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The theory of sound / by John William Strutt, baron Rayleigh,...

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Rayleigh, John William Strutt (1842-1919 ; 3rd baron). The theory of sound / by John William Strutt, baron Rayleigh,.... 1877-1878.

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THE

THEOU

OF

SOUND.

TRK .1..1..1

.ln J

THEORY

OF

SOUND.

DY JOHN WILLIAM BARON ST.RUTT, F.R.S. RAYLEIGII, M.A., FOttMRKLY FULLOW 0F TKIXITV CAMr!):inGE. COLLEG):,

VOLUME

M.

bonbon; MACMILLAN AND CO.

1878
[~.Z~/t~MMn'cf~ ]

<E'n)nbWt!t: i'~tffT)!t)nY(').(').AY.t!A A ~T')'UKttf[YH)tS)TV)'ttKSS.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER 23G254.
Aerial

XI. t'AOU 1

of Equations in n)l directions. uf prcswuro E.pmlity ihnd. form for incompressible motion. of contimiity. Spcial Equation nu axis. abont function. Symmotry Motion in two dimouBioua. Stroam inl'itysioU Stokes' thcorom. proof. Volocity-potontial. Lagrango's of cnn. Circuhttinn. Equfttion ThonMOti's tcrprotntiou. iuYCfiti~tion. iu po)nr co-ordiu~teH. iu torma of vcL.city-poifmti~. Expression tinuity is dotcnninod Motion of meomprossibio Unid in fiimplyeonncctedHpMM Sphcro connectcd spMcs. touinttiply conditionn. Exteusiou hy bouudn.)? rotation. wouid havo no soliditiod of u-rotittionally iluid suddeuly moviug with thoorioff AtmioHy euergy. In-otn.tiotml motiou bas tho Jeast possible for Gnerai oqu~iou of pressure. of heat nud ctuctricity. EquatioM aud I'ositi\-u prosonorous inotiou. Motion m ouo dimension. uc~tiYc HarcoudeiMatiou. aud wt~vea. Rolatiou bobveou yclocity grcssivo aud is potoutia), tho Haf ouo~y monie type. Euorgy propat~tod. corof Hound. Laplaec~ htdf Junotio. of yclucity Nowtou'H ealcutatiou hcats. of spcifie of rutio roction. iu tutius of volucity Expression trou) ualeulation liaukine's of CIcmout Dosormcs. and Experimout Stokos' invusti~tio)). Joute')) Possible cilcct of radiation. equivalout. of Itcat ha.s communiHation that of tho sound. It appears Rapid HtifHng toupcraturo. upon no Beusibk oSect iu practico. Voloeity dopondunt Exact Variation of pitchoforgan-pipos. VclueityofMuudiuwatb)-. of tlicory to wayes diCcreutial for pluuo WttVM. Aiq)iicatioii cquatiou law conucctuiH ns to tho of Htcady motion. Ou]y 01 ouo supposition tho assi.stils fo)-!u without aud donsity Otn n. wavo maintain presHuro Puisson's type. ttncsof nu improsscd force. ExpiauatiottofchanHoof in a pro~'ssivo and condensation Relation botwoou Yotoeity cquation. Harn. of ultiniatu disccntinuit.y. wavo of tinito DifKcu]ty ampUtndo. dist.urbanc<j. initial Limitud shaw's Rx!Uiann'Niuvestit;atiun. intL~rats. of sound. deturmixationH of thu -v'dooity Expcrimontal vibrations.

Y)

CONTENTS.

CIIAPTER
2552Rf) Vibratiousintnbcf). Goocrnifonn for

XII.
r.\<in f. -H.

Condition for (in opcn ond. loops. ho nodH nt intct')t)s of Rottcction rrob]f!)ui]icnmpouudvibMttons. sourcfs. H(~hc))dsf)poi). end. Kuudt.'ticxpfriment.). of air in an o]'~n)]-pi))o. Ovcrtoncs. parifiou of Froquoncy YcloeitiH

Hinipbharmo~io lu Ktfttionnry

type. vibrations

Nodoannd tboro nn)st cu()s.

of putsCH nt doned ;md opou VibratiouiufttuboduotucxtoronI

]'rf'K''B3i\'o~vod))todiHt))rh(H)ccntn)'t!)t yot'codTibrfttiuno! ~fotio)iorif.;i"~ti))Hinthotnboit.sLdf.

Vibrations Stxnn~u'ycij'fHuits. of lon~tb Ru)atiou of \vn.o to lougth of pipo. of an organ.pipo Comd(.'pci)dH upon t)to ~s. iu Vfn'ioun of of Houud Exnminntton RttsoH.

pistou. ofthoeoJumu

vi)))'nti))R oolumn Cm'Ttid pipes.


junctioi].ofco!)noct<id]iipc!H.

tiottofpitch soctiou on prof.ft'e.ssivo

and mutd. i))nucfi. of nir by motubrnno Dy Kiini~s to ho Kntisnod at titt) Ih'nnehud CouditiottH pipes. Yftn~bIotiGct.ic'n. Approxinmtoc~cutafor pipes ofvfn'inMoMctio)]. I])))nc)tooofYaritttio]Jtof wavoH. Varitttiou of denffity.

CHAPTER
~2<ji7 Acrin) vibration.') rooma. nrectans" t))bo. liectan~ufar in chmubo'. CouipoHttion

XIII.
65 Cuhicmbox. of two e<pt)d Pr.sf~tnnt'oof trainH of wnvoM.

I!(;f!octio)i)'y)i)'i~;idp!ftnWft)I. Ct'con'HinvestigatiotiofrcOccUonfmd of pfnno W)t\'M nt n [duno surface. Law <~f !'inM. Casu uf ttir Mfrnction Hot]t ixcdin ~scuus. J''rL'fi))<!l's cxprcsHion. J!('f!cuti(~n at nnd watt;)-. KU)'fneoofnir)mdhydrof{t'n. Total oxpct'itHcnts. ihiHkucss. Honeftion t'(!i)uctiou. RnUcctmn fj'omwn.nunir. from a pln.to Ty))d)L)I't) of ~luito

U1IAPTER 273SD.~ Aj'Liti'dry tion. aiotts. initial disturbnneo in Limitod of Bnhttion Hnrtttojuo an uulimited initiul for type.

XtV. 85 J'oiHKon's aolu.at.)uobpLL')'o. Cnf<o of two dimeu. disturbanco. Vorifiottinj~ contiiiiially of soJutiou. Shoot ronwcd. Sources ofdottbio HarCot)a

Verification. Doductiou

n. disturbauco

of Hound. Sources diiitriLutcdovcrn.Rurfaeo. Hourcef). monie Wn.vcs ty]ic.


h'ourco.

hifi!)itp)n)icw)(l). dimnjtax~t' or mre'ffcd of

in threo

A coudfnsf'd CtHeubttion tubes.

about n point. symjuttrieni wnvo ctuntot exist niono. ydoeity-potentinlofa.

tiuuitytbro))(;hpo)o.
givou

Inititdcirc~jnstn))cc.s.

Theory

of conicnl

Mnittcd. eno~y SpcaMnt? trompet. Position of nodcH. of vibrations Coinpositiou Interfrence fot'hH. l'oints of of hy)!)mctry. ofsoundufrom (iikueo. Existoicu CuBe of bd).

fronitwosiuJpiofiurc'csofliiiopitL'b. jmtiutftinc'd tunin~ cjcetriodiy ottu!) to be infcrrcd from

eoutiidcrutious

CONTENTS.

vu rAa~

Exprimental
:np!)-Gcn.

motliods.
Huy~htinri'~o~rs.

Mayor'a

oxporimont. of of approximatoly intcnsity.

Sound

shadowa.

Aperturo

Ccner.T.:f-.).ud~h~(dow!

Obliqua

Rcroon.

Conditions 'Variation Elliptical e~ories.

compictorofloction. Foei. RoOoction Pormat's from prin-

Wavos. DivorginR cnrvod snrfacoH. cipto. ProbaMo tion of Whisporing

nnd

parabolic Obsorvationa

reflectors.

inStranl'aenthodraL

oxplnnntion. Rosonaneo in H0)md. Convoctivo tiquitibrium to of ray. path Rofractiou Law of rcfra.ctio)]. Total of rofraotion tito by wind Observations

buildings, rfracAtmosphorio of tcmporn.turo. Diilorectial of sound reflection eonrHo by from wind. wind Stokos' ocrhenc!. ray ia uot

oqnntion

cxpiMmtion. In tho case rovorsiblo. fiRnaIs. of sonnd Law

of n. Sound

by RoyjMids. observations on fog Ty~Il's of diverROt~o of Mund. SpoakinR Diffrnotion tmmpot. a small nporturo through in nn inCuito screea. Extension of Grcon'a thoorom to vcIocity-potoutiKis. Hoimboitz'a thcorom of reci. procity. to double AppHcntion Bonrcoo. VnnatioB of total onorgy wititiu ft doscd spaco.

CHAPTER XV.
~C-302 Sceondury wnvos duc wnvoa to a VM-intion dcpondH npnn acts lilo [t simple Law of inverse .13, in tho modium. tho w~n-Iength. 0. rogion sourco, fourth powers cchos. Botativo of importanco A rgion of a]terod donsity by method liko

Mcondury

of of harmonie Exp])umtion Altration of cimmotor sound. sourcos duo to excessivo Scoondfu-y nmpHtudo. Alteration of pitch hy ro]ntivo motion of source M)d rcipient. Expori. mental IHnstrationH of Dopp)er'H Motioti of a principto. source. simple Vibrations in a rectanguiar chambor dn to intcmal sources. Simpio source situatud in au unHmitcd iubo. ornitted. Enorgy Comparison with conicnl tubo. Further discussion of tho motion. Calcuia.tion of tho raction of tho air on a cireular vibrating plate, whoBo piano is corn. ploted by n. fixed Bango. of motion Equation for tho plato. Caso of coincideuco of uatural and foi-eod periods. dimonsions. of compound

comprosaibUity futoubio sourco.

of n.Jtorod infcrred

CHAPTER
303322. of rosouatora. Thcory rotontml onergy

XVI.
.1UU

of n piston and composod air rGscrvoir of compression. Poriodio timo. In a largo dMB of air rosonatorH th compression is sensiblyuniform tho rservoir, thronghout nnd tho kmetio if. onergy eonfined to tho noiHhbourhood senaibty of tho air pasMRca. Expression of kinetic of motion one~y through pasmgos in tcrrns of cloctrieal eonductivity. C~)cu)ation of nnturnl Case pitch. of sovoral eliannols. Snperior and inferior Jimits to conductivity of channols. Simple aperturos. Eltiptic apertnro. witli cir. Comp.LriHon cular aportnro of cqual nroa. In many caseB a catculatiou bascd on arca

RoMnator

CONTENTS. PAOE PAULP

oniyi.ss.t.ciuut. noehs. Correction

S.tponorandmfonor!im:t.stothuudnctivityof to )un~t)t of passage ou acconnt.

of opon

end.

Con-

~<'t'y~~M~nu..tcdi)yhL.ar:ycyiiih!rIcaItim-faoosofr(..Yo!ution. of <-a)cn)atcd Co.npar.son and observer Oatc~at.on of periods foi- doubto rcsonator. to cxtornai atmospi.crc. duo tu Hato an of Lorced opcn vibrat.ons

pitch.

M..)tiplo N.uucrical Hulmitoitz's

resonaneo. of eno~y exam~u. th~ory Inf)uoucoof of

Communication

dissipation. source.

cxtornal

Hateof pipes. Con-ectioutoJcngth. dissipation. HanHO. Experitnontal mott.od.s of dctcrmininR tlio pitch of resoiintors. DMcuMton of motion within au op<u oriHiuntioH Motion duo to pipo. oxtcrual Boureos. Effoct of cn]a~omcut at a closod end. of Absorption Sound byresonators. tnbM. Qnmcho'. Opomtionofaro.souatoreto.so to a sourco of sound. Rcitiforeomeut of sound Idea) ),y re.4oi-intors. resonator. Oporatiou of a rosonator eJoao to a double source. Savart'H Two or more oxporimcnt. rcsona.toM. of formation Qu~tiou of jets souorona uunug motion.

UHAPTER 323-~5
Ai)plieatious

XVU.

of Lapiacu'H functiuns to ncuusticat Cunc.ral prohiems. .sohition tho terni of tho mYotv.ug order. for mdLd Expre.s.-jioa Di. vclocity. wavcs, vergent at Ori~iu Hurfaco. TL formation aspJ.L.rieal of Honoronti waYCH rcquu-cs in ~nM-al a eortaiu arca of movinH othcrwiso tho Hurfaco; mcchauictd couditions uro HatiKti<d ly a )ucat tmnsfercucu of air withont appMcinh)ocondc))H,ttiou or rarfaction. StokcH'discussion ofthoeffect of JatoruI motion. Lo.siio'saxpc.rimf.nt. C.den)ntiou of numcrica] rosult~. .Lho tc.rm of zcro ord~.r is dutieicut i.sua[Iy w~n i].a sound in i-iHinatoa tho vibration of a 8olid licaction of thc )jody. air on a snrroundinH Dg.dv.brnt.nHSphoro. Incroascofotcctivoiuurtia. W).cnth~p)tcru

'asma)Imcomparisou~iththowaYo-Ienf;th.t))croiabutlittlL.connuu. nicntion of euorHy. Vibration of an eHi]Moid. Hourc~. In MuMipIo cases of symmotry Laplaco's f.mctions reduec to L~endrG's functions Caleulat.ou of tho M.uttcd from a encr~ vibmtinn sphcrical surface Caso whou tho disturbaneo ia limited to a f,)naH of tho part 8phcric.U Burf~o. Numorical rcsu)tH. Effcct of a sma)) f,p]~.ro Mtuatcd doso to a Bom'co of sound. Auatyiical tranMformati. Caso of coutinuity throngit polo. Aualyiieal for tl.o -~loeity.potcntial MpressiouH Exin torms of Bes~I'H pression fnnctious of fractionai ordM-. Particntar casos. Vibrations of f~s confinf.d within a rin:d tipherical envciopo I:ad)a)vi),rnL<i(.s. Diauh:tral vibrations. Vibrations a (..xpresscdby fonction Lapiaeo's of tho Hccond ordM'. Ta))]o of wavc.i~~th.s. li~ativo of varions pitch toiles. Gnral motion oxpressiblu by Himpio vibrations Case ofuniform initia) Vibrations ve)ocity. ofKasiNchtdodbft.wocu eoncottricsphurica) tho dtsturbauce spiiorical Splicro surfaces. Spitcricatsitcctof~as. whe)i prodncod wnvcs of sound ].)anc oi)stactc. of tho vetocity-potentiat Expansion aud in a ri{;id. sourco Intensity at a nnito Case of a of seeoudary distance. wavcs. Investigation inipinge of p)ano rriuuu-y npon waves. wavcs of a

tixcd

originatinn for socondtu'y bitities.

wavcs.

f~seons

Symmetriod obstacle. E<iual

oxprossiou conipreosi.

CONTENTS. C'HAPT.-t
33G343. rroUcmofn.Rpbt'rieatiaycroftdt'. Din'orcntm.t Fouricr'Hsorif.'s. prcHscdintormsof~n.ndof~. Conditious to ho Rn.tisdcd whon l', Expansion cfYtdoeity-potcntifd symmetry. Rduction in Ex-

Ix

XVin.
?'~m ?~3

quation Bfttisficdbyc.ichtorm. fur thoc~stiof Solution tho ples arc uot sources.

Transition Conjugntopropcrty. fromnphntot'egcndro'Hfnnetions. functionofzoroordcr. Densel'H ricnl to p)n.nn Sphorioal hyor. of Itttitndo. Solution for sphorictd layor by pnrallola tayor boundcd enscs HoluhJo Ly Lcgondro'H funebonuded l'nrticular by smnH circlo. tiouH. two Conomi dimcnfiiona. prohicm Comptoto Expansion Corrospott<lin(; Indupcndcnt a cylindricat by mdini for unsynnDctricat for sointinu of formula fin motion. ontirc Hphoro function. Transition in tcrma Fonnuin. for two to of

Lftpiftfo'sfunctiins. of drivation. dimensions. vibrations Soctor tionn,not end~. in hounded

nrhitrfn'y in Dcssol'a

fnnotions

invcstit;n.tiou nvbpo. w~ts.

of pifmo proLJom. Tranavorsc Cn.8 of uniform initia] volocity. to watc-r w~vcn. VibntApplication n. circnl~u' eylindur without piMio0 restriction of Expression witi)

ncpcss)u'i)ytraMs\'t~'Hc',witi)in of diff'it'cntial Hointion Cn)np)oto potarRourco.

n.Hton.bsoncnnf vulooity-potentift) wf~vo. divorcent

('(jn~ti~u l''uriunIn.KfdcriYn.tio)).

xericH. Cnso of pure'). ffcnn-convorHcnt by df'sconding to \i))rntinR Stokcs' n.pp)ication Htrinsa. Importn.ueo of latral motion, of Boundin~-bon.rds. l'rovcntion Volocit-y-potcntitti of l'etardfttiou of of rrobloui of n lincn.r Houreo. Siguificanef! )))M) wavoa impinf.;i))f; upon n. cy)indrica.I obstacle. Fixcd. nylindor. vibrations oxperimonta t'y hbricH. to tho probicm rolnting I\rftthcnmtic[~!y annicH" soHJ. to thoory of light. of nn dMtic Application Tyndfttl's of tho ohstmction to pound nitorcd tho sm~IIncHs shewin~ whnso porps f~rr' 0))cn. ri(;id trftnavMc nnd

CIIAPTER XIX. 3443~8


Fluid of Friction. tho Kfituru of density of vincous motion quations thut ft motiun Assnmption opposed of viscocity. tho gff. Cocn'tcient ~raxwell'a thoso of viscocity. oxpcrimonts. fipplicnbto dihtatiou to ludcpendont of Cotnpn.rifion tin cin.stio fiolid. ia not with

280

of ~niform

or contrfteHon

force. hitoTtcs' expression for dissipation fonction. hy viacons to theory of ]~ut wnYos. Craduni of harmonie Appheation dceay waves maintainctl fit thn ori~i)). To n. first approximation thovolocity of propagation is nnn.u'c'cted of Kumcricn.~ cnleuhttion t'y viscosity. of viscosity nt rttmosphcric prcHsuro ia scusitilo for vory hiRh notes only. A hiss boooinoa inaudibto nt n, moderato distunec fron) ils h'curcc. lu rnroncd n.ir tho h'ect of viscosity ia muo!) ineroftscd. Transvorso 'vibrations duo to 'viscosity. Application to caictunto holtii's Principio plication of viscosity nnd Kirehhon''s rcaults. of dynamien.1 simiifn'ity. of prineipio of Eimi]Mity cffcctH on Yibmtious Obson'ntions Thcory to dnstic iu nfurow of Schuoebeli of shipa plates. fmd tubea. nnd rnodets. HolmSccbcck. Apcoctciont of decity. Tbo ciTeot

CONTENTS.

APPENDIX Correction Noteto Note to Opcn 273 on ProgrcssiYc Wavcs

A. l'AOP, 9~

End

~'7

CHARTER

XI.

Ai~lUAL

VIBRATIONS.

23(!. Sound, bas tbc alwuys

StNCH

t))c atrnosp))erc

is thc

abnost

miivc'rsa] of a
gascm).s

vehicic
mcdium

of

i)t\'cstig'atio)toft.bc boc'n con.sidcrcd Lut m ni), (.'xcL'pt

vibrations tbc

A<'o))st,ics;

pcculifuproblon :). fcw .sp~-i:dly

of

Physic:~
qucstiott.s,

simple

cit)('f!y n'Lt.ing ]!t:Lt.hc)n:tt,tc.d .f~vu!) when ]t cannut bc

tu Lhc pt-(~):)g:Ltin)t of sumul iu ouc dilnbnstO)), t!t0 dinicuitie.s ;u'u such that. pro~rc's.s bas bL'cn vcrystow. a Utcm'utical is oLtuinc~, rc.sult iL ofto) that ])appcns submit.(('d(.t)t)tctcsbofuxpcrimc))t,indcf:Utkcf thcintcnsityof woctm conditions :n'L! vibrations. dois tu suive Iti thuso

;u;cun).~ .tncj~rts
~'robh'm.s

nic't.)hj<).sofmL';tMuri)~ oi'thcMubjuctnHUt!~
\vh~Me mathon~ticu)

.suf)iui(.-)iLty

sitn)))L- to

:'d))utof

:).))([ to trust t" thon solution, a.n(.lt()~cn).r:t.tp)'i)tei))t<js ""t to fcavc u.s (juitci in titc d:n'k wit)t to ot)tur (~ucsiiousm respect ~Licit wu n~y bu ititurcstcd. Ja to say, itcrc:Lftcr thc prcs~nt c!)aptcr aHsntnc th:tt au
wc

wc sh~![

f)ui(!.s ns prfL'ct, H)at is shiU! rc'g-:u-d t!)C mutu:U action bct\VL'cti any two in

port)un.ss(jpamtu()by

~ncra], .('h (]uviation


a)xtot!)crg:tscs.

u)<).)surfa!s);o~i~o~Hi'ce. Hha)t say about Unid souicthing' but, frietio)i; acoustica) :u'c not mat<t-ia)]y pl)cn(nn<-))a di~turbct! wc from pcripct ftoidity as cxists ))i tbc' case

hy of air

Thc is

cqu;)j:ty

of

prcsfini'L:

in a!) diructtons
of permet Ouidity,

about

!), ])'jccMsary

cuns(.'<ptcncc

a givcn point ~hutbcr thcrc bc

rcstor]Moho)t,a.sisprovc<}byconside)'in~t)ic<(pu)ibi-iumcfa smal) tctrahcdron uudcttbc opf.'ration uf


J:.Jf.

tbc

fbm)

pressures,
J

t])c

0 EQUATJOX.S 0F FLUJD ~o-f-fux.

L-

t~,

~r~ P~un.
thcir w I

'r

'r "y

-1" O. <)

'r

~au. 'f<L. 'h. r.int. ..in

~o~)Lht Oc dUIIOLud Lcdc~.U~,

by

l,,

~< ~nc.nt JriUIll is ~=~(.Y< clmtya ~t'i' ;idl'l'illg

lil/'('{'s ,~r, r~+~) "<c. co-ordill:tlL's of a small (ltmsu vf ,). ,~j,,

cl, 1)1{'

cly, cl.= iu

tlte

uf

tlm

]lUill!, ",illt

ut

whielt

l:ltc

cl/ilililrillll

cylill(1c-1' \e

i~;tt lI'c~

L'llds,

tllU

cl,c, clJ, cl.r. Tu uhlaill ~'t). ) ~'crc ~rcd. D'AJu.nLerL-.s

l'U-Ol'Jilla(l:S

tlm l'(I"atillll~ Priucipf., ,~r,)y

u1' IlIO/iulI r.pi~.c

1'1'l'il'celi\'ldy IaVU, ilt :,U:<:l Il"dall eu Ac. by Y-L~C t

~.d~th.~c.-atiuuscni~~idc Thus

.f~uideun-

~r' tlie t. ~s, thu

un, t.illlu

))u).f t is fouud

~,t. a tlm

,,j

t(..nn.s })fll'ticll',

-p~u., of~. ",ltidl(,l~1' 1l.f~ur it

f. muy a HIJlflll 1..Jl" tli:vt illtcl'd aL uf

puiut

rc, ,1/,

.f.bvc)~ity~.U~<.n, otlicr hand eXIJI'usscs 1ixe L~u ~,dt.i. ;hcd.a, the chauge

(i,,t

,j,~ ty of tin; umjimcl Tu 'Jutf.is tjtis

in Il tlw \'I,luei

which EH ..ot..U.

is

uut

itl slrtcc, jM&p~M,

Lat IIluVOS buti.iutcs

wit.h tll() ilnicl. w.t).t).<;))tn,j.

237.] position in spacc

EQUATION (dut!'min(jd ]).

0F

CONTINUITY. vn-incs of .T, y, z) is rctn-incd 1. 1 1

by thc

] 1.] inv.u'i:).biL!,w)t!i<ji)i
intention

l f itIs:tCL')'t:dnpnrtic!eofthci)ui(lo)iw))Ich is uxpru.s.su~) by

11

i.sfixcd.

T)njru)!t.t,io)itbotwucntlK't\okIndsoi'dn't'ui'-

uttLiatiun

wi()t :'(-'s{)cct tf titnu

;H)())nu.stbt~')e:u'!yc")iCL'i\'cd,t.)")nn']ti~!).I:).)'~cctas.s<)fi)t)porta))t \\)ti<j)t wcs1tanhuucc'upic(tint.huM(.)tn.'I,t!K!()i. pru))!c)))swith tiucUun sm:).]!, tlic pt'acticaDy tut'ni.s 7) utUmatcly ~=~. 2~S. Wc havo i'urt,))cr to expruss sni:dl tt)C condition that therc is ,di.-iappL':Lt'.s. (f.~ ~c.d)'Ish ~Yhcnu\'cr in th !'L']..ttiv<.i tmjtiott. i.s vcry n.nd

importance,

n()Ct'catiunnt-:umihi):).t.i))n<jf]n:)tturittthcintL!riu!'<)ft'!tu<!uI(L H'K, /3,'y bcthuud~~ (tt'a r~ct:Ui~'))!:u' para!)u!cpipc;d of ttmt whidi

{'.u'idiL']. p!is.s(.s f'))t~r'<i'<

(.<)th('axt'S(~'c<)-urdinat.(;.s,t)tu<(U:m<.it.yf]n!ttturw))ic)t (~ iii exce.s.s sp:L<t.' in thne (~)t uf t,))u Inc)udud

thu

sn-c:)Hc<)

n's])C(;L forui

of continuity. uqu~tion t!)< tu butti timu and .sp~'t'),

WLcn

/3

is

constiint

(wit)) titc simple

('((H:)t.io)i

ansumus

lu

prohicms

conncctcd

with

suund,

th

vclocitics

and

the

\'fu'iaPutting

tionuf(1cMsityarcusua]!ytr(.LtL!d:)LHsm:t.![qu:mtitic.s. ttto co~M~'o~, cailcd p =~ (1 +A'), whurc iug 1 1 i!igt)ieproduct!M-y-,Ac., zi ~L .Cc., wefind1 we

i: small,

and

ncg~ct-

.ST!!t.:A~[-r)rx<'Trnv

r~nn c>

~t~u, ~ci.) ~s <). ~Ln p~anututhcphmGuf~ ..s c.t.iy fil

~1'' fll'lJitl'rtl'Y. ~i:l.r~ 't = ('UlIstnIJt, TIlt! 1'nuctiinl is call1,t! tlm mnticul the is

"Lid,f. .strcrmi-l'mnctiml, tlmt is, HiIJl'<: tlll! cnrves Htl'ady, Hlways t,lo;

~1'Imn

ti)

"~<h~ 11' :llnl5~tic~ully, llre Huh,tit.lltioll of ouc

HII1'f'm~c.tir~n t

Amutllur

('rUi!! of

111111()l'ttlll('

tllat il <"

nf ,(',

pl:IIIl'S m\

pnsHillg

tliruylr

tlm

J'olilld Hj'llIlnctl')' is tlH~n ('xllJ'l)ssiJ,!o li:l'I'ythjll, il tlm 1I)tioIl ln kt.'s p!al' uxis II' llm VI.h:iti" of'SYIIlIIIl'tI'Y. r)~rf,,f)n.v;. i, y <' Sj'IlIIIIC'tI',)' 110

iv \ll'lI

tlmr~:

i,~

)'!));t.i)d;t))().)(.rp(;)), ~rcun.'i.ity

In

?)h])n.sf,a]) \'iltlll":

(it~c.

,<)

i-

we

s]:dl

ll:we

fu

in rr u pel'fect

'f'))U))mh..n.r ditr(~l'eIJtiaI

ml,r-1-mlr~_l_.i~,rh it, will clc~, rurrt:lin so

III' al. IIIO IW/III"/' tur ull Sldsl.'III/I'Il/' alld Le tlmn

:23f).]
Hf't in motion Ly

)s THEORE~r. LAfiHANCE'~
cnn.scrvntive furcc.s axd pressures transnuLt.cd

trL))ntj]n.:c.\t.c't'i<'r,t)K!~)t:Lnt.ittL's

(whiuh

Ave s)):t]L dnote,

h y

~) c:u) MLiVO' (bpiu-t

i'ron

zero. writc fur

Wt.;ass)nu<jth:Lt.pi.s!).iunctio!t()rF~,andwcH))!))) hrcvitv y

~.)'h('t.'<[Uatit))tS(')'in"tit'n<)ht:uuedf)'uni(I),(2),~37,tn'e

\nt.h

t\vo

ot.hcr.sof

tlie

f~rxt

r~f.t.tmg

to

y:md

.?.

Hy

ttyputhc.si.s, </Y~r ~y" s~ th:tt ))y(!i(1'c)'(!)ni~tm~' tu 7/:UHtL))L'St'r(m() cj !)))'! t!ic thf <u's),uft!)C:~)0\'c wit,L hoprcssc'd respect U').nd cqu~tit~ts wit.h

respect i.c)i)nn):)t(!

.subtt'acting,

i')i'ccs,(jb).:Li)UtJ~u'~t:(.tiuus

\\)Hc)tju:).y).)CputI))t.uth('r<))'in

\Ytt)i 1

two t\vo

oLhcrs ullici;s oi' 1thc

s,wu; s:uiiu

furni furm givin~ ~iviy

1~ -L/C

J JL/C

Jnthuca~ </ f/o ~' + <

of.'u) ](..spqmv!).iL't)t

incotnp)'cs.sib!cfh)id,wcmaysuL.st.itut(jfnr < i, ,!m(tthn.st)t:)n) <

which

?u'c

thc

cquatiott.susft!

hyH~hnhoItxtLstitcfunndation

uN)i.stt)C<)rL'msn'sj)t;t't.m~'v'))'tiC(.s. 1)-' thc motinn bc continuons, !)]!)iuitc. thc cocfMcicntsof ~,?;, ~in

t))C !~)()vnc())t!'Ltio)).s!u'(' ]nt)nG)'ic:dY!t)uL',f).))ttntLL'HU)uof By i~yputhc.sis,Hisiniti:diyzcro;

LctZ'1u!tut(;thuir~)'c:LtL'sL vaincs th nuiUL'ric:d (~ is w!)L'thcL' tItC<)Uc.sLi(;a

in

LACRAXOE'S
<~ ~~y~ is c. ,,f 'r' 'TT ..c~ tlie sulution ~-~" of the "~ c(I1l:1tion time it can b,

THEOREM.
Tho, "' its ~i~

r~Sf).
c.

~l

,~irrlimv

in

t1m

:u't.n;tl

casc~,

CHIlllot

dep;ut

fl'lll

Zeru,

;t!e'U!nse.j.si.j.)

,t fnrros ils

h.t.),.)

}lurtioll:d 1'-K i'~ ilie, llcndellt

mn e;mlt al'!illg lr.lrtinle hrons Illn.)' IH, sel'II veloeit)', }I)' sltbstitlltillg' J .l-rcn K 10, IC f"r .1~, .).; oh III ac~, ur '1' ir1 (~>j'. :'). it i;i. J H!rWISU \VIt 1 1 cxist 'lit II. in IJllids, iii it mul vrc clco0 the oclolinc \Iocities uf their parts. tu ~H~

~cw ,r, is .<)<c.tdw.d.~v<sdMt.,S.. sllcw that il-, aud

'y ~f.t~mc,t
"en t.,

~u,c).y;[,ut .y {'v,u, is t),t;,r

th,tt to

.E,

,)i~rcntMt tlmt lcticm is

v point

.v~ .n ~.r~r' s tll;tt ,r; Y. Yalljslll.'s ia tllc '? limit, nnt w, it to tlo: first

to P.~ Lut orcler,

~r~ ~t c, body. ~t'.ocf,tio,, 8 CF.. s, ~) aH t),c the ~m"n ditli:1'vlltial cocflicimts of s witll l'o.;pect w'illt if' (li(l HO, and tllcn il, hc infClTcd miglt that s cOldeI HOn'1' 1\'gitilllateJy var)' t'1'01l1 zc:ro. By H tlll!orel!l rIl/(' to 8tll/('S, tllc II1f~111C11t5 of 1iIOIIIcntuIll :t)mat .~F: jllfillitesill1aJ sj:,lmric:tl nf' Ilui~i hurtiutl tu 0(til~ti i;, ~7, r, lI1uJtidil'd tllc hy II1t)J}W/lt of '<)on<t).c ~"<' Iml '~n1>ccn "L~='s.r:
olitill'il 14j11:Iti~llH

=~ ;olldlldol'R. -(~?;7/7']

111~1~IiC7ll~IU

nf'gl"C:1ing tlie torms 11t'pl'IJ']"llt nn iuertin, \0 to tIlL. 11)(-tioli of L'JL'ell'il'ity tlwuuglr 111Jiflll'Ill ~.A.I~r,nir~mie.)7.

un.

p.(,7.

230.]

-1

HOTATOtTY

VELOCITIES.

ns

HK' c~mpc'ncut

rotatory

vclocit.tcs

of thf:

HuIJ

n.t th

point

to

wijichtheyrufcr. If <)ui() vanish thrnu~hont, portion of motion iona <'onsi.st.sin rotation a. spn.cc ofthcttuid trimstation. wi)l th he occupicd ~y moving if suddcn!ys<jitdiflc(l A givcna, assertion of this prdf littic iatcr. t)):ttp:),rti.c!cs it. ac~uirc

:n~y.s)n:dlsphcrica) rct:i.in wonM on)y pn'p~.sitiuu in

i,:)~r:u)"c;'stt)Cormn ut' tinid ut :my ti'nc 2K). :nL.ptcd A hy

r).)K'r:L)iscd thus

dt'.stit.utcuf

CiUi ncvur

st)nn;]):tt()it't'(.-rcttt T!)o)nsu)t, whic)i

)not)ciof'in\'c;st.ig'!t(ion]):tshuen at'tut'ds :i hi~-)t)y uistructivo

vicw

t~'t)nj\v)H)t('s))'!)jt'ct'. J!yt)tui\un]:m)Lcut:de'p)atiuus W T 'I1

IntoH'n'tIn~

t,his

c'juidiu'i

~!ong

!ny

fmitc

!U'c

7\

moving'

wiLh

th

Unit),

wch.tvc

in

which

sufixcs

(~nntc ~nd

ti'o

vah.s

of If

thc th

bmckctcd arc bu

function a. complte

:)); t1.<; puiats ch'cuit,

r~spucti\'c)y.

CIHC'ULATfO~.
L")))WO)'(!s, ~7<f /~)~/t;r,/ C

Lr.Q

,')

~r~~y;tpt!

;Ll(Ia;ci~

7'UrlIrtG

tinte. is

nernuins

con,tunt

tlrrurr~hout ca.l/l'i!

nll

lcction,

:ual

the

prllposil

l'"

nppmpl'iatt'Ij' IlIn,)' ) lu, st.utucl -morrinr~

t,llc cincu-

'1/1((II8 cumv'tmot. L. as~.f~. "). .s~ ~hy .c. c.v.<,n.j.j, .),~ t). '.y~s

vcritlr

thc ,llrticl

~'e-

tr.iU~

Lu ail)' 'y-t-

''caco)np)..<G(hn'<rc)!<i;,). c. ~td.n c.u in..j~i.) ~c.r..u~i.n, ~o~cn.sc a)) U.~can u-.)~iU..h~~t, a ,,f,i, h. is

..si.

I.h.

I.nf. n to

vt.uut
<

tu p..ss.<. uf.st~.r.o.c.pi..) Ly In.o~tionaHv i: ;lru ..I..n flnicl. ova)sp.cc..s,.d.s<hat i~)~h.)byanc.))msoi<) if .f c. wiillill it. a clmmi tu a point, .i)t~ .dn~ ~).p~ jBut Unround c.ircH).n thcrin. ' an. ,drc..).tir.Li HlIC:1t spa,('cs ~re <!1Jl'u bc ~) ul' j~ L, f.n<h..t s;licl

n~utu.,fy.cii~ hc r~i~jc

tiunally ~=; c.rc.n.s

1I1ovillg'

'\Vit).in.n

,-cc.n<.it.)c.i

U.f.

~vc.n..t.uiu,.diy.U.cre c](I~(~II C\\l'I'U (1rawlI surliwu ~r~j~r~ d' :1I1 ;tnclmr

C:LJIed

simplyis lie

rils" t cvoi v.),c

reclucille t'n-cn]:)t).)n
n!ot)<

rmmci tltc goillg and tIlcl'cfol'o t}I()!'

ring ma)'

.tth~vh.!c everyc~) ~o

c.rve

'c.~nccun.s~t~iuu~a])<)~<.).at..Io. 24L When in ~cL.~y cha.f~ a.y ~+~s~c~ct.h-n<~ .h..c.ctl.n is .)~h i.sc.)M (, .pr~d ~.vd.ci hy th c..n.)i L<) y-p~f,

~]

YHLOCrrY-rOTEXTIAL.

It\S''k')t<)tcn.nyc]<.sc(Ls)))'fnc~,t))-at.co('Howf'utw~.sMros.s ute.nont <? Is expresse by f~S', whcrc is thc r~ of va.

tlie

ti<)n()f~inr'c'it)~<'ntwn.]-(1s:).]'gtLun")-n):Ll. ut'Omdiutttuc~i.sthos constant d~)).sity,t))ut.jt:d!nss

~nti~ocu.st-ut'

th<! intcgmtion buth <S' hcfn~

ran~ing'

ovcr

thu

w)to)c

surr;)cc ~'c

of

6.

If

thn

spf~

:ttthcb'~i"nu'g:L

cudDi'thctitnc~,

t)K')~ss]nustv:u)ish;!m(mmH

-whc'nitiH'l~irud is funnL-.lc.))~ti..)) tu t~! C(n-rc.s))un<U)~ in a~'onhu~-c wib))

towurk

\tthp"U-

co-ordmatcfi,

thc

trans-

~~crcadi)yf.Lt~)t.~<nrucUyby:q~yh~(i) titan hy uk')n<;nt. < \'ohm" t.)'c :u):ttyLie:U rntcs i~)' uUccting

tnmsfurtnm~
ch~u~'os m

(2) thu

in(.k'})(;ndL'ntv:u'):th)L's. Thus, if wu ttd poiar


ct)-"n1inat.s ia

thc

pt:u)C

A'y, so t)~t

r~OPERTy

op

IKp.

r :,2.1 L

~1. ~!nl tlir, ~L~.r "<y'.sby(~ 'c~t(,u..uf~ m,~tln!1

~Ilnll

file

fur t!I(~ '1~ IJ1'llld('11I il! Ilancl.

cunvcniunt

allY ,~iIlJpl.r-c()lIlll'dl'd

-y~p~ ('Iusl'd 1'11'('

flllid 8 i, r: i~wnlilc~ful,S~ vlutmwnimnl

witllin l,y ~y

~n'j.,)),j, "j.~ ~.i.i,n.)h. l't'st, '< it (';IIJ ~JUH. al'llllil'e )~ ~.s.s,f.. in ,y.yt. ') III) IIIO/I'cillal' .)'i.J.L~ l'otatioll 1111l1(,)' tlH: ulu,rutiun .f the ;u~~ 'b~~thcc. spaeu value ~cri,d

,.t uf

in 7'Imnu~oynul .S 1'1'u1.JJVIJl i, .L'~J:f.?, jlossilJe. ~<~<~M~y ~t ~<Mtf)('<jrcni.)rr7~-n

.-P

..h.r.

tlie

iut(-~t;t,~ 't. <tll'O

j;

iL.r(-h.j.~

J'1l.illg '~J~<

OV('I' IIi(}

\'111111110,

JiU

"c. l'lIlIelillns,

s~~ry;

,juat.

am!

'L~r. L. S

Ju,

242.] 1 over
.n~r.dih

MULTIPLY-CONNECTED s'i)-f:).cc
~)

SPACES.
ch-cumst:inccs

11 t)~ douDe

thc

of

.S'.

Undcr

thoso

.~t.ItC.s,:md~uiii'r:):.n.

:)t")y

p~ntof~'

</A~ ;<; tnust t.icu):nwithnt T)tc

</A~ < hc <~ Z

mast

ho thc

u(lnal
twom')tio)'s

j,o zc:l'l).

In ln
i<k-nticn.L

~hcr cr oth

wonl.sIs won As

A~ ~

and cunstnnt, thd-cc:u)bc <<sc, votunu! t~

no

motion

oft~c motion

Ir)-ut:).tiun:d of thc

npnrMnd surface.

D'u rcstrictiuu

<S', indupc))')unt)yofa con))ect.c(! shn]))y is othot-wisc

bythci'.u)))~ uttt hy I!c])uh<dtx, V~~u ntoticit is t)K: still

ofUn~ns

Hp~CL's is r~-ndc-t-ud ncccss:uy !t.swas fit-stpuintud t))corcn),w)ucl), possi)))u. nu))t))')y-<n)f'ct<(), thc if h~ido.s ~'ivun titu v:du('s uf thc nunmd thc'. notn.tiona.t vuhteity constanL Fur n.t. cir:). s thf c:L.sc of

s[):x'c (h'tummKttc,

J.s

uf 'S thcrc cvcry p<jint id) thc h) odidinn.s comptctu ori'dx.'d discussion ~u'u~'i)', :ux)

bc

cit'outs. iiTC'co)it'i):ddc p~.s.sihh' '.fthis ()m.'sti('))tW(3))U)st,t\'rtt)Thomsun's coxtrttt, ourscivcs ht'rc whh

adu))h)y-conttL'(-t(.'ds})a('c,w))i''h\i)l.suthc(j!furI]lustr~tiu)t. Lct J/)'C'D I"! Fur


:)n(!t)d)cs.s

tuho m'~nj~
Fin.

within t)~i-c nmsL

which cxLst

i)ui<tmovM a Ycitjcity

irrot.LtiutKdty.

this

put.uht.t:d,w!n)sc<!ift'un'))t[:tl t)n! vdocitK'.s, cump~m'nt wL~h :tac).U).n' coh~ivn p:~s:).n'c. t)C('-]nf)t t))C itsc)f]K!

cocrHcic)tts,cxpt-(;ss)ng-, :u-c

:Lsthcyd'-), but wayof is to

)K!(;c.s-i:u'i)y sin~lc-value'), Thc si)np)cst siu~ic-Y!~))C(). mnt-igulLyof~,

(linicu)typr(-suntc(thytht'

:L ]):u-ncr~i~ta)<rn:K'r<LSs))mn))~,son.-<toc)nscths is t)h-)). T)~~)/~7~~tA' sp~c

sin)p)y in tho

cnnti)mo"s, value iLcxIst,

an()<!n'cn'.st))(~)!-c)n:)ppii('sto1t.witI)~utjn("1ific:~tion,if!L))ow;m~!bu tn:uh; f.))-:t])~s.siL)cfn)it'(tit'turt'nco ~nthctwonidcsofU)~ t'arricr. Ttti.s~in't.'t-cnc~if

cf~ is

~Y-Cr,xx,,(.T, <0 dYllaIll(';/ =~

,p, all<l il tilt'

:1111di(,iltillll

('XPI'('S,s(:s lllu circolulic,;l

h,Jl'o-

l'olilld

i11; l'jll~

''ri''j"i'cc.;t,;ui.,u

<h.

())),

0\1'

illn

i11'o

1;11'1'

cd'

sincc ~o.

Jms tlm clc~ ~sU.).

