

36

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

37

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

38

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

39

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

40

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

41

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

42

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

43

Merci de votre aimable attention

Leone Magliocchetti Lombi - FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa

Djibouti, Avril/25/12

44