;i:r: -lIlIu \'allll' uu the t\o thct~.sid.,s. sid"

J\IIIV

th.sL.u.L Lc.u.cuh~i.n

.iiO-.n.~ ,)

of

T).

if

rc \'<I/lisll,

-J cl~e ifep aml IJU twa ~Lc~ be 1'mnclimns ~T: snlisfJ'illgLnplaee's alld the s];J/ \1: giV011, snrnc 1!~ur, l1uI'lIlal

cj~-1-V~,

l'Cjuation

~i=~ t iUIl :lIId

ilm

cOllditio)1

tIlaL .S'

tl)(,l'u .t~ p

~s~cr ~-d.~n~

.LaplaCl!'S l'(IIIILI.JU III.itl,CI' ('il'cula/ioll ~<cu)..<i..n

~J. ~sin.p. 't,. circ.).t.i., IlItlll 'y-<~cd il'ly-cIIIJIJ('dl.d as n.s \('/1 sd in .ion hy. tllc wJJilh! 11I:ISS cumes to l'cst 'y<.ua.s~. H'Lnm'd rcei~ut ~s)y witlliu ~iD.i. L. '~vI~~ith~Lf.r.).ti~ t.,bc-!iko surjhof,nr su~, t). t1IU taLe comes tJ.c.tubccn.nc..s~ in l't'st. '1.'llis .H,, ~out.si.~ bec. olltsidu i.t, < IlIech:lIlil'al illtc'j>ctati01I, t lIuLlcl'sLand ) Ilu!'c -ya. " as I~c.. l;illlp/('IIIII}('ct(~d tltc IJJttioll ~L.fthL.Lu~1;1':1('(' ut' thu if f., v J~ (at;.nvp,v! ~rf~, ~s n,,r hy

so 80UII vs

LUIIJJ-

~)~.]

.\XAL()(:Y

W)'rif

H~AT

AX))

EH':(")'):r('!TV.

13

(.'))':n']\'w)'!tt
h~~s <t)t

ismoanthy
<'xh.;))M)')norSt.uhcs''h<t~)~

a(tuit)

havit'gnocircuhttion,
witht'rspt'<

axdit
tnxx'if-

cuhtr

n'tation.

i'or,

ait.

thc

Hmd

())iovh)j.; f':(\'ity(~f Un.' c:Lvity

v~h"it.y-p~<)'ti:'t)

cnLsidu

c<n))L' M)nh!untyso)itt,t]tL! aswu motion. 0' m:ty :t)) i)T')t:)tionn)ty n~vrn~

n.spho'io:)) fhud in.sitk' :so.st:)hj Ouid

tu n, suhjt.'ct bc:t))y r:n)ms cnur<jt:nnno oF portion .sotid wou)d

it,a!)y ht'cumin~'

sp)K'rica[ suti(!t'!)ty

))()SSt.'s.so)ttyatUt)ti())i(jft)':m.i1:~it)n,<'i'<ru<<~<'o~ A Mi)t)i!!0'proposition ~it)ti)at.<'utls,i!).t.ho(.)..s(jofih)i<t (iitm'n.sit'jisonty. Thu )))')(!')!) ofn.n i)tComp)'('i.si))tL'fhnd\)tic)t)n)s~)CL'nf)UCC! w)))app)yt')!L(.'ircul!))'t1iHC,f))'cy1in(1~r ]uo\'iu~it'rot.:ttio))!(Hyintwo

atrL'.stj):))'tak('.sot'<.lK'TL')n:n'kaL)cp)'()p(')'ty(7'))~')""n<)utot)):t.t ot':))t Hysk')))s'))ich:n'o set n) motion \it))j))'('st'ri))c<tvcL)('iti('s, nauu'ty, motion that th uncr~'y is <))u thc icast, possib)c. R'!)ny uthcr nn'l t)):)n 1)L' jToposml H:(tistyhi~' ('qu:t.ti"nofc(mti;)uity is ncccssat'ity~rc'ittcr

thchotnx.hu'y

cumtitioo.s,

itst.'Ot'r~y

thatofth'jmotio))'\vhichwoutdb~.L;'<)'ci';Ltcdn'o)nrust. 2tjt!)ud Du; f:).ct upon


foum):<.tion

that

thc

irrot:ttiu));~

motion

of

mcomprt-ssihh'! Lap)nc(;'s butwccn hc:t)' bc'twccn

(tcpcnds L'(~n:t.t.io)t, isthc motion

V(.-]o'-it.y-potcntir).] Sittisfyi))~ of:). F!U'-i'u:L(.)i))~)))!))o~y thtid.and U~tof uluctricityorituatni iti.soft.t'not'~rc.'ttso'viceto <jt' thc he s:ud conncf'ticn wttich

t)~!

of'.such~ cum)u('tor,v))ic)[ Th~ s:un(i

:).))t))tot')n in att. mind. L thc

)n:).y

b[':UiL'))C.s

i'"r happuns potuntia), :).ru f:n' from uhviou~. cqnidiy if \7~ = 0, t)tcui'cni that,

ofDiysics ItoftL')).

dc'pcH(tmat))(j)n!).tical)yo)i tl~t thu :i.n:tto~ous thuorcms For (.'xampic, thc ~na)ytie:d

nvcr

do.SL'd

surface. Lut one

is

inost

r(.u]i]y nniy

sn~'cstcd bu intc')'pret(.'d

hy

t!)C i'ur

Ouid

intc]']')'ct!).ti"!),
or )n:).nctic

ohtaitK'd

cIc'cLric

iorcos.

it

Ag'am. is obvious

in

thc

thui'ry th:it tlK'rc

of can

t)ic hc

con(h)etion

of

hcat

or in

()('fS',withoub

tnu)H!n)H~i<'u

motion uost.L'ady across sontLi pin't of thc for t:L\v. .Vot;), !or. ctY. incompres.'jiD.u

cicctricit.y, tho IntL'rIor

Luundin~Huritnids, ~ivcs :ni

f~cc,

but

Uns,

whuu

I)npot'tanta)id

iuturp)'L-t.(jd raLhci'rcctjttditc T))~)mon

en r~e

EQUATION
2.). !n')t0t)i(. 'J~-t'\JJ ~~iJ, t.

0F

1-KESSUHH.

f~ L-

W)u..n
prus.sm-ct,):!y

v..).)city-p.(.nti..d
!<ut:)'i)L!L.i

c.xisLs,

Die

cquation
`.

t., .X.tcr},jj.M

r.

Th.samcc.n.iu.s.un~ybc .nL.d.mca) prn.p).s Jf~= c({u:Ltton

Lu the

.-u.n..d~by~ circu.n.s~ucc.s thc' f(.i-)n

din.ctappH~tinnuf ofinipul.iv~uotlun.

(~) fakcH

If thc .s.un.L "n.L.nt.f

n~t.on ~s.

hc suc), p.int d~tun,,

tt.at

v~)oci<.i.s cn.nponcnt ..f spac., iL i.s c.))<.d Tj.uc.p..tiuu

thu

arc

~)ways ~eo,~

ti.u

.) ufprc.s.s.uci.st).cn

uc. t.o.
siit~c ~d)

~pncahon, t. if

of (2).

thc

vctoeities

and

eondcnsa-

fur

~j;

part

2.N.)

rf.AKE~VA.VEM.

15

~)').

T)K!simph;ntkin()

uf'\vfi\'c'-)nn<iut)isth!).tinwhK'ht)!C

(.'xcur.sit)n.s()i'u\'uryp!H't)ck':n'c])ar:dtott~:t))X(.)i)m'n't:)rc())c s:u)tui)t:t!)])):uu'.spt'rpuHt)icu!;n'tu),)t:)t. (i)s.s))n)i))L;'t)mt7)'=0) ot)]y. sup])usf tinc. Lut tis t)!L-)'L'f~rc!

t)):tt~i.s:(.funcLiuiiut'~(:md<)

Out'L'<~uatiun(!)):i'l'))L'co));.c'H

)'t'pn:'sunting

thc

pn)p~).ti"))

oi' mdcpcutk'nL

W!(.ca

in t,])u positive

:)ndnug:tti\'L;(Ih'L'ut.iu)tSwit.)t<.))L:cu!)Utnjnvci()cityn. \Vit-hmsu(')))unitsns:dtt)Wt.ht;~p~tic:Lti<)nf)f'th(!n}'p)'uxi)i)a<c (p<))):)Ltinn (!),~K;\r)ucity()f.sound i'or c-x:unp)t. i'urttt uf thc w:n'c, bcm~, i.St'))tiru)yim1(.'}K'ndc)itot'thc ttiu .samc fui' snnptu WtLves

tl.ie vwve-lcn~tl> tbc 't'ln; condition tlu, b~ Tix; comlil,i~m Hati.sficd s~,tisfic~l l~y w~vc-k'ngt!) >na.y mny bu. by thc disturbimcc ii' n. posipusiLivc Wi~ve, :)n<[ LhL'rutbrc hy th ixitiai tive Wt).vc ulunu bc gctict'aLud, is vlic~tcver whatcvcr

l'L.\XH

I~HOaRKS.SSJV~

WA\ )-

~t5.

Whatcvf.r arhjt.rary), n:-s).ucUvdy(:{)

tlie it

init.iat.t)Ht.urb.'U)cuniayhc: c-an niway.s bc <))\'i(!,jd :u.(-t.), which

Mand.sanibuth (axd into two parts, .s~LiHfyi)~ In arcj.mpagat.udundistm-hc(t.

')'(-)t);)..nuntw:tvcthc

(H )~ct.i.)ni'pr{);~a<i~nisd)C~)))C:t.s

thatuftjju!n(~)<.nu)'t)tL-c~/i'p:u'Lsui't)~f)ui(). TiK'r;L<(;atw!tic))L-n('r~yi.str:).ns))HLt.(.acru.s.s()niLof:u'c?),()f t,)~),c !t)'):nt(-p:t)-ati(.t f't-unt(~).prt~)-CH.sivcwavG))~yhurcas ~u'dud t))u)ncdtani(;;dut~surcuft)ici))L(.-n.sit.y(,ft))C .)))t]itjc;t.sooi'a.si]i)j))c\u'c',i(jr~))ich

radia. t.iun.

Jf

t).c

int~ratiun j.criu(]s, punudic

wit]. or

rcHpcct

to thnc

cxtcnd its and

ov<

nny

Mumhcr

of

comjttutu tung, thu

~hcncvcr }.r:Lctica))y L'rm.s may hu (ntiitted,

r:in~c i.s .softicicuUy \ve mny tnhc

~5.]

E~EUGY

0F

FLANE WAVES.
value of~

17

or by (H), ifj9 dnote

thc

maximum

Thus is
t)'f!

the
sa.tnc

work
f~i

consumed
would bc

in
rcquil'cd

gcnerating
to

wavcs

of harmonie

type ~3

to t))c whole In tenns

mass of the

of air through maximum

givc the maximum vclocity which th wavcs extend 1, 0: hy (7) and (D)

excursion

whcro T-(=\<) H)t'<i:uncal mcasm'e oi'tho


Invcrsc)y. supposing

is thc
of tlie

pcriodic

timc.

In

a ~)e)~

~e~tM?~

thc

is pi\)port'iona.l to tho square intensity and to the square of the periodic time amplitude direetly, Tiie rcadur, must be on Lis guard howevGr, against that thc mechanical measure of Intensity ofundulations wave
lengtfts is a

of din'ut-cnt the

propcr

measure by th

of the ear.

Joudness

of

con'cspouding

souuds,

aa pcrceivcd

In any p!:uic progressive the type he hn-rmonic wave, wLetIier or not, tho whole cncrgy is cqually divided between the potential and Rinctic fom)s. the sunpk-st roa.d to this rcsult is Purhaps to consider the formation of positive and negative waves from an initia! whose energy is wholly potcntial~. disturbancc, Th total of th two derived waves are evidently nergies progressive equal, and nmke the of the original disturbancc. up together energy wavc the condensation In cach progressive (or rareof tliat which existed at the corrcsponding i'actiojt) i.s one-))alf so that the po<e~(~ of cach pro"Tessive point InitiaUy, energy wuve is o!!C-~<M~er of that of tlie original disturbance. Since, as we !u).ve just th whole energy is o?te-/<a~' of th same seen, it follows that in a progressive wave of any type onoquantity, haf of thc energy is potential and one-haf is kinetic. Moreftvcr, from the general may aise be drawn for thc potential and kinetic and th relations expressions nergies and betwoen condensation in (3) and velocity expressed (4). of the clment Th of volume c~Fis the work potential energy Tho endic.-it statoment of tho principio mbo<Ued in cqnniion (10) tirnt 1 htivo
mot with is in )i pftper by Sir W. Thotuson, "On tho possiblo

Th

same

coTidusion

ImuhnforoHs mctUnm, and on tho mcchMuctil value of a oubic mile of suu-Hght."


7~t'V<tf;. ix. Uoxan<[)tut. //. ~fy. 18; p. 3f!. ~/tt<. ~/<t~. (;) p. 2CO. xLv. p. 17! 1873.

deusity

of

tho

187C.

R. ir.

18 that would bc

NEWTON'S

INVESTIGATION. of thc

[245. con'cspondin~ thc expansion any cn'ccdvc At

qua-ndtyofga;: bcing stage pressure by thc work thcrcforc for tho

the expansion gained during from ita .tctualto its normal by whou
the tlic uonnal condcnsntit)!i

volume,
pt'cfisurc is

opposcd t])ronguout of thc expansion,

~) is by 2.J4 f~~s', wl)icl) incrment of corresponding ga.Incd ~p,~F.


1 n potential

dunng

thc

expansion or ~F.

s- the pressure bas to bc muItipHcd voh)mc fn'c/s'. Thc wholo from ~~to is Jr(l+s) s' Thc gcncra!
expressions

and Mnctic

nergies

arc accord i;)f!y

If the at any moment co-ordinates is ono-half tho air th waves

p!ano

wavoa progressive of time are eircuiar thc (a.-), and titorcfore thc equal moving to tho maximum to th with value. kinetic titc

of is

and s type, functions of ono of the space mefui value of tlieir squares Hcncc thc total of the

be of Itarmonic

concerned,

waves, or wl)cn conclensed 246. sound tweon was Tiie

potcntial to the maximum theoretica~ Newton,

cuc!y of whole mass of energy maximum to bc fouud in vclocity of tlie same masa of air cncrgy of thc wavcs. dcnsity of that thc tho vclocity j'dution of bc-

first by

made

investigation who assumed

and deusity was that fornudatcd pressure in Boyle's law. If we assume wc .sec that the vulocity of sound is oxpressed p==Ain which t!ic dimensions by V/f, or of p (= force-area) arc [37] [Z]-' [2']" (= mass and thoscof voJume) arc [.Vj [Z]Newton t))c rcsult in terms of thc 'e~ Gxprcssed of ~e/iOM:o~eHeo:~ n/M~.f~Aerc,' dcnncd hy the quation

wherc~) surface. would gravlty

and Thc

p rcfcr

tu thc pt-cssun; a)i(t of sound is thus velocity body h~ht i:d[ing uft)t(.'

be :tC()nirud )~y ludfthc tin'ougt)

t)m dc-nslty {tt thc carth's or thc which vclocity under thu action of frudy atmosphore.

homogcncous

2-]

LAPLACE'S

CORRECTION.

Toobtmnanumurical
simuftancous v.uc5 of f~d

)-csu)t
It

"/c
i.s

r~'uiretcju~w
found by cxpcru.tent

~pnir<f
ti)at

fit (~ Cent.
tnctrc, thc

undor
dcn.sity

a pressure
of dry tho air i.s

of 1033
'001293

grammes
grammes grannnc,

per
pci-

squ~-c
cubic

ccntinti-

metr~.
fmidamcuta!

If

wc

takc

ccntimctrc,

f~d dat:imvc

second

as

tho

unit.s

t)tc (c.O.s.

System),

tl~sc

.sothat scn.),

vclocityof faHing short

tho

sound at()"v'o)dd bc27.')'f)5 of t)ic rc.su!t of direct nbsur~tinn

mtres

pt.r Ly abonL

:).hixt)jpart. Ncwton's c.stab])Mhc.) Invc.stig~tit.n tl.at tho vetocit-y of .suund -should be indcpcndcnt of th amplitudu of tho vibration, and aiso of the pitch, but thc b~wccn InH ca)cu]atcd discrc~ney v~m. in (pubhshcd 1G87) and tlie exprimenta! v;due w~ not cxplained until out tbat replace pointcd tbo use of Boyic's law involved thc tliat in tho assumption cotidensatinns ~ud rarofactions acsound tho temprature companying renmins in contraconstant, diction to th known fact that, wltcn air is suddcnly comprefiscd its tc.npcmturc ri.ses. Thc ]aws of Boyic and Charles supply only ne relation hctwccn the tliree quantities, prc.ssurc, volume, and
temprature, ofn.ga.s, viz.

Is tnca.su.-ed temprature from the ~ero of U.c. ~s and thcrcforc thermotnutcr, wit!iout some auxiliary assumptio~it is nnpussiHe to specify tlie conuecHon and v (or p) bctwccn con.sidcrcd Lapiacc that thc condensations and rarfactions coucerncd in th propagation of sound take place with such mpidity that th I~cat and cold hve not time to produced pass away, and tf.at thcrofore tho relation betwccn volume and pressure is sensibiy th sa.nc as if thc air were confiucd in an absoh.tcty non-conduct.ng vossch Undcr thse cireumstanecs thc

wnerc

th

currespondmg than on th oi sound is In th

a given condensation or rarfaction of constant hypothesis and tenipcraturo, aceordingty iucrcased. dnote Ict be the volume

to

cl.angc

of

pressure

is greater th vcloci.y

quation (2) !ct unit uf mass, and

expressed

the pressure of and in centigrade dcgrees


n_ n

20 rec~oncd

LAPLACE'S

CORRECTION,

[346.

from th a.bsohttc xcro'. Tho conittion of thc gn.s (if a.nd uniform) is de~ned by any two of :tt0 thrcc quantitiGs~), n. td'ins i tiicn!. i.h(t Uth'd t~tt.y bc -t~)Ld Thc rc~tiou between th simuku-Dcous varin-tions of thc tfjrce quantitics is

In

ordcr

to

cffect

tLo

to in general nccess:n'y of hcat th nccessM'y qua.utity

change spccificd communic!ttc hcat ~Q, wc may

by f~) and to tlie gn.s. writc

dv, it

is

C~IHn"'

246.] if, as

EXPERIMENT

0F

CLEMENT spcifie of Sound 1.

AKD Iicats

DESORMES. be denoted grcater

21 by 'y. t)ta.n

of thc tlie ratio usua!, vaiuc of titc velocity Lapl~cc's


Newton's in

is thcrcfore

thc

ratio

f~y

of (8), we obtain for thc By Intgration of uo communication M aud p, on thc supposition

relation of hcat,

bctwccn

whcrc
circumstaaccs

)),,

o,; arc tlic

two rci~tion

smuuta.neous 'betwecu

values. pressure and

Unuer

the

same is

temprature

Ly(3)

of 'y cannot bc dctermined with accuracy by direct value but an approximate may be obtained by a cxpcrhncnt, is tlie principle. Air is compressed iiietliod of which tlie following with of being put into communication into a resci'voir capable Th magnitude thc external atmosphere by opening air of tlie compressed hcat passes away a wide is and valve. At after mass first a th time but raised, the whole

tcinperatui'o tite superiluous tlie

assumes

Lct thc pressure 0. of thc atmosphre (measured temprature for as short Thc valve is now opened be p. by a manometer) of pressure thc equilibrium to to permit as is sufHcieut a time thc internai that be compictcly is, until estabhsbed, pressure cqual to that of thc

P. If th experiment atmosphre is so quick tliat tlie air in this opration bc properly arrangcd, heat from tlie sides, time to reoive thc vcssel lias not sufncient to the law expressed in and thercfore aceording ucarly cxpands th operation is complete at tlie moment Its temprature (9). bas become is thcrefore detcrmincd by
V

Th

cnclosed

air

is uext.

a.!lowcd

to

absorb

heat its

until

it bM re-

thc a.tmosphcnc 0, and temprature g:Lincd thc tlie last c!~nge thcii obscrved. During relation bctwecu tlie :uid thereforo pressure c~vos

pressure (jp') is volume is constant, and temprature

It eh'on

Is horo

nssnmod

that

is const.nut.

This

quation

appears

to havo

beou

iirat

by roisson.

~2

RATIO

0F

Sl'ECIFIC

IIEAT.S.

[2-iG.

s(jU)at,hydhnu)nticnof~:("),

By

cxpurnnontsuf

thisnat.)))~

(.')c)))c))t.

and

Dc'sonn~s

dc-

~))tinL:d'y=l~t!bt)t,).JtcnuLhudiso))\'iouHtynots))sc(-ptih)c of :my grcat Thc v~hnj uf iK-cm-i~y. t))L: catcn!atud:n)doL.S(j)-rdvc)uc~iL!.st'.som)d su[).st,antt!t.!currcuLuc.ssufw)ticht.)tcruc:m))<jiitt.teduuht. futthc

'y

j'C((uir<jd

tu

~ccmcittj

isl--K)S,oft)tu

\Vc!L)-cnot,))owc\-t;'r,(tcpc)i(L'ntoi)th<Jt)hun<)niun:iofi-nnd unr knowlud~c of thc of 'y. !nagnit))()c spcifie liuat at constant prcs.sorchn.s :md :dt))ough mu(.]njd infurtnatiutt n. rehdioti t]iu mudum

Thu Lccti 0)1 tnay sought bctwcoi science

ViLtuc

(.F /< dt.;tu)inincd uf tu in.

L'\}n'nnie)tt:d)y by Rc~n:udL; lurent <)ifiicu)tic.s tho c'xpcrimcntid ;t Matisfac~ory rosult uhtaincd indircetly oitc ])cats, Lruu~))t dynamics.
Iffroiat.hccquatiun.s

account i:Lil fur tl)< of

iur

/<

tho of Ly

yic)d bc may

by niGana tu Ji~ht

.spcThcrnio-

two

Lt of))C;it. pression

as suppose Itisknowu

th:Lt (~ that

= Q, or that thcre in no communication Hic )te:t.td'j\-c)')p(!d(ht)-)ngt)]c compcrfcct~s,.su<j)iaHair,isatinost of tlie work donc lu comprcs.sin~ w.s assuined iu his by Mayer

ofa.napproximatc!y ux~cDy thc thcDnul c'~tivatent It. This nnportant principtc ccicbt-atud liiemoir oa (')t g'ru)))xts wtuch th:Lt nmy bc, t)te been proved by thc If may wo bc mcasm- cxpresscd

H)L' dynfLnuca~ of hea.t, thcory titough ean hai'ttiy be cousidured Howcvcr mtcqua.tc. itscif is vcry nariy priucipic truc, as bas since cxpennieuts Le:i.t ~=~~u in ufJmdu dynamical o~ tlic aud nnits, TItonison. Maycr'H principic that there

understaudiug

2.1

G.]

RANKIN-E'S

C~LCUJjATION.

23

is no communication tha.t t

of hcat.

Coniparing

this

with

(15),

wc

see

By of that <)~rcc on i t.

Rcgnault's of watcr; Cent., Iluncc


423.')0

cxperniicnts and in ordor

with

hcn-t of air is -2379 spcifie to raise a gramme of watcr onc of work must be donc gratnnie-ccntimeti'ca thc same units as for ZP, = -2379 x 42350.

thc

from thosc d~tn, Culculating with th value dcduccd cxacUy investigation c:dcula.to tlie the patcd publislicd 247.
apprchcnsion

we find from th

~y= 1'410, vclocity

~grecing of sound. it in

almost This 1850 to

is duc spcifie

to

obscrvcd tlie

volocity result of 1853.

who cmploycd Ra.nkluo, hoat of air, t:i.M;ig Joule's of sound as data. In this Rcgna.ult's cxpcriments,

and quivalent way he anticiwhich were not

uutil

Laplacc's
among

thcory

bas oftca

bccn

th

subjcct
to

of misthose But therc

aud a stumblingb~ock studcnts, rcmn.rkabte caDcd by De Morga,n, pM'ildoxcrs.' persoi~, Ciui be 110 i'L':i.suna.b).c donbt to ail t)ia,t, antccedcntly t!)c

of no communication of hca.t Ilypothesis of constant prct'urrcd to t)ie cquaHy spcial hypothcsis temporature. TitCii'c wotdd bc a. reaL di.HlcnIty if tlie velocity of sound were in excess not dccidcd)y of Nuwton's is 'vainc, a.nd t!ie wondcr l'~thcr that tho cause of thc cxccs.s rcmained so long undiscovcred. which can possibly Le consiclered on)y question open, is wliother n small part of the Iicat and cold dcveLopcd ma,y not or radiation bcfoi'e producing its full effect, escape by conduction must on thc rapidity of thc altern~tions. Kvcrything dpend Hc)ow would
remain a certain,

calculation~ is greatly to bc

Tlie

limit time to

of slowness,

thc

hcat

in

exccss,

have
scusiUy

adjust constant.

aud tho tonpcrature itself, In ttlis case thc relation

or dcfeet, woutd betwcen

24

STOKES'

INVESTIOATJON

[247. value Hmit

and density wouid bo th:tt w)uc]t I~~d.s to Ncwton's presse of titc vulocity ofsound. On 'hc othcr !~m], Mhnvc a. cci-t:un
~iqmckm.s, Lhc !,a.-i Y.'uufd .~Jt.vc~.jifc~nhcdm.~no)i-L:~n-

a.s suppo.scd in L~pt~s Nuw fdthough Uicory. tito circumstiu~cc.s of thc autoa-t pi-obtf!n anj hctt(.;r rcpi-c.scatcd titc lattct' t)~n by theru Ly t))c formut' supposition, ]n:Ly still d(;vi:tt.io)i fnjni t)ic law of pressure (it m:)y bu sn-id) bo n. sensible and dcnsity invulved in Laplace'.s so)newli:).t theory, ent:u)i))g slower velocity of propag:tt.iun of sound. Thi.s <juustiun h:i.s bccn discusscd In a p~pcr carefully in 1851', by Stokes publishcd of wbich tit is :ui outlinc. fullowin~ dxcttng vc.ssci, Th meclianical cqua.tions for tho SH;a~ motion ofuir arc

Thc

tcmpct~turc

as It is disturbud t!)e e~ceM of tcmpcratnrc,

is supposcd by tho vibrations

to bc

u)ufor)n

thcmselvc.s,

il, so f:).r cxccpt so that if dcuote

ihe elovation f~ time be dt,

cncct of tlie

of a smati

surdon

cundcnsfition

which tcmpcmturc, m~y be of heat cntcnng ttic quantit


by thc risc of

s Is to producc dcnutcd by /3~. of thfLt (t.hc volume it

an Let in

dment

mcasured

produce, betwcen

if thcre and

were

no

tcmporit.turc condensation. Thon ncglectcd)

wou!d

distinction

Leing

bcing respect to

a function 6pacc, Two

of

and on

its the

di6crcnttal

cocicuta of thc

with thc Urst

dissipation. whcn tho

dpendent extrcnie

cn.sc.s may

character spcial bc mcntioncd, of

conduction, and the tra.nsparcncy

to equaHsation -tcndency thc second whun tho of the

is due to temprature causo is rudiatio]) opei~ting nicduun suc.h that radiant licat is

jP/t<y.Af< (i) i. 805.

247.'] not
scnsibty

0F absorbcd Cli:'JC c~c

EFFECT within ~~x~~v-a, <tC

0F

RADIATION. distruice of svre wavc-lcngths.

25

thc l\ Li 11 t sctcct.ed h~v Ihc uf

l'unnur l'lnur

;n.d ;LIll

in 1.1 JJI t.hc ~IJ lutter, \lUCI',

that lat 1:'>t winch W IIC 1 :s (Ncwton's to

by Stokes radiation

for :u)a)ytienl

investigation, a.s a, suficicnt

trutli.

ftssumcd bcing We i~ve thoi

approximation

lu :~tu!ttion, unty.

thc u

c~sc
:Uid

of

pl~no
Vfuush,

Eiuuiuatiug~

and

our wn.vcs, to which wc shdl cunHnu of wlule , ~), & arc functions (:uid <) M bctwu (1), (2) a,ud (3), wc HM~

if y be written If as e" the

(in the

sa-mc sense be IiM-nionic, bceomes

as beforc) we may

for 1 + a~. suppose that & varics

vibrations

aud thc cqutttioii

but
expression

(~ being take as tlie

must fiud

Icss tbMi ~7r) if wc wish for thc fmd positive, wc iu tlie positive direction, of t)) wave travelling thc ima.giuary pM't, we tits lowcr Discarding sign. solution

appropriatc

TII~

AMPL~'UDE

1S

~fOUE

r~.i~.

Thc i't'upa~tttjd Thu

~rst

tu bc noticed is thf).t t)io Honm! t))in~ tu dis(.;)ncL' untc.sn Le insensible. Mm afpro~ag.Ltion (F) in

ca.nnot

'bu

vcioc'iLy

i\ow is frum

irom cithcr

(O)w(j vcry grcat,

suc

t)<at

cannot

bc On tiic

insensible,

un!css supposition ~=~ ought (.-)) is conoi' wc ns

ur vcry

smai. wc
hve

first

(11),

(Newton), c-vjdunt)y sxicrud.

ut- dircctiy from (7), and on t]tc second, tu bc t)i(i case, w])0i W)):~

apj)roximatcly,

F=~,
titc meaning

(Laphice), of y in

we now Icaru is t!):it, and M wcrc if compamb)e, thu c<!c:ct. wou)(] be not a dcviaiion of from mcrdy eititer tho limiting but a rapi.! stiiling values, of tbu sound, w!iich J<nu\v docs uot takc place in nature. Of
Stuhcs

tins
cxptiuns,

theorctical witl.ont

rcsult tbo witbin

wc use

of air is motion constant,

convince may of analysis.

ourscives,
Imagmc a m~s

as

to be

be conimcd wit)i a

{t dosed

workcd

n~ving cscape radiation. by Uudcr tliesc circumstauccs t))u prcssm-u is a fnnctiou of vohtnic, and whatcver work bas to Lu cxpcnded in producing a. givcn is rcfunded compression whcn ihc j)i.ston passes tite samc in thc reverse Dn-ough position nowurk is constuned in the Lng du'L'cttun; run. Next suppose O'at th motion is so rapid that Hicrc is no time for thc hcat and cu!d duvchjped and hy t!iu condensations rarfactions to 'i~c pressure is stiU a function c-seapc. of volume, and no work 's dissipated. Tiic Is t)iaL nuw thc variations ou)y din'ercnce uf pressure arc niorc considcrabfc t!ian hcforc I)i comparison ~itht))c variations of volume. ~Vesechowitisthathotho)! Newton s and on Laptac~s tJK! wavcs travcl hypoU.L'sis, without dissipation, t))ongh with difcrcnt vc'Iocitics.
comprcssicn

rc-ciprocating vcry long, tbe temprature tlic hcat dcvclopcd by conduction or

cylinder, motiou. If of the

in which thc period air rcinains

piston of tiic ncar]y time to

But
Js ncithcr

in

inturmediatc so s!ow that

cas~s, ti.c

whcn
temprature

thc to
produciug

motion
romains

of

thc th

piston
nor

constant

.so quick titat t])c ])cat lias no is diHurent. Th work cxpundcd

time in

adjust

itsu)f, a, sm~I!

rcsuJt

condcnsa-

2t7.~

INrLUEXCRD

TIFAX

TIH

VELOCITY.

27

tion

is

no

rart.'t'action thc I~'at

longer con)p)ct(dy on accunnt of

rcfnodod
thu ditninishcd

during

thu

corrcsponding

by t))c compression dcvulopud ln f:Lcb t))u pa.s.su~'c of ]x.tt or nuti~tion csc~pL'd. by conduction to a nnitcty n- wiu'nn't' co)dur front Lody :d\V!tyH invoh'cs dissipawhiutL occupius in a p)'I)K'ip)'j a futuhunoit.al thc tion, positi<jn SL'iunce! and inust. if of Tt)ct'!)io<)yn:unics. t))o piston, tnot.iunot' cncr~'y t.))(.'ro bc ultitti<<.tofy point Kwon)d
thin~'s

tutnporaturo, in Utc havin~

of part tnciUttime

In

order nm.st bc

thci'(.;for<j

to m:Li)~tain

thc

on)y a liniitL'd subside. to hc noticcd upon


frotn

store

front -\vithont, supptiL'd to Le <]r:).wn fron, titu motion

Atlothcr p;u':d.)lc, a st:).to suspect. provo that

is x,

that,

if

f/ and

worc

coin-

depund
whidi

vix.

ou thc

of

cxporirnej)t

of t!i<j soum~ pik-h wc h.'t.vc no ]'(,'ason to observation gocs to

On

thc

thurc (10)

contrary is no such sec that


is

thu

cvidcncc

of

eonncction. thc
a

From tnatcd by (!)) pcr


is

wc

faUlng
maximum

off
\it)i

in

thc

wavc-lcn~tl),
a

intcnsity, or tan~, this case

cstland.

m~xininm,

whcn

= ~Y.

In

from titesc Jut~ Calcula.tmg of :).dvnncc, thc lun~h innptitudc dn)T.i)iishudinthcrntIu'C172. To


tnkc a. iiumerical

wc of

fhtd the

th~t

for

cach

wavcLe

vibration

would

cxampic,

Ict

la ofitbout

20

thc intcnslty yards tu (me. 7 ~'Hions

would

bc

dhnmi.sitcd

in

th

ratio

Cun'cspondi.ngtotins,

If* the

vahic

of

y were

~ctnaUy

that

just

written,

smtnds Wtjthcre-

of

thcpttc)tiu<~n-:stiouw(ju!dbcY(jryr!Lpid)ystifiud. iurcmfL'i'th:tt(/isitiii).ctcithurrnucI)gr<~t(;ror(;Lscmueh!L'ss. is utt(-!r)y a Y.duc as 2000 But cvcM so large our~ctvcs th we m~y couvince by cousidcrin~
quation (5). inudmissib)'

as of

si~ntficancc

38
Suppose thu vohnuc
L!u t..neis

EFFECT
th~t of

0F

CONDUCTION.

[247'.

by a rigid envdopc t.i-anspa.t-cnt to raJiiUit hut, small ])):),.ss of ga.s wcru n):u))t:unc<t con.st!mt,
to ..L-ni~.iu k..s tht.ri~:u ~idiiiun nt !j

t.hL-c~);).}-)'~)

of toupuratnru, th:tt provittg tLt'ter a time t)tc cxcus.s of tcmpcr~urc wouht fait to les~ tLun t~tfits 0)-ig:u:),l value. thatt]ii.scou)d To.suppose happening two thousan<!th of second of time would he In contradicLion to tho most supcrficial observation. We in arc thcreforc witli justihcd and in our assuming
cquntions

-whcre

~1 dnotes

thc

Init,i:U

cxcc.ss

th:tt

cotnparison

<7 is voy small then bucoine ap-

])rcxiniateiy

Thc for rati.cr

effects ni

of

srnall

radiation of the

of

Iicat than

arc

to in

a damph.g

vibration

Le sougbt au altcred

vclocity Stukes

of propagation. calculatcs which tlie that if

Y =1-414, H~c ratio F=ll()0, ni (A 1) is diminis])c<t in pa.ssiu~ intcnsity over a is given by <)I.stancc.-r, in foot.scco'ndmcaIo~=-0001156~ surc. we are not able to Altho~h measuremMts makc prccisc of the iutensity of sound, yet the tact t)mt audible vibrations eau bc propagatcd fur many miles cxcludcs any suc!i value of as could affect t!tc velocity q of tmusmissiou. apprcciabiy Ncitbcr pawcr theory. to rcp!ace as is it possible couid niatcriaUy In order to trace to attributc disturb
tho en-cct.s

to thc thc
of

air

sucl

application
conduction,

a conduetin<T of LapJacc'~
wc have ouly

iu (5) by

Assuming

as a particu]ar

solution

247.]

VELOCITY

DEPENDENT

UPON

TEMPERATURE.

29

teaving still

thc velocity to ~/x'y. (18)

of propagation

to

tbis

order

uf approximation

equal From

of radiation,

propagation. Md in the case fec~c, conduction durin"' which


turbance from this cause

tliat thc nrst appears ratbcr is on tlie amplitude In truth the conductmg it of audible can
is not

cffect than

of on

conduction, tlle velocity

as of

sounds place looked


waves

of g~ses is so powcr at any rate thc time is so short, for.


arc supposed

take
to bc

that

dis-

In

thc

propagatcd a tube,

prcccding in an opcn
diamctcr

discussions

the

to

bc

spacc.
is small

whosc

of th thc conditions Icngth, Wliat we th case of conduction. comc more conveniently will, however, 24-8. From the

wlthin thc air is confined Whcn in comparison with thc wavcat least in are aitcrcd, problem have say on in n-noUier place. to this hea.d

in th expression \/(~y) ~p, wc sec that of sound is independent of tlie denslty, same gn.s thc velocity as p (~ =~p0). be constant, varies becausc if the temprature th vclocity of sound is proportional to the hand On th other if f~ be ils n-bsolute so that root of the temprature, square value at 0" Cent.

wherc the

is mcasurcd temprature point of watcr. freezing th most on We conspicuous temperature shn-ll sec in effect is thc thc of

in

thc

ordinary

manncr

from

Th of sound pipes. of thc

depondence of tlie variability

th

of thc pitch that th

velocity of orga.u

following chapters period is th time occupicd note of a flue organ-pipo by a. pulse of th which is a dennitc over a distance in runnin~ multiple as the velocity varies of th pipe, and therefore inversely Icngth of propagation. Thc inconvenience arising from this altration

30
of pitch

YELOCITY

0F

SOUXI)

IN

W.ATKH.

[248.
not fu)

is nggravatctt af'fuctud; so

snodarly l'rof.

))y thc tact ti)at t))c rccd pipc.s arc that a change of ttjmpcraturc puis tomakuthcconncction th fonn<)ation ci' \v))ct,ho-t))c

o)'g!)))0))tcftu))H~'ithit.sc!f. Alaycr' ttaspropo.scd and wa~c-l~ngt,)~ tutnperattn-c amuotawarc mctitod.bnti Lccn cm'ricd out. Tlie and con'cetncss 1()U" i~s Ltjcn dif'crcnt of bctwcc'n a pyromctric h~sc~r

o.xpcrunott

(1) as rcgiu'ds at

nir nt tlie by

vurificd

L~pcnmcutaXy

tcmpcndurcH Kundt. Sec


ant] prc.ssm-G

ofO" 2GO.
rt is

givun tc-mporaturu to thc square invers)y rnts proportiona! IcaHt if Y bc cn)tstant=. 2, For thc non-cptKhjusahtc not scnsibiy vary froin ils vatn< for air. Thc do~-ec
is somcwhat satnrated

In

gascs

nf

t)ic

dchsitics, gases

a),

ry doc.s

velocity cf

elltirely indcpcndcnt drytic.ss of thc air, sinec at n- givcn prossurc It is caicidatcd Ji~))tct- than dry air. t]jat
wlt!t moisturc wou!d propagate sound

of

sound

is

not

of moist at

thc air

50 F.,

air

bctwGun

2 and

:{ fcct

pcr second

fastcr may

t)iau

if it \verc to

po'fucDy c:dcu)atc

dry. thc vciocity

T))c of tho
found

fnnnu)a in

~=~

bc applied

tionnd

coufHcIcnt
by

nquids, or, if thut of comprcseibiHty.


titat the

bo I{nown, to infcr convcrsc]y In. the case of watcr It is


compression per atmosphre is

expcri)ncnt,

-0000457.

Thus,

if (//j = 103:; ~=-0000457,

x US], in absoiutc siucc nictrcs p = 1.

f.f:.s.

units,

IIeucc ~= which docs In notdifur th 1489

pcrsccou(), va)uc of (143~). plane wavcs Wc motion of air is no


eau b~!

much

from

thc observcd t))C

~4:). bas bccn

dcrivcd nuw proccc'd to an indepoident is in tenus of the cxprcsscd instcad of by mcan.s of thc
fungur ncecssmy inasniuc)i

sections preceding from t))C gnera! actual vulocity


as iu

thcory

c'() nations of motion. in which the investigation position potentia!,


oac dimension

of thc

layers whose aid


thcrc

no question

of moiccuhu'
to thc tiinctic

rotation.
7'/<xLV. theory of ~sca, t1o )).])-<. voiof.ity 1873. of onun~ is detorminol

'OnntiAcousttcryronctcT. Accnrdin~

M)!t').y).y,ttndis))roportin)mlt.i,t)R~unmv(.)ocityafthn)))n]<.fu]('f). ]~77. .)/(5)tn.;)..tU.

)'rc!-t<),

249.]
If V) 2/+-

EXACT

DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATION. n.t timc

31 < of

(Ic-nnc

thc

a.ctua!

pnsitions

:u'c (tt~no) nt'!Q'bot!n!g i~ym'~ of :!)r ~'huso u'jUiiibt'iuttt positions of t!)C Ittchn'cd thc dcnsity s)ico is givc'n hy by .f and a;+~,

th

expansions to ;iccurdit)g tlie J slicc 1.. i8

a.nd tlie l

condcnsntinns

adiabatic 1 and 1 thc

titw.

to bci))~ sxpposcd 'l'lic tn:s of uniL ]no\'ing r force

tn.kc nhicc' cf :u-~ of Is ~l!' 1 fZj;

1" corruspondin~

~iving

for tlie

cqnation

of motion

Equation
in tci-tns of

(~)
thc

is a.n e.wtc~ equ!Ltnj)i


cquitibrium abscis.sn.

thc actual dctmin~ ruid thc timu.


mny

absci.ss:i If t))e

motion oceurs proxunatc

bo as

assumcd tho va.!uc

to

bc

smal],

~vc

rc))!acu qnn.ntlty

f~) by

wltic)) its

coc~icicnt unity;

of

th

sni:dt thcn

np-

and (-t)

bccomcs

thc orclinary If
quations putting 'y

approximatc expansion
con-csponding = 1.

equation. hc n.s in Newton's isot))cr)na!, to (~) !tn<1 (5) ;n'c cbt:uu(.'(! titcory, hy thn

the

tnurcty

Whn.tcvcr
th coustitutioh

may bc the
of thu

relation
mdium,

betwoon
t!tc cquatiou

n.nd
(~f

(k'pcndi))~
motion is

o~
Ly

(1) :m(l(3)

32

\VAVE8

0F
in

PERMANENT
is to be

TYTH.
eHminatcd it~ ~1j.

[249.
by mcans nf

from

which

p,

occurring

.f/ u tllu rc~muiut: 1)c";vw;n therci:(.:ionbc:)VC(;!)~anL),cxpreHS(.(tirt(l~. cl:c 2.'i0. h:ivc distnrbcd Itbcrty
comnion

lu

thc

HU}'pf)sc<l

prcccding that thc air vibrations to If th

by thc to attribntc
inotiou.

wf~es wc of acria! investigations is at t'est cxcfpt in s') f:n' as it i.s at of sound, but we arc of course who)e mass of fur conccmc'd any that wavcs tbc and
is

direction velocity, and th

contrary thc wavc motion

wo suppose of th to that form,


if

air

in thc i.s moving with the s:unc actuat


stationary

permanent,

is .~eftf~ In th prsent section as it is important under this aspect, to ohtain sidcr th prol)lcm in our vicws on t!)e mechanics of wave proa)! possible dcarness pagation. If p~ dnote in of thc nuid respect!
its

spacc, we will con-

in

vcly at

the

density th currcsponding fur th equation

nndisturbed

velocity, pressure, and if state, in the wave, wc

and p bc !iavc

q~antitics of continuity

a. point

~nder whi~i thc law of pressure dctcrmining wavc to ma.inta.in itscif in for a stutionn.ry Frum (3) vc)ocit.y

n.]onc Huid

it is possible with moving

Smcc fictuat
!n:nnt:uning

thc is

relation not t)tat

between.

th

ga.scs

stn.Liunnry

cxpresscd ao'ial wnvc

Mi'I thc <1enslty of pressure in (5). wc cnnehidc that f). sdfis un iinpu.s.sihitity, wha.tcver

250.]
may
a

WAVE

0F

PERMANENT

TYPE.

33

bc thcvcJocity?~ w:),vc Cfmnot hc

ofthc jn'n])!~at(;d

gnera)

currcnt,

or in othcr

wor~s

tha.t

of thc

g~s withriut uttdurguitt~ wh~n Lho ch:U)~us 01 (jcnsity satisfied arxt wc sec :).ppruxi)natc)y; oi to kou? tho w~vc struatu neeussiuy

to th undi.sturbcd ru)ativc')y parts !in :)ltc)-ation of ty[)0. Ncvcrtixjtc.s, concenn-tt are ))G sma!], (;')) niny fron (-t) th:tt. is ~cn tho vubcity Ly

stit.tiun~t'y

which

is thc

same

as

thu

velocity

uf

titc

v'uvc

cst.iinatcd

1'da.tivdy

tut)ic(ini(l. Tins ))i('t))()d of tho sn1)jfct more sliews, rc~.i,)'<tin~ pcrhaps thc !)i)turuoft!)< rotation hc<v(!cnve)oci<y (')<). In !L st:U,i<jt):u'y w!).vo-f"r)n :), )(jsa to t))c accor<]in~ dcnsity fLnd the concotopo.sing f<u'\va,)'() more than tho slow]y tho that

clL':).)-)y(.hana.)]y<)L))('r, and coudcnHation 2-t.') (~), of vducity !m iiceompauic.s prmcipic dcnscd of cnm'gy,
()fa

and
'\va.vc

au~tnc'ntt't) tticrc-f'orc thc


movcs

to t)t Huid thcrcfurc purt.iuti.s. RL'Iativciy niotiun of t)m c(j)t(h;t)H<! parts is in tlic sa.mc dh'uctiuil as iu winci) thc wavcs arc prcpagatcd. Whcn
that cxprcs.scd

parts )in<]istu)'bc(t

thc

reh~tion
in (~), a

bct,wccn
stationtu'y

pressure
wavc

a.)id density
catt bo

is otho'

than
oniy

m~mtan.icd

by ou

thu th

aid

of

an

supposition

hupru.ssct! that thc

force. moti'.m

By (1) and is stcady,

(2) 2S7 wc

hve,

that an hnprcsscd shcwing M is variabtc and uncqual 2.')1. waA'e ordinary


propagattid

force to M.

is uccc.ssary

at every

place

whcrc

Th

reason to wc

is Ict't,

of type v'hich chimie it.suJF is nnt <)i~unft to midcr.stimd. know that an infitutciy Stnali a. certain

of thc

cnsucs

when

a, t)te
is

;From
(!ist)t)')):mcc

thcory with

to

tlie

considor

of th parts now tito case

vdocity \))ic)t mcdmni urxti.sturhud hy of a. wavc so long

vdoL-lty i.s !-<-)at:o thc wavt;. ]~t us titc variations of

ti~at

R. II.

34 V(')oc!tyand

SUPERPOSITION dunsity are

0F

PARTICLE fur a.

VELOCITY. considrante

[251. distante )).s


TL'v 1

insensible

a)o))~it,:tnd:tt.:),p)acc
i' ts!)).!t!s~co')'r.t\~

w])('rcthcvc!oeity()isnrntf'Jct
t'h'~)r.

with

w)tich

tnediuolis~,

wavc is sccondary pn.pnniUcd !))[). on :'c-('HUt)t<.t't))(;h~:dt)t(,tit)nf,f'th(-]n<j<!iu)n

thc

<hn)))~h

t.he

i.s its<')t't))Cwht')t)V(']ucityot'!it]v:).n'-t' upmi ~+M,an(I<)u))('))ds t!!C p!U'tf)t'ti)e]t.H' W!L\(! !tt, w)))(j)t tftCS))):))) ~:)V(.-isp]:K;). 'V)):).t,)~asbc;t'n~)(](~T,.st'c<))))]!))yw;LV~n))))i)('s:)).-i()tnt))Op!)]'ts "t't))c)L'))~Yt.' itst.)f')))d<.))usw('H(-c t))!)t,!tf'(.c)-a.t,imc pt!K.hcr(':t.(-t')'t:un i<so)'i~in:J ")')s \)oci<ytfist<'b(. fomnt.isin itD~n :u)\)ncc"f

p~.s)<icj)])y;t<)i.st:)nc')n!(),~()<,t()<l)ut.t<)(~-+~)<; i.spn)[)~)tf(twit!t:t.vc)()(;ityn.+?/.

W(']<t;!y(~)))'c.ssi),);

!').sym))n)i(-:dnt)t:)tin)) "=-=.(.+((~-)-)~,wJH.ru/iMa.n!H'bitr:ny an functiun, Poisson'. Ct~))ati~))(i)'.st<~tai))L'()by Froni ihc!L)~)U))<'))tj))st(.')~))]oy(-di<.n)i~)(. f)ppc:u-!)tf))'st as it !:tw \).spro\-('(I totho m tht'rc tacitty t:)nta-

si~)ttt));tt:).))<)-:)ti!~))()t'<y))(.-w;).s!t)K'L't-.ss:))'yit)('i()(;))tint))L'])rog)'~sH "t'!).w:)\-c,inth~)('Ht)(.'Ht)yofanyp:u-ticn)iu'supposition )'c);t<iottL('hvt-cH :)))() dotsity.nndyct, pressure t)):)t))t ~)() t))'(::)St'()i'on(Jp;uLit.'u);n' wo))H :).ssH)))L'd momt.toa pressure he no !ttter!)t)o)t ut'

ut'pressure

AVe ),a\'e, type. ito~'ever, intitu (htais prsent.se('io)) <-o))s):)))t, w))ie)~is restrictiuttto !a\v. ]3oy)e'.s Un~'rnuyc'titerifLWcf isa iuncLiun of/3,a))d theref'ore.~s expn.ssp<1 progressive :ul\'anee wu

shaH

soc

~) In th M a.n'tpfora,
existant,

presen<)y,of/f. rotation Letw-'L-u


is

ca.scct't.hchuv

in (;')) 2.'i(),t)iC' \vaveis sxch that !o.stby s)o\vcr superposi-

asnu~h

A/(;

j+~

heing is~'ainc'ttby

propa~atit)))()nct<)nugniente(t()cn.si<yas tion ot'thevetucity~. So far as t))c constitution ofth<'

mdium

Itscif'isconccrncd

thc;)'t'isnot)nn~topr(;vent,oHras('ribi))~arbit.rnryva))K'stt)bf)th hut in a progressive wave a rotation ?/arn)/), <jUa))tit.ics]nust)'c'sa.tis)itj(). is thc case whon thc

~et.\yeenH)csc<<)

~Vckuo\v:u)-ea(]y~2-)-))tha.t<his 'Ust.urbancc i~ smaO.and tl)c

foUowing

arj.;)nn('ntw')H))oton]y:,1)cw<))at,snch:).r(;)atiu)iistobccxp('ctt'd in cases motion whurct))cs(piarcoft))c inust.bcrcta.incd,but will cvun derinc thu forn) of't))C rutn.tiun. ~rrn)('i)CM)u-)aT)h"'f.]i('~))Sn)). ]sos. p.)U. Jo~))~ ~N~t. vn.

251.]

RELATION BETWEEN VELOCITY AND PEXSITY.


may
j Il,'itlt!.J;III('

35

W)):)t(;vcr
n I"II 'n.H.!is~uL. 1IIl,:

bc t!)c

Luv

ofpre.ssm-e, :1.)

tlie
1 ..<('I'WI.

vaiccity
tn.=.

of

p]-cpa"!i-

!.s 1.

.'jy~ bJ",

'V~

,'PII

j~.s.(.vf'p)-~r.ssn-uwLvu d<)!s;Ltioni.s

thcrc)atinnbctwcc..vc.)oeityan.!cnn-

T<],s

n-I.-d.if.nbc

vi.tcd n~~i\-c

'r.-u')!.)~int),c.

.t:)y <h'r~-tim..

pnm~it

w:vcwi!)

..n~r~,

L~usno~pk-hn-cto. h,,t

~<c~cof~)~vcpm~n~~vcw~~in~~n~,Uch~H at YL.!uc.t.y~n<h)..nsit,y :m.v..ry

~nu)u..t)

bc.-on~.i.nj.ntL~ [ti.sc)(.)-0.at

nc<unn,!atjm,))..t,i).smq~n-w).Ltc.dit,i.,u.smu.stbc.s~!sfi..di.L "r<t.rt.o],rcvc..t),h<jf.,r,u:,t,n<,f..L,)~t.ivuw~vu. th<.nn.s~rt.. <c<)U~tiu.h.-t).r,not,:Ln..g..ttiv~wavc~-i)tbc ~-n~.<L.<hL(,anyp.,intwi[),)..j~n.tupu.iM<c.st.~c i~m~].nLci~)~uur)n,ud tho

of't,!m)~i.,t).c r't,a.hh.tt,p,~ t! t.hc.stator

thu~.s.-Lt~<)..sL-L.K.cfr.nni(,n.twm bu d~cnmn.j<tby thu cn).L.n~nnpp)ic.)~. <.us,na))di.st.rb~~s. ln ap].)yi,rt).i.s ~rcto~.m~h-r D.c nut v..)uciti..saHdeund~t,im.s, c~nuuwc h, ~)ut~y,l,trd~.ivdy h, <).pmvai[ms thcnci~.bnuri,~ f.rt..s oi ti.c m..hui~ .s.j tJuLt tliu furni uf (1) jn.upLfur t.).c prsent pm'po.sujtj

wh!d.
im~rcs.,ve

)sthc

dation
~vc.

lx.t.woc.1
E~u~iou

and~ (~
.ya.s

ncec~aryfura
obtai,,L.d

p~.sitivo a..aiytic.d)y hy

i'.in'n.sfiaw'. 1.~ the lion bchv~.u case of Bcy!c.s ~nd h~v, y~ vciucity den.sity~ is constant, given fir.st,

and 1

t).c

re! by

LeHcve,

Huhnholt/iij

n In et

bc

tiic this

()c)ts)t.y c~c

co)Tcspon(]ing intgre ~ccompanying ~'nf)).<. l.s~:), (~ y'

to aHow.s

0. n.s to tlie ~.rm c.-u-Iier .-L <).fmitc st~cs uf I.)c.-t t!io

Poissfjn'.s oitype

U.c

chang-c

7'/N7. = J~r~r)~.

p. Hf;. ,y. p. ioc. 18~2. 32

3G

ULTMATE

DISCONTINUITY.

[25L

progressofthcwavc,n.nd has not a~i yct bccn th distribution of ordinatt.


timc

us to n. diMcultywhich finaUyIcads to surmonntcd'. 1. If wc dra.w a curvc rcprescnt it vclocity, taking find thc con'cspondin~ cunstruction. .'<; for curyc aLscissa after a.nd H)C ?' for )ap.sc of on t)'c

by

wc inay the fotiuwh)~

]me para1)''t Ot-igitia) curvc draw a st.raight with to (f7. + ?~) to a;, and of k'n~th or, as wc n.)').; co))cc)')u''d cqmd of thc on'vc thc shapc to Il <. t. Thu ]ocns of tbc ends ut' on!y, cqual linc's is th vulocity on'vc aftur a, time <, thse
But thi.s

Thron~h in th positive

nny point direction

Ia.w

ofdcrivation

caxnot

))o)d gond conth)U:d)y this t))c

crcsts must two tha.t push velocity tangent.

of

thc

nt last vaincs eould the

velocity nvcrtakc!

cnrvc thcm. Y.dno

g'ain Aftcr of

iudcnoitciy. on thu t)'(m~'hs woutd

Thc and

cm'vc

imticatt! anythi))~ to thf

of ?/ fcf onc actuaHy t:)~~

application becomc's discontinuons, In ordcr points to on nnd

p]acc. of thc intgra!

to rcprcst.'nt cca.siog Ju fact wc an' not at

thc point htyorni or th Ych'city cnrvc this of !ct happons thc Ctu'vf which inouirc ]f thc thc attc-r diffrence forward

lihcrty at which

bas us

n, vertical ta~c two

wlicn p:u't

ncighbonring in thc wards of thc part bc ~.r, thc timc


e<ptation,

any

and direction, positive curvc beconcs vcrtica]. hindcr point Thus


discoitinuons

downsh)pcs what time this of point by


to th

ahscissa! in thc

will thc

ovcrtake tnotion,as
aftcr

~(f/~).
bccomcs

dctcrmincd
n, titnc C(p)at

Poisson's
ruci-

procah For

takcn

positivciy, lot
u.s

of tl~c grca.tc.st
suppose

ngative

value

of

ff~

cxa-mple,

tha.t

whcrc
ngative

!7is

thc grcatcst
of

Initia) Is

vdocity. so th~t

Whcn

< = 0, th grcatest will com-

-value

discoutinuity

mence
Wi)cn

nt thc

time

<= X
sots

2??' !7.
in,

~iscnntinnit.y

stritc
n.)'c

of things

cxists

to which suhscIt to is

thcus)tn.l<!iH'crunti:d qucnt

uqu:).t.i~))S

of thc tnotion ~s prognjHS that s(j)nc as suggcstcd Ly Stores, probable, to this ma.ttcr wc must In regard ensue. StokM, Ou a dimeulty m th T)icory of Soumi."

fLUt) th inappHcabtc'; nf't hccn duterniincd.


soi'tofrpOcctioawouid

be .P/<

carctul

kcep

~ny. Nov. 1818.

251.] ]
purcly

EA.RNSIlAW'S

INVESTIGATION.
distinct

37

oncs. In physical do with sphcricat practtuc waves, witusc divcr~ency inay ofitsdt'bc sufMcicut to ho)d la chuck tl~c tu d~contcndcncy In actuel ga.sc.s tuo it is curkun tmnity. t!t:).t: bufut-c discontinuity
questions could enter, th hnv of pru.ssurc won!d bc~'in to

mathcnmtica! wu havu to

from

nu lunger ije ncg)cctcd. Hnt DtcutOnenccof'vi.sco.sityconid H'csc eon.sidur~tions hve nothing to <)o wit]~ tho mathumatlc:il of (tutunninin~ pt'obton wh:).t wuuld tu wa.vcs of nnitc ))appcn in :t, nicdiun), a)np]ttu<)u frce froni viscosity, wlioso is pressure undur~ cireumstauccs to its duusity; aud cxactty proportionn! tlus probJunt hus not bucu sulvud. is worti~y of rcinark wc may ofcout-se tiiat, althou~'h conoive a w.Lvoof Unitc disturhance to cxist at aoy inomunt, thcrc is a i'tmt tu tho dun).ti~n ut' its prcvious cxistc])co. indcpcndcnt By Unes in t!)u dmwing instcad of in thc pusiLivc dit'ectioa ncgativu ~'c may trace t))u ttie vuiocitycurvc; and wc .sce that Jtisturyof as wc pus)i our furth~t- an(t f))rt)nir int.) past timu t))c furlutjulry ward ~lupus bucunic oasiur a)td t)ic back\v:u-d At a slopcs stccpci-. timc.cquai at which tu thc grcatcst thc curve is nrst
positive value

~nd

citante

ils

funn,

It

of~, th

antceedunt vclocity

to that would bc

coiitcmplatcd,

diseuutinuous. ofthc exact cquations cotnpicto Intgration (4) aud wavo was iirst utfcctcd (Ci) 2-t.!) lu t))u ca.su uf a progrc.ssivc by Earnshaw'. ruason fur tifinking that iu a sound wavu t])o Findiug quation 2.~2. Th

ea)i witli
i.s

by

jncfuis

of tlie

arbitrary quation
of

function in wliicli Tlie

bc

nnutc of

tu t~

coiucide aiid F Lc-in~

a!)y

dynanuc:d
in tcrm.s

t])C ratio

cxpresscd

M~C u/' </<e ~! ,S'~t\

f'orm of thc /<t'

fnnct.ion 2')~.

7'ruct'~t~

Jau. C, 1850.

18CO, p. 1~;(.

~8

HARNSHAW'S

INVESTICATICN.

[252.
usuat

thus

dctormin~ upplicablu

t))e8o)ut,io))

maybccumpicicd

bytLc

prucc.ss

Lo sncb

cases'. of- cl.c ~'e h~.vc

Writing o for Lrevity J et in pince

as might

aiso

ha.vc

bccn

info'rcd

from

(.).) 2.')1.

Thc

cnstant
othcnvisc

(7

vanisi)CH,if~(o!),viz.<,V!U)i.s)tw!)(j)iet=I,)-jp=~;

itrc{-)renent.iavu!uuityot'thc)n<;(ih[)u:Lsa\Y)tut(j,!)avin~])()L!)in"' tu do wit.h ti)c w.t.vo as such. Fur a~oA~~e pro~russivu )<vcr in ttie :u-c to Le uscd. si~tts :uubig(ntics Titus (!{),wc;ha\'e

\vayc in pta

t)~ <jf

fi-uni which

by

(8) wc .sec ti.aty-(a+


1 Loulu'h' Z~t')i<t<;<

) t is an arbitra~
A'</t<ff<<(~f.<, Ch. xt\

function

253.] of &, or of ll.

MEMANN'S Conver.s.-Iy thcreforc

EtJUATtONS. M is fu.

39
fu-bitrary funetiuu ut'

,?/(a+;f)<,aiidwc]n!).ywri).u

E<;))ation(9) whurc .section, tt)~. 2.'i3. a)so t))c tu t)ic

is

Poi.s.son'.s

Int~m),

con.si.tcrud sa.)nc mu.tni))~

ht

t)<c sytnbu!

x htLs thu

pr~cc()i))g :Ls hure ~t~ch~

thc

T)'c]))-uh]mn<)ftj!:).))cwtt\'(;.s<)ft)))it(!!un)))it.()(!(.).tt]-!)ctc<! !~tcnt~)t uf Rictn:mn, wttu.se niutnouwns connnutucat~t Sociuty(jt'UuLt.i))~~n in on t)te 2Kt.i) ut'Novuntber, LS.T)'. tu :my

Ruyid

Riu)n:mn'sinvnstig:)tio)t e.t.Ltion.s Invc.st.i.n.-d.cd p:n'tic)ti:n-):).wot']~.ssurc. to~t th di.scu.ssio)~ trc:U.cd w;u-t':mt, of pressure. Appfying cu'cumstimccs n.tgr~Ltcr wn si)a)l of

i.siomxk~ontttu~.ncrathydrodytuuniciLt ~:{7, 2:~8, :Lnd is )mt. rcst.ict.c.t

Inon)(;)-,))uwuvur,]H)tn)t(h)iytuHx}):n-t. uf onr .subj('(.-t,, a)t-c:KJy po-h:U).s t)):).n its Icn~t)) physicid wonM imp..rt:t.nc(i hu)'u confnKi uur.sutvu.s tu thc e~su of hw Boytu'~ thi.s

c~u:Uions (i), ut'thu presunt

(2)

2.~7 and wc "'ut pruLk-m, of

(1)

uf

238 to

t]ic

'Uub~dicrurtpfJnnxunH witc. (iiittixn~n, /)~/nt~/)n<t,t.vm.

ebencr

L"fbv(4)nvnne))d]i(..hcrSrLwin~u,)~1~0. S<:e)d.un.ucxc(;Hnt

nb.itt'tMt.

i~the/.<r/~t'<<r)'<XY.p.l~

40

IJMITED

INITIAL

DISTURBANCE.

[253.
and Earnshaw'3

Thse ill

quations

arc

t)tattheyfu-c

gnral not!imitudtoi]te
wavc..

more

than

Poisson's

ngative, progressive may bc Lhe v:dae t, th th s:une vahtc time

From

of7~ of am) l' in

corrc.sponding corresponds thcsiunc

or single positive, tfiat \v})atevci(5) wc Jearn to th punit a; and t]ic timc tu w~y th from point .c+(?;.+a) (<i) wc sec that at Q reof we as in (~ values can bc

ciuseofa

<+~;

m:Li))su])cI):U)~() n-nd </< rcspuctivL-ty. ti)no


may

\Y)K-n.a.~d If ci'.r, 7' aud and thc

t)~ n)C[-(j)no)t.s ac<)uirc! at a. ccrtiun Q Le given i-cpt-esott.fttivc! vatue < ;< hy curves bc (-t), and

(~-a)f~ instant drawn, thus,

ns fonctions duducu Lhc

cot'i'c.spondii)~

~51,cunstructthecu[-vcsrup)t.i~(j)tti))~t])evatucsufj!and aftc-rthc sma)! ft-un)w))ie)t thcnuw intcrvaloftunu~, of <t au<] p in their turu bcemac a)id thc knowu, pruccss l'cpuatcd. T))C any th thc aud ctcmcnt of the is fluill, itHc]f to wLich the tvith to tho v:ducs tite of T~and

moment velocitie-s satnc, titat of


Wo aro disturhancc

Lctong, of~and (.-quai in thc


now in

nioviug

and

Q rch~tively tu a, th~t of ncgativc


a which

vcfucity dment arc in tlio

(? at ;<, so that

2' huiog direction. to trace to

munuricaHy direction positive

position
is

the a

initial
jncdimn,

confincd

consquences finite portion wldch values in turn


t)ic

of an of tho
mdium

is at arc

rcst

bctwcon .x= e. and at its norma)

c( jmd s-=~,

ont.side

ci ]o~ ]!ch valuc mcntsof nui.) whicitliu in front fit, that lit: Lcitindit. Thuimniorlimitof variabfc, ft log~, viz. cotnes thu witcro p)acc into contact rirst a Yariah!c' dL-tL-rmination

so that thc (icnsity, uf P propagatus itsuif and

ofjP

and to thc dc-

cad)Yah)of~tot]fosc the rgion In-\vhi<jhPIa t)tc constant


va)ucs of Q,

first
\Yit)i

attains
thc variahfc

value
and

movcsaccurdingiywith fur ils rc()uiri))~ tions, varies, t))c )tin()cr

At a ddinito velocity. :t Sf~utioa ofthu din'urcutiat thc rL-gion throug)) of th rgion iinut

timu, quawhicii throuTh

wtti(di~ and indudu condttion, hot]j M log~, C)

of (L'ft ham!) iinut thu ttindcr tuccts (rig)it iiand) afterwhic)) th varies, t\vo hchYCL'n as titem a

rgions

(tlugp.. so that

appears from in ttie positive !~= et log~ r~

uf portion th tact t])at th ~avo ()

scparatet!)em.se!vcs ihtid in its etputihrium of~and constant ngative are value wave

vatucs lias th in the

as ill

() 251

At t)na pnint no f'rrf))' sccmsto haYO cr~pt into Diem~uu' rcetLd iu tlie t~tract uf the 7'u/<t/t<' ~< ~t'A-.

work, winch iB cor-

253.]
P
and

POISSON'S

INTEGRAL.

41

bas tlie
p,

samc

constant log

value, Since in

giving cach

as tlic progressive

relation wavc,

botwcen wben

u iso-

M=

Po

a law prcvaits the M and latcd, connccting quantitics p, we sec that in the positive wavc f~t vanishos with and in tlie ngative wavc ~<t vanishcs with Tims from (5) wc k-.arn that < in a wave if thc a? and positive, progressive incroncnts of vanishcs, t bu sucii as to satisty thu quation <~ f~= 0, froni winch ()t + Poissun's foltows. intgrt Immodiatuly to foUow eut titc ana)ytical dcvclopmcnt of Kiemaun's for which the readcr method, must Le refet-rcd to tho original but it would bc ijnpropcr to pass over iu mcmoir; sUcucG an en-or on the suhject of discontinuous motion into which
Rionann

It

wou)d

Icad

us

too

far

and of motion
by a surface

otiier is

writcrs
possible of

iiave
in

faUcn.
wbich

It thc

bas

bcen

bc!d

that into

a two

statc
parts

nuid

is dividcd

itscif with constant propagating ail t)~ of the surface of discontinuity vclucity, condition as to density hcmg in onc unifonn and on and vclocity, the othcr sidu in a second unifonn condition in th sanm respects. discontinuity nuid on onc sidc
Now, if this motion were possible, a motion of thc same kind

in

which

thc as

possible, opuosite

surface we may with

of sec

discontinuity

is at a

l'est

would

a)so

ho

to that

by supposing wl)i(.-h the surface

mo\-c.s, to bc impres.sed upun tite whoie nnd thc relations that must subsist on t]ic onc sidc (~, ~,) and t))e density on the velocity and density othe)- sidc (M,, p.J, wc notice in thc nrst place that by tho principto of conservation of matter if wc considcr tho p,=p,?< Again, momentum ofa siicc bounded by par:d!el the pianos and including surface of (U.scontinuity, we sce t))at the momcntum th Jeaving stice in thu unit of time is for cach unit of area (/J.=ptM,)~, wbiie thc momentum it is p,!< T)ie dincrence cnto-ing of'm~ moitum mnst t)C ba)anced at thc boumhu-ies by the pressures acting of thc slice, so titat

and cqua! of diseontinuity at nrst mass ofnuid. In ordcr to betwcen th velocity and vclocity

Th

motion

thus

dctct'uuueJ

is, howevcr,

not

possible;

it

satisfics

42
tlie cututitiou

EXPERIMENTAL

DETERMINATIONS

[253.
thc

con()it,io))s of cnc~y

<~ n~ss ~)

but it viutatus motnottum, cxpru.sHud by tiic c~xatioa

:md

i'I.fs

atone jus) ify it a]))ic:u'.s (.[)~t no stcady D.crc dctcrxnnc.t. dcn.sity can fuxt wliat unp)-('ss~) ).y jnuLio.. ~))0() app.).sitc whoc

fu-~mcnt whicit wuu)d

ha.s

b~-ca

ah-~dygivo.i
us motion in rL.JMt.n~ is

In anothcr t!.ca.ss..mod

for.n

in theiawof

2.~

rnoti.-n.sinco t).t .s~ctiun

(tcHned to tllc si~ns, moving tho thc

(7). ut' ~cuuti.mify, pkcc sincu Ly (7) !t p!t.s.s. fu)~,vi~p~v;u)i.s].c-.s, con<)itio)) n..)~ti))~ A' bu i~nurL'd

po.ssibfccxcoptundcr Fmm ~~u.-Ltiun (.S) of furcc.s woui.t be nccc.ssary It f.p].c:)r.s that th.; force i.s ))):u)u

wu t)jo

(.) nia:).t:))i

c~n.Y, tho.~h of up of two ~rL.s t.),u y:,),)u ~'h.. tiji.s


i.s

!u.d
to muj.K'ntum

cxphun.s
by

i.ow (7),

it is t))at thoug]) 25~. of sound

satis~!

iu)-co Tho

:dt.o~ht.-t-. .~crnnxation di<)~u!t.y u]K-.i .nr ti.:u. arc nf tlte

cx~t
m:~u.-

cxp~ritncnta]

i.s

of wind, frum am] wi~i to th nnccrtfunty rc.spcct exact eon<titio;t of thc ntmo.sphcrcasto tonpcnt.tureand drync.s.s. On thc uthciJtand wht~i sunnd is p)-pa~!)tcd air cc.~ throug]i tained in pipes, disturhance ~risos fron fricLimi :md fr.nn tt-iu).sf.;r of Iicat; and, in) ~t'cat aithou~h o-rot-s frmu tht-s .sources arc tu bo fearcd i)i thu case of Luhu.s of con.sidcrabic f,m;h di:u))ut(.'r :ts Hutnc of thosu it is dimcuit ctnptoycd Ly R~xatdt, to f(;ej sure that tt~c iduat wavcs of ptanc aru tt~-ory iicarty cno~h rcalixcd. T)~c meutai foDuwin,
dutermiim.tiona

cxpectcd. thc ctt'uct.s

of~ro:Ltcr OL.sc.-v;K.iun.s in thc

nn~ht ti~Hc to crror.s

VL-toci~y i.:Lvc hcL.n f.ou

Table'
\iuc)t

nontain.s )mvo

list

of

the

bcen madc

principe hithcrto.
v. of

cxpcri-

Nnmos

of Observera.

<J"Cuut.i)iMutruH.

AcadomcdesScicnccs Lcnxcubcrg(lMlJ) (~l()ing-ham(182l) ~ur~u des Longitudes MuHandv~nBbdk

(1738).

(33~3 f~33'7 s~i (1822) 3~o.(' 3~')")

'Lusanrjnet,U~.Apri),

1877.

254.j

0);'

TilK

VELOCITY

0F

SOUND.

4:3

KaincsufObsorvM~. St.'U))j'J'c)'andA!yt'b;K'k. ;)h-!LV:Lisan<[AhtrL)ns(lS4-).). W<jrt.hcnn ~tunu Lu i~ux.


R~-)t:mJt t

VctocityofSnuudu.t
U"C(jut.u)Mct.run.

M2~ H~l'C :4 :j~()'7


3!:3()'7

(IM71)

In wa.stitnud sot)tat a ~rcat

Stonc's

cxpo'nnGnts' connnunccdatib

thc distance fi'oa

course of

ovcr

~']nch

thc

Sound

:niyetTorsarisIt~ uxtunt avuidcd. hasbcoi ut'sound

(!-t()fcetfr<)nth<so))rc(uxccssi.ve disLurbancu werc

to

A mcthod thc vctocity

proposcd

by

BusHc)):rf"tnsu

wit)K~tt

t!<c

dpends

~pu))thc!prccisiotiwiU)w)nc]tt)iu

oi'gruat car is!).b)c

d(jteniu!)in~ distances. to

It

dcide

~')~(jt.))ernh()rttiekHar('sinndt:U)eouH,ornot. two sn)!LH c)ectt'o-]nagnettc thc cx])cnincnt,

InKonig''s"f()rni<jf arc controllcd countcrs

is ono-toith of n. scconf~ Ly :). foj-k-intCD-uptcr ( C~), who.sc pcriod and t.i('.k.s of thc ~atnc givc \V!)en thc syncftnmous pcrtod. :u'u c)o.sc thu mtdibtc conntcrs tid(s but as otic to~ctitur eoincido, is gmdmdiy c'onxtur rcittoved from t])(i on.)', th two scrics of tic)<s f;d!. !Lsuud<r.
coincidc-ncc

AVficn
a~ain

t))u

dii!'cruncc
place,

of
proviog

distances Diat

is ~-t

~bout mctt'es

3-)< is

jnctres
about

takcs

thc

distance

travcrscd

by

sound

iu a tcntli

part

of~,

second. 1~.1851.

'J"/tt;M.187~p.l.

~7'<w/)));.xcfj. ~tM~.CXVIU.UlU.lHC~.

CHAPTER

XII.

VIBRATIONS

IN'

TUi~ES.

255. fundamcntal Huid,


uf munber

Wn hve

tne an-e~dy ( 245) considcrcd whcn tiie yciocity-potuntia. c'pm.t.ion, of onc spaec
woutd be

solution

of our absunco of a.ny lincs a.re

in au utilimitcd

is a. fuuction
no ctm.ugc

co-urdmate
ciUt.scd by

n'ictioti

Ja thu on]y. tlie introduction

w)ioso geucrating surfaces, cylituh'icit.I to thc eo-ordumt.c lu questiou for evcn whmi t)ie Hurfa.cca parallul thu ihud ba-s no toidcncy arc absent to move across tbeni. Ifons of t)ic cyHtKh'ica.1 surfu.CLj.s bc ctosed (in rc'.spcct to its transverse wc ftavc tbu impot-t:uit of tlic axitd motion of air section), prubicm :). cylindricat wltinn condipipe, whici), wncn once tho tnechanical tions at thc cnd.s arc givcn, is iudcpcudcnt of anything that may thu pipe. outsidc happcn Considerin~ that, if <~ varies a simple as (~ harmonie vibration, wc kuow ( 2-t5)

of iixed

of winch f~rm

Tho first hnniy on;y ti)C rcn.1 parts will bc rct.:uncd. will bc must (.-uuvcuiclit whcu t!ie vibration is tationm'y, or

255.]
nc:u-!y and <in:d trary must

HARMONIC

WAVES

IN

ONE

DIMENSION.

45

so, and the second pn.stLive, or ncg.~ivc, m tlic


expression

whcu sotution of rcfd

thn

motion bc

rcduces
Th

itself
const:).nts

to the we

progressive

undulation.

syinLiiciL! in ternis If

may

cousta.nts. takc

qufmtit.ics wo wish to use re.d ()H!UttHics

a.nd thus co]np!px, wi)I invoive/arblthroughout,

work wou]d gt:.])er!)Hy be longer. fmatytic~] W])cn no e:).n anse, we sl)a)) sotnetin~s :unhi~uity for thc s~hc of brevity tbo d)-up,urr<st<n'c, t.)ie tuncwithout t~torinvolvmg oxpt-c.ss mention. such as () are of course E(~u:ition.s cqu:t))y truc whethcr thc f~ctor be undcrstood or uot. Taking thc Urst form in (3), wc h~vo

but

thc

If thc t))at

therc mtio i.s, Let

bc any

point

at which bc rc~, p])n.sc~t

citLcr ~nd thcn

or <,& t)ic

is pcrmancnUyzcro, vibration is ~i'OMury,

7~ must
thc samc in

fdt

points

sinmttiLncousfy.

us suppose f/d) ~cs,

t)tat thc

H)crG is a nodc condition

at th origin. is 23 = 0.

Thcn Titus

when

of which

From
sn]

thcsc th~t

quations

we tcarn

that
(!.C G

vanis!)Gs

wh crever

thf: ori~in t.hcrc are nodes at tho is, th~t. hsites M bcm~any points .B=~?~X., or ucgit.tivc: intcgcr. positive At any of thcsc thiu rigid piaccs b:u'ricrs normid to a; inHnite)y ptanc be stretched across the tube mt~ht without in any way alter-

~:=0;

4G Ing thc motion. thm'u is :). /w/),

NODES

AND

LOOPS. pnir of
conRccutive

[255.
nfx~'s

(()):2't"t-. cxtcrna) ntmuspiicrc


maximum

hct.wccn p:~h Midw~y o)' p)!t.e(.' of no prcssm'c ofthc'sc ALmy h~ps~ tnight, ht.' npencd, t)tc of

v:)ri;)tion,

sincc

c'tuttnihiciLtion c:m.sin~

~) =~ '\Y)L)) tho :).))y ()ist:)))'h-

wittmut

fmcecftLc'tnotKjnJ'romit.it'passing'inoront. ptitccsof pressure pcaLud. If nr .=~ thcrc Le :t. undc wht.')'c n.t.T=~ )~ isit, ns posit.ivc wH
V(.')"cit,y,n))(l

'J~)u)nopsa)'cthc nodestitthscof maximum uvL'ryUtit)~ is cx:)ct)y rc-

v:u'i:).tiun.

iutcrv:ds

as a.tthc intL'~r.

si))K~=(), nrigin, Thc ~')';L\'ust tono pipe tu

~'))ichc!H]bcs<'un(]('d~)y:),ircunt:LinL'di)t!Ld')n))tyc)nm;d of [cngLh i.s th<)'~f'o)'(; thut winc)) h:ts :L 't.Vt'u))g't.)t op):~ itwiilhu TJii.sstitt.umott, observa), )t(')').s~'()J\]):~<vc'rbctJ)c g:).swlthwhic))t)tcpipnisfi))cd; )' thL! tune' i)t t)tu nm.sio:).! t))u p:),rti<jutar g:t.s. Hc:()c, h))t<~cin~)))<tcy,o)'th(; n.).so on thc dcpL'thts tiuK! is givun by

place nature; uf

Th<! pernjdic

Thcothci'ton's whic)t :u'<


sub)))))tti))iL's

pns.sib)c

foradoubiyclonu()pi])c of t]):Lt of thu gr:LVcst

t'~tc,

i~vcporiods :Utd thc whotc

sy.st,('nifo]'msah:n'tnu)ticsc:t)c. LutttsnnwHUpjto.sc, f[nn't.;howsn(;)t:t. condition witLout, htnppm~forthcnn~ncnt. toin-

:).It)opinstt.K)ot':).])<)()c!tttnej"~mt~=/. cn.s /< = 0, whc'nco = -)-~

()fthin~sc':U)~t''sc'f'u)'(.t)):)tt))C)'ciH 1. )'u:t<i<n)((i)~ives

?)! is zero <')' :), pusit~iv' (2/~ + J), whf'rc t~his c:).se thc ~'t'nvc.st to))(; hit.s iutc'gcr..)n w:n'c-tu))~L)t oq'):)l thu nodctu lof<'n]'ti)ncst))c]t')in't)tr)fthcpipci'u('k')))''(It't'<))<) t))o Joup, w))ic)), 25f!. in]ttthcf)t))c['t~nc.sf())'tnwit.hit,:L!):n'n)0)tic.sc:L)(.ft'om :d) thc nicnibcr.s untcr :u'e ini.s.si))~ ufevoi huwuvcr, By incans of a ri~ift han'icr titcre is no in (tifUculty thc condition pt'c.ssurc va.ry, tbc vnriatiou by aHowinn' Eu)cr und to be

a ]t<"1'tt:uiy<k~i!'u<)po!nt()f:),tub< scou'i))~ for a h'op, i.c. t!)!tt mxtfr uo circumstaucus ci\n on!y bG rcit.lixct) at n.uy nssumod oi' press)u'e
a h'ce

but.
sha))

tl)c cases stnal) T)ms

n.pproxi)natu)y. of n. pipe point


with

In

inost

coinntuuicution

t))G

mny Le nuide externiLl ah'. n,s t!)C

L:).grangc

constn.ncy

of pressure aad

condition

satisficd.rLtthccndofanopcnpipc. to the of thc pro1))cnt

WeshilUaftcrwn.rdsrcturn open pipe, investi~a.tc hy n. rigorous

25G.]

CONDITION

FOR

AN

OFE~

END.

47

proccss tnctiiato

thc

conditions it will

to bc 1w

satisficd su~cicut

a.t to

thc

en().

For w)):)t i~ is

our

im-

purpnse

kuow,

imIcL-d

tlle t<)!c)-;i.b)yobvi.jus,t))!).t thc diiunutcruf :).f""p,if

ope;) thc

cndofft.pijtCjn~y bc n<~)<ctcd pipe

L'uat.d~

iKcotnpitrison cause

W)th<.))c~tvc-ju~t,]t,p)'uvi(tedthucxtct')]:Ltp)-c.sm'i~t.)t(.!]tc!r'-hLu).)t'))U(t(!<jft))copeitC))<)henotitsu]i'v:n'i:djJ(jf)'<))ns())nc J!'t)<-p(;)i<)(.-ntofth'))i[)ti~n\vitltinthc! m<))t.'n()c)ttH<)U)'cc(~'sunnd,t))c ).stho~n)0f).sitwou)d Th pressurent pipe. the Wi~nthcruisfm c))duf'(.])c

pine!

)'t.'])tt))(;Ha.n)cp)acc',it't))Gp)pewcre !t\ny. in)pC()i)))C))tto.secun))~t))nfnHn))t(;!)tot').))(_! conditio)i i"r in th a )~<)))~t:),ny(]('sircd point fies inertie ofth(jn):K;])iuc!y )'r(pti)'n()t<).su.stai))t.h('p)-(.!H.su)'(i. FurthcorL'tif.-idptn'jto.st.'i-iwetnay ('vc-r]<)t~t])isdif!i('.u!ty,!UKU))t.!)~inua. a conp~Hscd withuuttnaM.s. sn)-it)~a!so foopatanopcncndofapipc
mc'rtiaofthcoutHidcnir.

'nasstc.s.spintonh~kc'dhy T!)C a.s.sumption ji.stant.a)nonntto)ic")cc[.in"'t)tc

ofa,

Wcha\-csc'('nt))a<ifa))odccxi.st:)tnnypninLoF tL(.-runn)stheasurk.s,r:ni~date(jU!di))t(.'rv!L)s~t.ttniid\vay L<t~.ju)c:u.:)tpairoff-o))H~c))t.i\'tj; )~)dc.sth('rc)i)t).st])(;ah)op, t)tatthcwho!cvibratu)a))msth(.sta),i(')ia)-y. f~')].)ws if thercbcatanypuiut h:t,pcn thL! case
gressive

apinc a)t(t

l''i)C.samoc(i)u])).siu;t hutit )<)op; Utiles norioop.s, to a positive direction, for a )nay])L-rf'L'('tiywc]l as jt)rt..x:mii))c or ~cg-ativu canjtot

thattho-o whcutitu
wavc.

arc

n~ititcr

in pro-

motion

i'(j()))~s

In.st.atiu)):u-yvi))rati(jnthcrci.s)]ntra)).sfc)-(;nccof

('nL!r~y

atun~

t])c

tube

in

ei[,)tcr

enurgy

pass

anodt.'ora.loop. nnen or d~cd of pii)G attd t))c Avavc-icn~ths of aurnny ~so l'c invostigato] t])c inotioa nf n, ~?/7. hy it.Jtowi])~ is by ~1,ie]) umkTstuod a wavc c<~)(i)tc<! within n;UTow )nnits and compo.scd of uniformiy cun<I<;))su<) nr r!U'cfi<j<! finie). Jn ]<x)hiu~ at th ])):),t,t~r
i'rom this point of vi<j\v it i.s nccc.ssfu-y to takc intoncunt e:u'c-

2;'i7.

Thc

!'r-]a.ti(~)S

bctwfCt)

nf an ]c)i~'ths (,])c itictudctt (-()]u~]i

thc

i'nily ])):tcc.

t]io

cil-curn.sta.xccs

nndcr

Avhic])

tftc

v:u'iuus

t'cftuct.ious

takc

us Ht-st sttppo.se tiiat cundutt.sct! tr.ivcis in tho pu]sc dirccbion to~u-ds a b;(.n-icr positive fixct! acro.ss thc tuLc. Sincc thc in th \va.vc ca)ni"t CDO-gy couta.mct) h'om t!tc t)tbc cscapc thcrc must bc n. rcficctcd ami thiT.t this wave, rcftcctcd wave is a).so n. w:i.vc of condcnsntion from t)tc fact th:).t tl)crc nppcar.s is no !oss uf ttuid. Thc same conclusion at in another may bo arnvcd 'J'hc cfuet of thc hu'ricr way. may bc inutatcd by thc introduc-

Lc't

48

REELECTION

AT

AN

OPEN

END.

[257.
moving

tton thc
ai'td

of a. sinn)ar ngative
J.C):Op;!g~i.~(.i

cquidistant direction. ~nc


Ut<<{t'!i.y

and

wavc th two

of

condcnsat!on

in

wavos

are

bot))

condenscd
tho

<!i!'<'C!.io~

!<<'(.'h~'it.i~sut

ibtid

and tlicm arc C(jna) and opposite, composing tralise one another wltoi tlic wavcs arc snpcrposcd. If thc

iherutbrc

neu-

rcf)cctcd wavc bc intcn'nptcd of t])C ngative progrcss a. shnilar rcitectiou t:).kcs p)acc, and th ~'avu, t)y a second barricr, Whcn a still ronainin~ i(.s positive chiu'af'tur. (;ondui)S(;<1, regains (tistancc bas bncu tt'avc))('d C()ual to twic<j t)ic ]L'))gtb f'f tbc pipe, tbo ori~)n:d ?u)(! thc snmo statc of thii~s i.s cotnp)ctt;)y rcstorcd, Wc Ica)'~ t]n!r('<'f)'c that cycle ofcvcuts itsc)fin(h'finitdy. rf'pcats th pcriud within a <)')<th)y doscd by a pi])<j is t))c tinic! cccxpiud ofthc twiec t)tc Icngtl) pu]sc in travdHng pipe. Thc
Jncntary

case

of an

thc cHuct end umst cvid(;nt]y hc a wavu of rarcfaction c:tpahtc uf ncntral~in~ th positive of tbc eondcnscd wavc, and t)n)s in pressure primary the act (jf rcf)(jction fro)n eonthjuscd a wavc chao~c.s it.s c!):trac).('r Jtf'~ativci
nuccssary

opcn wav(;

end

is Homc'what to imitatc

diffrent,.

Thc

suppicof thc <~)Cti

way of concondeuscd is to observe that in a positive 8id(.-i-ingthc)n:ttt.('r thc momcntum is forw:u'<)s, am) in thc ofthu motion pu)nc of th neR~ssary bc changL'd absence forces cannot by th rcrtccis wavc tion. But forward motion in ti)c rc-uccl~t ngative to rarc'ticd, or fnou rarcfx.'d to c<n)d(.')).scd. Anotbur indis.so!ub)y Whcn connected both ends with ttic rarcficd arc open, couditioti. a puise tr.T.vc'Ding bar'kand forwards to its original wards within it is compiL't'dy rcstor<d sta-tc aftcr travo-sing twicc tbc ]cngt)i of tbc tube, .sufft'rixg in th and bct\vcen two rcucctions, and t))us tbc rctation Icngth proecss bnds aro both is thc sarnc as in th case of a tubu, whosc period of a tube but whcn onc end of a tube is opt'n and thc othcr cloncd, closed a. double of chaxgc's. is not Huniciunt to c)osc thu cyctc passage eatmot bc rccovcrcd Th origif~a) con<)e))S('d or rarencd ch!tract<;r in until aftor two )'(.'H(j(;tionH from thc opcn cm!, and aoco)'')i))g)y thc case contomp)at(jd t))c p~'riod is t)n; tinic n'fptircd to travcl overyu; titnc.s thc k'ngth oft)'c pipe. 258. Afiur t1)c fid)
discussion of

by thu puise

In thc chaptcr thc cornpound we may take

rorrcsponding prnb]cms on Strings, it wiii not ht) m'ccssary to say mucit on vibrations ofco]umnsof air. Asasimp)ccxat)tp)o of a pipe opeu at ono end aud ctosed at thc

thc

tl)c case

258.]

PRODLEM.

49
=0,-<('t(jr

othe)-,whichisM)(Mcn]yhrougLttorcstn,tthctimc
Lcing for sonc tune I]) motion vi).h a uniform velocity

p:u-nHu] to .-K,{md offrocdom :ui(! r:u'<jfactic)i. If wc suppose t)):Lt thc ori~iu un<), Du! gf;ne]-it.I sofutiuu is by (7) 25;'j,

its ieu~t.)). Th unif'orni vducity

Initia!

statc

of t)te

cont:uncd

air
from

pand)~! is tiK-ti onc


compression

te 0!'

i.s at

tl~e clu.sett

con.st:).nt,.s.

S!ncc~!st<)LcKcroirnbi;).])yfor:tnv;L)u(-Sfjf~ cio.t.s nnt.st vanish; thccocfHcient.s arc that for~H vidu~ t'y thc condition of.~ 'bctwccn

thccocfnto Le (IcLcTinl)icd 0 :m<]

~'ho-c to

Lhc.sum)n:tLioucxtcnds

Thc int).c fron

~cte)'mi))!itinn

tc~fintc~-al of thc cocfficiotts Muitipfying hy

vaincs jd

of?' fron

frotu (2) intis

(-fbctc<) gra t)ng

usu:dway. 0 tn we gct

sin~d

Jn

cascofatubestnp])(.<]att.)tcorigi)tan(]opcnat .7; = l, lut ~= cos ?i< Lh tlie value of t),c :tt thc open en.) 1 potcnt.ia) (h~ to !Ut cxt.<nfL) .scmrof so.nxL r and 6' ili Dcf.onnit.i.~ \vff!)t.) <)!ahon(7)25~,

U)c

Itappcar.sthatt)~ whencos~=~l, Ho 4

vibration

within

th

tube

is

minimum

thati.swhe.~i.samu]tip]oof.inwhk.hca.sc

50 thcrc Is a nodc and at a:= thcn

FORCED Whcn

VIBRATION. Is an odt}

[259.

vanishes, n.f. openend


down; eouscqueucu and

to (1) aceording lu f.)ns (w;)' the sujtpstt,icn is in(tcpendcntofw!)!).t h.q)pcuswithin


we of c:m oniy mf'cr that the vibration

of ~X, cos /<~ multiph the motion wcuid bccomo thut Lhc pressure at thc th
is

tube
vo-y

bruaks
large;, in

thc

isoc!n-o))i.sm.

Sincc

thcre

is a. ]ode of
of

thurc at the

must that opcn

be

concludc

a loop w!icn in thc ca.sc of of thc tube

is an odd !nultip]c
isochrouism t)ic variaLioti

at .r=0, and wo
pressure

is cxact)y ncutr~Ised of pressure du<; to th motion by thc variation within the tube itsdf. Jf thcrc were rca))y itt thc opon end a variation of pressure on thc whoc, th motion Must increasc without limit tn thc absence of forces. dissipativc If wo .suppose solution is that the ori~in Is a loop instead of a node, H)c

end

duc

to the

externe!

cause

whc)'c<~)=eos~

is thc
case

givcn

vainc bccomes

of

at ItiHt-nte,

tlie

Iti =

this

thc

expression

open end .~=~. \v)tc]i /c~=~t7r,or

?~X.. Wo will ncxt considcr of a tube, whoso ends arc both (!i.stut-))ancesoft.hc saxic penod,n)nkin"-6 at t))C 7f, 7~ tho case

opcn cqual ends


must

to cxposcd to 7/c'"<, 7~ Un)css -t.hc dist.urbanccs rc.speetivdy. arc in thc s:une phase, one at Icast of thc coc-mcients
be complex.

and

Taking
expression

the for

nrst

form

in

(3) 255,

wc

Iiave

as

th

gcnera!

in thc midd]e o'Igin t.hc vatucs 7~c'"< con-ospond /e" wc ~nt to dtermine ~1 a.nd 7~,

If

wc take

thc

ofthc

'tube,

and

assume a;=-

that, l,

rcspcci.ivcly

to ~=~,

259.]
This resutt

DOTH

ENDS

OPEN.

51

.Iso bo dcduccd n..ght from (2), if we con.sider t!h.t thc rc.tun.Gd motion ariscs fro,nt).o of thc motion superposition winch 13 <h,c to t)~ disturbance /ca!cul.tcd on th hypnthosis t'~Lt tl.co~or end ~=-~ is a !oop, on thc which is motion, duc to A c'"< on ttic that th end .e= ~is Ilypothesis ]oop. cxprc.s.scd bc ~y, by (.t) c~nnot un!c.s.s thc raho 7. be r~t, th.~t is unicss tho di.stu.-b~necs at t)~ ends bc in s.nnhu, or ni opposite, pba-scs. Hcncc, in t).e cases cxccpt therc is no loop rcscrved, ~nd thcrcforc anywftcrc, no pf.~c nt a bmnch t.ibc ca.i bc cunncctcd along which sou.Kl will not ~h.ch
L'opropi~ated'. 1.

Th

vibration

At

th

Tniddic

ofthc

tube,

for which

?=

0,

~inr,that yy +A =(), if "i U.i)css phases. ~o.s~c sion bccomcs infini (,o, wiicu At express) a point on for disant is

th variation tj~t j~ ;(-

of pressure
di.stm.b:tncM

(proportion~
n,t thc ohi.s

to

vanishcs

this 2/ =

condition (2~ tlie + 1)

bc .s~Is~d,

bc cqu~l un.! t)~ expres-

from

middte

of

tho

tube

t!)o

v~nisnng cq.ud
w'icn

wh,n ,,nd

7/=7f, that is, wlicn th di~turbancea at the end.s ni thc ~7~ In phase. Lccomcs gcncnj infiuitc,
oi-2/=~.

s.n~=(),

If P~arc w.H ~e

~t

onc duc

end to an

of an cxternal

un]i,uitcd
source

tube

thcre

Le a variation

of

pror.~atc<)
t)ic tube

inward.s
Mcasnrcd

from
froiu

a train that end. opun

t!,e

of progrc.s.sivc wavu.s Thns, if th Jcn~th end bo t).e velocityc corrcsponding

Potential
~"J' I.itcb hitcli. v 't~ a (.c 'of this al, ""M nsbmnptton E~

i.s expre~d
of

Ly

~=co.s(~).
the

tu
(Phil. of the

of the

co.np.nn~ tho iH

~cn.itic.

of

.ourcc.s

of

.onnd th

,~nu to bc

.~u,.ce. "ibr.t.0..

nntil "?' ~ ~y'"R tho '

-'1" "tric point of J""cti.n test

c.su)c tho dist.n.h. tL.t it nppcars

is 110t

thooretic)t])y

cornet. 43

52

l-'ORCHD

VIBRATION

0F

PISTON.

[25~.

~)=cos7~at~=0;sut)):)t,ii'thcc!tusRoftLL'di.stm1j:))]cc\YitJtiH thc tubu bc t))c p:ts.s:(~(j of :t. train of' progressive

WiLVus aen'.ss

(.hu

opcitcnd, thci)i.tt'nsity\YiUnnt]iL'tu1juwinb(;thcs:uneii.s]nt))~ It nmst nut bc for~'Lt.cu thfLt. th di~tneto' space outsidc. to bI)tfihitc)ysm~niucu)ttu:t.riHunwit))t)tL: tnL(iIs.s))ppos(;(t k'))gt))of:Lwavc. Lct us ncxt suppose thnt thc sonrec thc of
t))C motion is within

of thu

thc

tnl)uitsc)f,'h)u ~t the origin'. thc by tlie 1.)y -hcn


t))'<rjt)f<)t'f~i';

~(.-xinnpteto Tho constants t lat W len t!ia.tw!)uu T)ms

piston in (~) ~5.') :).)'c to hc detenninctl ~,c= ,t;=0, 0, ~'=cos?)< cos


.IJ il:lJ ?lt

inexorable

tnotiunof;).

couditions COI1<ttIons ~=~, ~=0.

(s~y), .111(l :nid

and thc

th:Lt, th:lt, ex-

~=-t:m~,

~7~=1,

T))c

motion

i.s

a.

)nini]num,whcncosA~=i!,t1)at

is,

whcnttie

!t.))<'ft))CtnbHis.'(.!nu)tipIcuf~ Wi'cn is ah odd mu)tij))c uf t]ic place ocenpicd iront a ccrt~m UtC t))u opoi t))c hy thc tuhc

pi.st()nw()n!()buano<.k',ift)Ki<)pcncu(twcrci-ea))yaIo()p,hnti)t ttti.sc~sctiics~ntiun i'ai)s. T)tc cscapenfoncr~y frum p)-C!VO)ts t]iccncr~y accumulatmg but no account [-:ui Le tiL~oi of <)ns trca.tud rsonance t))(- opcn factoj-ijy. j!i thc )i)<(mnnnc')-

beyond so !on~ as rc'sutne i~)\d<;r U~ duid in

puint-; end is n)' ot'

ri~orousiyasfLioop. at'Lct- wc hve end, whcn wc

Wcshidt conHido-cd shatt bu ab)~

(tt.'tail with it

question thu thoury )nor(j

satis-

if th is

point

~'== bc

a nodc,

instcad

of :), h.-op.

cxprcHsion

for

~t)"'st.hc)))ut)<)nI.s:t.mi)ii)nu)n\v!tt;n~isnn(K]d)n))!t.i[))c;of~, Whcun.snn inwhichca.set.iicori~in i.siUoop. .t))(;o)-i~i)i.st)C)u)dbc:). tiotisot't.hc'.jucstiun. notk', Int)tis wh~h

cvcmnuttipicut' motion

isrurbid.tcubyUtucotif))-

e:Lsc~ecor()it)gto(~)thc

Luc()H)C.sin()nit.c,w!ncIt)t)c:)n.stt)atinthc!d)S(;'ucoofdis.sipativc furcus thu vibmtiuti wou)d Incrc:~o witituut limit. 'TitMcpruUc)tLsarucotMiJct'cdbyl'ui.ssu)),.VJw.<)).<t.n.t'.M)j.

r s

2GO.J
2(!0. ))as ptpus To gcncratc tnctbud (H.scttv~rcd by Tbc

KUNDT'S EXPERIMENTS.
cxpcrintcnta.! bucn e~'cctot \av(;s wbich t));Lt t)tc Investigation
with nsi(iorab!c

5:3
wavcs by M. within Kundt'.

of acria)
.success

is o:L.sy cnougb; thc.y can bu uu(!u.s

but cf~ctnatiy

it is not

so ca.sy to iuveut a examina. J\[. Knndt

\v:L\'c's e:ui b<j tnadc of.st:Lti(juary cvidcnt A iitt!u iinc s:).nj r iycoptxtimn by ttx.st. over .sL'(j(t, .shakot t)jc ititcriur oi' ;). ~ss a v!b)-iLt.i)t~ tube cobnnn of :).ir, cotitaiumgfi' wbich (H.s~u.su.s itscti' in t-ccun'ij)~- p;Ltt.urns, it is e~sy by means to dut~nninu t)i(; po.sit.i<)t).s of tbe Dottcs amt to measm'c th t)te ori'nn cxp~'itncnts of (bu sumid w!~ iu thu iut~ItmUmtt vibnLtion of ~giass tttbc~dbjd tbu sounding-tubt. :u)d tbu (tust-fi~u)-cs were furfncd i]La.scco!id and far~r c.d)cd t)tc t))u fattL-r bctng tube, w~vc-tubu, provutcd \(!) :t !U()VC:).b)u .stoppur fur tbn purposc uf adju.sting Itsicnc.'t)). Tbu otboend of tLu wave-tubc was fittcd witit a cork t])ruu")t wbicb t)tu Muun()i))~-tabc h:df w.y. pa~s~d fncti~i By snitab!o
t)~ .soondm~-tubc wa.s can.scd to vibratc in its ~ra.vc.st mode, so

it)t(;)-L)s

))ctw<x-n

t))0)).

h)

Kun(]t'.s

ntral jn.'ittt Avith n. cork) cxcitud of tbe stojtpfjr as to ui~ku t)t(i -~bcn tijc

that

tbo

extremity (doscd act'h'd vibratiffn.s in titc Avave-tubc. Bymcans Un- k'n~tb ofair c-oubi bu adjustcd of tbc coftunn so
\'i))r)Ltio))s as

\vas

nod:J,

and it.s

ititeriur

intorvat is

bctwcan a. iuu]tiptc

as vi~jroos tbc stopper of hati'

po.s.sib)c-, and t)te

whicit end

bappcns of tbc of th

sounding-tubc
.Sound.

t)ic

wavc-!c)]gt!i

With t)tis uf Jungtb.s tivu vcbcitius wct-o not


t))c

~ppamtus
same sound

Knndt
in

wa.s various

abio gasc.s, was

to

thc w~vecompare ft-om wbicb t!)e rc-h).but tbe tbo rcstdts that

cf propagation

are

at once It

dcducibic, found !iot

cntirc-Iy satisfactory. of i-ccurrencc of tlie dnst-patteDi; what ft'om wa,s onc worse, that cxpL'rinieut communication of w))ich thc pitch to another. to th titu

Intcrvfds and, to a by

were of t.be

strictly sound Dot dcfeets wcrc

cqua], traced the cork,

constant

Thc.se waye-tube

motion were

tbrougb

dn.st-f]gures di.sturbcd, )n consquence uf unavoidab!c variations


apparatu.s. To cbviatc

and t!]C

pitch mad in-c~uur in tbc mountinnof tbc tbc cork, layers way risk wlnc)i ofsbcet a ncxible of tbc

tllem, with joint;

Kundt betwecn sitk, and the

replaccd tubes,

funned iodiarubber and

too

stiff~ tied

conncction runnf)

pcrfectfy

air-tight of wave-Jengtbs

obtai)~ in ordcr vitiatcd p. 3:)7.

by in this

coniparison

bcing t. cxx.

any by an altcration 1H(!8.

to avoid

ofpitcb,

7'f~. ~otf.

54 tho
thn

KUNDT'S a.pp!U-atus
t.w.' sysh~ns

EXPERLMENTS. so as to
:i::u)'n!u;!y

FSGO. it possible
:t)! u)

was
of

modined
dus'-f~tros

makc

to
r~p~~c'.

excite
tu

thc sisted

.jiu'tc

souod.

A coitatcraJ

adviuttage

of th

ncw metl~od

Cn-

ui thc thc tu

limination improvcd vibratc

lu cau.scd

of temporature-corrections. "Double th App{t)-iit~s" its seco?;(/ ~;o~

sounding-tube

was

nGar by friction appticd th )nid()ie; n-nd thu.s tl~ nodcs wun- fonnc<t at thc points di.st:uit from th cn(is by ottc-fom-t.h of th Jength of thc tube. At cac)t of thcsc points conncetion wns madc wit]t an imh'pcndcnt wa.vcwit.h iin ndj)tstab)c lubc, providcd and witi) brancb tubes stoppa', aK! stop-cocks snit~bic for admittin~ t)tc varions gasc.s to bc Jt is (-vident )hat cxpLTimuntcd upo)). fonnct! in thc dust-tigures two tubus to t)te salnc pitd), mid th~t t)~.rccorru.spond ri~oron.s)y forc a. compansou (~' thu intorvais of rccurrcncu iund.s to a. correct dutcrtninatiou of th veiocitius of propi~-atiol, undur t])(! circmnHt:Luccs of tbc arc tiHed. 'J'bc rcsnits at which K~ndt arrivcd wcrc as fo))o\ys:_ tbe uot uxpurintcut, fur thc two ~ascs -\vit)) ~-)nch t!)G tubes

Tho vdocity of .sound m a tubu () din)i!))Hhcs with di:nnct<jr. Abovc a ertain thu citangu is ditunutcr, Ituwuvur, pL:recptibIc. (/') Thc dntlinution totic cmp!oycd. sciittcrcd tubes, tubes aud but in a. tube, duninisbcs the velocity in widc oncs is without cH'cct. effuct of powder iticrcases, in conscfjuoice. tube, or of vclocity
iacrcascs wit!i

th

\va.vc-

I(j])g-t.h ofthc

(c) Powdur, sound in narrow (~ it is very lu

of

n:u-row

th

when

rniety

dividud, tho

is strong)y

agitated

(c) Rou~bc-ni)~ its surface, di)uini;jhcs (/) portance,


uxact

intct-Ior

of a uarrow

t!)u velucity. thse mcthod

inerGasiu~

Iti

widc

tuhcs thc

so that

of vclocity arc of no changes may be uscd in spite of thcni of .sound

imfur

dctenninations.

Tiie inHuoicc (~) eannot bo prov'ud. (/<) to!)c


as

of tho

intcnsity

on th

velocity

With
shcwn

of thc h-.st, thc exception of a wavodcngths by dust arc not an'uctcd hy thc mode of excitation. is indt'pcndott of pressure vdudty iucrca.sus with tlie pressure. vcluclty thc

thc

Jn wido tubes (i) Lut ia sn)a)t tubc-s thc

2GOJ (D
fncUon,

KUNDT'S AU
.uK'

EXPERIMENTS. eimngcs hi t.hc veloc~ty of bat betwceu worc th due air

55 to and

the

obscrved

cttpecj.Jfy
tube.

to exchangc of sound at

thc

sidcsofUto

(/.) given We narrow s))a!) Kirchlioir.

Th

velocity

100'

agres

cxactiy

witli

that

by thcory'. stiaU
tubes ti)cu

rcturn
a.s

to thc
by

question thc

ofthc
causes

propagation
mcntioncd

ofsound aboy

in

ai'cctcd

investigate

tlic

formula

givcn

by

(~'), and Hchnholtx and

in thc prcceding section the act'ial vibrations t))e pitch dctcrmiucd bcing by tbc cxt~rnal source, an() not (in any apprciable dcgree) by tbc Icngtb of tbe column of air. Indcud, aU .snstain'cd strictly spcaking, vibrattons are forccd, as it is nut in tl~c puwer of frue vibrations to inaintain in t])e idcal case thum.selves, whcn tbcrc is cxcept no fi-ictiun. absutntL-]y Ncvcrthc)css tborc is an important pmct)cal distinction bctween th vibrations of a colunui of air as excitcd by a lougitndiniLHy rod or by a tuuing-fork, vibrating and sucit vibrations as thosc of th or Gxpcrimcnts arc j~ee(/,
organ-pipc cttcn)Ical))annonicon.

2(il.

In

th

dcscnbed

I)i thu latter cases t)to pitch of' tho sound on dpends prineipa)!y thc Icngttt of th acriat of tbc wind or of tbc cotumn, thc function Hanio' buing t)~ cncrgy lost by friction, and mcrc)y to rcstore uy cummunication to thu cxtcrnal air. Tbc air in an is to orgau-pipu bc considcrcd as a column almost swinging frecly, thc Jowcr end, ncroHM wbie]i t!.c wind as opcn, a)i(t swccps, bclug trcatcd roughiy thc upper end as closcd, or Tbus the open, as th case may hc. of tl.e principal tonc of a stoppcd v-avc-Iengtb pipe is four times t))c tungth of thc pipe, at th cxtrcmities, and, cxcept tbcrc is ncjthcr nodc nor Juop. Th ovcrtoncs of th pipe are thc ofM bai-tnontcs, twctftb, bigl.er tbird, &c., corresponding to t)ic varions s subdivisions of th column of air. lu thc case of tbe twcifth, for tbere is a node at tbc exan)plc, of trisection Hearcst to thc point
Fron. Mn~o expressions in tho momoir aiready from wLich eited, to L.Yo cuntcu.phttod t].o uotiec con-

.nthotoxtis,-ri..cip,d]ydcriYc.d, .uuat.ou of Lis iu~ti~ious, thosuLj(jet. -'Tho ..d..i~lc t as ch~ subjcct dut.,1 of of by ~nsitivc Pr.,f. Tyn.hdt JH still

M.Juu.dtappears

butlamu~bio
fimes in vcry witb )~ aud ~-r-rk

to ~ind M.yl~cr
without ou pipos but Suund;

publication ou
in con-

i.s tre~ted tho Wo

nu.c).ani<f .)u~ retnm tu

ph.,no.non,~

impcrfL.cUy

uudc.r.stoud.

ttmnsubseqtK'ntchai'ter.

5 G

EXPERIMENTS

0F

SAVART

AND

KUNm.

[2G1.

"pcn

end.

and

a, ]o.,p

at

the

othcr

point

of

trisection

midwvy

'tw'thcnrst.a)'dth~s(o'~rd(')-d~fth~p:p. ru thL-rc thc .nnst case bc at of th <.pcn or~an-pipo cnc interne n~.dc. icngthof by a nodu I)i ordi.~uy r.ttc th both Tj.c end.s are )nops, and

luast

r'nc,pattonc~twice into two sniular <~ is to foundatiun

parts ut' thu

of tho wave-fcr~~H. the pipe, ~uch is dividcd thu iniddic. Fnj!n tt.i.s wc sec t)uit Lhu pitch of an open pipe For rasons

'csatnc~th~ufa.pp~[pip.d')Laifit.s]o,~th. bc in a sub.s.[Uunt ~norc f.,))y e.xpi.i.d co.n.ectc.d ch~pt. with onr prc.sL.,it freinent uf t),c opcn i.npc.rfL.cL is cm), thc ru)c .y eon-.ct. Th appruxinmtdy opc.n pipe, in th:.s ruditrurin~ irmn U,c ~t i.s cnp.)c of stuppud pipe, thu whu]c .sc.rics soundinq ut thc )~r.jiunicsc~fuuuded ton~h.nnin~ upun its ~~c. In t)~ case of t)~ octave t)K.rc is :t )nop at t!.c ccnLro of U.u t'.pc :u)d nodc.s at t).c pun.ts b~twcun thc cuntrc tnidway and the (.trc]mt)cs. Since to tlte f")"~ t).u of thc vibration frequcncy of propagation of .sound thc a pipe in thc ga.s in Is proportionrd tl.c with which

vdoc.ty is r.iicd,

of thc pitd.cs of thc nutes compari.son ohtaincd thosarno in pipe i.s auobviou.sn.ethodof dinbruutgasc.s 'n thu vclucity r~f pn.pa~ati.n, dGtenn.nn., in c~scs whcrc th. imposof a ~L'lLy ..hta.uiDg .snHicicntiy long co)nrnn of thc ~as prccludcs tho <,i thc dn-cct moD.od. In this appiicntion C'fdadnl ~it], his ~.sc "sna H.o way. T).c ~.s rc.snnK.d suhjcct at iatcr i~ .s~city d.~c by and D~on~~ w)~ obtainud by Werthein~, satisfacfair)y
toryrcsnit.s.

2<'2.

Thc

condition

of

tlle

air

in the

inicrior

of a

an

or~n-pinc sand .vas

-t~~

~i In

,,Sa..rt~ho .strctd.cd ~o
m.n.bmncon ~Uch

I~dIntJ htHo

nc-ighbou.i.uud thesandrc.maincd a.s und.sturb.d, but, a fo.p wa.s approac!.cd, It danccd .vi~ ~~biy .c and muru But by far th. n..st v,go..r. funn of tin. striki,~ :.s that In Dus nK-th~ invcntcd hy K.ini~. thc v:bra~ ~r~.n.nt "c.tc.d ),ya.sn.dt ,a.s fianK.fud t).r.gh a tnbc .hich n. cu,nnn.,ucati.n ~It). a caHcd ~nanon~tric cavity
capsule.

1"~ ~ttcrud.

u)- anode

i..L~c~ 1. xr,c. p, 11 a. '-f'~<.<~(~tw.ii.'l.]~,t.xx)l.p..t;(f. t. xxtY. ),); 'O.f/fC/ftM., ~j t,

~C7~

2G2.] This cavity of is boundcd


:)oN.

CURVED on onc

riPE. sidc by
n. mouhra.ne on

57
which i bccon~'s unC

t)~ih"I:)g:nr

A:ifhc~i~nbr;inc~ih)'itt.i-c:idcri))gthc thc capsule

capacity

Y!u-iah]L!,

thc

t))c Hamcir~o'jnit.tcnt. sit-iKiyand ~)na!t <or<!)cint<n))ith.-)ttotun))i~stit.sdfn.ssuchwhcn i)!unc'ish)('l-:t.'(1nt.st(;a<H!y. c)t':L]tin\'caL)ctnir)'(n',ti)crusu[ut[on ini:tg'('.sn)aybccf'i'L'cte;d; <h:D-:)ctcr of' thc f):unc thu
on a

of gas suppiy Thc pcriodisof

course

too tho

Bys)t!t~in~'t)m])t':u),()r~-itttt)m!ii(! int.onturcoricssd~t.achct~ but<jvc!twithoutrcs()h)tiunt!iecdtcred cvi()L')tt irom its gcncml ftppc~r~ncc. one


that

i.s

In

app)ic!Ltiou
pipe in

to orgiUl-pipes,
su<Ii !i. umuncr

or
U)e

niorc tuonhrancs

cap.s<))cs nrn

arc in

tnounted contact

\it)t is

t))e vury

vil)rati!)g markcd,

culunui iLCcordmg-

ufair; as the

nud'

thc

diffurcnRc ca,psu)c

in th

Hamc at

associated

is sttua.tcd

n,)iodeorat:).!o')p. 2G3. H!t.h(;t.() we Itn.vc .snpposcd thc to hc stmight, but p!pc thoernssHecLion i.s.smaU

itwi)) rcaditybc whctt anticipt~) t].t, n))d does xot vin-y in a.rc:L, of imporstnughtnc.ss is tiot n nmttcr tan. C'ouccivc a curvc([ axis of of running n.)"))g thc jniddfe <)K- pipe, and ici tlle constant scctjOtt to this axis pc']-pct)dicuiar bc ~S'. Wtien t])c grc~tc.st diatn~tcr of <S'is voy smaU in comparison with th of tho thu wnvc-iungth sonnd, YclucLty-pctcnti!),! huconn's inviu'iahJc ovcr t))u section; nea)-!y Grccn's applying' to thc sp~cc houndcd thcorL'n) of thu pipe and hy hy th iutcnor two cross we gct sections,

shcwing that wo'c strai~ht..

dpends

upon

.r in tlie (1)

samc
t.))e

wnyas
vibrations

if t))0
of

By means

of uquation

pipe itir hi

~S 8
curved rc.s.dt.s pipes !U-e t).c
ofun.form ri~orous

DRANCIIED
section jnaybc

PIPES.
c~I)yinvc!,t!~tcd,a.nd ofuurftnKL-uncnt~) .C'~pi.sjjtubes such ratc to givu

f3G3.
the oquations ~0

consc-quences In t).cy t!K' case s~i

~Y!t-L{,m,<j,ji~ smaH. th~nitcfy use.! in e.xpcnmcnt, reprcsentft.tiun 26connc.otcd t)'t p)pu,


t-hcbranc!s

of t!nn at any

as wuu!d

of \viiat

!L vury good

actu:J)y

Iu)ppuns. c.jnsidcmtmn two


si.~)u

Wc now tu!s. wh:di

p~ss on to tlie In t].e divi.]c.s

of ccriinn J~

cases

of

~cco.npanyi.~

!(.t J9 iuto
fonn a.

f~uru b~nchc.s t.ubu7~

rcunitcnnd

thc .si.~)c tubes and uf thu L.-aucfiu.s as ~'c)t as vury stn.d).

a rpp.o.t.s At 7~ Z)/~ 7~ Thc sciions tu bu unifurm

~rc .Lssumcd

a positive wavc o< is in ~1. On its arriva) arhitnn-y typu advancing at thc fork D, it to positive wavcs in .Z~md a ccrtam C, and, unjcss witt~ivurisc condittun hc .satisfic.), tu a rcf!uctc(] wavc lu n~ativu Lut tlie ofthc putcntlal wavc.s hc denotcd positive in by~ /bcing cach case afunctiou uf ~<; i and let tlic !~HcctL-d wavc'bo Thcn th conditions to bc satisfiud ~'(~+<-<<). at D aru nr.st that thc pressures .shaH be t! same for thc threc pipes, and second)y that tlie wlh.ic vclocity of thc Huid In s)udl bc equal to th sum of t))e who!c vdocitics of t)ic Huid in 7~ and C'. Thus, usinrr C' to dcnotc -J, Z?, th arcas of t]ie sections, wc hve, 2 i4,
ns suppose

In

thc

first

instance

]ct

that

whcnco

~of'n'h.\nsa).pn~tn~.tonninot).o thc junc~-n of ~o tKL.s

refluer uf MC'Juns 7. + r, and

nn~~frncteJwaYcs rc.spc.ctivcfy, arc b'iv~ Ly

2G4.]
It appcars tion. if tha.t/, ~nl/

DRANCHEDriPES.

5!)

are always

ttie

Siunc.

Thcre

is no

rduc-

iho donc

wavc iu

thcn ~1, ha([ bc'twecn

auvanccs

branches
to t)tat

C cxact!y as it wouh! ])ave titere bccn no break. of tho If thu lengtb.s and be cquai, and th section of bc uqual
on a~:un arrivai at JE' combine into a wavc pro-

in 7) and

of/),

th

waves

:L)u))~ p:Ltu(t uf L))c tulx.: bas thus s:nno wontd

!Uid

thurc ab.sohttcly

is no

ruftccdou. ufect;

Thu

division t!ic

Lcun fur

witbout

~nd smcc

a ngative w:t.vc p:sing froin J~to ~1, wc nt!t.y condudc ti~at a tube into two, gettcndty may be (tividcd or more, :dl of thc M:unc branches, without in auy w~y hngth, tl)u law of acri:d ~I)~t th whole infiuoicin~ ~'ibnUio)), providcd socHoti rc!ii:u)i c(jnst:).nt. If th Icn~.hs from 2) of titc bra-nchcs to 7~' bc unuquid, t!iu rcsult is difTercut. Bcsn]us th positive wavo in titcrc will bu in gnerai rcHectud waves in 7j' and C. ngative tno.st intcrcstittg casu is whun tho wave is of harmonie type a.nd onc of t)iu br:u)chcs is longer thftn thc other by :). multiple of If t)tc diHcrcncc bc an CMH. multiple thc rcsnit will bc of t]ic samo as if t!tc branches wci-c of cqual Jcngth, and no rcncction wIH cnsue. But suppose and (7 arc cqual in section, that, wltile onc of them is longer than tbe othcr by an o~ multiple of Sincc t)to waves arrive at J~ Ln it foHows from opposite phases, that tlie positive wavc In ~must synunctry vanish, and that th at whieh is tbe same for a!l thc pressure neccssa.rily tubes, must bo constant. Th waves In 7~ aud as 6~ are thus rencctcd frum au open end. T))at thc conditions of th question arc tbus satisned a barriur takcn across tlic may aiso be sccn hy supposing tube 7~ in th neighhour)iood uf jE' in suc!i a way that tbe tubes J~and C'communicato~'ithout a change of section. Thc wavc in cach tube will thcn pass on into th otbci- without Interruption, of equal and j~ heiug th rsultant will vanish. Tins opposite componeuts, bcing so, t!ie barrier may without bc rcmoved tt~e conditions, and no wave will be altcring its section Th arrangcalong F, wbatcvcipropagatcd may be.
prossurc-viu-iation

bo truc

Ti)e

and

thc

at

J'nisso)], Jt/eM. r~)f!ft'<H~,t. i!. p. 305. Th rcrutor will not forgot that both dittmetcra must be smnU in comptu'isou witli tho Wt).vo-lci)~th.

~0
~ntnuwundcr

BRA~CHED
considration

PIPES.
Rc~dK~andh~s

L r-?(;

~'uun

v.asinvcutcdhy otLur.sforcxpt.ritm.nta)

cmp)..y(.d

Ly<~)in(-kcaud

purposcs
i-, .].

:tj,p)!~<.tiu'tt!,i..)~s)):)rh.r~;).(),i.

H)ep~o.on)ono)Y.tsc]t

.s<,ft.r~.n~d

'.oa.s:u)..x;).np)c(,ri,,tcr-

~ru.c.t..)~)t.d.t)HT..c-hufH)uLj..(.tiu.I,u).<).(..san)cc.n,(,t !'<- .snit) w))(.). O.~ru~Io-is ]~)tu.su).pu. t).;)t.L)n-}H,sit.ivcwavt..s n~utmii.sccachoth~-iti 7'nh!t).:).tL)n.n.t!,m);)tt..rc.nds Jt,inust .K~.Tbcf.~<~hjn))..tdhTuisnoh,ss<,fc.n~inint.~fcruncu b))t.)iya.)itr(.rc))<.)i.-<tnbu<iun; ~i..)K.r.;yi.s ""cp!itn.)pj[,car.si)tanut)KT. ~vcin~ c.m~ys(..H~ywithi<. O~rc. alternative. ~hvo],s.s.),)u 'n Dbranches, or dscit passes In.~urtos~ n~at.vewav. t))e pro~ress of thu wavt'.s rcfkcttt Thse oppnsitc !atLT thc.rdurc wav(.s p).a.s~;i.)< .)i.sta.. ou arriva! arc-~qua] diverti

fro.,)'

I"t!h.})n,st.t(.asuthcp.).sit!vu n't.).)-is nu wavea)u..rr~' -it!r.ya(.cnnm~t.s in't.),c La<ka)<t f-onant-a a what lut u.s trace r<.uiy]~pj~.s, back at 7' a)u) .start fn.tn 7;:n ~rav..] (,<) ,uu)tip)uof' and ac.-ur.i'ancp

!na~tittxic

pa.s.sa~ihjin7;tu~<)~~ au ti.anthuoth~-Ly at t).y~ij) bo

iuc.anp!u(u

whirh Ut.(h-rth(.sc<.irc)..n.stanc~t)~.ycun.b.ncInt~.si.)L;Icw:u'(. tr.~(.su~ati~.)y a]o~.t,an.itl.c.rc i.snn rcf)ccti.,n. W).~t),c ~avc ne~atn-c ruac)K..s tr,c c.nd of thc tu),G J, or i.s .,t.hurw..sc <!ist.trbc.d ni its euur.se, t).c ~hoie or a part and then may !~c rdJcctud, tl.c procs .s rupoatcd. But h.,wcvcr <t.c~ this thcrc ~ay haj<pcn will bc i)o wavu un!c..s.s F, a)u,~ l,y ac.uunda.tam in oon.sc.qucnce of .'L ur pcri.~s, thc. vibration ia thc hranehc.s bccon.G so c.an~)cn that a .sma)I fraction g-rL-t ofit eau no bc u~k-ctcd. tonner Fig.CG.

Or

wc

n.un

U.ns.

Suppose

t).c

tube.

FeuLuH'Lya

2G4.J
bu.n'icr actixgat thu point
n<'(t(.audt)ic

BRANCHED PIPES.
as bcfurc. Thc
motion in

Gl L
duc to furcc.s to 7~, and J~ncc'j~'Ls:).
t))ocasc,ata,

th

D is nL-ccss:t.niy
vibration

Mytnmot.ricfd
i.s

ring bcing wii)t t'unjK'ct parts.


Tinsbein~,

\Yh:ch(!ivid'jt!7)/~<)i)tt.oc~))!t.l
.st~ti(jna.)y.

])<)i))tA'tnh!t:utt.fro))iJ'/<))tclL)K.')-si(]c,th(jrunm.stbc!T.]o(m; an~tt'thcb;u-r)ui-Lorctn()Y(-!dih(.'rcwi)Isti![bc producc ot' vibration thcrc may bc in 7'

notcmiL'ncyto
ia

H'tttepf.'rimct~roft~cring-bca.inultiplu vibration wit))i)~ it oi' tho ncriod

question,

i)u)cpu)n)<j))tiyuf:t.ny)at(;rat(ip(.'ttings. nfcfjnncct~d tuhc-s maybo trcit-tcd in .T,si)ni!:uAnyc'nnijination Tho gnera), ~t:mm.'r. is t)tat at ai)y jmictiun a spaue principfc can bL; takoi n)I t)ic lar~u enougtt tu inctude wiucit rgion t)u-ou<')i
Fij;. 57.

thc \vant that Undt-r

of uniformity afTccts th huvof th wa-vcs, and yct so smaU its iongcst dimension bc in with ma.y ncg~ceted comparison
t.hcsc circtunstancc's

thc space in (tucstion ns if t)tc: wiLYu-Icn~th jnny be trcatcd wcrc infinit, or thc nuid itsc-if incutnprGs.sibJc, in wiuch case its velocity-potcntial wou)() t,hc 8:une I~vs as ctectricity. satisfy ~<~ = 0~ fu!!owing 265. vibrations of conic~ will Whcn of air pipes thc will scetiou be of a pipe is variabtc, thc probtcni of thc it canuot be solved. T)ic case gcncraHy tre~tcd on a, future At prsent wc page.

t)te

nuid

within

within

an approximate for thc pitch ofancarty invosti~te expression cylindrical pipe, takin~- first th case whci'e both ends are closcd. Thc metiiod tha,t will be cmp!oycd is sixiilar to that nsed fur a string
whose dcnsity is not (nutc constant, ~ !)I, J-tn, depending on thc

that thc pcriod of a. iroc vibration fu)n!s th stationary pnnciple and may tLerefore be calcuiated condition, froni th potcutial and kinetic motion not far from cncrgics of any hypothctica) dcparting tbe actua! In accordance wit]i this p]:(.n we shall assunte that type. tbe
as

velocity most be

L<'t

to any section ~S' is constant over thc scctioti, t)tc case wlien tho variation of is slow. vcry ncarly ~V reprcsent thc tota) tmnsfcr of ftnid at tune across the
no)-)nal

VARIABLE Rr~ntir\ti section nt

SECTION. f2G5. <~ thc

at

reprosents
actu~}.ty

x, the

~?. rcckoned

f.-om

G()ui)ibnum

total

vclocity
.f. Avithin

of tlle thc tube

currcnt,
~i,~t!~

thcn condition .nd .Yrcprc.scnts


thu kiucuc

enorgy

of

t)ic

motion

is cxprcs.sc-d

hv

fhc rcct.on

rcsult

mayhc t .at rnust thc

cxprossc<! bc ,n.dc.

convenicntly to in ordcr fur.uul~

-a!cu)ated )."c value

o..hnary ~.n of A~ wc I)avc

tcrms of A~ thc corti~.t U.e pitch ,nay Le as if ~e,.c con.st..at. y.r

in

2G5.]

VARIABLE

SECTION.
is

63

Tho cn'cct a loop.

of a \'ai-iation
An cnhirgRmcnt

of

section

p!tc)t, fu)d in thc second bctwecn th nodc.s and loops fi of section .slight variation is without cf~ct. Thc pitch is thus dccido(Hy:dtcrcd 01by an enlargement contr~tion uc~ t]tc middtc of tl.e tube, but tho iaftucnce of a woufd bc inuch less. .s!i~))t cunic:dity Thc gmvcst
monie

of sucMon OLsc mises

near a nodc or near greatest in t)~ Ursb case lowers tt~c iL At th points midway

expression tono on)y,


scalc,

for but wc

(8) is applicable wc n)ay apply it to thc it by th

A~ in

as it

stands

to

the har-

tone of

of thc cos

if

modify

substitution

for cos

2~ 6 case of a tuhc o~eH at both ends (~) is rcplaccd by

In ttte

instead

of

cn)argcnic.nt tubu aud,

T),c piteh of thc sound (8). at thc end.s, or hy a contraction as bcfure, it is unaifected by a

is

now at th

raiscd middie,

by an of the

slight

gcnct-al

couicality

2GG. ab)c scctio)i wontd

Thc i.s

case
a!.so

of processive
intcru.stmg.

w~vcs 1~

movh~

in a tube form th

of vari-

probicm bc onc of grcat dimc.dty; change of section is vo-y graduai, so that no considrable altration occm-s wit!un a distance of a grcat t)ic princip)c niany of cnergy wavc-Icngths, will guide us tu an .solutioi). It is not difncult approxin~tc to see that in thc case t!tcrc will bc no sensib)e supposed rcncction oftho wavc at any part ofits course, and that thcrcforc t)ic cnergy of tlie motion must romain 1. Now wc know, 24;-), that for uncha.ngcd'. tiic cnergy of a train of a givpn area of wavc-front, wavcs simple is as the square of thc amphtudc, from which it foltows tliat as thc wavcs advanc tlic amptitudeuf vibration varies Invcrscly as thc square root of t!)c sectiun of thc tube. In nJt othcr respects t!)c of vibration remains typc From thse refdjsdutcdy undtangcd. suiLs wc mayget a gnral idca of tlic action of an ear-trumpct.
P/ ~y. (5) i. p. 2('.i.

its ancrt but wherc tho

G-~

VARIABLE

DENSITY.

F 2 G G.
approximate

It

that appears according t!)erc is uo limit to t)tc


t!'b<o!n!ua[!yt!r.uiiHh)]tg.jf:t].~j.

to th
concentration

ordinary
of

cquatious,

sound

produeibie of

in

TJic )ncdiuni amplitude ]nay bo

saioe
varies

mctimd
.siowiyfroni

i.s app)ic;ib)c, point to

w~cn point.

titc Fur

dcnsity

the thc

movins- upwu-dniM thcatmo.sphc detcnniucd that titu cn(;)~y hy t)tc condition ronaina From unc)i:u)ged. 2.t.-i it ~ppcars th~t th a)np)i~de is inroot of thc Jcnsity'. vct-i-iuly as t)ic square A de]i(.nto qu~ti~n nrisos ns to tho u]ti)!))itc hto of fio)]nrot)H wavcs ))rnpaRat(.d
upwardH. It sL.mId bu ro.tarhcd thut tu rnrc fur thc

ofa

cx:u)))))<

sound-wuve

iHtimehmcrcnseJ.

(teadoui~

infiucneo

of viscomty

CHAPTER

XIII.

SPECIAL

PROBLEMS.

REELECTION PLANE WAVES.

AND

REFRACTION

0F

2G7.
tions for

BEFdRH
acria)

undcrtaking
wc

tho
may

discussion
eunvcnicntty

of the
turn

gcncra.1
our

qua-

vibrations

attention.

to motion in two spuci:d problumS) rc):Lting princip~Uy which arc susccpt,ib!u of rigorous fu~d yct cotnpan).<)in)L')).sions, solution. In tins ttic l'eadcr, tu whotn thc tivuiy Hi)np!c way is ncw, will aequirc soae wit)i thu I()cas aud suLject famiU.u'ity tnuthuds In thc one
dimension,

to

a fcw

cniptoycd

bcfui'c

attacking

more

fot'miJtt,ble

dificultics.

prcvions cha.ptcr which may both ends wiL!)in


tb:).t th

of \vbi(.;h

arc

thc vibra.ttons iu ( 255) wc hivestigatcd tnkc p!:tce piu-nnul to th axis ofa. tube, c)oscd. \Ve wiH now i)j<[nirc wbat vibrations

!t)-L' possible restriction


ctu'h simple

:t closed
motion

box, dispcnsing rect:Lng)dnr is to he in one dimension t!)<j systcm .say therci'ore is cap:).b)u, whcrc cos/<:~ by tbu gcncral

witb

th

vibt':Ltion,

ut' whicit of = thu time, aud

For on]y. as ~) varies /c is somo difrurea-

circufat'

i'unction huncc

coostant tia) quation

(9) 2-M

Equation "'cindud

must (1) Ytunm.

ho
Thc

Sfitisficd
surface

throughuut
coudit.iun

t!hj

w))u!e

of ovur

thc thc

to bc KLtisfiud

si\!sldc.s<jfthuboxissnupty

~'hure uuly

t'bprcsott.s fur spcial !.U.

au v~ducs

cjoncnt.

of th it

normn.! is possible

to t,!ic sut'fn.cc. to s;.).tisiy

It

of A: t.)iat.

(1) :).nd 5

(~)si)nu]t:LtK!un.s)y.

AEMAL

VIBRATIONS Lf2G7.

Taking ~ates, .~d

three
supposing

a, p, 7, wo kuow

edgcs which meet as axes of rcctungular co-ordith~b tho lengths of the edges are respeetivelv ( 255) t)):~

~hcre~, ~y any that satisf~d. satjsnud

y, r are Intcgers, of thc.se forms be equal It to

arc particul~r quation or r


that th

(2)

solutions of thc is satisned, and thc case boundary may

prob!cm providcd'

be, (1) is also (2) Is

is cquaHy vident over aH tho surface

cquatiou

Ly tlie

furm

whcre T!~ solutions

a..s bcforc

7' are

intcgcrs. cl.tained (~), ia by compounding ail particule-

soh.tinn, ~ncml incinded undcr

i~ch.land~ L-xtcnded This

arc arbitrary constants, to ail mtcgrai values uf~, ?..

and

tlie

summation

is

solution is to covcr the case of sufncientiy gnrt any nut.al stato of thln.s ,vit)un th box, not rn.]ccutar involving rotation, ihc initia! distribution of vdocitics dpends upon th initial value or of and by Founei-s /+~~+~~), theorem can bc ropresented vahics bcii~ by (5), .suitab!e ascrih.d to th eoc-mciunts ~1. In likc nianncr an arbitrary initit distribntion of (ur rarfaction), on the initial <)c.pending ~nduisation suitabic vahies to th "1" ~scribing ~e~nt coefflcicnts r 13. Th by investigation wit!i might
a.ss~ing

be

connnencii.g

prcscnted somewhat in accordance witb

dirfurent]y Fo~-icr'.

267.]
tleorem titofurm that

IN A RECTANGULAR CIIAMBER.
tlie 0 gnera! value of~at time t c.-ui bc cxprcssed

67
m il,

C n..y dpend upon <, but not upon i).c c.prc.s.sion.s iur y and y. woaM thcu bc funned an<t -shown to .nvuive onJy t).c of t!~ coemcicut.s .squ~-es 6', ~,d f.-<n tLc.se expressions ,vou!d foHow thc nrn.na) of c.qu..Hons n~iou each uormd counectmg co-urdin:~c (7 wit)t t])c tune. Th
n.ot.on ..s no

.a

wh~ch

the

cocfic.cnts

gravcstn~deof
..s

vibration

is

th~t

i.~ ~.hieh of tlic

tl.o .nd ti.rec

entirc thcre .sidcs

a, In (t)

P~))dtothc)~c.st<Ii,ne,,sinnofthuLnx nodo !,c thc g.-catest Thu.s, if = () 'y, WC :U-C tu t:).kc = 1, = (~


,nt.crnal

thc

e~c

of

a cubie~

WeL~VC

bo.x~=~=~,

and

t!.cn

i..stea<)

of

As

in

thc
modus

case

of

thc t)~

membrane .s~mc by of pcriod

( H)7), of

w).cn

two otiior

or

more n.odcs

pmn.t.vc of like pcnod Thc tions is

hve

vi),n..ti~,

mn.y bc derivcd incite .Grics

composition. po.ssihfe .si,np]e componont vibra-

trcDy

in pa.-ticularc~es notnc.ccssartiycomp)ete]y rcprcscntcd of v.b~dons. compnund if, for c~.npju, wc suppose thu contents of the box in its .niti..d condition to bc nc.it!.cr condcnscd nor ra.-cficd to hve ~yp~-t~nd unifor.n whose velocity, componcnts to t!)c axes j)araf)ci of co-ordinates fu-e rcspcctivcfy no .s.mptc vibrations arc gcncrated for whicii more than' o~ t'K. thrcc r is finite. In tact each uu.nhcrs initia component hc con.sidcrud vdocny rnay a.nd thc pr.~Jo.n sopamtdy, is sin.if.uto t])at solvoi in 258. 5-3

NOTES

OF

NARROW

PASSAGES.

[~f. f2G7.

In

future

vibri)tions Some may


somewiiat

chaptcrs of tir within natuml

we shaH cotnpIuLdy no~-s


on

meet

wlt)i

other vusscis.

examples

of ttic

c!oscd air

of thc

oi- thc
singing

gencra))y in

Le detected this way that

ccntiiincd th sc~Ic. are able

witbin Prob~y to estime

a rootn it is tho

blind

size

of rooms'. 1, In

pcople

long and narrow thc vibrations p~sa.gcs to thc pamUcI )cngt)i are too slow to affect tho car, but notes duc to transverae vibrations m:Ly often bc hcard. Ti~ relative of thc proportious varions overtones dpend upon the place at winch tlie disturbaiice is crcatcd". of the vibrations, pitch whosc <hrectio!i is principally is infiuuiicod transvur.su, by thc occurrence motion. iongitudinal for cxamp!c, in (3) and (4), that Suppose, = <y= 1, )U, and thM a is much groater than /3. For the principal transverse = 0, and = Bat besidos this thcro vibration p 7r arc other modes of vibration in which thc motion i.s principaHy obtaind trausvcrsc, small hyascribing vaines. to Intgral Thus whcn))=l. Insome ca.scs of this kind th

shewing 2fi8.

tha.t If

th

pitcb

is ncariy

the

samc

as bc'forc'.

wc suppose ry to bucome t)ic box of inHnitcJy grc: the p~ccding suctiun is tr.-uisformcd into an Infiintc rc.ctan.~fa.H.bo, wbosc sides ~-0 a and /3. Wfh-itevcr be th motion nmy uf t)~ an- w.tbm tbis tube, its vclocity-potcntial may be cxprcs~d Fuunur's t!tcorem in the scrics by

A rom f.rst .<n. ''y tho

n-markaUo Darwiu-. tnnu into ~M.<

iustnuco

is d87.

qnotod

in Tho

Young'n !atc bHnd me,

A'~Nr~ Jn.tico an<l 12 aftor high

J'/n'~o~y<y. Fiold,

u. walhed

p for

272, t]~

whcn ho on.u .ny r.oM, This r..<.a is about M leet long, efu- wiHt ~rent nccurncy. J~ /<~M~ 7''<))'~r/;r/< "H' ~.r ~< /~)/.<;A', t~ss, fr.o uuto and tho

vi.itcd 1~ ~ijc,

a few won). spc.a)<inK ail which lie gucs.c.c )r)7u)~

Oppe), ./f<<f))t~ut; t).. ~nf; t. L~ h.pj.~H uf thu j~s~~r

ya,-~~e xx. in p. l;i0. h.M of ~it). nt.uut in whieh ,<cun~' n,y vihr.tiun.s in aficctcd ),<.i[;ht

<.rr~<e)t is

J~-

it

r~ht that

note, (Lu

to c..cite n~n.nt f~t,

p~iMo. ~,d bn.~Hh TI~.

,n.uy di.tinct fc.ct.

Jurati~

hy it

is ,t)joHt

bcnts.

268.]
whcre f.f this t)~t th coenkicnts
fonn wc sccui'e

RECTA.NGULA.R

TUBE.

G9

arc the

independent fu)f1))ncnt

of .r and y. By tho use of th~ h.')unf!)!.ry cn~fHt~jt tho sidcs of the upon < dpends the tube; tlic other

LhcrG is to he no velocity across niitm-c of as a, fnnction of 2! and cunditions oftho problem. Let us coisidcr and due thc to case in which a normal

the

motion

nt every

motion nnposed npon across t]tc = tube at 0. Assumin~ ntrct(;)ting to be proportiun:U to e"~ :Lt ali pohtts, wc hve thc usn:d dltrcruuti.d quation

!t:u')nunic,

is point a ba.n-ier

of tho functions by tlie conjugatc must pt-opcrty term of (1). scparatcly by cach TIms to dotermiuo iuncttu)i of z, \vc get

winch

be s.itis~d M a

to th si~n according coefHeicnt of J~. Whcn and y arc both zero, the eocfHeicnt is ncccssariiy but as positive, and q incrcasc th coefficient If th coefficient c!)angcs bG positive sign. and bc called tlie gnerai value of may be written of thc

Thc solution

of this

quation

diffcrs

in form

M whcre, constants. prop:~g:tted comHtions term

thc

fa.ctor

e"~

is

the first However, in the ncgn.tive direction, of tho probicm, and thus to y,

expressed, terni in

are

~solutc

(4) which

we are

a motion expresses is excludcd by the to take simply M tlie

corresponding

In this and

expression to rca.1 qua.jititics C~ may bc complex p~ssing t~king two ncw rca.1 arbitrary we obta.Ia constants,

Wc whcre tlic

hve the

now

to

considcr of~ in

th

form

of

th

solution

in

casca

cocfHcicnt

solution

con'esponding

(3) is ngative. to (')-) is

If wc caH it

70

MMCTANUL'LAR

TUBE.

)-~U. FSCS. In~initc with z.

of witich We tbua

th

first

obtuin

is to be rqjceted to f5) cun-uspoidn)~

term

as bceoming

Thc givcn atlows point At become

solution by of

obtaincd

(5) and value

by combining (7) is the gnera! over and frmn th piiaso. thc

~} solution

the

sohitions part:cu!ar of t!.e prob~m, ~d arbitrary at every

of

section

~=0,

lu both a grt

amplitude distance

source

the

tcrms

and thc motion insensibje, is repre.scnted Thc cnect of thu tcrms (.~ done. iuvolviog high is t).us connuud to thc neighbourhood of thc
n.odcratc (ti.staucc.s

in (7) given by thc tcrms of values of~ am) y and at in tilc

any

suddcn

van~tiuns

or

n.ot.ou

source, discontmuitics

at ~=0 our

areg.-adua))y
attention on

cased

oif a..d

oblitcrated.

Jf wc nx tion (for

do which and of vibration to iruqucncy increasc from ~i-o we see that upwards, t)te eHeet, at first connned tu t!.o ncighbourhood of thc source, cxtcnds furthcr graduaiiy and furthL.r, nnd after a certain value is passc-d, it.seif to an inimit propngatcs thu criticat distance, that of tho two h-c.p.cncy bcing di.nensional free vibrations ofthe modo. Below th critical corrcsponding point no work is requircd to 7~.~ th abovc it as much work must be doue at .notion = 0 as ..s carncd otf to in tiie samc time innnity 2of). two tra.n.s We of will
p)anc

any particular simple mode of vibranot bot,], vanis).), and conoive tho

now
wavc.s

examine
ofi~rmonic

the

rcsalt

of th

composition

of

typc, wiiosc ~nd ampUtudcs are wave-lun~ths but whosc directions equa!, of proj~gation ~c iuch)~) to onc anothcr at an ang]e 2~. T)ie probtcm is one of two dnncnsK.ns In~much as o.dy, is th same in everything ptanes to thc H.tcs of i.iturscetiou pcrpcndicular uf tlie two sets of \avu-ft'onts. At any moment of time the positions of ttto p]anes of maximum condensation for cac), train of wavcs rn.~y bo rcprc.scntcd by par.dte) hncs drawn at equat intervais on thc plane of tlie papcr, and t)~so fines inust Le to move wit), a vdocity suppose J hi a <hrcL-ti..n pc~L.ndic.,)ar to D.cir length. Le If- buth sets of lines t)ic p.~pcr will be divi~cd drawn, into a System of equa! parailuio-

2 G 9.]

TWO

EQUAL

TRAINS

OT

WAVES,

Tl

which advance in tlie direction of onc set of diagonals. At grams, cacli corner of a paraUeIogra,m th eonduns~tion is doubled by the of tlie two trains of waves, and in th centre of each superposition is a, maximum thc rarefaction for tlie same rcason. paraHuIogrnm there is therefore a series of maxima. and minima diagonal without of relative condensations, and a.dvaneing change pusitioti cos a. with ft Bctweeu eacli vclucity adjacent pair of lines of tnaxima and minima thcre is a parallel Iine of zero condensa.tion, On cach ou which thc two trains of waves neutralize one another. It is remarkable titat, if tlie wave-pattern uspceia.Hy tfie corrcsponding water wave-pattern to which were visible (like thc whole of tlie

Is- appticabhj), to move forprcceding argument it would appear w:u'ds without of type in a direction dincrent from that of citange cithci- component aud with a velocity from that train, ditcreut with wliieh bth coniponent trains move. to express the result analyticfdty, let us suppose that thc two directions of propagation are C(p)ally incHncd at an anf)Gc< to tlie axis uf x. Tlie condensations themsetvcs may be dcnoted by In ordcr

from (1) that thc distribution of on the plane a~ appears advauces in type, and with a pa.ml)el to th axis of unchanged uniform Considered on is a vclocity a cos a. dcpcnding sin a is equal to 0, maximum, wbcn 2~ 3\ &c., while for tlie iutermediatc values, viz. A., &c., s vamshcs. a = thc two trains of waves meet one another 7r, so that tlie velocity of propagation to x becomes dircctiy, paraUel iuHuite, aud (1) assumes th form If

It

72 Thc thc of infinitc


quation

REELECTION problem same as titat p):mc walh that

FROM just

FIXED hccn

WALL.

[2G9. Is in rcality wavcs hy an sidc

wc hve runcction
th

of th Sincc

considcring of a train of plane


on

expression

thc

right-hjt.!

of y, s I:i symmetrical '\vit)i (1) is fin evcn fnnction to t)te axis of ?, n.nd consequcntty is no motion there respect Undef it is vident th:tt thc thse ch'cttmst:u)ccs a.cruss t)tn,b nxis. motion cou)d in no way bc aKcrcd ~lon~ th by thc intr(j(]uct,ion
~xis of

a; of tho

betwcn dent
densation

a.n. absotutdy immov~b!c Murfttcc und thc dircetioti tbc vciocity with
to

w:U).

If a bc

wttvcs,

winc)~ the
g)'c;itc.st

of propng'n.tion thc pices of !n~xinn)!'i


dvotion of

angtc of thc Incicon-

th

(con'CHponding

w:T.tcr-W!L\'cs)

t!):t.t thc n.cn:d a.)ong thc w~H is ft cos a. It may ho noticcd to move thc wa.)t ns n. who)c, cxccpt in ])a.ve no tcttdcncy prcs.sm'cs since thcy m'o at titC case of nbsuhttely incidence, pcrpcndiculur us mnch ncg:).tivc as positive. any moment movc So ion~ as th mdium which is t!ie vchiclc of soun(t conin tinues of unbrn~cn unifonnity, phmc wavcs !na.y bcpropagatcd with constant Lut any directiou vclocity and with type unchangud thc a disturhancc! cnsucs wlten tho wa.vcs ruach whcrc any part 270. tucchanical gcttcral prcpcrtics of thc proDeni of
thc mdium undergo a. change.

Th

vibrations of our that plane


variation

of a vai'iabic

modimn

thc grasp quite bcyond of physical th points Let us suppose wavGS. bctow p!ano
which

mathcmatics, prsent intcrcst arc misod in thc tttc rncdium but th is uniform that in mccbanical

is probabty but n~a~~y of case of phmc abovo and that

a certain t!)erc tho

innnitc

(~=0),
in

crossing

is an abrupt propagation ttte ~C!

of

sound

dpendsnam~y

on propcrtics thc cf~t~'eN.s't-

!)t7~y nnd distinctness plane nrobtnni onwards into tbe to form conditions. In t)ic wavcs

On thc nppcr sidc of thc plane (which for of conception we may suppose a train of horizontal) thc advanccs so as to meet it more or less cbUquety dtermine tho

is to

wave which is propagatcd (rcfractcd) back th second and aiso that tlu'owu within mdium, or reftected. Wu bave In th nrst p]ace nrst nicdium, t!ie cquatioua of motion aad to express tite boundary

uppcr

mdium,

if p bc thc =

natural

Jensity

and

s thc

condensation~ density and pressure p (1 + A'),

= J* (1 + ~1&'),

270.] ]
whcre ./) )H is L).c uadistm-bud

REFRACTFO~ OP PLANE WAVES.


cncfificicnt

7:3

01 thc compres3:M)ity, f~n(~ P (Icpcnding 1~ ii)~ !n:u)ncr pressure. ni tlic Jowc)- jnudium

thcnndisturhcd T;~i)~thc:~is p):t))<t ~f U.c

pressure

b~ng

th

s~mc

on

both

si(]cf!

of ~=0.

ut'~p:u-!Ut(jlt.)t))o]incof Av:wcs witli t!.c surfhcc

intm-sueti..n.,t't,hc uf .scparatiuu.x=0, wo hve

i'<.))'Lhcuppcrnicdiu)u(~44),

Thcsc

chtions b<)un~!HycondiLion.s

m~st

bc

s~tisHcd rc~)u-e(~) vulocitics ituuls,

a!l

thc

points th~t

of thc aH

fini.). points to tlic

FnrUicr oi'tho suiTacc

Murf~cc must

thu HCp:u'atio)i bc t)ie s~mu for thc two

of

pet-pcndicu~r or

a. tmm of waves rcprcsent of harmonie type, wc and <~ to bc m:t.y nsHumo to e'<~+~+') proportional whcrc = cmt.st. ~:vcs thc direction + of t)ic ptane of thc wavcs. If wc :iti.su)nc for t))u incident wavc,

lu

onicr

to

GREEN'S

INVESTIGATION

tlie by

'1

Fs~Q. V.

rcficcted

and

refractcd

waves

may

be repr~nted

respect:vc!y

pc~

tlic same ncccs.sariy in ait thrcc waves on ~ccount of tlie and ti~e coemcicut periodicity, of y nu.st be ti.c samc, .~ncct).c tracus of a)l th waves on thc ,f section p!.nc must n.ovc togctl~ With to ti.c coefHcicnt regard of if apby substitution in thc diHcrentud

Th coemc.cnt

of < is

in ~h~ged fact

quations

that

It.s

p~Ing

i-ro~

thc

si~n

lucidcnt

to

th

rcncctcd

wavc'.

In

Now &- V(..+ ~) ,s th sine of tlie angle Included between the axis of x and tlie norn~! tu thc plane of t]~ w~vcs-in optic.1 t)~ sine of the a~]c an~u, of incidence, ~d is in & ~(. "+ T7~ of' 1~ angles be c.I!cd asserts (~ th.t sin~: is cqual to the consin~ stant rat.o .cU-J.ncwn law of sincs. TI.c )~ of re= ~-the f.act~n .nd raction ~!cw from tlie fact that the vc]osimply of city propag~n normal to tlie wave-fronts is constant in cacli that to n~dunn say, of the ~c~ indcpcndcnt of thc wavet.ken in conucetiou front, with thc equ.! velocities of tlie traces of aH thc waves on the of sparation phtnc = F sin ( sin ) It renoms to satisfy th conditions boundary (7) and (8).' Thse mvo

the syn,bo)Ica! ccmp!ctes sue that. if the incident wave

This

solution. be

If

(auj

bc rca!, wc 'v~

270.

J j

OF

BEFLECTION

AND

REFRACTION.

75

is ho-c obtaincd t.ypu; phase, typu but sincc it may whatuver.

on thc supposition itdocs not. involve

t!i~t

t)ic w~ves and

arcof

harmonie

bc cxtenjcd

by Fuuncr's

t))<j)-u iH no change of thcorcm to waves oFauy

It' thL-rc bu no rcficctcd aud (1 + cot' ~) (1 +


eot'

w~vc, ~) =

cot

= wc dcduce

cot

from

which

which

shcws in

)UL~)iatc

that.providcd value bctwccu

:u)~c of incidoicc but otho'wiso titcrc Smco of<9, jncdimn wave (18) at
:).n

refractivc index F aud p tiicrc unity at which t)ic wavc is cun~jlutcly i.s no such tUT'c. altercd

thc

Fbc

interau

is aiways intrujuitted

incident

as to sign) by an (cxccpt i))tcrch{).ngc that a wavo incident &c., wc infer m tlie second is refiectcd in t)io same angle as a prupurtioa in thc first mdium at an a.n'du cxampic Jet us suppose that thcuppcr medimu and thc luwcii- mdium pressure, watcr. its value in tcnns of and thc rufractivo

is not

As a numerical is air at

Substitnti)]g Index, wc gct

atmospho-ic fbr eut

FRESNEL'S

EXPRESSIONS.

[270.

whieh h.crc~os

shows
from

that
xcro

th

ratio

of

cotangcnts

dhnini.shcs

to xcro,

it htconc.s 13", afLM-whic!. im:~i'),:u.y, tutal m<)ie:).t,ij)g tm wo shafi sec prcscntty. rcf!cct:on, It n~st bu ronc.tnbcrcf) thut in ~Jying optiez! tcrms tu acoustics, it is thu w~er t!jftt nutst Le concuivcd to be th 'rare' medimn. Thc ratio oi'duusitic.s is abuut 77U 1; so that

to ~out

Evcn If fitant; takca and

at pcrpcndicular both into mc-di~ if t])o


bc

Incidence
gascott.s,

th
=

rfection
If th

is scnsihiy
temprature

pcrfcct.
Le c.m-

fu)d evcu
account,

thc

in

p, /) =siu~ siu' renceted wa.vc bcconics

of ]tc.tt Ly compression dcve]op)ncut be thcrc will bc no sensible difcrcttcu bctwucn case of th si)np]c g~sus. Now, if =~ and thc fonnult~ fui- thc of tlio intcnsity

comcidmg 'hcufarly huv tlie tangent

for light givcn by Fre.snc! polarized pcrpcnto t].e plane of incidence. In nccordimco witli Brcw.stcr's rdicetion vanishes at tlie angle of incidcuce, wl~osc is F' tho we I)~ve cause of disturbanco

with

that

But, if on thc othc!hand'/),=p, thc buing change ofcomprcssihiJity,

agrccing~h of !nc.(h;ncc. any angle

Frcsncl's In tUs

fonnu)a

c~sc

t!to

!ig).t pohmzcd rL.ficctcd wave docs

for

p~nc not vauisfi at

in t).c

of incideucc. wlicn = 0,

In geuGi~J,

370.]

REFLECTION

DUE

TO

TEMPERATURE

AND

MOISTURE.

77

so that ~ascs F'

thcrc

is no rcfMon, if = p~ p, and theu

~=

Suppose, ~'cdott takcs iiavu

for

that cxamp]c, place at a surface

p(.rppndicu)ar incidence air au() ]iydro~ou. scp~-atin~

aftor

rcWu

Thc

mtio

is ~-t-02 If thc writc

of intcnsitics, which Is as the 1, so tliat about onu-t)[ird part di<L.rcncc betwccn the two

squft,-G of tho is ruficctcd. bc very

~p]itudcs,

mcd~

sni~)),

and

wo

~=F+~,

(24.) bccumcs

If the f~rst mdium air ~t C'eut., r+

bc air nt 0" Cent., ~F= r~H--003CC<;

and

thc

second

jnedium

bo

so th~t

Tho

ratio

of th

intcn.sitics

of th reHccted

and

incident

sounds

is

t))~rcforu-83x]0~x~:l. As annU~r which


s.unu

t))c

examptc <h-.st mudium

of tlie sfunc is dry


i.s

]dnd and
moisture.

air
wit)~

wc may ta~c Mie case m t))c second is air of thc


At ]U Cot. :ur

tonpcmture with moi.stui-0

satm-atcd

.s:tt)tmtcd iu tlmt 2~0,

li~htcr J)c:u-)y.

t)~n Huncc

dry air

Ly abuutono from part

so t])nt

v ~~=~~ sound wc conclude onc 77~,000"' is on!y about

p!trb (25)

th(! ruHcctcd suund.


thse jnust

of thu

incidunt Frotn moist ail'

calculations gcncrany

wc

sec

that

rcf!cetiuns

froni

warm

or

be very smalt, of course thu entbct tinjugh It mn.st aiso Le rumonbcrcd jnay accomulatc by rptition. that ill practicu t!)L: transMiun frum one state uf thin~s to the ot)tcr would bo gradl1:tI, anll tint abrupt, as thc prcHunt thcnry supposes. Jt' t)K- sjta amfmntto a considrable occxpicd byt))Ctr!U)sitiun

TYNDALL'S

EXPERIMENTS.

r'270.
v-ouh) be

fraction iesscued. through Thc


~s ot

t))c raction wavc-Iength, On tins account wc rnight expect a heterogeneous mdium less fn-<y

of' thc

matpria))y

grave sound.s to travel t)t;,n ..)ctjt.c ya~n.h,. portions of

rcnection
dcns.tics

of sound suvcm)

from

sur~ccs

d~crcrt

hn.s cngaged striking sound

who

h~

dcvi.cd Bor

scpamti,~ the attention of

of a c.al-ga.s ~a.no issui,~ humer Lutwecn bat's-~iny thc tuhc and th~ ~.ns~ve t)~ grcatcr f!a.nc, of th~ cHect couJd bc eut oif part Not dy so, but thc uamc at a suitaUo by holdillg an.de thc sound cou!d he rui!cetcd anuther tube in .sumdcnt thmugh nua'ntity to excite a second sensitive which but fur the ~une, interposition of the rcnoctuig Hamo wuuh! havu rcinainsd undi.sturhcd. intuition prGccdiug expressions (JG), (17), (18) hold good in cvery case of rc.ffcct.ou from a 'dc~er' but if th medinm; of vclocity sound bc grcator in the lo~vc-r mdium, and ti.c angle of Incidence cxcccd the critical becornes ang)c, and t).e formuh,. imaginary, modification. In thc latter require ca.~ it is that i.npossib)c a rcfracted~avc should exist, sincc, cvcn if th. aug)e of rfraction ~-c UO its trace on th. p~o rnu.st neccssardy ofscparation outrun the trace of the incident wavc. If
T~e~e?~

t)mn,gh ns an n.dicator. from au ord.nary

.sul.jcct ducted

cxa.np)., a tin tube By thc

c.pcri.nonts fro.n a high-pitchcd a sensitive

Prof in iHu.stmtion rccd f!,une,

Tynd-d! of thc

tcwant.s

was conw).ic]~ servit

Th

bc written
t~ite

in p)a

of

th symboilcal

quations

are

from

whieh

by discarr!ing

th

in~ginary dition,p.

parts, 282.

wc ohtain

'yo~/)(f,3rd

270.]

TOTAL

REELECTION.

79

~ese sec~d a .sl.ort


comes

formu~ mdium d~anco


msc~bJe.

indice

tcrms

of

and

reficction. Thc disturbance in t).o is uot a ~vc at a)t in t).o o.-dina.y scn.sc, ~n<[ at from thc surface of sopu-aticn be(.. ncgative) from C~IcuI~ting (12) and cxprc.sing it iu wc Aud

total

shcwing mcdtum Thc waves

t!mt more

ti~c distm-bance does not thfui a. few wa.ve-Ienn'ths. of phase bctweeli the

penetrate

into

the

second

difFercncc is 2e, wlicrc

rcHc-ctcd

and

th

inddcnt

is no loss of energy in reflection and rfraction, th work transirutted in any time across any aroa of the front of thc incident wave must be cqmd to th work transmitted in the same tn.ie across areas of the co.-rcsponding rcrieetcd and refractcd waves. TItesc areas are plainly in tlie ratio con-csponding

Since

thcro

L~W

0F

ENERGY

VERIFIED.

f~O.

-~n pfy.ng

.n.rgy tbu togethcr tho

u.e

~d cun~~ou, two bonudary

agres quations

with

the

rcsult

of nu.iti-

of propagation is grever ia th lowor t!~u th uppcr aud the angle mdium, of incidence excecd. thc critical no ~g!c i.s tr~mitteJ enorgy into the second inediu.n. othor words thc reficctiou is total. Tlie method of tho present is invcsti~tiou ~c substantia))y a.ne as Grccn th.t~pjoyed :n by on the ReHectJand p.per Icract.onof Sound T). case ofpcrpcndicu]. incidence ~.t u.vc.st.g.ted who byPoi.s.~ cbtained fonnui~corrc.sp.n,);n. and (2.t). ~).eh (3) I~d i.wcvcr bc.n airc.dy givcu tj Y.u tho rcf)cct.cn of Ligi.t. lu a sub~~cnt ~oi/Poi~ c.n.s.dcrcd t!.e gnera! c.sc ofobtiquc incident H.nitinghimscif to g.cous .owcvc, n..di. for ~ich law hoids~od, Boyie-s d .y a .cryccmpi.c.tc. an-ived at a rcsult ana]ysis cqui~icnt to Hc a!so vor.hod -'). th~t t),c nergies of the rcftected aud ro~-acted wavcs make that of Htc hicidunt up wavo. vcloeity 271.
v~d. w,th

WJien

(13),

If
comp],.to

tr.ns.n, both tlie b~ d.k.d ~ctodand ~"th~ is tlie


'i~

ted wave p.r of

is

th

~.=0; 11~ ~t at ..= c ,.t.u ,d .f traus.uttcd /r''i" .~hod

cxtcnded 'to]y do~iin its ~ch. .nlfon.ity do parties onw.rd. prop.g~d 'B~jf at eonti,I)y. i~ thc c'gc co.sihi)ity, density w.vo wHI bc throwll back, .nd ou .riv~t will hc divid.) iuto t.o parts, o e .ud u..di..n, eue r.ficct.d b. ag.~ b~/to .su .n. thc pr~re.s.s Hy f.JIo~i~. of thcse the pr.hi.. may be .bt.i.L;t, ~.s bcing c.,npoundcd of an incite 'c. ad.pt.d In ()p,ics for
thc c~poud -s .s~

u.s..diy
;?

huu~tiy .a ~~n ."cdu.,n


~< = ~rM;.

but c.p)anK.d ~cr. straightf~rd .Ld is .u.njar

to hve any appc.r r. t.f.c auaJy.si.s. f.Uo~. cu~nc ou~dvc. te thu a.hcre ill its thu p,
]~jg t. Jt. p. iJOg IQjf)

it ducs not

ad~nt..m ri th J

7'fu<.~))).~ ~7,

rlr <~

l'In,tilrrt, ~r'~i"

1. X'l',

;i17,

1,-j;Jl,

271.]

PLATE

OF

FINIT

TIIICKNESS.

g).

to pass to rea! quantities, t)tcse expressions must put into t).c form TPe" 7/'c~ &e )-e< we fmd corresponding thu incident \va.vc

Jn or(]cr

))c tu

R. If.

(;

S2

REELECTION

FROM

A PLATE

r-27l

s).cwingt)~L !ncd)U)n m~ht If bc

cxccptf.thc as wut! ijavc wc h~-c

.hcr~i.n r,f p].e, Leen unifonn.

tho

,vho)c

of t).c

small,

apprcxHnatcfy

for L),c rcf)ccto.]

wavc

a
~-mu]aapp)yu.g~hcnthop!at.cist)uuin eom~n.son ~ith

tlie w~c-!cngt). ang!c uf incidence Sinco =~ th a)np!itud~ t!.c rcHection

cos~. varies

it appears im-c.-scly if cot~</

t)~t as =

for a givc. or as t)~t is, if

Jn any case

vanishe.s,

~bc.n~n At express)

intc.g.r. i.crpe..<)icL,lar by

Thewnve incidcn,

i.sthcnwhu))yt,-au.smittc.). thc I~cusity or t].c rcftc.etion is

Let

us

nc.v

suppt

t!.it

th

.ecuud

mdium

i.s

ii.eu~prcssibic,

.so

371.]
t}):Lt = x oui'

OF

FIXITE

TlifCKNESS.

83

cxprcssKtM

bceomc.s

of roHcctiou shcwing ))ow thc amonnt dupcuds upon th )'uhttiv. xut.s.sc.sot'HucIt t~)!U)tities of Ute mdia as itavc vu)utncs r~tiu m thc of It is obvinus tt):).t tho {icud mdium fiku n. huhave.s of its ino'tiu.. rigid body !md act.s on]y in virtuc If thi.s bc sufticient, Wc I)i rca], thc thc ruf)uetio)i inay bcMmc!
thc

scn.sibty
ca.su iu

tot~).
whicti (~

hi~vo )it)W to cousidcr symbo)ic:d a+-,


expressions

(5) arc
pure

aud

(U) co.sft~

is i)nagin:uy. amt t si~n~ :u'c if we sup-

wltitu a,

a-

hnagiuanus.

Thus,

:u)(t introducc pose that r/=~ 0=~ buhc sine and cosine (~ 170), w~ gut

tho not~tt'm

of thc hypcr-

0j 81

~0

LOSS

0F

ENEUGY. of eller~y of tlle


cil'

f~

H'S.X transl11ittcd front =~F"


~h" tiulls

(Lecotilit

flll"

encrgies tllc wholo is ully


cquati0118

incident
waiL:-

aro c(lual (12), (B), 'l']esc

fur ail threc

it

)lOCrssnry (7), ol7

to uclcl tlic in e(ll1a-

272. ~Llic
iiiii](1

calcnlalions tll:llI
1~

of he

rcilcction

rat/1er oytical tk 110


l'tlLlyy

carricr1 licotisti(-,11.
I)y

refr<~etion umler Lut tllcir fllrtlJer, intcrcst It is important to beal' IlIlJnber of i,oflectioll,4

fln(1

destroyed

ail)'

S~ tiull

ulwa~~s l'l.:al'l)(!al'ing 011 aCC01lllt of tlm l11attl!r, ); with ~oululs

iu HllOthcr, ;~rc.,tt dit}'ercl1cc


uf' (1C11SlLICS l'efluction is

liclnitl wit.c.c<. distances

1)1'o(IticL-(l iu ;lir
I:WUI)(ls,

arc )lot
U1'1bj11

cvsily

coml11l1lliwater, mctaJiic

(liflictilt,y very littlo

iu air. loss.

IYIIUSI:

il> 1Iudel'

~L~"iofwooL),ora.

g CHAPTER XIV.

GENERAL

EQUATIONS.

273. vibrations
natu!U)y

1~ in of~rs It

conncetion thrcc dImcusiujiH

with

1)~0
one

gnrt of

probicm

of

aurial whic]~ in an dis-

thc

first of

itsdf, will
be

is tit
consquent assumcd

dctern)i;iaLio)i upon t))at thc

questions, thc motion initia.1

uniimitud turbances.

atmosphre

is small, so that thc ordinat-y ~pproxiniatu arc applicable, quations aud furt'hcr that the initial vu!ocltics are snch as cnn bc dcrived from a vclocityor ( 240) that tllere is no CM-c/ ])otcntial, If th Jatter condition bc violntell, the probtcMi is onc ofvortex on whieh motion,
wc do not enter. \Ve s]iaH idso suppose in the m-st

arbitt-ary disturbancc

cxtcrna!
invcstigatcd

f..rccs

place

that

no

act

upon soldy

the to

uuid,

so t)iat

tlie

motion

a disturbanco at actuaDy cxistin~ a titnc to which (<=0), wc do jiot push our prcviou.s inrp~-ius Thc mct.hod that wc s!.a!l is not very dinTo-ent c.npjoy from that of Poisson whom thc was first hy proHon attackcd. succcssfn!!y If M., bc tlie initial velocities at the point a-, z, and 80 thc initial
condensation, wc hayc ( 2-),

i.s duc

to

bc

by which ditrereutlal
1 Sur et ~~i.

t!.G ituLi~l coefficient


l'int~~tin.. do

values with
quc.]qncs

of thc

volocity-potcntial to tunG respect


<juation~ lindairos du luouvcmeut aux

and arc
di~rcnccs de. fluides

of

its

Jetermined.
pM-ti~M 6iaBtiq~

p,u'hcul~remcnt <!t; <Y)~ft<x~

l'quation 121.

~n.rato 1820.

t. m. p.

8G

ARBITRARY

INITfAL

DISTURBANCE. .jiujmjM~tjjt,.

f273. )Z/,),

TLc rnt.iat pinces.

pmUc,n v.du.j.s,

L~furc and

us is to dctcrminc tho ~ncnd c.juaLiott

at tm.e
~pp)ica).!<!

<!from .t !)

thc ab.~ t!m~ .-m<!

Whcn :nyponit.

is ]<nown, it.s

dcrivativcs~ivc ZD

t)tc

ccrnponcnt;

vetocitics

at.

Th~ symhuHca)

sohnion

of (:3) ,,my hc ~-ritten

~hcrc~and

~fu-c

Tuc.,nnc.c~an.Lh .shaJi < c.tc ~d th.~twhen<=0,(-l.)~i\'cs

twofu-hit.nu-y the

fun<;t.ions init;)

of.~

?/ nn<1

~= /-T)'

7''rc.spuetive)y,

vah~of~u.t~~hi~ it is oniyncec~rytuub.scrvc.'

which in Hlly" \lol]y In t!.t valllcs


its

thc equ~on evcl.

question

of the Into~rctation syllibulic

of od.) po~.s

the c.~hc.-c ~uc fur

was .nyp.int..t at thc

a faction

of .r c~y,

.vo s.w

tin.c~.pe,.dcd .f and p.i.ts ..h~ cc-n~ -I. and .s +~, w.Iiy i. ~J a)I uthcr points, In thc pru.sent ca.s. Lho .si.np)~ supposition is 0 clepencls point on t..n at acs of nu.t points .situatcd on f)~ ,f,~ of t~ .-I.o.sc spf.crc c.nLrc i.s Oand as tLcrc eau Le no radius~ ,n<
!)~

( 245) on thc nit we~ at

's

Jcd

to

.c.onovcr tud coc~cicnts By .t~~ lay the

~nvcst. a sphuri.a) of the syn.boJieat point

t),, funetion f~ P on

r'ccovc.ra~her,wc.rc cxpr..ssioa

for

ti.c

~can

vainc

cf

surface

of ~csuccc-.iv at thc ccutrc. tj.ccrcm tlic the

In tcr~

r.

of Mac!ri.'s

value

of l'

~:7 be writtell

273.'J

1AR13ITRAP.Y

INITIAL

DISTURBANCE.

87

tho tlie

centre

of thc

.spftcrc over tlic

0 bcing sm'fuce dnote

thc of

ori~ui tlie

of co-ordmatcs. sphre ~o tcmpora.rity by

In

mt.c~t'ft.tion lm

I)chavn so t]):it

as c<)t)nt;tnts; ~=~+~+?r. buhig sitjcc',

wc may

them

7~, ?~

Thus,)its surface,

the mdius

of thc

tlllctlOn nny functtonof nllY attcringthc

wo may repla-ce sphre, by tt)u syntinctry /.<;+/)/+/M n. 1 tlie <le sa1!lC s:unc r iuncttou 11l1CtIOll of Z 0 .? WltlOUt wnho~t 1 ..)y by

sphre, of tlie

and

fui

dment

of

rcsult

of tlic

intc'gra.tiou,

Th tttus

mea.n value expt'cssed of, or,

of~ovcr

thc surface uf the

ofthc opcratioa

by tlie l'csutt. dctiotc if ~~o-

7' is sphre of radius un 2'' of thc symbol with respect to Mgu!ar

\
space,

intgration 0

at timc < is thc mcan of thc initial or in words, ~) at any point described of' th spho'c round t)ic vaincs of 6 over tlic surface thc wlioc niultiplied with mdius r~, by <. point ni question of (5), we sce rdc Inspection By Stokcs' ( 95), or by simple on t)ic initia values thfit t)ic part of of <~ mn,y bc dupcmling with respect to < from t))n,t just. writtcn (tcrivcd by diffcrcntia,tmg T)iC comptetc fmieti'jn. value of at and changing th arhitnu'y
thuc is thcreforu

VERIFICATION

0F'SOLUTION.

~3

whichi.sPoissoii'sresuIt'.

On aecouutofthe ~r t~t it s.t..sHc.s 7? th

importance gcncr~

of the

prsent c~ua.ticn i..iud

p,.oL!cn. ~t (3). t T,~

it p

,n.v f~

dIHfcrenti~

t~p~ntth~.tt~culy,~d Mytnbohc cquatton

~.rin,

o'L[.u

Ncw~~ satisHcd. Sincc t~un, Wkl~ o~ual th second ,t aiso

i. t~ ~J~

part

of

I, cLtaincd thc fundamcntal ecuditions

from

n~ust satisfy iuttial

th Rr.t

hy dl~rcn

quation. ~hen is ma.tr

respect to thc to zro iu (8),

we sec th.t

~S-~ mutiacAc

in l'h~~ik, 1, 517, 1876. ~rchh~

273.]

LIMITED

INITIAL

DISTURBANCE.

89

of which

the

first term

boeomcs

in

the

limit

7~(0).

Whcn

< = 0,

sinec th

the radius

situatcd c!u)nent.s cancct oppositcly of th spherical surface is indefiuitely satisfics din'ercntial th

In th

Hmit, ditninistted. initial

\vl)cn Thc con-

m (8) thcrefbrc expression ditions as wcl] as th gnral 27~. If t))C initial

prcscribcd quation.

di.sturbancc

be couuned

in (8) 27~ arc zro, nnless somc Intgrais tfiu sphre ?'=<~ bc includcd within 7'. Lct to 7', ?'t a.nd ?'~ th about C) A\'hic)t eut to xuru.
v.'dues

to a spacc ?~ thc p:t.rt of thc .surface! ot' ~bc a puint cxtcl'n.'d dcso-ibcd sphcrcs rcmn.ins cqual bD nnitc,
is

]':u1ii (~' titc it. Thoi butwccn


~) is ag'ain

h'n.st and so lon~


zro.

grcn.tcst as ft< <)\, may


Thc

Whcn
grcatcr

H< lies
tban

?\ und )'

but
thus

fur
at

di.sturbance

aoy monKjnt
ncdiatc

coinncd

to those

wn.vc is th oivclopc centres arc situatcd on tho surface oi' sphcrcs will hve an System of two shccts, extcrior ti)c outer of thcse shcets cnvelopc bcin'r and thc inaer intcrior to tho shcH formcd exturior, asby thc Thc outer shect funns th outer limit SL-mh!agcoft])C sphres. tu t])c portion of thc mdium in which th dUatation is diffurcnt
from zro. As < Incrcascs, t!ic inncr changes stjcet its contracts, character and at Jast its

and ?' butwccn with radius of sphres at, whosc of T. Whcn < is ttus smat),

parts of'.sp~cc T])C Hmit ot'thc

for which

r(< is lutcr-

sides cross, opposite with rfrence terior, an<t forms t)ic inner
condensation boundaric's of is th

from bcin"- pxto the sphres, to interior. It then cxpands, of thc shull in whieli t!)e wav of Loundary Th successive of the compriscd' positions
wavc arc thus a scrius of piU'aUGi surfaces, and

and

it

each If

boundary at tho

is propagatcd time < = 0 thorc

normaDy bc no

with

a vcloeity

cqual

to

so that thc initial motion, consists in a variation of dcnsity, disturbancc the subsmerety of things is expressed th first terni of (8) 273. l)y quent condition still hmited Lct us suppose that thc original to a disturbance,
imite rgion y, consists of condensation onty, without rarfaction.

It might

be thought

that

thc samc

pccuharitywould

attach

to thc

'y'f)i:. ix. p. lu. Stokes, "DyHUtUtcul Thcory of Difraet.iou," C<<w&.

CASE
resulting as Prof. wavc Stores Dn-oughout bas rcniarked,

0F
thc

PLANE
who)c such a of

WAVES. LIts subs~uent wouht

f'2~. course
be erron'eous'

but is ~ronc.~a-

conclusion

For it
t.ve

vah.es then
unt.I

of th tune )ess becoiacs ngative


ttv.uu.shesagain

than (~ being
wheu

r,

-a

t].c

positive),
<=?-,

at poientia! aud continues


after wl.ie)i it

ren~n.s
is in a

equ.'d
.stato of

to xero.
cmKk.nsatIou,

ajw~ys

W)u!c
but

is di.nini.shiug,
a~ incroases

t!.c mdian
a~u.i to .en,

at
th~

statc.

of t]ic med.um

at

prom .-utwants cnnsi.st.s thurcforc gatcd at )cast, of ~-hich thc first is cundc-nscd and thc. !ast nu-efi~. ~~),atcvcr ,nay hc t).c charactcr of thc. ~mai di.sturhanec. t),c <i,d y; wit)un of6 tlt anyextc.ja) .LS t)h. Initit poillt (J is t,),c. sa.nu Ya]uc, an<[ therciurc, sutcu a~=t)ic n.c.aucon~n.sati.)). thu pas.sa.re of dun)~thc wavc., on U.u int~r~ d~cndiu~ is ,ero. Undcr"'thc hcad of sp)~.nca! wavcs wc shali h~vu occasion tu rcturu to this suhjcet ( 27!)). gnral solution cmbodied in (8) 273 must of course embracc the part.cuiar c~su of p)anc ~vc.s, but a few words on this application not bc supurfiuous, may for it nn~ht appear at first si~ht that the cUcct at a ~iveu point ofn di.sturbancc i)iiti:U)y connnL.d to a sficc of thc tncdiunt oyclosed between two paraHet woutd not pa.s.s oit- in planes any tinitc titnc, as wc know it ourrj.t to do. Let us suppose for shnpHcity t!.at is zero throug-In~t and U.at wit)mi thc. slice in <p~atiou thu initial value -A is
Fron. the thcory of p)anu waves we ]n.ow that at

is onc

of nu-cfactioa. of two parts

Thc

wavc

Thc

constant.

~rbitrary
a time

point
.such

the di.sturb.-incc
that <!< i.s c<{u:d

any

wi))
tu

fioaDy cca.se
thc distance

aftcr

thc

undcr disturbcd

considration rgion ~< continues

froni ~diiie

th on thc

initially sphcrc of radius to eut the rgion, D-om tbc t))at thc di.sturbancc gnera) formuk continues. It is truc indced remains that tillite, but this i.s nut incon.sistentwith rest. It will in fact appear cxatnination that on t]~c me:m value of multipiicd by t)~ mdius of t!.c sphre is th .same whatever may bc t)te position and sixe of tl.e spbcre, provided it on]y tjiat eut con.plcte)y th through disturbance. n.gion of original If is thus a0f/, constant v-ith cp both to space and timo, respect and accordingjy is at rc.st. tbe jnedium oti.er J)] two dimc.n.stons, when bc supposcd t)):)t the corrusponding 275. i~ indepcndent f..r!nu)a wou)d nf~ hc it might

furtller

boundary hand, sincc thc it woutd appear

(~ of of the

iapse of thc point

obtainedby

275.] smiply substitutingfor r:uHus. Tilis, howcvcr, thc mcan value of a circlc
ofnidius

TWO th
is function

DIMENSIONS. sp)ici-c
not ttie

91 thc It circlc of cqnd t)iftt provcd of a

of radius
C!isc.

7~(~

~) uver

mity bo thc circu!)ifei')juCtj

?' is ~(~7)

7~, wh<jrc

z==~T,

difcnng

t'rom

what

is rcquired

to satisfy

thc

fun(t~mc~t:U

quation.

Thc correct i'rom nmy na~'s, which thc i bc gcncnd

rcsntt

to t\vo dimensions applicn.btn frtnula. Thc ctoment of )'f~'<~


COS '1'

nifi.y

bc obtn.incd sutf.LCo cM

sp)tct-ic:U plane phmc

) i ) rcpfaced by

1/1 Ayhc'rc

t', 0 arc tangent

poln.tand

co-onhthat in

an~

is thc angle bct\vccn the th utotiut) takcs place. Thus

where T))e

thc other

intgration tcrm might


solution is

extcnds bc obtalued
~p))lic:iblc

ovcr by
to thc

thc

arcn,

of ruie.
of

t!ic

circle

)'==<

Stokes'
motion

This

Jaycr

of

gns

bctwccn
mutnbmnc,

two

piu'a.lld -phuics, or wtuctt dpends upon thc sohttion


t)io

to
thc

th:it
s:unc

of fm

unUoutcd

stretchc~
quation.

fundftmcuta.t

270.
as usu:d

From
( (!G),

in terms
eH'nct of'

of Initial
a eont!nn:dly

con<Htions
rcnewcd

wc May,
dis-

t]cdnce

turhancc. will
cqua) of 6 at

Let

us be
is is

uttirnatc~y
tu timc (~')~, t

suppose !i)ade
communicn.tcd

tliat to

the throughout a, uniform vanish),


at tmic T!)0

spa.cc (w)tich disturba.ucc


rcsultiu~vatuc

whcrc

~S'dcuutcs

tlie part

of thc surface

of the

sphcrc

)' =(<-<')

SOURCES nttc.rccpLcd compresscd ~y sult witinn 7~, a qnantlty bctween tho nan-ow by 7. with and

0F

SOUND. unicsa a (t vanishes, r, and )~. Ultimatcly by to ~); is found and by

f-S/C. j~~Jt'J. be

which Iimits ~(<')

Le rcplaccd of tlie

th

rc-

Integ~tion

(tlicvo)umc)fur/,9<

respect Ifcnce

writinc

tha .shown~ .yun..utn~I)y v~y.n~ sduL.01~


mvcr.sdy

thc di.tnrbancc

at ~ny point o~inating .sprcads itsc!f ni ali d.recMui.s witli votocity and with an~plitudc
thc <)i.s~ncc. Sincc ~ny nutnbeiof

n~y

bu superposcd,

tho

particuJar

ancrai

.sotutiuu

oi-t!ic

c.juatiou

?- dcnoting 0 (at wftich point t].oui,r), pcm)c))t)y.

thc

distance
cstimatcd),

of thc cicmcnt and t <P

~F.situatcd 1') thc value

at of

y~from for thc

<~ i.s

at th ait sj~cu

ti.nc

CompJc.ncutary = u~y

terms, of course

satisfying occur inde-

th

cqu~tion

In our prcvious

notation

( 2't-J.)

t]~at A'~+r~+~i, complote di~rcntiaJ undcr ~'].o.sc action l'orc~ t).c ~cdiu.u coutd not a.)ju.st itsclf to arc c~n .bruun, as for in.stanee, c.xcludcd; force uniform in n~rr. ultudc and direction witllin a space Y~ and outsidc that vani.shing H.c nature of thc disturl.ancc spnce d~K.ted by is pe,.],~ sn t).c extrcn.c by con.sidcring ea.sc ~c.n ,i, c, a .s.naH through ~-).ich is voininc,
,s assumcd suppo.scd to <!i,nini.sh

.Lnd t

ht.nt, wh~ thc magnitude of whoc ctrect retins finite.

~it),out

incrca.sc.s If thon

in such a. manncr we integrate

that

tite (~

quation

7 G.] fL

IIARMONIC

TYPE.

through

space -c nm.tL'iy concuutrat.cd,

sma)t

thc point Including Und in th limit

at

which

<P is ulti-

that shewing introduction


source simptcst of conduction

of <t* may bc rcprcscntcd by a proportiona) of nuid at t))C p)ac:u in (~uestio)i. Thc or abstracti(j)) of sound is thus an:i.io~ous to a, fucus lu th thc'n'y thc effect of tioat, or to au lectrode
n,rc

in thc

theoryof

cicctricity. of thc idi t))C to t))

oxpressions prcceding relatiou to timc of tite functions s!)a!l Iiave th.'ttwc applications

277.

Ttiu

~cncmt but conccrncd,

in respect in :d)nost

analyse
sunp)e

thc harmonie

tnotion

by FouricT'.s
tintions of varions

to ma)<c,it will bc convcniL'itt thcorcm and trc~t scparatciy


pcriods, ai'tcrwards, if ncccssat'y,

if si)np)u Inu'tii(i rcsult.s. Thc value of < and. conpounding in tite form !nonic at cvcry ))oint of spacc, may bc cxpresscd of timc, Lut variable 7t' and ebcing indcpcudott .7)!coH(?~+e), from point But as in such cases it of'tun conduccs to to point. simplieity
T~e~ or

to hntur being tit

add into

thc
wc

term
wiM

~sin(M<+),
assume si)np)y

jf~c".e'

malung :dtogcthcr that aU thc functions tu c" oprations


expressions

winch cients ptcted, question.

a problon

are

separa.tcd,

in gnral cotnpiex. re:d and imaginary parts of thc of theni cither by it.setf constituting to

proportiottat After our

tite

c"ef~ihc

are conican

a solution

of t)te

is proportiona! Since~) becomcs cquation

e'

~=?r<

and

thcdirfercntia!

To adapt oniyncccssfn'y

(3) of th torcmark

prcccdmg that tl)e ftetor

section tlie c

to thc

prsent

substitution 1. or e'

case, ?*

It is

of~fbr<Is thus

(-'iTeetc'd byiutroducing

VERIFICATION and tbc-solution of(I) Is

0F

SOLUTION,

f'277

to winch Ifthc r~.o.) t!.c


s~n,

may

bc addcd

any forces

suiutiun bc ~iin

of

+ ~=0. U.c.samcph.and <),u


with

di.stu.-bing thmnghwtnchthcy~

buvuty.s)na])i,.co.np!U-i.son

~c-]L.n~e-n,aybcro.nov~fn,,n~dcr
and at n. sufhcicnt. distance wc may ta~c

ihuint~d

to vcriiy that (3) ~tisfie.s the diHcrcutiat e.n.atioit CI) wc m~y procccd a.s in thc thcory of th common Conpotcl.ti~I. eue cicluent of t).e iut~rat ut a time, wo Ii~c Hrst to Mdcrn~ shcw that

In ordcr

-satires
.s.m~st

~+~=~
course is to cxprc.s.s

~j,
in p.]ar co-ordi.i~es referrcd to

thc

c!cmcnt

itsuffas

pulc,

whcn

it appels

tha.t

t),at w!.K.). cr va.n.shc.s. van.si. and


umty.

(3)

~e

may

put

.s.tisncs = (), ,t + a!) points for 1,, t).c case of a at w].ich do~ puint not out of account thu elc.nen~ situatc.) at a
on)y icnns .satis~ing

~H<cd).~ncu(ascont)-ib)[tij)g

io.- t)jc
Thns

etcmcut
on

at

an

innuitesin.a!

th

w)tu)e

\7~+~=Q) dlst!mccrun)~c c-bv

cxactfy

as

in

roi.sun'.s

t!ieorcni

for the cnrnmon

potenthd'.

't-!cTi)o)nso))nnJTmt.'tiA'<.7'/<f/i;.JtU.

278.]

SURFACE

DISTRIBUTIONS.

95

ovcr a. surface <I~ (ti.strihtttcd <S'ma.y ~s a. iituitin~ })C obtitiaed case frotn (!)) 277. (iTis rcpI.LCcd by thc t))icknc.ss of thc l<t.yer; {uid m the Ihuit w ~~(~S', (lunoting b = TiLus may writc 278.

Tho

ci'uct

ofa. force

Thcvatocff~ (ji.scoutimuty nortn!tl)y, I)t

i.sthcsn-niou its dcriva.Mvcs. ~ivus

ihctwos[<]cscf~butthcrc If<~ Le dra.wu outwards n'ont

la ~S'

(4) 276

OC

INFINITE

PLANE

WALL.

L-, [278.

Thu

siUti

mcLitmI rcstrictcd

is

tnotiou

is uot

applic:tb)c to bu sinipic

to thc
harmonie.

case whcn ~oncra.! Wc hve

thc

whcreby for thc )'ft In

is dcnoted F~j c)emcnt J~ at the to that complte time t

t!te

nornuU (?'-

velocity

at

the

plane

ft), that

is to say,

at a time

antcdent orderto

atwhidt~iscst-imated. th solution of th probton witit for t!)e

unntnitedmassoffhndJyingononcsidcofaniniiniteptane,we hilve toadd th most gnerai value of<j&, consistent Tins part oftite i.s Identical v'it!i tlic ~eucra) (juestiun from an inHuit.c ri~id plane'. rcileetion It is vident that th cft'cct on and th of tl)c constraint other sidc by th ititroduetion initial displaccment.s

F=(). ui'

probtem

will be reprc.scntcd of t))C phuic of fictitious

in conjunction witit thse forces, formin~ on t!ie nrst side a systcm cxl.sting actually ped'ccdy symmetrieal to the plane. with respect Whatcver the initiai values of~ and to any on th first side.thf .same must <~ may be belon~in~ point bc ascribed to Its ;'M~7~c, and in )ikc mantier whatever function of th thne tu t)e th! inay be at thc fu'st point, it nmsL be conceived satno function ofthc titneat theother. Underthesu circunistances it is c!eM' that fur plane,
motion

aH and
on

future

dnic

respect
far then

to the
as thc

thcrefore
th hr~t

wiLh ~) will be synimetrical th normal Su vefocity zro.


is concernet), thcre wili he

side

no

ch:)ngc

if

t))e

plane

be

removed,

and

t))e

Huid

continucd

thc circumstnnces on tht; directions, provided arc t)ie exact reftection of t))ose on th first. This thc solution uf th problem for a nnder.st.ood, being gnral nuid boundcd is containod m thc formuiaj by an Inrinite p)ane iudcnnit.L'iy second side (8) 273, (3) 277, and resuit of arbitrary Initial forces (<P), and arbitrary Measurcd (8) of th prsent section. They conditions (~ and <~), arbitrary motion ufthe plane (J''). give thc nppticd

in ail

a source ofgivcn bythc resn)ting potential, magniat which a given introduction and withdrawai tude, i.c. a source ofnuid takes place, is thus t\vice as enectivc when close to a rigid sitnatcd in th opcn, and thc t-esult is ultiplane, as if itwcrc
'P('if.n,J~;fnMi'(;)'crn~j)f)~<f'cyut)'~)f<t.vn. 1ROR.

DOUBLE "E, m. 1 '1..

SHEETS. _u-.

~7

~t~~T close h~u 'J.tJ3o~ui.Hccof Th which operation

source a th plane itself, plane of the

concentrated corresponding e norm~

in

a point ~n

th oppose 'ed~ double is diffused r'~ ~~(~ or potential Wc condition fictitious rnust s values at that will at (~ 2.I~),
now

expansion total only

is to doubte th effective pressures and contraction at th .so~.ce and space, ~1~ since this ~y~ amplitude, energy

energy

.upposc

that pL.ne on

instead is th.t on the first

of~=0, ~=0. second so In side

the this

prcscribcd case the

tho

infinite of of

distribution If two fT""

side,

of the the sum

plane of

corresponding points is always zero. Tins .ocurcs on th plane shall vanish ofsymmctry itself throughont. Lot us next th.t suppose there arc two parallel surfaces ~h~r small and ~'at th ~~1 o~n~ second is equal opposite to the value of on the first. In crossing thcre is by (2) finite change in the value of to thc amount of but in d7& th crossing 'e same finite occurs in the reverse change direction. When is reduced without Iimit, and replaced will by th dit same on the two sides of the double but there shcet, will be in th value diseontinulty of < to thc amount At tho of same time (1) becomes

po~or~ Positive R.II.

on the

""T"' one side

sign and native

on

th

~"rfacc-potentiaL due to the other, 7

98 action stood of the forces at the

SPIIERICAL <S. side Th

WAVES. direction of must

[278. be under-

to bo ~o~e~'f~ The

at which

<~ is to be estimated.

from a p&!nt of sphefical waves diverging considered, has aiready upon us and in some degree a more deta.iled of its importance it demands but on account be taken as ple the veloIf tlie centre of symmctry treatment, to reduces is a funetion of )- only, and ( 241) city-potential 279. probleni been forced ~+~ </7' or to r a?' ?' ar ~r. Th equation of freo motion (3) 273

a wavo thc first term represents dimension, that is to say, a diverin th direction of r increasing, advancing tcrm represents a. wave convcrgiug upon gent wave, and tlie second If The latter interest. tlie pole. does not in itself possess much As in the we confine our attention to tlie divergent wavc, wc h:t.vc

case of one

the hve

same been If the

relation expected. type

as obta.ins

in th

case

of a plane

wave,

as might

bo harmonie,

279.]
If

CONTINUITY

THROUGH

POLE.

99

a divergent distance bc conflucd to a sphencal she w.t~r.: ~iLhcur. ~L t! udthur condens~ion nor tho chamctcr of the w~e M linutcd veioctt~ remarkable reby first lation, out hy Stokcs'. l, From poiuted quations (4) wc have

th~, th shewing in.s.de and outside if M and by (~ radn f tho shel!,

v.~ue

I, the s.-unc, viz. zero, both of/(~) tbc she]] to which t])e w~ve is IImited. Henec bo radii less aud grcater tliau tlie cxtremo

of th relation expression referred to. As In 274 we sec that a conden.scd or a mrencd wave cannot exist alone.' When th radius beeomes in comparison grt with th thickness tho variation of m thc intgral may be negleetcd, and (8) thon tliat th ~eu~ condensation expresses is zero. th general applying solution th motion (2) to dcduce from arbitrary initial rcsuttmg we must remember circumstances, that in its prsent form it is too gnera! for the since it purpose, covers the case in which the ple is itself a source, or place where fhud is ~ntroduecd or wit)idrawn in violation of th quation of The total cnrrent contimuty. across the surface of a sphre of radius r is 47nor by (2) and (3) In

wnich

is thc

an

quation

which

must

hold

good

for ail

positive

values

of th

argument". By th determined known for th initial


timo

ch-cumstances ~=0,
1819. vihrntions piano wavGs. mny bo reiated

tho for a!l

values (positive)

of M and values

s arc of r.

and

J'/t)7. Tho by

jt/<!f/. Mtutiou

xxxiv. for of iu

p. 52.

superposition ont.warda

sphcricat tmins of

nbt.nucd similarly

without to th

tho polo,

usa

of (1) Md tra.

veUtnK

nJl diroctions

cymmetrioUly. 73

100

I~ITEAL

CIRCUMSTANCES.

[279.

If

thse

initla.1

values

be

rcprcscntcd

by

M~, and

wo

obttun

f~.m(3)M-!d(~)

thc function yis by which and th function for a. follows positive arguments subsquent nogative Th
in opposite

motion arguments initial

for at! ngative arguments, T)ic for)Ti of for positive arguments. of (0), and then th whoc by moins is dctcrmincd Th form of F for by (2). is not rcquired. divides in cach of itself which into ?'~ two Irn-veHin~ is propa.gnted with wa.vc is cot~tinua.Uy parts,

dctcrmincd

distnrh~ncc
directions,

(?, and tlie inwn.rds velocity tr:ivc)!ing reflected a.t thc poJc. Since the condition to be thcrc satisfied is thc case is somewhat simHfu- to tha,t of a pa.ra.Hel tube ?'<~=0, tcrminated wo may thus botter by an <T/je~ end, and pcrha.ps understand from tlie Hbo'n.tion. w;ivc, arising wloy thc condcnsed air round of a mass of eondensed the polo, is ibHowed immcdiatcly co))sta,nt by a wave 280. travelling of rarefaction. Returning outwards now to th case of a train of harmonie waves

from tho polo as source, let us continually th conncction between the vctocity-potentia! aud thc invcstigato of nuid* which rnust bc supposed to be introduced and quantity withdrawn If th velocity-potcntial be altcrnately.

wc !)a.vc, as in thc preccding a sphere of radius ?',

section,

for the

total

cun-cnt

crossing

when

?- is smal)

cnough. by J,

If th

maximum

<))!)(! bc dcnot.cd It will

titc corresponding that. when

of introduction of is givoi potential by(l). as mca-sured by is

rate

be obscrvcd and

tite source,
dncs

finite, thc potential at thc are inDnttc be supposcd,

thc

pressurc-va)-i:tt!on
tbis

po]o. But an inDnitn i'npty

mission

to <&) (proportiona! as might for a moment not, Jfthc ofcncrgy. pressure

280

ENERGY

EMITTED

PROM

GIVEN

SOURCE.

101

bc divided t).c vclocity, will bc found is ~nite. who)e, round We source

into aiid that

two tlie tl)e

parts, other

one tlie

of which lias th .same phase as th

same

part, ou which th The mRnite part of tlie pressure does no but mcrcly of tt~e air kecps up tlie vibratiuu t!ie source, whose effective inertia is indenhitely will of now investigate th energy emitted

former

a.s p!tase it acceleration, work dpends, work on th immediately grt. a simple

from

givea magnitude, for the sak of greater supposing tfiat tlie source is situated generaHty at tlie vertex of a rigid cone of aotid angle M. If the rate of introduction of iluid at th sourco be A cos we have

Of thc

mcmbcr thc first tcrm is entirely DgLt-hn.nd ni the sccoud thc mean vatuc of sm" :(<)-) is l'un long

pGriOfJIc, a.nd Thus in ttto

It

will

bu remarked

that

when

the sourco the

tu<Jc varies as M'. Fur accouut

is given,

the ampli-

as M, and thei-oforc iuver.sc)y an acute cone tite intensity of the dunimition in tlie soHd
Cmubfid~o MathcmaUcttI Tripus

intensity Inversety is greater, not on!y on which the angtc through


187G.

ExMuinatitiU,

~02 sound from

SPEAKING

TRUMPET. the total energy to put

[280. emitted

is distributed, but also because th source is ~t~eJf increaa.d. th source is in tho to a rigid article open, plane, nnd un when it is close results of this

When and

we hve <u = 27r,

only

M = 4.77-,

ill th application iutercsting of the speaking thcory or (by tl)e law of reciprocity trumpet, 10}), 294) Itc~nng If th diameter of the large open ti-uinpot. end be sumil iu with tl)e wa.ve-Iength, comparison th waves on arrivai 8uHcr copiuus and the ultimatu reflection, which rcsuft, must dpend relative h).rgcly on thc prcise Jcngths of th tube and of the wavc, to he determiucd rcquircs by a diifurent process.
thc this rdtcction protouging cunc, inay bo and it will tend to ceasc duninisbct!, witen tho diameter of th a large open end inchtdcs junnbcr of wavc-tongttts. from Apart friction it would thei-cfore bc possible c.) to obtain by diminishing from a given source desired amount of energy, and at tho any same thue t!ie cne to sccure by InHgthening th unimpeded transfureucc of this encrgy from th tube to the surrounding air. by suHicicntIy But

Thc

From not fal! diameter


ordinary

the of' to at

thcory

any th largo

of diffraction extcnt grt end eftect

it appcars in a latral hn.If a of a common

that

tl)c sound unless

will t]ie Th

direction, wave-lcngth. trumpet,

exceed

of the explanation on a supposod concentration untenablo. 281. By means of Eulcr's

of 7-~8 in the axial

dcpending is thus direction,

equation,

a thcory casily establisli for conical pipes with open ends, to thM of Bernoulli Midogous for pam]Iel tubes, subject to the same Innit~tion as to th stnaDncss of th diameter of tlie tubes in comwitli t]te p~isoti of the sound. W!ive-Icn~th tliat tho Assuming vibration is stationary, so th~t p-~ is to cverywherc proportioual cos /M~ wc gct from (1)

wc may

281.]
Tho condition

THEORY

Or

CONICAL

TUBES.

103

a.t an open end, viz., that there 13 to be no condensation or ra.reiactiou, = 0, so tha.t, if th gives extrme radii of tho tube bo )\ and we have

to be satisfied

of ~4 :7?, sin < (~ by elimjnation ?-J = 0, or = where ??t is an integer. In fact since the form of the general solutton and th condition for an open end are th same as for (3) a paraDc) tubo, the rcsult that the of th tube is a multiple length of th halfwave-length is necessarily also the same. A cone, which is complete as far as tho vertex, may bc treated a.s if tlie vertex were an open end, sincc, as we sa.w in 279, the condition ?'<~ = 0 is there satisfied, of parallel tubes does not extend to the position of th nodes. In th case of th gravest vibration of a parallel tube open at both ends, thc nodc a central occupies posiand th two halves vibrato tion, tubes open at one synchrououslyas end and stoppod at the other, But if a conical tube were divided a partition at its centre, th two parts would have different as is ovidcnt, becausc th one part differs pcrioda, from a parallel tube by being contracted at its open end where the effect of a contraction is to dcpress th pitch, wItHe the other part is contracted at its stopped end, \vherc thc effect is to raise th pitch. In order that the two periods must may be th sa.me, th partition nearer to the narrower approach end of thc tube. Its actual position from (3) by equating may ue determined to analytica!!y by zero th When notes value both of o' of a conical pipe are closed, tho correspondin~ jl between the cquatious, The rescmblancc to th case

whencc

ends

are determined

by eHniinating

~04 if y, and multiples "f par:~)~ 282.

TWO

SOURCES

0F

LIKE

riTCn.

[281.

tan'' A-?', and ?'j, bc very great, tan'' /<r, :t.re botti odd uf ~7r, so th:t.t Is a. niu!tip!c ~-r, of ., as thc thcory tnh~ t.'tp'ires. If there 1)G two distitict sources of sound of the at
bc expresscd

same

situftted at 01 tuid p'tctt, 7'whofie distances f:'oiu

the vclocity-potenti:d arc r, and ?' may

a poiut

whcre

A and

arc

coc~eicnts

rcprcsenting
tlie

the may
retardation.

thc sources, (which hve th same sign),

without
and N

luss of genorality
rcpreseuts

magnitudes bc supposcd
(considered

of to

as a distance) of the second source reiatively to th nrst. The two trams of spherical waves are in agreemcnt at any point P, if whcrc 7n is an intcger, that ~+ 'x ~'t = is, if P lie on any one of a systeni of hypcrboloids of rvolution foci at ha.ving and 0,. At points )yh)g on the intermediate hyperboloids, = tlie two sets of waves represented by ?a + af p-~ + (2/~ + 1) are opposed in phase, and nentraHze one another as far as thcir nctual Th neutratization is complete, magnitudes if permit. a.t 7~ continues 7\ ?', = ~1 ~C, and then th density pGt-manentIy Th intersections of this sphre with thc system of unch~nged. will thus mark out in most cases sevcml hypcrboloids circlcs of absoiate silence. If the distance th sources be grt C\ Oj, between m conparison with thc Jengtil ofa wave, and th sources tljcmselves bc not very unequal in powcr, it will bc possible to dpart from t)te sphre Z? for a distance of several ?'j :?'~=~1 wave-Icnn'ths without and thus appreciably intcnsities, disturbing thecquatityof to ohtain over finite surfaces several a!ternations of sound and of almost complte silence. There frence ordman]y is sone diniculty of two indcpendent in aetun.I]y sounds. Interrea.!isiug a satisfactory Unicss the unison 'be extraare and arc only momcntary It is thcrefore bcst to employ in such
them cannot

tlie silences perfuct, dinicult to appreciatc. co!)sequcnt)y sources whicli are mechanicaHy connected relative phases of
thc sounds issuin~

a way

tijat

th The

from

thc first sound by renection situp!cst plan is to rcpcat a Hat W!t!I ( 2G9, 278), but th tbun Joses somcthin'r in cxperiment dircctncss charactcr of the second owing to the fictitious source. tlie most satisfactory furm of t]jc experimeut Pcrhaps is that

vary. from

282.]

POINTS

0F

SILENCE.

105

deseribcd in the Philosophical for June 1877 by myscif. Magazine "An intermittent olGctric'un'cnt obtaincd froni a. fork interrupter 128 vibrations cxcitcd making of etectropur second, by mcans two othcr nagtiets forks, whose was 25G, ( G3, 64.). frequeney Tficse latter forks were placed at a distance of about ton yards and were provided with suitably apart, tuncd resonators, by which their sounds were reinfurccd. Thc of the forks was pitch since th vib~tions ideutica!, ncccss!n-I[y werc furcc(t by electroforces uf absulutely thc s.unG period. in~guetic With one car closed it was found to define thc ptuccs of silence with possible considrable of about :m incb bcnig a.ccm-iicy, a motion sufficient to pro<)uce a markcd rcvival of somid. At a point of silence, from which the line joiniug tlie forks subtended an angle of about GO", the apparent strikiug up of onc fork, wltcn the other was stopped, had a very peculiar eH'uct." a sound duplicate coming along means of branch wiiose by tubes, open ends act as sources. the experimcnt in this form is uot a very casy one. It often that happens tlie existence Another method is to a tube But

considrations of symmctry are sufEcient to indicate of places of sitence. For exampte, it is vident that therc can bc no variation of density in the coutinua.tion of th plane of a vibrating plate, nor in the equatorial plane of a symmctrical sulid of rvolution in the direction of vlhrating its axis. More gcner:d!y, is a plane of silence, any plane with to which the sources are symtnetrictd in such respect a manner tLat at any point and at its image in thc there are sources piane of cqual intcnsities and of opposite phases, or, as it is oftcn moro convcniently tudes. expressed, of the sa)ue phase same and of opposite whose ampli-

amplitudes as positive, bc placcd on th circumfcrcnce of a circlc, thcy will give rise to no disturhance of at. points on the straight linc which pressure thc passes tbrou~h contre of the circle and is directed at rig)it to its plane. aug)cs This is of th case the LcU symmctrical emits uo ( 232), which sound in tlie direction of its axis*. Th bosct aceurate exprimental Investigation cousiderable wiuch diniculLles,
'J"/t~(5),m.p..lCO.
of

If any numbcr of sources in th are on tbe whole as mucii ngative

phase,

with

have

acrla.1 vibrations is been only partiaily

1877.

EXPERIMENTAL Eurmounted it hitherto, In order

METIIODS.

f282.

unwished for reflections is generally necessary to open aIr.wberRd~ate sue)i as a sensitive is dimcult namc, of management. ~pp-u-atus, Another arises from the prsence impeduncnt of tho experimenter w)mse person h.msdf, is large to disturb enough the materially state of tlungs w))ich he wl.shcs to examine. indicators of Among sonnd may be mentioncd membranes stretched over cups, the agitation being made apparat by sand, or by small pendulums re~Ing thcm. If a membrane hghtiy aga.nst be simp)y stretched across a both its faces arc actcd upon by hoop, the same forces, and nearly the membrane be hu-ge euough to cast a sensible in which Its hinder faco sbadow, may be protected. the best mcthod of examining rrobabiy t!ic of sound at intensity in the air is to divert a any point of portion it by mcans of a tube in a small cono or resonator ending th sound so diverted !ed to the car, or to a manometric being In this way it is not difncult capsuic. to dtermine of places silence witli considerabic prcision.
consequentlythe diminished, motion is much

to avold work in tbc

uniess

of apparatns it is possible to cvcn the phase of th vibration at any point in air, and to trace out the surfaces on which thc phase ducs not vary'. If th nterior of a resonator be connected by flexible with a tubing manomctric capsule, Nyliicli influences a small gas name, thc motion of thc namc is rclated in an invariable mauner on the (dependincr apparatus Itself) to the variation of pressure at th mouth of tho and in resonator thc interval particular between the Jowest drop of thc name and thc lowcst at thc resonator pressure is Indepcndent of the ahsolute timc at which thse effects occur. In Mayer'a two fimes expcrimeut were empioycd, in one placcd close togetber vertical Iine, and were examined witb a rcvotving mirror So long th assocmted resonators were undisturbed, the serrations ofthe two Hames a Hxed relative occnp.ud and this relative position, was also maintained position when onc resonator was moved about su as to trace out a surface of invariable For phase. further dutails thc readcr must bc referred to the original paper, 283. Whcn wavcs of sound an obstacle, inlpinge a upon of the motion i.s rort.on thrown back as an cho, and under covcr of tbc obstacle therc is formed a sort of sound shadow. In order to hovever, shadows produce in anything like optical perfection,
1 Mlyor, P;,t/. ~), sLiv. p. 321. 1672.

By examine

mcan.s

of the

same

k:nd

283.]
tho dimensions of th

souND

snADows.

107

must be considerable. intervening body Th standard of comparison is tho w&veto tho subject proper of the vibration it requires almost as extreme length conditions to produco rays in th case of sound, as it requires in optics to avoid producing thcm. sound tlirowu shadows Still, by hills, or are often tolerabiy buildings, and must be within th compiute, exprience For
of harmonie

ofaU. closer examination lot us takc first the case of plane waves

an imtnuvable of type impinging upon plane screen, infmitesimai in which thichness, thre is an aperture of any form, tbc plane of th scrccn of the (.v= U) buing paraDel to tlie fronts waves. The velocity-potential of tlie undisturbed train of waves
may be takcn,

If and

the value

of

over

the

apcrturo

be

known,

formula

(6)

th value of at any point on (7) 278 aHow us to catcuh).te In tlie orduiat'y the further sidc. n.8 givon tlicory of (Ufra.ction, in works on optics, it is assumod that thc disturbance iu th plane et' thc apertm'e is t!ie sfunc as if the Bcrt) were This away. hypothesis, when tlie lungth, though it eau acvcr be rigorously comparison aperture as is usually is very large in th case in opties. wa.ve we have will sufHce exact, with the wave-

For the undisturbed

over tlie area of tlie aperture. SInco cxtcnding we sec by comparison with (1) th:bt iu supposing ~=2-na. wave brokeu th vicw of applying primary up, with Huyghens' ~<S must be divided tlie phase must ba priuciptc, by \?', and a.cceleratcid of {), period. by a qun.rtcr integration Whcn n.pcrture, of Huyghens' cstunated, ?' is large in comparison with the dimensions of tho thc composition of tlie Intgral is best studied by the a.Id zones. With thc point is to be 0, for which as centre deRcribc a series of sphres of radii increasing

th

108 1

nUYGHENS'

ZONES.

[283.

of th series being ~, thc first spticrc th pjanc (c) as to touch of t!ic scr~-p']. On t')is ont a. sries o; circ)e.s, whose radii plane are tttus markcd p are givcn by ~+c'=(c+~\)', so that or~=~c~, vcry llcarly the into witich the plane is divided, rings heing of approximately make area, contributions to cp which equal are approximately
in nnmerical and equal magnitude in Hign. a)tcrrmtc)y opposite If 0 lie decidcdiy within thc projection of the area, tho first tcrm of thc scrics titc Intgral is finite, and the tenns rcprcscnting -\vlnc!t follow are atternately in sign and of numerical opposite at first nearly jnagnitudc but !d'terw!U-d8 diminishing constata, to zro, as th parts of thc gradnally within thc rings intercupted become less and less. Tiic case of an aperture, aperture wliose is cquidistant is cxceptcd. boundary from

hy thc constant of such radius

ditFerence

after thc first is description any tcrm neutralizod almost cxact!y hy haf tlie sum of tliose whicii iinmcand follow it, so that diatety prccedc th sum of the who!e series is rcprcsentcd approximately by hatf the nrst tcrm, which stands over uneompcnsated. We sec that, provided a sumcient uumbcr of zones be ineluded within th aperture, the value at tho of of th nature point 0 is independent of the aperture, and is therefore th same as if there had been no scrcen at ait. Or we may calculate thc effect of th circle with which th directly of system zones bcgins; a course wliieh will have th of bringing advantagG out more clearly the significance of thc change of phase which we found it necessary to introduec when th primarywave was broken let us conoive thc cirele Thus, up. in question divided into innnitcsimal of equal ai-ca. Th parts rings of <~ due to each of thse rings are eqoal in amplitude and of phase ranging uniformly ovur haf a complte The phase of the resultant period. is thercforc midway betwcen tftose of thc extrme that is to lments, of a period bchind say, a quarter that due to th lment at thc less th centre than ratio of thc circ)e. Th if aU its componcnts amplitude had Leen of the in th resultant same since is will phase, th bc in area

In

sries

of

this

Tr, or 2 -n-; aud ~sin.<; of the circle is TrXr, ha]f the encet of tlie

thereforc first zone

thc

samc

as if tlie primary

wave

were

to

pass on undisturbed.

283.]
When
n.pc!n-c,

HUYGHENS'

ZONES.

109

the
tho

point
rp~dt is

0 is
fjui~

well
.~ffacut.

away

from
Th

th
scr'CH

projection
rq'rc'scnLing

of

the
t))o

then converges at botti ends, and by the samc rcasoning intgra,! as before its sum is sccn to bc approximately zro. We coneludo that if th projection of 0 on the plane a:==0 fait within th and be nearcr to 0 hy a grcat aperture, than many wavc-Iengths the nearest of tho of t!)e aperture, point th boundary thon disturbance a)! but, nearer to 0 by a grcat thc boundary, t!)oi Dus is the Thc thcory at 0 is ncarly if the projection
the

thc

samc

as if thcrc the

were

no obstacle and

at be

of 0 fa)l outside
wavc-Icngths disttu'bancc rays in its at simplest

)nany

aperture thn.)] th nearcst 0 practicaHy


form.

point of vanisjics.

ofHonnd

is not very di~ront if the screen he oblique argument to thc phme oftho waves. As hcfo-e, tlie motion on tho further side of tlle screen may bc rcgarded as due to th normal motion of the iu the plane of tbe aperture, but this normal motion particles now varies in phase from point to point. If the primary waves procccd from a source at Q, IIuyghens' zones fur a point 7~ arc th sries of = P~ + where citipses represented and ?- are by + the distances of any point on thc screen frnm Q and 7~ rcspectively, and M is an integer. On acconnt of tho assumed smallness of in and ?'~ tho zones are at first of equal area and make cqual and opposite contributions to thc value of <~ and thus by t))G samc rcasoning as hefore we may conclude that at any outsidc the gornetrica! jx'int decideclly of the aperture projection the disturbance at any point decidcdly vani.shcs, while within tlie
comparison with ?',

the disturbance is thc samc as if thc projection wavc had passcd thc screen primary It may be unimpedcd. rernarkGd thut the incrcasc of area of th Huyghens' zones due to is compensated in t!)e calcuiation of the intgral obliquity by the dintinisbed value of th normal of the correspondingly veloeity uuid. Tho cnfccblement of thc primary wave between the screen geometrical is representcd point .P duc to divcrgency in th area of tbe Huygbcns' zones below that waves in the ratio ?', + ?'~ ?'. plane incident TIicre tljrough leficctor sometimoa sirnitar is a simple an aperture of thc same bc taken relation lu a screen form in between and the its and th by
a diminution

correspondinrr

to

transmission reflection of which us

of sound from a plane

as the aperture,

pxpcriment. to (~ !Uid in the samc pliase to be placed

Let

advantage may a source imagine at (~ th t~e of

110

CONDITIONS

0F

COMPLETE

REFLEXION.

L. [283.

plane of th screen, and Jet us th~t th screen is suppose and repfaccd whoseform byap!.tc and position isexactiy that of tlie aperture; then we hnow that tt~e effect at of the two sources is nnu~ucnccd of thc plate, by th presence so that th vibration from Q renoctcd from the plate and th ~hration from round Otmnsm.ttcd tho p]ate togethcr make up the same vibration as would be rcccived from (? if thcrc werc no obstacle at a!! Now aecordmg to th winch we madc at thc as.su.nption b~inof this section, the unimpcded niug vibration from Q may bo as regardod ofthe composa vibration that nnds its way round th plate and of ti.at which ~ou!d pass an of Die sa.ne form aporturc in an infinite screen, and thus thc vibration from Q as tr~mittcd the aperture throu~h i.9 equal to the vibration from <2' as reriected from th piato. a nearly complte reflection it is not nocesthat the sary reneeting p]atc inctude more tl,an a small numhor of zones. In th case of direct Huyghens reflection the radius p of the first zoue is dctenniued by tlie quation In order to obtain

Q in th removed

wherc and are

c aud of the

wdfs are ordin.~ry give rc.Heetion. but at more moderato distances cho. arc cft.u nea.-Iy Tf~ area perfuet. for neccssary reflection con~cte also upon depcuds th and thus ~avc-!cngth it happens that a hoard or plate, which wou!d be quitc inadquate to reflect a musical note, may rcficct very fairly a hi~ or brave tlie sound of a high ,vhi,t!e. In experiments on reHection by of moderate scrccns size, the principal i. to gct ricl cliflictilty uf th d.rcct suSc~ent y sound. Thc ~p~t plan is to reflect the sound from an eicctric beit, or other fairiy steady .un source, round the corner of a large buildin~ to a con.ptcte section we have preceding apphed Huy~hens' to th case where principle the primary wave is supposed to be broken at t!.c surface of up an If wc in~ginary phu.e. reaiiv know what thc normal motion at thc pkne is, we can calculate
1 ~~)!. 3/<t~. (5) in. p..1C8. 1S77.

grcat, insufficieut

c, arc th distances of observation. point the zones becumc

from so

the

rejeter thc that

of thc

source

When large

distances

conocrned

28~

In

th

S84.] th distnrbance at any

DtVERGING

WAVES.

on th further point side by a ri~oro~ For process. surface other ti.an tlie p!ane the problem ].as no< beciisolved it is not difBeu!ttoseethat genemlly; nevertheless, when tlie radii of curvature of thc surface are very grcat in comwitli thc parison the e~et of a normal w~e-Icngth, motion of an Gtement of the surface must be very nearly th same as if tho surface were plane. On this we may employ tho understanding same mtegral as before to calculate tlie aggrogate rcsutt As Il matter of convenience it is usually bcst to suppose thc wavc to be broken up at what is calied in opties a that ~e-~r/ac< is, a surface at every point of which of th disturbance the~Me is 'tho same. to Huyghcns' principle of a given divergent progress wave. With any poiut at which th disturbance is required, as centre, describe a sries of spheres ofradii coiltinuaHy increasing by the constant dinfercnee tlie first of tlie sries being of such radius (c) as to touch tho given wave-surface at C. If 2i; be the radius of curvature of tho surface m any plane 1' and C, the through radius p corresponding of the outer of the zone is given bv the ennnHnn bouudary calcu!ate the Lot us considcr tho application of

If the surface be one of revolution round th arca ofthc first n zones is and since p2 is to M, it fullows proportional that the zones are of equal area. If tlie surface be net of th rvolution arca of the rirst zones is reprcsentcd where ~p'f~, is th azimuth of the plane in which p is measured, but it still i-eniains true tliat tlie zones M-c of arca. Since equal by hypothesis thc normal motion docs not vary over ttie rapidiy th wave-surface dtsturbances at P duc to th various zones are nearly in equal and magnitude in sign, and we conclude alteriiatoly opposite that, as in th case of th plane wavcs, effect is the haf of aggregate that due to th first zone. Ti~e phase at Is according!y retarded behmd that over th given wave-surface prevailing by au amount to tlie distance corresponding c. The intensity of th disturbance at P depeuda upon the area of

112

VARIATION

OF

INTENSITY.

[284.

thc first

Huygtiens' svmmetrv. wo havo

zone,

md

upon

thc distance

c.

In

th case

of

'n*~
'c"+c' which tho and
motion

7r\ 7i~
is less than if R were innuitc in

shows

tliat

tl)0 disturhancc J~. This as Avould

ratio

J~-t-c is the samc


is

duninution bc obtfuncd

!unitt;d

curvature v:due radii relation of of

wttosc by a co)nc:d tube Whcn th surface ( 2CG).

of divo'gcticy, on the supposition that the vertex Is a.t the centre of is not of rvolution, of thc
connectud

is thoefcct

tho

~"p~M
curvaturo

c may 7~~ and

Le expressed in with which

tGi'ms
is

pnnc'ipa.! the hy

so that

tlie

amplitude

is diminished

a. rcsutt ~/(jf~ + c) (7~ + c) ~Jf~, tite motion hmitcd to a tube supposing through a sn~U we coutour !)ave ti'ttced spoken on thc liitherto

by which

in th ratio divcrgcncy might bc anticipated by formed dt'awn by normals

wave-surface,

of divcrging waves only, th preceding also bc a.ppHed to waves converging expressions )t)~y in one or in buth of the priacip:).! planes, if wc a.tta.ch suitable In such a, case tlie arca of the nrst Huyghens' signs to and 7)~. than zone is grea.tcr if the wavc were plane, aud the intensity of Although th 'vibration with coincide increased, correspondingly one of th centres principal is jP point of curvature, the The investigation, on which (2) ail tlint we :n'e entitled to afirm at ~'than at othcr points greatct' If th

innnite. expression (2) becomcs is thon insurhciolt; was fuundcd, is that the disturbancc is tmtch on th samc

that thc disproportion incrcascs with thc normal, and that it would becoinc infinit for notes of infinitcly frequeucy, woutd be negtigible in comparison high pitch, whose wavc-tcngth with the distances coneemed. 285. th surface Huyghens' principle reflection of souud frum of thc rL'ncctoi' to Invcstigato may also bc applicd cnrvcd surfacctj. If thc materia.1 so compictely to th arial yicidcd

385.] pressures .1 won!.)

REELECTION that the normal

FROM motion

CURVED

SURFACES.

1]3

renectorerma) to that of the opposa waves at th same point, and primary be may nwest.gatcd by the formuh. to p).nc surf~ecs propcr in tho manner of thc preccding section, and subjcet to a simiL-u. limitation to the relative of th wavc-Icngth magnitudes aud of tho otitcr distances concerncd. Th most caso of reflection intcrcsting occurs wbcn the surface is so s))apc<! as to cause a concentration of rays upon a part~tar If t),, po.nt (P). from a simple ori~naHy source at (2 and th surface be an of revolution eHipsoId havL and ~t].e concentration i.s compfete, the vibration itsfoc~aW re ected from cvery eicme.t of th surface in the samc being Pb se ou arnval at <2. If <? be so that distant, th innnitely nc,dcnt are piane, t),c surface becomes a paraboloid havin~ its f.cus waves at P and ~ts axis to para)!cl th incident We must rays. not suppose, that a however, symmetrical wave diverging from O.s converted rencctioa hy at th surf.~e into a cHipsoi.hd wave converging in fact it is symmetrica!Iy upon P, spher~cal to see that th casy of th ii~tensity wave must he convergent ~erc.t when the waveNevertheless, len.th small in very .vith t!~ radius, con~parison th dinereut is of th parts wavc hccotne convergent approximately indepeudeut of one another, and their i.s uot progress aneeted materially by th faiture of pcrfcct symmetry. Th mcrcase of Juudne.ss dne to curvature dpends upon the area of rd)cct.ng from which surface, di.sturba.K.cs of unitbnn as phase arrive, wit). thu area of t!.e hrst comparud Muy<d.ens' .one of a and
piane rcH.ctor in thc samo

have been in the absence waves would pass on undisturbed. ensues when the surface is unyielding as due to a normal motion of each

at every point were the same as of thc reHector, then the sound Thc retlection which actually may lment thcreforc of the be re~arded

th source and fro.n th be point of observation and cons.dcrahfe, th wave-Jcngth bc nul very sma)!, tj.e nr.st zone is Muygbens rather large, and tbcrefore atready in th ca~ of a reOector of moderate dimensions but Httie is muned by it concave. On t!.e other i~uaL in laboratory exprimenta ~d~ when the d..stances are moderato and th .sounds are of en.ptoycd ..=h th p~ch. of a watch or thc cracking ticking of etectric concave p. L.s reHectors are very enicient and give a distinct cunccuttatton of somd on particu):~ spots R. JI. 8

t).e

rencctor

position.

If

thc

distances

of

from

114
28G. aftcr Wc ha.vc rcncction

FERMAT'S PRINCIPLE.
secn that a.t a. plane t]tc; .surface it. mcots if a ray procccding or curvcd surface throngh is dcu.:r!nmcd hy from 7' th thc

[28G.
passes point condition

7t'atwhici< that

is a minimum cases a (or in sonc m:).xinium). ~/?+-K.P oftitc thc centre of Hnyghcns' Il I.s thcn Thc point systcm xonc's; at .<tc'pon)s uf tho vibmiion thc arca of tLc thc amptitudc npon ~7~. If first zone, and It,s pha.sc dc))(;)n)s ~~)'+ upon thf di.stmtcc on t)K; mn'facc of Utc for which runccto)', bo uo puint thet'e ()/~+ xoncs an'ivcs sound mincd
points

7~~1s bas a.h bo

maxitunm

or

nlininunn,

th

.systf'm

of

no centre, aftt;r n'ncctcd

fmd

tito'c

rcHcetion ])iorc

is no ray prucc~din~ fron thc surface. In oncu, its th course Itj-n~'t!) nr

Huy~tcns' from Q w])ich tnanno' is any dctcrtwo if

)ike a

than that

Ly tin'
is

condition
or a

~)H))u

rny hctwccn

maxinnnu

ininitnmn.

Thc of sound fnnn that ~ith

same in
a

prioci{))c
mcdimn,

may hc apnik'd whosu )ncchanic:d


variation

toinvcsti~atct.hc pr<~pcrt.ics
is supposcd

r~Y/e~'o~ vary gradua~y to bc so s)o\v

T!)u to point. point rcHcotiou no s~nsih)u

occurs, t))u rays of

and in

this

is

nut

incf'nsistcnt

ducided

l'tTractionof

tra\'L'))it)~

distances

winch

im.')udt.! that of th

~rL'at, fL vcry wc arc n<'w \vhat

!tnnd)(.'r conf'crnod

a)on~ conditinn in

r!'Y, hnt a).sn tho yotocity as this vetocity it, inasnnu'!) to hc satisth'd !t. ray
:U)d (~'

It is vident wavc-)t-n~t!).s. with i.s not. mcrr'iy t))C )cn~th \it.h ')nch thc wave trav(.s is tho nny if bc
f

no time

)o))~'r two th<


thu

constant. hy a s)):d[

Thc wa\'c bc

is

that )x't\ct.'n

occuph'd points votooity


Icngth

tra.v~itin"'

:don~

m!txi<nu)H
"atiun at

'~r a mini!!]un)
any p"int,

so that,
an

of propaof t)~c r~y,

L'iemunt

~hc condition principtc

]nay

~c
tum;.

cxprcsscd,

Sj'

t~'t/==<).

Tins

is FcDnat's

of tcast

T))o Icad mcnta) thc

fnrthor

duvelopoment

of domain thn

this

part,

of

us too

far into

t]ic of

of ~coniL'trica]

wou.)d suhjcct T))C fundi).optics. tu thc

thc

assu)npti"n of r:'ys doctrine


of

s)naUn(;ssoft))cwavL'-h'n~th,onw!)i<')l a far wIdcrappHcation is hui)<, havin~ to thosc of .sonnd. to th<j task thc

phcnorncna

t~'ht

than

ils

consc'qucnces seic'uco, sc'h'ncc. toonr'

sister SiHII' an~hcd


issutnri~nt

he tuft nmy propt'rty scctiotis sudiolls Il! flJlIIII\'ing Irl In tl t)~' fo)to\vin~ < tw<~ isoiat~'d qut'sti~ns,
th''irc~nsid.'r:Ltion

of<h'vc)(~pin~ cnitiv.'t.tors of thc

thc the m(;t))od.s nwtJods uf' a-rc uf optics optics a!'c \)to.s<; acoustica! intcrcst
io <))c prsent \vork.

(odcm.'nh!

287.]
287. with Onc of tbcpr')~tionof

WnrsPERINO GALLERIES.
th rnost

115
conno~ted isL.h~

of thc strikir~ sound withi'ido-

phenomena hui!).

prescnted access.b!e of the

act.on opinion rcHcct.on oh.scrvcd s.n-ee rcHcctcd re~.enon 'antpomt.

by ".vhispering of which a ~ood gai.-ries," ~nd easity is tu be found in th cirodar cxampie th ba~ ~aicryat dme of' St Pau)'s catt.edral. As to th modo of prcise Mou.stic:d auD.oritics arc not In the c-ntirc.Iy ~.rreed. of theAstn.M.ncr eft-t is to"bc Roy:d' thc ~cribcd to fro.n t],c stu-faco of the dme ftnd is to bn ovcrh~ut, at th of poh.t to t).e t.heg.-dtcrydiametricdty opposKo of .sou..<). f-om a niduint Evcry r~y procccding point fmd from thc surface of a sphcrica! will rcHcctor, aft(T .t..r.s~t that diamctcr of thc which contins tho sphorc This.)iain<.tcr touchai nor.na). is infect a d~graded fonnofoneof in~c-nora), one

t))etwocin).sti<'surfais

hy.sy.stemsofray.s

ht')ngt)~iodofthuntrcsof tlie my.s a.'u d.amcter radtant Uu.s point

cf}~t(.d, doc-.s tu thc surface. rcHL-ctm~ .somc observations an) dispn.scd

principal cnrvaturcoftftosm-fac-cto Th concentration of rays not rcquirc thc proxinn'ty

on

ofthe

J~d~ing

fro.n

that to

I ])!wc think

madc that

in St the

Pau!'<!

wh.spL.rn~ga)Jury,I phunon~nonis ~nnat to thc jo,,dnc..ss

tobc.p)aint'd.somL-w)tat.tiff..runt)y. withwhich a~hi.sp.ri.sh-.ard diamctricaify opposite won!.) to that

principal Tbca))-

i.snotconnn.-d occupicd doo.s not hy the

it thcrL.Jorc, appuar, donend thc maturndiy npo.i of thc dme. Thc symmutry secins whisp~.r to thc crccp rom~ not ~aHcry itor~ontatfy, the ncce~ari)y ainn~ but rath~si.ortcrarc. aton~ that arc towards w)iich thc whispcrcr h'(~.s. Thisis :Lco))s~ptun<-cofthcvcrynnc(p)atau()ihi)ityofft. in front of' and bchind wh.spcr thc speaker a phcno.nci.on '~bich mayca.sdybcob.scrvcdinthcopcnair'. Lct po.nt dnote ns considcr .situated thc centre tho ncar of course thc t)tc of thu ofa rays divc~i.~ fro.n .spt.crc, dian~.tcr a radiant and fut lis

position and w)..spcn.r,

.snrfarc

spi.crc by pa.ssin. so ti.at~ tt.n.ugb by .ij', is tho point on the surface ncares~ <) J) we ux our attention on a rny which issues fro.n P at an t).e t~cnt ~v.th au~e at ~,we see plane tbatarierauy nu.nber of renection.s it continues to touch aconccntric sp).erc of rad.u.-j ~~cos~, so that the wi.oie conicat of rays ~hich pcncil
'Airy(;S',<x;t,2)H!(..]i)i~n.].s7!,p.lJj. ~t/A~.(.)ut.t)..l.').s,)s77.

rcOcctin~ and thc

116 originaUy Icss than


surface usuat

WIIISPERING makc

GALLERIES.

[287.

\vith the tangent angles is over aftcrwfu'ds inf'tuded

t!~at of thc conecntric sphre in threc ditncnsions divergence and

plane at ~4 numcricaliy betwccn th reHecting of radius 0~ cos Ti)o


cntailing

as is rcptaced intensity varying hy a. divergence between of waves from a source situatcd sions, hke that issuing as ?' two parallel \vitb an intunsity renecting planes, varying of sound by distanco than that usuatty T)ie less rapid cnfccbicnicnt iu thc phcjioincaa of whispering is tite luading feature expcrienccd ga.nerics. T)~ becomes of
a

diminishing in two dimen-

thidtness ]<ss und

of th

shcct

included

betwccn and surface

thc of tbc

radiant hy

point C~I

)css as -/1 approachc.s situatcd on tnc

in thc

spherea case Ihniting rcHcct.or is

two

or, If h(; sn~)), ~Oj-1 approxi(1-eos~), dct.ct'mincs thuwltoio Thc soHd ang)u ofthc p(.'nci),whicb ]uatc]y. is is 4-n-~ so that as of radiation in thc shcet, amount ils conibecontjs wit)iout litnit t)tc diminishcd inrinitc, intunsity from a shai!ar source at a nuitc distance intcnsity pa.rcd wit!i thc cxpresscd in th opeu. It Rurface is vident of
a concave

ihat

this
waU

of dpend upon thc exaciness of foi'tn. But in thc case ofa. truc sp)icrc, or rathcr the sphcncal to ~1~1', thcre is in addition witit respect symmctnca! any surface of ofat thc commencement kind of concentration thcother spoken th section which is pccuiiar to t!)c point ~f dianietricaHy prsent that in thc case of a nearly tu th source. It is pro~ahte opposite cuect a part of thc obscrvcd dotne like that of St Paut's spherica! th grcater part is though perhaps dpends upon thc symmctry, rcferable Th hy thc impiy to titc gnerai concavity of tttc walls.
is

clinging, docs nut

sn to

spcak,

of sonnd

to tho

of earthquake disturbances propagation curvaturc of tbe surface of th g)obe


sonorf)US

and cven perhaps ing gaiery, surface of th !and or water

arfected probably acting )Ike a whisperat th vibrations generated escapc th same kind

do not

entirely

of inHuencc. there are of public buildings to bear obscure. It is important many points which. still remain at a smooth in a singie renection In mind that t))C loss of sound In order tlie wai) be ptane or curved. wa is very smaU, wbethcr be necessary to introduce tu prcvcnt rverbration it may oftcn In connection with th aeoustics

S88.J

RESONANCE

IN

BUILDINGS,

117

to absorb the sound. In somc CMCs th hangi.igs of an audience prsence is found surncient to produco Die d~ircd e<!ect. Jn t))o absence of a)l dcadening matcriat H)e prolongation of sound may bc very eonsi.tcraldc, of' wfticii perhaps thc most striking ex:L)nptc is that ~urdc.t at Pis~ ~hero by th Baptistcty th nuttj.s of thc commoti chord sung consccutivdy !nay bc Lcar<t on for many ringing togcthetsccorKis. to Henry' it is AcconHng tu thu rcpcatcd iinporL-mt prcvcnt rencetion of sound baekwards ~nd forwards of a h.-dt Int(.ndL.d for pnbiic along tJK! speakw))ic)i bc n'g, may acconpHshcd by suit~hty piaeud objiquo surfaces. I~ tbi.s way tho munbcr of rcHcctions in a given tinie is :utd thc unduc iucreasud, ofsouud is checked. prutongation carpcts of acoustical which rfraction, ha.s apractica! is t)ic dviation inicrest, of soaorous rays from a. rcctihnuar course duc to bctcrogenuity uf thc atlnosphorc. Th van:Ltion of prcssm-c at diffurent levcl.s (tocs uut of itsctf givc rise to rufraction, since thu vu]ocity ofsou.td is indcpcndcnt ofdo.sity; first pointcd but, as was eut by Prof. Osbornc. thc case Rcynoids', JH dtfTcrcnt witb tite variations of temprature whicb arc usuaHy to bc met with. Th temprature of t)~cat~nosp)~ere is determined or rarfaction, prineipaHy by the condensation which any portion of air must in its undcrgo passage frum onc )cve) to anotbcr, and its tiormal state is t.ne rathcr thau of of'convcctivecquDibrium'
Aimost tho on!y

or

i.

288.

instance

uniformity. and dcnsity is given by

to this view th rchtio.1 According betwecn is ttuit exprcsscd in (U) 240, and th velocity

pressure of Sound

if r.

bc

tlie vulocity

at

thc

surface.

Tho

corrcspottding

rcht.tion

'h))f'r.~Mo<t-oc.l.s;n,p.ii{)_ ~7'n)<'f-~tH~H/<t.f<y.Yni.xx!i.p.C31. ~t f; T))omnu)), r~fn'e~'M .u<)))e/tM<tT~m())'r.18(jI.C~. 187t. c~Mt;t&)'tMM or <emp<M u! the (Kmo~/t~.

118
bctwccn

ATMosniERic

nnr~CTioN.

['288.
by mcansof quation

tcmpct'n.turc!

:U)d c)cvatiun

obtainciJ

riUlS2Ki!s

v'ho'e

is th

tonpcratnrc to (4.) tl)c

a.<- t))e sm'fncc. fa]t of wouH front he about

According
]"C.~))t. in

Ictupc-raturc ~;{(H'c(.t,whit;t)<Iuu.S])(~d!Ht'r)nuc)t

t!)~rc.su!t,.sof

(!t:d.s))('['s

b.dtoouoh.st'rv~tiuns. thedayis

t~)nj)c)'!du)-edu)'i)~

W))L'ttt.hL'.skyi.s('JL!:L)-,t])cf:(.))of mot'c t':)pi([t,))an\v!)(')tthc

nkyis

c-h)u'ty,})uLt('w:L)'dssu)ts<tth<'t('ni))~)-at.ut'<jbt'c<)))K's:tpj))'()Xnn:Lt(;)y cu)tst.!))tt'. l'i'ub:tb!yot)c)uarni~tt.sitisuf):unw:tr;nurabuvc:th:).n b~uw. Thc


va.)'i:ttiun

cxplnna<)()n
of tt't~pcrnture optic'al

of

ncnust!c:)t
with !K;i~))t f)f

rcfrnctmn is :d)n').st

as

(~-pcnth'nt, (jxactiy thu

upon
.s:unu

a.
as

thi~t a ray, by t)ic dmwn


curvature

of'thc

phcnnniRnon

mirage. !)nrixont:i),

Thc

euryn-ture

v'husu
tnctimd

course

is appfuxhnatdy givc'n hy Prof. Jiuucs points


to

T))om.son". thc ray

i.s casi)y Not-nud

(o"') uf cstitnatud

at two cunscentivc
aud a.rc tangcnt.I:),!

a)t))i~
t))~

mc'ct

phmcs at, L))u ccutre uf


in its two con-

wave-surfa

Stjcutivc

positions.
int~rccptcd

rcspcetivciy anutt~r in in tliu ~nitj

TtK'p')rti()nsufraynatt.c\'ations2:ands-+8~ behvccn thc mx'ntat pianos pratio a))d r F+ atsf), 8K sincc

arc

to

one

t)K; ratio tituc,

p in Uiu

aru dcscribcd tm'y Huncc in ttiu li)nit

In

tbc

nonn;).!

st:ttc

of

thc

))()n/ont.:L)ty, [):s~so\'u[' n.tt))c.surface ()ownw:u-()

turns~-mduidty

a r~y, whidi attnrtsphc'ro stn.rts upwn.nLs, !Ut(t :tt a suthcicut ()i.st:t.ncc bu (;t~;v:i.tc(),t.))C sound

t,huhc:)df't'a)tuI)s'')'c't'w!)osL;st:()))i.satthcsfui)c

ic\'(.-fnst.i)c.suu)-cc. ut

Ji:'L)K!suu)'C(3

isltc!u-(t and

t.)~c.'u-thby!)-n.).HSof:trayw))ichst:u'tswit)i h' ))uth thc inctitt~tion; hut, oh.survcr 'J'hc

thc

suu)'C(jLn()))tht.surf:)cc,<.)tcrcIsnodi)-uct)'ay,:uidt)tcs()u)i(~s hcin-d, if'ttta)),by]nc:u)sof'<]i<}'ra<"t!on. bc .said to bu sit.uatcd iti a souxd shadow,


no obst:ic)c lu

observer

maythcn tnay be source.

titc

direct

liuc

butwccu

th~rc n)L)iou~)i biuMuIf a.ud th

Accordm~ 'A"(ff)tr<

to (3) Sept. 20, 1877. ~tf<));.v.p~.t~j.218.

'Su(!KY('rttt.,0;;i/tt~ttMn/'j1/)r<~<

288.]

C'ONVECTIVE

EQUILIDRIUM.

or thc thc

ramus

of curvaturc witich:),

of

ft

hnrixnntid

my

is n-Lont

ton

timcs off

])(.'i~))Lthn'ug'h ni onh'rtn ~).vity s<'u))(). n.~d

b()<)y)nnstf:dtu)hk'rthn to ;).('<[))))'! :i, \'(.')(jcityc(j))~I

action thevc~ocityof c:mbe

Jt't)tCt'tt;v!iti<)nsut'<))()!).s(')-v('rnmtnf<hcmn)rccbcz, thus~md .?.~t)H:)'e:).t.L'st())ntimcuatw)ti(;)i

ttc~t'd

cLhei'tYisct.itu.nbyditt'i'it.ctujnI.s

Tt

is

not

to

hc suppose')

that

thc

condition

ofthc

fdmosphcrc variation ot'

I.sidways.su('hthatthc'r(d:tti('nhL't\vcenvu!oeityandc]nY:).ti')nis '))ui)thtj.su)) thatcxp)'L'.sscdin(~). i.SM])ini)~,t,])c tt']))))(')'atu!'c ]!~yno)ds tion istobu vcction


h:ts

upw:u-d.s
rctnm'k~d,

is

]uurc]-:q)i();
whcn j-ai)i is

ontLcot.ht't'Itnnd.as.Pt~f'. f.;).)jit)g',
a niuc!t s)o\vcr

variat)ig!tts titanconifsothe

Jnt)ica)'eticrcg'if)))S,))c.'rc'thc tuut'c influence nrc]<)))g'a))(I.sti)),ra()iat.i<~nn)ny])avc i)t(]ut(;i')ni)ii)i~ nf .soi)))t! propi~itinu by MK' t)pp)'oxi)n:i<.t;!y Tito tJjCL'quiiibnum in :t. )H))'i/out~t i.sotht;ro):t.I uf tcinpcratum,n.nd (Ht'cct.io)) wou)d

t~xpccLud.

hc f:t,vourcd

o~diMun ui' t.])c atino.sphcrc.

dift'm'c)iti:U for thc p:).t]f uf :t ra.y, wltu grnt.'nd quation t))C surfas off.~uat vctt'eityat~ p;u':dt(.'l phLH.s,i.s readityoljt:)!ned fron thc ]:t\v of silcs. bc thu at)g!tj of incidence, It'~ is ~sin notnttcrcd fmdthcrcfhrci)). titccaso r('f[-a<;ti!)~su)-f;)ce, by:t. supposcd
rcmain.s constaxt

.'don~

titu thc

\v)io!c

course

Lot.h(jl)0)'!xonta)co-urdu~tc,and bu calicd c, wc ~ct

constant

ni' n. my. If value of ~siu~

120

PATII

OF

RAY.

[288.

or, on cfueting

th

Intgration,

in which

Fmay

be cxprcsscd rcsult will will bc

in

terms

of~ by

by ti~ing
to

(3). an n.pproximn.tc
tho cuscs

A si)np!cr fur)n ot'(~),

obt:uncd

beiLCcuratuutiuugh tiic square ofpmctica.1 intrust..Nu~tucting s, wu m:t.y take

which

rc-prc.scnt

aud

Itigitcr

puwurs

of

thc

ori~!n of .f buing takcn so as to correspond with ~= c, that is at thu place wi~re thc my is Lurixuutat. ~iu tenua ExprusHnj"of~,wc~nd

Thc

path

of

each th

ray

is theruforc parajuctcr

catenary 9l/ C

whose

vcrtex

is fi-om

downwards ray to ray. 289.

liuear

aud varies

Is ~('y-i)c

Anothor

cause

in tlie action

lucward th:ui tu windward gencraUy uf thc sourcebut thc faet rumaincd utitit Stokus' uncxpjamcd out thut pointcd tiie incrua.si))g vetucity of t.hu wind ovurhead mnst interfcru wit)t thu ructilmcar of sound i-ays. Fro)n Fcrtnat's p)-up:)gation law of !ast tinic it fo)Iuw.s that tlic course of a ray Ifi a movin", but
/~t'<1~. ~'< ma?, 22.

uf wind. bcttcr Ituardto

of atmospheric rcfmction It Las long bceu known

is that

to be suunds

found arc

289.] otherwisc

REFRACTION

DY

WIND.

121

is tlic samc as it wou!d be in n mdium, bomogenoous, of which a.U tin' pa.rts arc :)t rcst, if th< '/(~ty mdium, of bc inr-rcased at cvcry of propa.ga.Liou point by th componcnt in thc direction th wind-velocity ai' th ray. If th wind bo and do nul hurixont:d borizonta), ttie vary In the s:uno p)anc, is evuryw!icrc b~t slIgtttLy inclined ray, wliosc direction to t)):i.t of thu wiud, inny be c:dcula,tcd ou t!ie sfune principlus as in tlie prcct;ding wo'c app!icd scctio!i to th citsc of :), y;t.riabtc course ofa thc nonmd tonpcraL'u'c, inct'L'asod, or ditnini.slicd, of thc sound thc motion w)icn uonnal
g)~du;d]y

vu)ucity by thc is to

thcwind statu
beut

ittcrcusesovcrttcad, of tbings, )torizont:d


upw.n'ds, and at

at any point being ofpropagn.tion luc:d wind-vu]ocity, n.M according iccward or to windw~rd. Tbus, whicit m~y bclooked uponasthc my
moderato

tr:LVt.i][ing
distance

to windward
passes ovcr

is

\vittt t)ic observer; rn.ys tm,vuHing othcr hand, are bcnt downw!U'(.)s,so t)<a.t n.n observur thc source bcars by a direct my which starts witb a mciiuatio)i,
obstructiuMs

t!~

hc'ad

of an

on thc wind, to Iceward of


siight

upward way of

!t.t)d ))as
for thc

tho
grcatcr

advantage
part. of ils

of

buing
courue.

uut

of

thc

Tbc

law of

tufraction

at

a horizontal
discontinuousiy,

surface, tbu

tbe velocity It gatcd. direction

of th wind
wiM bc suftcient

changes

to

consider

in crossin~ which is casiiy invcsticase in which th

thc ray are in th samc vertical plane. If0 be th augic of iucidcnco, which is also tbe angle bctwecn t!ie be thc velocity pliulc of th wavc and th surfile of sparation, of thc air in that direction wbicb makes tbe smaUer an'de with tbc ray, and F'be thc common of th vulocity veiocity propagation, of th trace of thc plane of tbc wavc on tbe surface of sparation is

of th wind

and

Is unclianged qu~ntity by tho rfraction. uf tlie wiud ou ttie second sidc, aud t)tu vclocity wLich rctru.ct.ion,

If thereforc be tlic

~7' bc au"e uf

which

dirfcrs

frorn

v:u'y coutmnou.sty, that condition

If th wnni-vclopity oi-dinnry npticnl !a.w. the course oi' n. my )~~y bL; c;Llculatcd from tlie th expression (1) re)na.Ius constant,

the

t22

TOTAL

REELECTION

I!Y

-\vrND.

[:289.

If wc suppose that !7'=(), thc ~reatcst ~hmssib)e value of ~'i.q


Atastmt.utnwhcrc ~7 hasthi.svi).]nc,t!)0(1ircct.mnf)fthumy pamjiutt.~titcrufracti))~ agr~~T ViLtuccannotbc

whi(')t.s):u'tudt~uia])~]u6))nsh(!('o)nt'
mu'i'.u~.s, :)))()

:).st.)'at)]))i~h(;)-u~'))as

])t;tmt('(tat.!L)).

T)tusari)yt)'avc])i)!~))j)\v;))-(].si)).sti)tairata.)i

)tH')Hi:t.<)n(~7r~tt)t))(!hn)'i~<))iisr('fi('f'tc<)])y!t.win(tovcr))t'a(l ('t'V(')()C'ity('C('('<iin~~t;t.t.givti)in(~),a)t(] ~'ttV(.]<)cit)(.s<.t':))<('nnL-()i:t<(j.st.rata. aH ray.s w))t).s~- upwant IxctitnUion r('nuc[L'() Sj)Q('dofL')


t'y ~i"d~f't!)('s!U)n'a/!in)uthnt<i)!~att!)c

ttti.siodupL'm~'uOyof 'i'ct.akcatnnncricalcxamph-, i.s Ju.ssthan a.ru ])", (-flirts

totaDy moderato Ovu)'t.)t(;

!nl)t;.s])ft-])(n)r.

'J'hc

uf.sm'aa~indonLhc! con~nc't ht'in~ in t\vo (HxicnsionH f:Lr~rc:ttc)' U~n

]"){)!ati())iof.s)m(t nurf.Lceoj'.stii! ~t.;t.\v(;('n 0!~y,n))<!)nay paraitt')

cnmtotfiLiitohcvt-ryintjxn'tiU)). WiLto- ~nun) tu )cu\v:trt), )))uvin~ )'f(!(.'ct.)!)g (tn'r~t'cruhc p!:nh!.s, ])c:U(tat diverses (ti.stiUH-s

wou)d')t,))(;rwi.suht.;pusst))iL'. ovcrhc.'nt h' )~H()~r bcititcrcujttcd by))i!i.s

Anot)K'i-p<).s.si))]L;t;t]L'cL<)t't!)(-reH(;ctor .sounds :m(ti))i~ w)nch in HtHt air wontd (~-othuroLst. i.suot lotcrvc!)))~ ticccssaryt.hatthL'rcbc U Fur the

pr()(h]c(.i()n'))'t.!ic.s(.;))))).)on)('nait, :d).s<n('cfwHK) n<,).)hof(~), at,t:)Li)ia,sunit'icnt.v:L)m'. fr~m tJ.c ff))m

.S(')u'cuufs<))tn<t)n(,:).sa))pc:n-s:Lt,(~)cc \'L')ucitiu.s mc-rdy t!)at t.hc(/<ccut'

T))(*()ifrc)'t.'])ti;d 't"t.iuntnt)it.'pat.hufaray,w])(jLithc\nnd\'cIocity~i!jconLmuuusIy\u'i:dj)c,is

lu tMthc

cn)np.-n'ing(.'i)

~-ith (.~nation

~)

of

(Le

p)-(.c~)i))g

section, wc

which must

Ct)!T<j.spHU(ting ]-(;nic)nhcT))):~risn(.w (t'imite ~su)t,wcsu))jx.su (iitTt.'t'L'nt luvds is titat

forordixary that. U.c t)y

rufractio)~,

c..x.st.at)t.

Jf,furt!m.Si~t'ufobtaitiin'ra huvuf v;u'iatiuu<,f

wiudat

uxprcssud

289 J
wMchisofthcsnmc
cour.st.'oi'a ravis

HEYNOLDS'
formas

OBSERVATIONS.
(II) ofthcp)-HC('d!ngscct;io)i.

')23
T)ic

acc()r()i))if)y!W:)tu))ary"~ti)('p)-f's't('s")d.sn

t"'t.t.)"r(~.sa.most!ntp<)r[:))<Ldist)nc;U()n),~t\t'u)tti)ut\opr~btcms. Wftunt))C!rcfracti<))ti.softhcor(hnary)u)n),dt;p~ndi))~ variab)c\'c)()(;it,yofpropa~atiu]),thu()ir(;cti~nufar!)y n'vcrscd. lu timcasc ')fat)n.s]))tL'ri(;(!fr:n;t.it)jt,()ucto:)()i)ni)mtinno)'temprature up\Ya)'(t.s,t.huoo))r.sc ('t'arayisa upon !nayhc a

catcnft.ry,

w))nHCY(;rtuxi.st)uw))wan)s,inw)tic)~crdin.'ctiunt))t'r!y)n:)ybc Whcn thcf'traction prnp;)gatt'<). isthtGtuwind.whosc'vcfocity i)~r(;:).si)))wa)-t)s,a(~r<ti)~tot)K!!a\v cxprcss(;(Ii)t(f!)wit)L/3 po.s!t)\'r-, t~L'))at])<){'ai':)y,\v))().sc(1i!-u('ti<)))i.supwa.)-t),i.sat.s.)a)nng ~catt.)..Nywit)) buta v~rtGxd-.wnwanIs, is ray wh~cdin-ction duw)<\van[c;u)th.t t))is pat)), case th tra\-L-tai<.ng h) thutatt~r Ycrtux ot'the whicit is dircctud cat~naryalong Oturaytravci.s npward.s. ~(). I"H'(!pap(ThyR..yn()h)sa!rf;a(]yr(;f(-)-rc<Ito,anacco))nt that fn tho

Ls~i\'t'n')f.S())n(!it)(rn;stin~<Xpurit)tcnt.s<'s))t.;cia!)y()ircct(;t)t()tcs(, thu of rdraction If wa.s fount) theury by \vin)!. <.)irrcti()nof't)tcwi)u!,w])t;tt bd))cout<) itwasstrH)~,t)t(.;sou)H)(~f'anc!c(;tric

)'ch~ardaswL-i)witht)tuh~<]u)tt))c~ronrt(l;).swh~)i ]'ai.s~),(.'v<'nw))(.nina)iuHuw\Yi).htht.ihu)) )u~h~ t))cs)<)pc()ft))n~roun<);an.) uoa(iva))ta~v!)atu\rw:t.s~m)cd

fr.xn

vtewby Tiu~,wit)t

eith<hyf)s<'(!n()in~tna))(;]~va(in))o!-r:)i.sin~t!tc))<j]). tht.; wit)doi.'L'rt!)(j~r:~st)tcso))ndcuu)(.[

hc

))car<)

I-t-0

yards,

atxl

o\'crH))()W:i!f)<)yiU'()s,<jit))t::r\vitht))L'hcadiift(.'doruntI)c~rou))d; w)t(TGasatri~))t:m~]<\st('tI)uwi)Klon:d!of'(;!)sionHtitumu<~cwas observer or t)tu bu))." cxtt'n<)cdl.'yraisi)igcit))crt)t(! "KJ(.ation w~ fouud t.<;ta'cctthcra)~cof's()un(]a~amstt))0

wm<)in!t.ntucht)U)rL'tn:u-kc()]n:L)jncrt)):m:d,r!'dtt:U)"'h's." "Ov~r<))(;~r:tss))(..snn))dc(.)dd))ch(~rd\Yit)tt]tL!).~<[ont))c thc !K.)),.t.id ~oundnt~Oy~-dsfruHi :Lt:!()yard.sit.w;ts!ustwit)t thc ))~td 3ic(jt inon t))c gro)md,fmdi(.si))H i))tc))Hit.yw!)s)ost wht-n cr~t;~ standing:!()yard.s. At7()yi,rds,)~nnta))(ting crcct.titc.suund was w:Ls)nstn.t)ong int~r~d.s,:u)d otdyfiuntty hc'f)rduvcn<I~c));))nt thcc'a.r iti)Cf-an)c'c<)]ttmu(jt).sn~inw)~-n wnsmi~<tOfL~tfn.rnt)h.~uud,tUtditr~chcditsiu!tiDtu))sity ata)tc]t.-va.tiu)it'12iL'<jt." Prof. 1.
surface

Rcyno)()s "Wi)oi
is niorc

t)n)s

smns

up

th

rcsults

of

his

experimcnts ovcr a rou~h

th(!rc
iutcusc

is

oowind, than

soond hulow."

procucdit)g'

above

124

TYNDALL'S

OBSERVATIONS

[290.
is ~cat~r .) abovc th.n

2. LcJ.w,

'~A.s .o..d

!nng

as tt.e U~d

velocity

of tbc

wind

~c~rd'h" ~d,

a~d

hcnce

its range r.f~tion

~'~

cxtc,.d.d ),a.s of ,u.1 ~j,

ut

thc

surface

of t).c b.ri~ tlw j,J, Pr

gruuud." on thc ,)'U1lI'S

At.nosph.ric ud.L.h-.y L.cur.J

in,po,.tant

tt.c.att.nti.n

twoc..i.cnt ~y.

,,hy.sici.ts ~y

)~ L ~~ccul T~ ~Lfl ~r~?' n ue

it 'T 7~ PLcn.nncn. who.so ~-rvcr.. .nv.sL.~tions havo b,.en cuu~))y 'o. which wl.ilc e.tcnsivc ~ccu~t or hc.tiug in~hi. Ty,M ~~tric it lnust to occur hu ndluitted
illlll

Ly ~sphcre latter by 7 d' Ilml, !Je altllOlIgh tllltt the .smg fr.r. uncqua! ~ti.g ~"L~d.

P o ~b~n~ ~~s densitit,s; ean

bas bc!I

al turllat()lIfo! ahrllht }JI)l'hap8


SO111C of

cOllSl,ll'I'ill)IC

w'c:ll

IIIO)'(!

th an in the to

SlipplJSl'd

ill tllc; l'Ull ail', uxct'pt ot' the sulicl grullnd,

LUL

c\j)iai]at)on~i"

nj

~i-~My
<)ucsttn

'rh us of

it

was

fcnmcl

tlt.vt

the

last

of

sirun

lal,vcecl

on

the

brlulually
"v-].n

dillliuiHl1ng
mllch t)

ilitunsity, ~OHH.s. tu any ti~ref-L concorn otlter

wllUSC l),).s

rlurutiuu
phu))u)nc)ton

solllotilrles
was cannot

ob.sc.rvcd

11'h'`~1'clltly
acoustic.1

IJU o,ttrihutc(1 It arc is

SlJ!oothllcss,"

aud

cause

tluln

Tyn~H. opacity of

tlmt

asSI~IIC(1

to

bot),

prob~ d i

ho bu tlisposud of to attacll

fub-sigl,vls, of '1`ymi<lll's

l1?wiuo ovll

we slloulcl

cert;lillly mlluit

suluc ~=~=~=

oservatiolls

explallation

1111011

t]Jis

l'Jril. L'rmts, l~~l. ~Z:?,~ltJ~

S'uun~l, 8rc1 c<litiuIJ, C'h. YII,

290.] ] principe. accordance A with faihn'e thcoy thc in

ON in

FOG-SIGNALS. can of wind


aconstic

125 only bc cxplained in

?'ec~)?'oc:7y Ly t.hc action of

( 111).
c]onds,

might

to According bc cxpcctcd winch to not


a

nypothcsis the bchaviour

a difforcncc

ofsounds to point any rctraction, c!oud

dnration, ]tot nppcar

cnergy Is at KuHatu'n

it may hcworth w!iiic becn hve notiecd by lost in rcficction !).nd


given distance

and of short oflottg out hre, as it docs writer. t]ic


source

prviens

Since of

from

continuons

intcnsity of sound

Ji~ht) is not a)tcrcd byan uniform tlensity, tlle hjss hcing compcnsatud sonrco. Whcu, by howevL'r,

cnvcioping due to t)iu rcncction thc

of sphuric'n.)

(or form and of

IntcrvL'ning pa.rt.s of thc ciond froin thosc wbich lie bcyond tlie sound is of short the duration, t)U)ch of its (H)ninishcd rcfk'ctin~ thuwitotc samc hy the ctond piu'ts and thc

at a distance may bu vcry intt'nsity dista!icus on ac<'o'mt o)' the diH'crcnt conHcqncntdrawing ns mcasnrcd ))y thc out of thc

tirnc-intc'gra), This is porhaps ht'cn no c]ond at aH. t!tc ]\i)x)s of signais t)u(t dincrcnt fthscTvat.ion, In sonic of ct'cctivuncss. tho sa)nc ontur howitzcr nriog a !))). charge connnandod

sonnd.ait.hongh may ))c th

intcnsity, as if thcrc ))ad

cxptanation ofTyudaii's do not aiways pruscrve statc.s a ta.rgcr of th wc-atitC)' a

tho range than or syre!)," \v!nh.i on othor witistis, trnn))~ts, days "thc htfo'iority \vas (~nionstrato) ill thu cicarcst uf tlte gntt to thc syrcn tnanncr." It shuntd bc noticcd, t))at in thc sanic scrics of cxpcrihowcvcr, il, \vas fonnd that thc liahi)ity nn'nts oftin; sonnd of a gnn "to bo by an opposing wind, so as to bu practicaily qnonchcd or doncotcd to windward, at a vcry short distance ~sctcss i.s vcry ronarkab))! bc t!)c saine for all kinds of sonmts, Th refraf.'tion propcr mu.st lmt for the reason thc diffraction round thc cdgc ahovo, cxptahn.td ofan
t)je

obstacle
snstained

tnay
note

bc h.ss
ofa sircn.

cf'cctivc

for

t)ic

report

of a gun

than

fur

Another ti~c

point

cxatnincd

of sonnd. propagation it was gcnera)!y eontrary', tbat t])C innncnee of fog prove passage sati.sfactority ofsomtd which air

was th inftncnccof l)y Tynd:dt In spite of isotated assertions bciicvud on thc anthorityot

fug on to t)i0 Dirham

observations was prcjudicia!. TyndaH's tbis ti)at is crroncous, and that tno opinion is favoured condition of thc by thc homogcncons is tbc usnal \vit)i to thc concomitant ntoisturc, law uf th
cunvectivc

atmosphre Wben thu with

of' f:dl

foggy

weathcr.

is satnrated
according

ot'tonpel'atxrc
eqniHbrimn is

ctuvation

~L'e fur oxtuuplu Dcsor, /r<it;/trt'<' f~'r ~/

xt. p. H17. 1SP5.

~26

LAW

0F

DIVERGENCE

0F

SOUND.

[29

1.

mnch

]c.ss

raj.id

than

in

tho

case

nf

<!ry air,

on

accent

of thc FroniL

Cf'nd.~sati<.nof'vapuur~])i.~t)K.nacc<.tnpanicH(~p:u)si..n. ~t'<t!atio))hy'r))<))))sf)M'.ta.})p~at.,t)):)t!)., "f''vap()r;)<it)na))()<~nth'))saHo)two)dd t.p<.)-tur(.Ly p~Ltun.wn.idthus .,).).n)f: T)u.acu.s<i. in hctodiminish f.~rh. thc

<t. fa)) of

n.fr..t<.ti.m(]uetut.n<,t1.r rMp..ot.'j no<)o)tbt

'!f)..ss(.u.),;t)H)

')'n~tLiun<.ft),c:tirwuuh)bc.f~'uur!th)u~thu}u-<.p!~Lion.'f soutx), nu obstruction pruvid~) WL-ru (.n'd rartic).st))(.t)).st.v~. d)st))rba))ofj));mu h.afuh)~c!)~)<.cr~.sh:)i)i)tv~ti~.t.-thc s..u(,r<u)s a .smati wavcshy

hytito

Hus)~n<)cd

u)).stac!u,an(t\VR (tiatnctrrof

.shatI)ir)(tthaL(h..un~-)(t..{,n.!st)))(.nt)t<.n~io..f<.)iC thuoh.stacit-tuthcwavt.-)~))!)]) of <).< .s.Huni.

lh~)'t'adt'r\\h").s(h..sir<)us(~jn))'sui))~t])is sultjcct tnnycfm"Ou su)ta]):t)~r)<y]~.yn.,)().s ti~cKt.tractio)) ni' Sound hy thc as th..au<)Hn-)t.i<s At!n(hsp~.rc'a.wc)t Tt att~tdyn.~rrudto. t)mt "):tyl~n)(.tin).t.) R..y)i..)~)~cswith H~nryincf~.sid~ n' rc.f)-acth.))tu!)u()mrc.d)y but important cau.s~ofdishtrhan, fm't)tL'r<jb.~naL[u)).s:tn.'tnuc)tn(;cdu(). Suca).soi!')4. 2f)). 0" IL''assutnptiott ());)(. thudiMturhanf'cat an a~rtorc

n)!inc)'L'('niMt))(~ain(.a.sit.wf)u)<t)tavc:))(;<.natt))('san)rpiaouin t)K'a~)K'(;ut't))(..s.'rr(.n,w~]nay.su)v..va)-i~u.s))n)t)!~t)i.sr.'sp..t-t.i)~ t))~! <)it))-a<').)nn(,f.s<iU))<) by t)n-.sa)n.'))h')h~d.sa.sarL'cn)pj.)yo()f(.r t))~currc.spundi,rn).)c.siH},y.sirai phrs. l-rcxat..p!)i.o <))~turha)H'(-atadi.sta)~~<)uthct)))'t)tt..rHi.i.(jfat) in)it)it<-pia)tR ~itjt wa~.pK~ed wavusot' a<-irr)))ara))urh))-(.on whidtpianu Sound hu cafotiah.dasi.i itnpit.~dir~Uy, thu a).:d.~ot)s n.ay probk.Utui'Lhc(Htrr.K-ti~)tpath.i~furn)udaLt).cfocu.s()f'acin~dar Tt.usi..tf.c~.sc object-~a.s.s. of'a.syh)mu!.nc;dspL.a)dn~tnu,)})~ t)ics..und Isa maximum axis (d't))ciu.sL)-mncnt.v!t(jrc a)u)~t))u aH thu (.-)u))h'n)a)'y thc'varions ')i.sturbaaru.si.s.s))i))~fro)n puints of't!)up]a)tc tions thc of
thc

<t)tL;m.)))t)tarcinon<p))asu. ),nt itd~.snotra)) in~n.sit.yi.s ).s.s;


rt.n.xi.nnm vahtu unti)

Inohtifpu-tHrocm~Tia))ys)t<.rt is suc)) that of points At ns~n~vh~ parts, cquai in magnitude, thc tho of

tlh; ucar~t

difr.-runcc n~uth

of

distants to thc

uf about

t))c

<.)j!i<juity fu..) fm-thc.st

:L..tu).nts

h:df;L wavc.-tf.n~th.

gn.atcrubiiquity whieh ti~ ncarcr

'ttout!ttnayh.divid~[intotw<) an n~r~atu L-t~ct .-ivcs

~.V.;)tr/n\<f..).)/)H.,fr.<.1;ir,]-(: 'A~7't;j.<.Yu). !<!< p. :;j. )n7t' i:jl~,

~1-]

SPEAKIJSTG

TRUMPET.

127

but in
s'~nd

in opposite t)d.s direction


vi~.s,

phftsc,
!,).)~s

to th~t

of In

vani.sht.s.
tu

so th~t the intensity fnrthcr; (Htions sti!! thc tu~-coLixjUf.


ixt~ihitye.jtia! to xcro,:Lnd rmgs sunn.D.u w],ichsn.-m).nd te. ~<7jf .r~tions f' ~~i,

t1~

..n

!L!t.hc:Lxi.s'ain.)i),.i..is].cs

c..)T<spr,n.ii,~tot).cb.~))tnud<h.rk ce).tndj)atc!t md.u.sut' ofJi~M <hcniouth,th~u~it t).<! in~f~

tl.e

.sh.r.

If~'d.-notptho is

~i.ichti.L.fir.stsik.aoccur.s

sin'C!0~. ~X, t)tc

W)K.ntlK-(]i:unctcr.,f<hctnout)t.)oc.St)otcxccc~ c!<jmu)~t:u-y di.sturhtUK-c.s


thc

c..)n))ine

witjx.ut

any

con.sido~bb

in~)l intc.sityi.su..ar)yu..ifurn) 'inactions. Itnpp~u'sthit.tconcctttndi~naj-s~mtd :).!ot)~)JK.is t)~t thu ratiu rc.~i~.s :s).ui.[ ~oo.i'iti..n ). ncb in <k. ordinary u.su.Oy.sati.fiud us<jnf.sp~ku~tru)n)K.t.s,wh.se cHi~~nryd~nd.snLtfh.ruponan vohunc in<T~cint).uun~i~d <~s(nmd(~S()). AVh.)..nvcv. tt~vitu~t.ion.s f.n/of~.ry.short oft.ctm.rn. v

anta~.ti.stnnt'pf.aso.nnd

~vo-)..ngt)),fth-mn}.d,ofmdc)-;)tGsixt.i.sc:)}.:d.h<Lsidt.ra~~cm.~ntrationa)~~ti,caxi.s,a.s]I~vcmy.sdt'~nficd J"t)'cc:isu(jf:t.)iis.s. 2f)2. AXhnx~h


.,f

sn(-I.c;L)cu)atmt).s ;).s ~ivi))~

ns

ih~c

rd~n~dtoin

thc ..fthc
t1)at ).),)c:m.s thc

p~c~di)~(iu)):)rcu.sd)t)
]')),K.)~ :u)xiii:ny:t.ssnmptiun diftract.i.m, ..nwi.idt it

~u.di()~
nnt h.~.r~.tt~n !shy

tnust

~Hy:n~fmmdcd

.stn.-Ny:u.d~n..)~)jy
J'x'idd.t ap.'rtum up~) a.s<-n.n

<
<hc

Thn.si))t))(!(-;t.s~i'i~v:LVLidi)-t)y
n~n~d v..)<xity in thcphmcofthu mcn~sc-st'rotn at t)t~i~(;itsc)f.

is)~.t.<uthst;mt,:Ls).ash.-cn.supp~s.],hnt

ti)C(~)ttr<jtuw:)n).st!t<'o)~hc.(.<))nmL;-inf!nih;

.i"<.rd~rt.)i.tn..shn~tct))(;(~)tditi..)i.shywhi<-h
~d('~nni))('(),tt-tnsiu)-H)<')n())!it'))ts)JppuHuth!ttt~(j:)p(.rt)))'eis Ti'e i).(-i<k.).t. w~vu ")'.

t)n-tu:J')uf-it.y
i.s th~)

<=eus(~<)

p..rftiy

~t)..ctud,nndt)tu sct'L~n(.<;=0)is

vclcity-putu)itl:d

<jn tj)u

hc~ttivu.siduut'tfic

= co.s (/<< S''vi"g-,whcn.-c=(), i"g 'jf<))cnor))):d <~=2cf.s~. v~tocity

x~) + cos (/;< + ~.r) m~r

(1),

t.uthe~mi.shT)tisc.))T<sp.)nd.s thc:))' ~fth~~p~~m~; tt.s to such that tk't~rmi)t(! ti)c poUttit~I

t))c

cc)npf(jtiuuf)ft)m J'u)-m:d v~).K'ity

pr<)b)c)nnv[Hir(.;s ovur tLu :q.ht~

:). \tn:Lb!c <Inu to it

(2~')).s]!:dti))cr(;a.s~-):)y

t))uc~n'!t:u)t(p):mt[ty~cus/~iitcn).sni!)"-

'~T~t,7.r~');<t~t~f~t.).)~u(!.

128

DIFFRACTION

TIIROUOn

SMALL

APERTURE.

[392.

from involves

the

ngative simp)y

to

the

a. citangc

positive of .sign, ovcr thus

the cros-sing Ride; or, sincc to dtermine :i vfdue of the


c~n

n'nialYi-).i)yovcr

tlif.irc:a.f{h[)ap.-rtu)'c'whi.f'hsh;~)

tlie tions two

positivt. ot' thc sidcs

RUpo-pnsing

sit)o <p=cos?;i' t)tc two motions

thc

samc

fn-cn.. salisses

T)te a

dL-Hncd

resn)t of tho condion t))o Uio

thc s:nno vc'tocity imd pressure prob)cm, giving oft))c aud avanishilig !),po'turc, norma.lvctocityovcr of thc serceu. dnote thc tho apc'rturo, value tho of at tlio for varions

rcmaindur If of tho

T~cos (<~+e) arca. ()S*) of ((i)

points

condition

detcnuining

7' and e is by

27M,

whcre

?' dnotes

t))G

dista.ncc

hctwcen

t!)c

cloncnt

fLS* and

a~y

n.~cdpoinLhttI~capcrtnrc. fur .mypuint piL't.t't)uuuf<~ i''ivcuby

Whcn~fH)<I<;arck)-to\vt),t.hecomon t]tc positive sit)cuft)tc

.sc'rccuis

Th fot')n,

expression is pn)))!d))y

ofZ'and beyond

e fora tbLi

if of circuler i)pertn)'e,e\'cn but in tho poWL'r (jf kouwtt mcthod.s; titc iurtitc poit~s, ncg)L:ctud,

fixit

cah!Cw))L-)'uthe()in)~t).si()))s:u'uVL-tys)n!).))inc<))np!H'Is()nwith W!t\c-I~n~ththL;.s<))ut.i(j))('ft))tJj))'ub)(.ti If )'bu ct!'c)u amtthu~ilipsc!. bot,h ahd of wbictt wu tttc'u :).)'u situ:~tL''t obtain frutn (~) in m~yLuL'H'tjctcd t.)tc<)ist:mcLibutwu(jtit.wc Uic npci'tm'~ Kr tnny Le

shuwin~ o that. distribntcd uxity. Atn, over

p i.sthc ~7r ~S'in f'rdRr

dcusityofthc to producc thcnpc])ing thcrc

mfi.ttcrwhicit thcconst:).nt on thu

must

be

distance!

from

potcntift.! sidewe positive

j])!)LycotJHidcr?'asco)ist!Lnt,n(!t:)L)\c

~-J

HLLU'TXJ

APERTUK~.

]29 1 :J

u'hbrc 1 r ~=-~J~'S', ~t.'t.l! :uu~ Ldcnotiog

t)to

totd

<~fUttity

of

natter

.u;.}.f.~i~

)~

(ii.iLtKud.

ir.

wiH

oc

s)icw)t

"n
1

n. future-

p)g-ct)nLt

fur

:ut

cHip.scufsotmnajnr

axis

ff,!u.d

ccccntrit'itvc,

l'esult, s1101IId ~Lsr(-su)h!s.juit.cdirfL-rcntfn,.nU)atw).ic]iwcHLou!.)aLt:,i,) 'hi: is fjuite tile ]las [ro!l1 tIl1tt which Z tt"']'y)"jtitosisth:(t,t))on(jr)n:dve]f)(-ity i))thcnpL')'<u)-cha.st.))c tlie \duu to t))L- pri)n:u-y w:tVL-. Li thaL c:Lsc prnpcr by (:!) 2~ l j j

011

1 !'tt)'

T))C(]:m-;t(.ti())]~sm)hd !)t.~))ti(.n <.it,])(.r frum

i.s~.snhj~.t.which

i~s

nttr.K't.cd!)).).

")nth~)j):)(i(:-i:uiso[-cxpfTi)nL'nt:d!.s<s. t.ndt.r<)).<r<(.ncs :)r<! to b(!

Ai<))0)~htt)c~t)u)-:))c).:u-~(~uft).t-p!K.no.n(.n:Lisw~tI :md st'd, thcr~'orcno vcry shrHh~ tl)~ cxnct 'j['<'ct..< t]H~rcUcit)s<)htth.nora )"-D)))u).s,w!ii<.)tt))u.suhj.~t.})n..scnts, < witit tix; pt-t'.scot impci-frct. "ng]tUj(-du))L.inthc\i)y<jt't.p(..ri,,)t_.t)t;Lh'))h):)tiu)).

f.of'Utu.sin)j))cr wo).)JLc i))tc)-~)i)~n.,), sr~))(..t))ii).L;'}))'<.haL)y

)))(.!)ju().s,

't

titc

c.\).rcs.s~] "t~. I"!tccrtai)).sd)scth!s].s:)).~t)'))cof'th(.'d:(s.so['f)))tcti<)j).s ~~L whx'hvc iu-(; now w1)!<-)t occ))))ic<], i'~uwixg i.s Hc)).t)t~)~spr<~r'.

TLc'va)tH'r)f;Lfn))c)!()))~w]H<-j).sati.stics\7'=<)t))n)U~))mh-ri~tof'~ ch~~ .si)u)']y-(~)))]<<t(.~] sp:n'c as t,).~pot.<~t)i!t!<.i'nj:)t~rdi.sfriL)ttut[nv~r<)tu

,S' c;))i''h(. surfa~

.s:)ti.sfy

\7'(/)+A-=(). if~

Dy(:t~).'stitr<.n.))i,

!t!dcn(.)t(-:)nytw'jft)j)<t~)).sf)f;<

j'.i.

77<f'f))')'fy,jr.),/7.<r/;t<')')<H~<');t))~<r''))Mf<f.f'H.'f<7'f~;) ].sf!f).

r,'(!i..

H.)

,y,.

):. H.

130

EXTENSION

0F

CREEN'S

TIIEOREM.

[293.

whcrcp-~prcsott.st)~ distance within At a)I points, cxccpL I't(l)buco)nL's

<.rfn)yp..in<.fr<.)nf).~x<~n)~in~ (~ (1) va)u.s)ic~; :md t)t0

]~st,

tcnn

"i~c))]t~v:m].s)),WtiIia\-t.uipxprL-s.sion

anyia~riur ~l~

point

~tcnnsufth~

snrfa

<<.rthcv:))ucof~at va)ucs of-~ We l'ail

andot' lr,lrl: back of

1n the c;isc uf llm conmam uu wllch -Int]icc.LM(;oi't))tje<)mnt()npotc'nt.i:tI,0)twl)ichw(;f!L]t potl.'lItial, A:= (), w~uld ~tc, bu ~utc-Dniocd thi.s Jaw ccascs hy thc

by putting <t Fur

surface

vahtu.s

to bc imivursalJy

truc.

a givon <S' thcrc is, ns in thu ca.sc spacc in 2(i7, iuycstigatcd sorics of <)chTtni)tatc vaht~.s oi' to thc periods uf corrcsponding thc possible ]no(]c.s <.)' simplu ijannonic winch vibration, may takc p]a<'('wit))iHa<-]u.sct]ri~i() AVhh cnv~)up(;Jtav!n~tL(.f.,rm<)f<S'. a)iy<.f'tht'.suva)n(\s<d'/<itiso])\-i.nhstIi!)t-c:m)H)t))C<1('tL'rn)incd its t~nna) variation hy ovcr i))at it satisfis <S', n.)xt U~- fact <),u (~uation thruu~x.ut Bntij'tLc ~+~=0. supposa! va]uc ui/t du nut coincidc wit)i (juc of t))u scric-s, t)<L'u thc prob)~;n

]
~1_L. n

IIELMIIOLTZ'S

THEOREM.

];~ 1

for thc .Mercncc ~s dctcrn~tc of any two possible ~nti.ns would hn~c ti.e condition sat.sfy ~i~g a o~ w!nel~ by hypottic.sLs ~uuot be ..tis~d cond~ou th(.' assutncd
value of/

if with

Jf tho

~i.nen.i. but !.tt!o

,f

~c fro.n

sptcc
Aniction

.?be

very
winch

sm.]I

in cc.np.n-son tia-ou.huuL

t.t thc

~7~/7' .hf). o~t~tton On

.s~i.fics

~7~=0. (), hi.s oxf:c~.sion i.nportant .cc~ A. M~rce of Grcun's th~rcm

20.).

ionn.Ls h..s proofofthc s~tcmc.nt: ~M r< ~.y B ~ee~

ti.~rc.n ~A is

(J) Hd.nh. c<it..Linc<) in t.)m fotfnwin.. M ~r~ &

point

A, /~<~ E ~ec~ ~e If tlie quation i

<6-

~~w~.

]~.cd

to a sp..co any
nu,nbcr

-nng bu vcloc.ty-potcnttafs

cncl.s. c~j~tdy hy a ri~i.) ~.m.Luy of-dutac). r~i.) H.~ and If~ h.dics, due to so.u-CL-.s witJ.in <S' w~

a,.)

t32

IIELMIIOLTZ'S

TIIEOREM.

r20-J.

itfo!!ow.stha.t ~,=<(-).), which i.s


thc symbuticat

statcnu'nt to
thc

ut' Hcimholtx's intinity,


samc Lut

thcorcm. surface Intt'~rai


~cccssary to

Iftbespa.cc
vanis)tcs, and thc

<S'<'xtend
rcsuit is

thc
it is

sti)t
go

not

intodct!u!!)t;rc,asthisthL-oretnisinchnh:'dinthcvast)yn)on' gner:).) prin('ip]of'rcciprocityc'stab)ish(.'<) tiicrc givcn s))cws titnt thc investigation t)ic prsence resist.ancL's ftuid r of (iis.sipativc ft'rcc.s, thu fn'st \nyi!)gas m;cd tiot bu Ihtinugcneons, nur Iti t)ic

inChaptnrV. ronaitts principe thcsc vetucity, :u'isn

T!)o truc in

th~t, pruvidcd ofthc puwcr t)tc

from thc rigi't

that h'xhc.s

t~'iglihonritu''

fix~J.

avnitk'd
h:tvl))g

to infnutc ~)) obson'ity is ;).pp)ic:Ltion sj):)('c, tu bc Hio\v)y thc vihr:tti~')is aftohy suppo.sing (hssip:).tcd to :L distance (j'ont ~t :md 7~, th sourct.'s undor (/sc.)po~

('ontooptfdio)]. Thc rcadcr


must

of cqunl.sources duction andft.h.strftctionofcfptat who.sc cr'cct,

rentonLcr titat in ca]'cfuHy soundaru thnHcpruthtcctIhythL'pL'riodic

fhis

thcort'm intro-

uvu!vucqn:t.) source cdosc cnc'rgy As r'asf


whusc

of finit), or <p):mt.itic.s HonK'thin"' is thc .s:uno, and th:d .sonrocs do not ncccs.stu'ity c(ptal ti;ne.s. For instance, n. amountfjoi'L'nc)'gyittcqu:d .surface
sonrecsituated

to thu

oi'n.

as an C(;ua! an cxiunpic hcaring,

hn'gc ubst~ch.' cmits in thc opt'n. f this t))corcm wc

twiee

as much

<'f tlic or.spea]\ing, is thns St'cn onLsidc strengt])

n.~c

ot'a

cHicic'ncy

trtunput tu be thc

thn )nay takc of a Ct~ni(.d tubt. L'onsisting s:))ne, whcthcra sonnd proat titu V(.'rtcx 01 t]tc cne, or thc VL'rtcx is obsct'Yc'd at th

(Incud
a. source

at a point ofcqua) point.

i.sobscn'ed situatcd at

cxterna! It

is in)pcrt:mt atso to bprn' in )nind that IH.dmImhx'.s fonn nf thu rcciprocity theorcm is apptic.tb)L; souro'.s oj))y to &/t~/e ot'sound, wbic)t in thu wuuld absence of obstac]cs gcncrate synunctricat wavc.s. possibh'
an intinitdy As wc sh:d]

sec

More of do

ch-arly sound, not

in \vhich,

a.

to ha.vc sma)) hc-n'

sonrccs rf'~ion, to considcr

sub.scqnL'ntchaptcr, conccntratcd t))ongh

it is in

.snfficicnt modined Lot thc


us

reciprocal
suppose

t))is condition. It will bo sa.tisfy tho case of~/o~g for which thc sources, hn~ a.n intercst of its own. thcorcm is that
a. si)n])lc source,

that

fmd potentia! sitnatcd at a nf'ighbouring

yl' point,

is an who.sc

equal potontial

at a. point giving a.nd opposite sonrcc :)t 7/ is + A-

29-Lj rr) 1 .) botb sources

AtTLICATION bc in operation

TO

DOUBLE

SOURCES.

13.-3

the potential at 7,' simultaneousiy, New let us that tbcrc is a suppose source at 7~ simple and p).a.sc arc t).c san.c as ti.ose mtcusity of t)ic sources at' an.! th J'; at is rc-sulting potcntial and at + A~ .r It thc .h.stance .Lr bc <)cnotud and )~ support by todmuni.s), ~it .ont hnnt, th<<,r t).c fiuid nt .f ill the direction v<.)~.i(.y ~L.r ..s thu ,nut if vu ~.n,, ufA~ H.~c, ~), as tf.u imnt oi t~o ~) (,p~ ,)~ is dnnnns).), ~nd who.su ink.n.sity i.s incrcascd v'it).o..t ""in. suc), a manner t).~ thc j.rudncb uf ti.c ,u.d intcn.sity t 'u di.stancc ,s t],c .sa.n. a.s for t~-o unit sources .sin.ptu j.kcud t''D unit distance wc npart, ti.at t)ic vulocity of- thc fh.id .nay s.y 'Lt. iu .hrcctKm J~f' duc to u..It source 7.' is numc.risimple caify cqua! to the potuntia) duc to a unit at source ~t J wf.osc ax.s is i.) t!.o dir~Iou .L. l;c it observed' Tiu.s t)icr,rcrn, Ls truc .n of sp.tc auy u]).sta<'tcs or rctiL.ctors that may cxist in th J'e~tdjnurhood oithu sourucs. is n~. whosc ~iu. ifJJ'aud 7.
reprospnt twn u!)itdoub!c sources of

t)~

direction .sa.ncp)..s<tLcvu)of.ityat~i,, is tho sainL. a.s t)ic vcjocit.y at .4 in source 7~7~. Tj.osc and othcr rcsutt. of bcobtamcd on an inuncdiate application IUS. ijtcsc will hc sufHcicnt cxampiM tho is ncccssary pr.nc.pfeofrcr-iprocityit oi the .sources. A double situated source, audibfc fro.n in its .-u,y pon.t
c.juatonat

7~' dir.-ction IL likc of the

duc .L~'

tnt)iG duc

source to thc also

ctt.-n-~c~r

may

ancrt to sttew t!~t

o'low from '~y ti'erc

to attend h) an open but phu.c, plane

of principte ill app)y,n<r to the characte' is inspar~ it doL.s not is inaudible 1 beiievc in wjdcb' of sound aion.r
oblique

tl~at the bc

In the e.p.atoriat sunjde source of tbo duuh!c position source. On tllis


a cnrious

priucipte, Tyndal)~ Th source

c.)]auied

cxpcri.ucnt of reciprocity'. high pitch-,

was an apparent vas a recd c.nptoycd


whuseax.stlieinteusitywasconsidembfygrcatcr dn'ectio))M.

by mo~ntcd

faifurc of very

i.L a tnbc,
than iu

Tbo surface

kinctic

is cxpresscd

cncrgy by

of

thc

motion

within

a c!oscd

e<ul. etlilioll,

p, ,105, 't""OnthcApj.)icationofthorri,)cip]cnfJ!MipMcitytnAc~stif.s" Vu), xxv. p. ~~c~r/ 118, 1876, or r/.<

0"

-S~

3rJ

A.

.Su<

J~.

(o) 111. p. 3u'

VARIATION

0F

TOTAL

ENEHGY.

f295.

'~wbicbt))cfi!sttcr)nt-(-p)-c.sc-nt.st.bnw)'ktr:u)Stnit(udacn).sstbc A', and t))c .second n'prc.sunt.s tbu wurk huundary source ut'.sunnd.

dune

by Intcrn:d

If tbu bound:n-y 6' bu :). Hxc(! ri~id cnvch'pc, nnd (hcrc Le no uttern:d its initiai S(un-c(j.s, .rf;t.;m)s viduc t))ruo~])outt.bc motiou. T))is princip]e !):LS bec!) npp)ied tbc (!cto-by KircbboiP toj.rovt! of tbo motiox from ~ivun initit )-c.s~)]ting tunut~ocss :u'bitr.ny cunthLiuHs. Sincc every ctcmojt of7~' is positive, tbcre can 1jc no nx.ti.m witbin if bu zuro. werc two motions Now, if tbcrc to tbc sf~mc initi:d. conditions, possibfc corruspondin~ tbdr diffcr(.'ncc wuu)t[ bc n, motion for w)neh tbc initi:d Y:duc of ~was zcru but by what itas jn.st bcen s:ud .sncb a. motion aumot cxist.
')7<ii)<~f'tt<t')'.l/tff/j/(~p.3n.

OUAPTER
DJRTHER A1THCATION

XV.
TUE

0F

GENERAL

EQUATIONS.

-o.

Wf!~ upon

n.

train

of

p]anc

~vcs,

othc.-wi.sc w].o.sc

"npn~.s ~av..s..u.u tu t)..ch.cn~

a .spac~. ocu.piud

uni.npcdcd
pro-

hy natter,

~cch~uc~t

i.t.L..sd.ncrfrmn

t).<<,fthusnn-.n.i.!i,~med:un,,
~u.~Hrcoft).nc.)in,u-~

.sccun<hu-y point of~rc

iLruwn~~vhk.].~ayLcr~c.das~)i.st,u~,Lncc.)uc ~hcn of thc

c.sp.<iy.,ppn,pr.atc, .s thu a!tcr~t,un ~u.uuu sp..)~n acc..n,.t .si.hcr.c~) p.paso.!


~"y rcst..ct.uu

7-~

~nccham~.1 h.

.[ nf ,.s ..u-c h.rc hannonic

~)..st.c)e twc-thc t~kcn

pn,)x.tics, t).e nuid, ,nod.n:c.) and


vi.scu.sity.

~ce,a.swc]I i.s snin!). t)i~ In thc

If parties

thc

~7-7~ of' fridiou or

~y. cil~tcr

no on

ana)y.sis
tu the

ou t)K..suppositiun

wc .s)udl consi.ter the i.crc proh]om t.hat t),c .b.stac]c i.s without .sp).cnca),
s,na)Inc.s.s cf thc c).u,~ of ~nccl.mica)

!up<.rt..H; arb.tr.ry, is~ of


t)ic chfuigc.s

Juti.cprc.scntinvc..sti~atiuu but a.s.su.nc t)..t ofjncciia)]ic-al (ienotc of and the if~ thc p:u-tic)c, Le t!,e

t).c
i).c s.juarc.s

furm
aud

of

t)~

oLst~cJc

pt-opcrLius (U.sphiceincnt.s
who.sc

may

higbcrpowcrs bc onutted. to position and tho of motion tbc .i.xc~ of

If co-ord.natcs ~y, of

parniid

c<)ui)i)jriu,n

is dL.fh.cd constant arc

norn~U =~ t!.c

dcnsity, quations

co.npre.s.sib.hty

.so HuLt

.m.)
Li.at

~vo
titu

.smuhu.
witoJu

cqu~.on.s inot.un is

~n proporti.nia)

~ud to

Oa e'-<, bc writtcn

a.s.sn.npCun w)iurc as usu:d

thc

=~7r\

anL) ( 2-l..t)

~=?~o-

(1) m~y

1~6 Die ments tat,hctiin<is rctu.Lion ??,

SHCO~DARY Lctwcen ubtainud th(; by

WAVES s, (3) nnd 2:!S t!)o witli

!29(J. d!sp!:tcerespect

condensation mtograting

For "f -A',

thu

System

of

pmnfu-y

w:t,vcs :u!vancing

in thc

direction

?;:U)()

~o-~bct))(.' wc!ta\'(.'asii)f2)

~vimi.s)); )nQc)):uuc:t!

if~ ~hcHn.v:).)u(-.s<-)f~:ut(is,:m(t con.sta'tt.s fur thc H)t(HstnrLcd))i(;(Un)i)

L"t.s')'~nt.snt,i.sfy(~):Lt,t))cr(~K'nof'di.stu)'h;mc<<jn:K;(~)U!tt, "i't)nj\H'iatiu)) i)i?~a)~[o-,w]tit;))onrsth<jru. O'at


'"(~).

f~;t.u.sas.smnu .~+~ ~~j .su)~t.hnt.u

(.h(-(.~)np)(.Lc!

v;i!u~

;u'u~-)-

')'i)(.'nt:).kin~:)~'<~)ntof(~),w(.'gct,

!t. sh.:dt ?;, us

).s tu .sp.

bf

<.))scrvc<)

t)i:i( as

~o-

vanish,

Gxccpt

Hn-m~]) d..st.ur)):~(..c

:). i

w).i.-)L

i.s n~k-d

Un.

n~-iun su that

~.s',I"))t~<))crc.su!t:~t'tttO(!ist.urh:LuccfL)-ct~betrcatcd s).)! <r .[nnntki~rthu ~w,A~; !xiin:dn ))) Viu-i:Ltio).sof~iu. anajy.sis ~Hs.,f(.)..u..t((;)a~h.Lc-)~.t(.d,1,u.~ 'sn':t)! .t)):.nti)ics. ~'cthu.s~htainfm.n 'tiatiu.u..):u)ditiun,wiLhu.seoi' 'n.~ ~),

cr intite

onr.i.pfir.st~

thfTcmuft.iplicd (.)a)~((!)by(1itfct-astl.cdt~i-cnti.-Ucunation

296.]

DUE

TO

VARIATION

0F

MEDIUM.

137

mw)nuh

tho

intention

cxtcn.Ls

ovcr.t Thc

volume mt~!sm(M)

co.npietdy

in-

dud.thor..g.nof<ti.stu.~Lr.ce. t~u.sf..rmc~ withtt.c parts j-cspuc~V(j]y

aidot'Grcun'sthcorcni." aud (), wc );;Lvc

('aHmr.

mayLc tlie tw.<

wt.o i..t.tioa

~dcnotu.s

tiie.st.rf.Lce Nu.'

ut- thc oa

spaco

thro~h ..u~

whidi ~~(A~)

thc

trit~ v.uus).,

cxtcnd.. t)i& surface

,S', A~

su U.at, buLh

int~r;t!.s

(fisappL-iu-.

Morcovcr

<IeuuLL.s thc cosinc ~hcru of thu nn~)c ),etwucn and TLc fmcardnncn.sn)n oi-thc of di.stnrbaucc i-~iou M nL.-dcct.cd m and is nc.~ccted c~~mrison with in cornpariso~ witli ?.. If 2' bc th .sc]).-i))jfc,wcmay volume writo of t!.c spacc throu~h whic)i AM, A<r arc

1~8

LAW

0F

DEPENDENCE

ON

WAVE-LENCTII.

f29G.

if on

Lhc r~ht-hand sidc.s thc\'n.ri:).ho)tHH) question.

A~,

~<r rcfer

to

tite

mean

of

TJtusfromCS)

o exprs the L'").s,)t =

terms

of

e~~ot.s~i,,)) and (12) may

,vo hve from = (3), foi, thc wavc.s bc prim~ry Le; put Intu t)iu fonn

~d =e'<+.~

~vh.ch~dL.notcs t''cpiaufdisturbanccattimu
<'onnft).c.su~.n)ary~v~att).L..sanu.time

thc

condc'n.sation

oft).c

r"y

wa.vc.sat condcn.sa-

/,and~dL.notus<.).c

atadi.stan~o~-frn.n

<1.ud..s<urb.-mc.Sinceth.dif!crc,ph..LScr~u.su.~dLythe ~c-~coiTc~nd.s.simp)ytothodi.sta.tc~w~nayc.,nsIdcr t.aLa.snnpiorcvLT.satof phas.ocursatt).. J'an.p),Lu.k-ofthc. s~n~uy ~.sisinvc.i~)y <c d..s(anco ~nd r, t"t.)ie~~reuft))cw~vc-)..n.t), "'c twotcrn~ in (J3) t).c first (.xp~.sscd 'chunsr<,un.)Lhup)~ofd~urbancc~vhi~t)~scc.-n.tvar!c.s ~sthc e..s,ur<h.a.hvc.unthupri,nru-y r~s. iLus~,h~~t~Lic]t~v;u-!c.sbc.avcsa.s.~ ~"d a ],)acc ~Y),ich o- v.u.ius hd.avc.s T!'at t).c .sf-cnn.L-uy
U.c

l.taccnfdi.st.u.hancc.
i.rupurtion~

of i.s.sy.mnct~~tinnH and

thcsccondary .source ( 2!).t). miybc a..<)AoT .utd in

as a duuble
~u.st uf.)im~.siun.s.

.9~ .source as A~ t.

.ii.sturhanc-o

vm-y

pr~)..amcdia<.L.)ybytLc)nL.thod L''))~n, ~eurd.mcc a. ~ss)


atnpHt.td~ i.s nc-ccs.s;u'i!y

wiL),thcprincIp)u.,fc..K.r,ry,t

pr~~rti-.nal ,j, u).,n c;ui bc

~yinvcrsdy s)~ti,nc,a.nd afunctio.), arc

No~t).co,.]y<tu~nt.tic.s(dcpundcnt, u) ~h.ch t!.cr~ioofa..npI.LudL..s "c'ty<'t'sound), an.) ut'a.sim~fumt:.), rcf~i.ceton~s.s. am! to .-u~t at)(t jodcpL'ndcnt, it.kTcstit~ ti.nc, of and wllicll uni thc )~t

<T,uf~hid.thota.stcannot asiti.sU.co.dyoneof Oi-ti.ercmah.i,~ is t).c on!y<,ncwhi~ oxdndGd Wc 1 varyi,

occurluthexp.~iun t'.uhvc ~iehinvutvc.sa f.)uant,tic.s ')v~ a 'cf~wHi. as 7' ~i. bemadctu 7', .~re.tcc

i.s (.h~-cf.).-e ().c n.dy

arc

cu.nhmatinn is 7'r'' of
this

or thc

application what cxph.i.i

of Jcn~h, c.f thc rusu?ts b~n ca!)ud

X'

sec'ti<m

may

).av~j

/<</c

cc/~e. of

'f~nt~i~~i~e~ I'{!t'nut))]',trti<.)(..s,"7~J/Jut)t.,lb71.. 'f<t<lH7:),v)tt.:)H).

296]]
Jf <")the primary
cntnponcnttonM.u.cxa.up)c,

ROUNDS ALTERED IN CIIARACTEH.


sonud is in no stxtccn
t)tc

139
variuus

bc a co.npound
~tt~d!ui.}. timcs strongcr

nmsical
~)-t~

note, to

thc

.ncntat hcre that .nay

tonc is thus Le nused

sccondary

t).an
in .snch

itw.~

rcJativdy i.i thc ho~ bodics

Thuocta.'u tl.c fund~'

dirriculty
fro.n

undcr.stan<)i.~ rcf!.ct:ng

cd.oe.s

rcti.rncd

prunaryMund it may f~apnen'

of f].. cncrgy expcn.so of thc m~in and stro~n, whcrc t).o sonnd is co.npuund, oxatt~tion t).e of the hi~her h-u-n~n.c.s H~ thc .seattcrud wavus involvcs a pr~orthmal ~r.L.icncy ot thcm iu th direct w~vu art.cr passif thc ob.stae!c..s Tins is th pL.ri.aps cxpfanati~ ~certain cchocs whicit arc .said to .-t..t.,rn sound g,r t)h.n th .n~ina], fur it is ~-no~n that thc pitch of to.ic I"o he c.stimatcd too )uw. .s~ptto Duttheovid.ncc is and t!.c w)..de .suhjcct cunH.ct.ng, f.u.th.r carc.fui cxnon~nirc.s 'nta)invc.st!,ration; i~nayhuco.n.ncndudtott.o~.ntionof .se ~).o may hve th n..c..ssary upport.uni~.s. W).i)e a.t altre "< m thec~~c~-of aso.md is ca..siiyi,itu))igib!u, and~nst ".deed ~,n.nJ)y al:,n:t..d j.appcn c.xto..t, thc acha.~m ut ;b ]" cft tone wuu)d Lu a viofa~nn ~,n),)c .,f t).c iaw'of furcud and i):u-d)y to bc ruconeifud vib~tto.Ls, wiLJi t)~uretie:Ll id~s. obtnini,,g (1.3) wc ),LVo n~ctud thc L.f)-uct uf t)ic variable "~urcui thc tucdimn ~f~~r~cc. ~Vhc~thc di-sturbancc ou th..s is th~-o.~b)y .supposition !<nown, wc mi~ht appro~i'~atc a~ t),c .s:unc inanuer. Tha ad.Htio~a! tur.n.s .su uhhuncd w..uhl be uf thc second i.cccs.sariiy ordcr i.i A~ Ao-, so t).it our cxpre.s.s.un.s arc ili ail cases c.jrrcct as f.r as thc fir.st of powers
Uiu.sc(~)a))titics.

si.I.. n~nt~y w~v~s u) .oun<), t.un.s arc at tlic

.~n oct~e. If a nu.nhcr


t],c vibrations

Thu

phenu.n.non of- smajl bodics


i.s.suc

as ,o,,p, of ~es Las ai.so a conujiulic in thcp.~<,f U.c.u in dl dirce-

wl.idi

fro.u

In

EvL-n panMfm
~.arcs ub.stactc

wfioi with

t)io

rcgi<j)i ti.c .s:uno bc rcai)y

of

disturbanco

i.s

not

.sma[I

in

con-

.~ti.od nc~i~i)~.

is

nf inay

A~,

appticabic, Ti.c tu~d

P~t.s. '-cgion to 'c'~ths

hi of in

t)ic.n ho ea!c.datcd by int~rati~i wc inay trace tinsway thc tra.nsltio.i


whose ~<?y~cc

thc prcvidcd cOuct of any fro.n tho.se of its f~.n as.nnit


into cut)sidcr:t-

d)stt)i-bancc

docs

not

corne

a. tbin
area,

p)atc ~inc)t

of a. fcw wi!!

or of a grcat many square rcHcet u)timatc!y accord: ofcaiL-utatiuu

wavcto thc t)~ suon

r~u!arapLl(..a! 'hrccHonofthc

Hntift),c.,b.stad~huatai)d.atcdin t)ns inethod primaryrays,

~0

SECONDARY

SOURCES.

f2DG.

couses change of tifc

to

practicaDy ofmechauical

bo

available,

because,

cven s)n!).)L bc )cft

of parts Titis caution is moru ueodet) In duaiin~ espucia)iy t)tc wavc-)cngUi is so f!ht,w!ture cxcce<!ing!yHmidl wit)i t.hc dinicnsi~tis ubstacic's. ot'urdin:u'y 2!)7. ch:u~c
lu sumc (]c~rcc .si)ni)n.r

varions

bu very properties t)ic obstac'te c.umot

tbc atdiough tl.e iuteraction out witb ut' accuunt. t)ic case ut'

i)i cujnpun.suM

to of~

tbe

cftcct

mGc)t:Uiic!d i.stb:)Lt.w)tichcn.suc.-iwJ!ut) wtiurc \7'~+~ of thc thc gnmJ to .suc)) Lhun jnotiot. ofthc i)))port!tUt!c

iji tlie

pt-upL'rLtG.s thcsq~u~ th~t. it

sn):)U

prudnccd r(.-gi(.n ot' t)m

by tinid,

n.

ufthutm~hm c;m bu un

i'I.-n.\s:u)yiun~crn~uctcd. thc square upott

:tC(p)irL'M:t.fi))itn Such ptaccs sourcc.s

vaiuudcpendcnt tftct-uiurc act !ikc thu

som-ccs of

uf

sound; th on-

pcridds

inc)ndu)~

subtnxttfph'.s

p~riod. nccunndatc'.s source,

to

Thu.sn.nyjtart a MufH<;iunt

c)tuttingt])<:h:u-!)~)nic

of.spit.cc, :ttwhic)t th intcnsity Lccotncs itsc]fa cxt(;)~t, s~coodary tonus t~t'th .suond. If p)-im:u-y arc thc .smn.s thcsucundfu'y fmd din'urcnccs of t

thc'rebGtwopt-ini:nyso)mdsofs)tf!icicntittt(;nsi<y, vibr:tti(nts hin-c t'rc([UC)tH)(.\s which thc ft-L'~Hcuc~s 2!)~. oftttc prinKH-ics

( GS)'.

is !!ab)c to modiiication Tjic pLtdi of a sound whcn thc som-L-c aod thc rccipicnt nrc ili !-c:]:t.tive motion. It is c)c;u', for th:tt an observer ]').st:(ncc, a (ixed source will tnect approac)d)ig thc wavc.s with a that propcr to the sound, frcqucneycxccodin~ t)y tlio numhcr of w:wc-]cn~ths of timc. Thus pa.s.scd uvcr in asocond if v bc tbc of titc! observer nnd M t]):tt of sonn<), veducity th is n.tturcd in tbc ratio M i freqnotcy f~ tho motion f<, accor<)in~ :.s towardaor fro)n tho Mourcc. SInccthca!tcratio)i i.s ofpitch a musical constant, wou]d stiH bc iioard in tune, pc'rfonnaucc in the second c:LSc', wnoi ft and v arc nc:u-)y :dthough cquid, tl(c fid) in pitcb wout(t be so ~reat a)l musical c))aracter. as to dcstroy If wc coutd to bu greittcr than M, a sound su])posc! aftcr prodocot th motion bad bcgun. wodd ncvcr i-c'ach thc observe')-, but sounds cxcitcd wotdd bc graduaHy overtakon prcvious)y and itcard in tbc ruvcrsu a musical of tbc piccc natural m correct resn)ts ordcr. tinic cnsuc If and u=2(t, titc observer wouht ficur but ~<fc/~w~. tune, when tbe source is lu

tbc
tuotion

Corrcsponding observer at
in

motion

and

tbc samo

\vitb

the

thu altration rest dcpoiding Hne of hearing. tlie source tbcre is nu a!tcration velocity

only on thc relative and th observer movc JI10VC

j i

1 Helmholtz Hotmhoitz

iibor Combiul1tiollstnc, hor Combinatioustuuc.

of frcquoicy, witethcr Bd. X<IX, xcix. H, Pogg, AlI/l, Bd, Pogg.H. H..107. ,HJ7, 18.C.

2~8.')

DOrpLER'S

PR!NCirLE.

14t. t

thc 40

mdium rnUcs

be

in

motion,

or

not.

Witb

a. rcJativo is

motion

of

amountin~ hcard
observer pass:

pur bonrthc i~t.crationofpitcb to a,bo't)t a. semitonc. Thc hi~I;


at

whistte Io\v as

c'iit'ptcnous, 'jry of a, loconctivc it


at

is an
of

too

as

it

.ipproaches., (.'han~'in~

and
rathcr

too

!'GCC(Jcs from
tho tuon~cnt

a. station,

fiLubteidy

T))L' first cipe.


whosc

pritipipic <unnciat(.'d Str:u~'n]y


ot'jccttun

ofthc

altration and

))y Doppler', its (jnou~h


\vaH

ofpitch is of'tcn

t!tn that

Ic~itimacy rcs~dt of I)t which

was motiol) by relative caited prinDuppto-'s was <sputud by Put/va)'

a. cont'usxm titere

bctwcct).

tw') motio))

distinct pcrf~ctiy and ut' tt)L: sunrce tnotiun bttc)' nu'ditnn connnon ut' piteh whiJu ca.SL'
thc

casc.s,

is a rciativc

is in aud tha.t in \vhic)i thc medhun t'ucipiunt, In thc th rcipient arc !).t rest. thu .suurcc and if as thfi a.rc t))C satuc circmn.stfUK'cs mechanic:dly at rcst and and thcrcforc t)'c source by a)id thc rcipient no had change

wcrc motion,

Doppicr'.s

principfc

is tu bu

c'xpcctud. by Unijs of pitch .'Llturati"n.s A iahoratory into nmtio)i six icub Atone Ijas in becn vcrinc'd

.i)opp)crs and f!at)ut" of


]nusica[

bas bccn cxpcriinc~taHy principic thc Scott Ku.sHcH, who cxantincd


instrnmcnts carricd

ou. fucomotivos. of pitcli due of a tube coitru. chichis An o))Mt'rvcr pitch, of

strument invcnted capabtu p)ac-t;d ah)))"rutatiou

for proving hy Mach~.

thc It

cbiu~'o consists

ofturni]]L;'a.houtanaxisn.tits a.s)na]lw)nsth; orrced, thc axis !)c;u's of t))C tnbe. a note

icngth, ond is

bhjwn situatcd but if )tc

bywindforccd in tt)G p!anc ]n)nscff p)accs sonnd becomes dcscrihcd


casc.s

of

in

thc

proion~atinn P(-'r))ap.s
Two c"

of~uct)U).tin~ of th a.\is si;nplL'st


furks

rotation, i.s
on

titc that

.stuady.
Koni"

tlic
tuning'

cxpc'ritncnt
mountcd

by
are

rL'soxancc

prcparcd

togivc

'\v)t!)(-:u-hcL)tcr

four

bcatspcr two forks distance. feet

second,

rfthc

~)'avfjrofth(-'forkshc)na()L!t('app)-oac]tthccarwhi)etbcothr'r is ~.s'< fur cacb ru!nain.s at rust, one bcat howcvcr, )hc ca.r, it bc onc tbe more is~t:~ acute in of thc the two bat samc

of approach if, ~'bich approachf'H A modification Sec l'isko, /)/<'

ThnnriG dcf! ffU'tji~']

;t')'<'M.-(~ftrff<<<'r~ H'/fx. vm. Ut. t.xvt. p..T~l. ~'r~g.< 'P<tf.;g.cxn.


"]~'ni):sf'(;~)yf)y;f

I~ichtof) (h'r D<ipp(.')stcrnp. rmK, 18)2. \Viun,18C~. vnr. lf!7. ~f)' /< M52. ~'or~f~tand cxvi.)).):M.
rnt-is,1RC.

p. nf!,lMt,

</<< ..t/)'~f/Jr~tt.<f)')~.

DOPPLER'S

PRINCIPLE.

['39

g.

duc to Maycr' cxpcrhnent may atso bu notiecd. In this case onc fork excites th vibrions of a second -in unison wit), Jtscif, tho cxcitation bcing madc apparent by a sn.aH p~dui~m, whosc bob rcsts against t))c extrc.nity af une of thc If thc pro.s. cxcitmg fork be at rest, the etfcct is of apparent np to a di.stn.cc but .t ('~ct, ccascs ~.).cn thc f. j, ,novcd cxciting to rapidiy o'- iro m the dm.cti(jn cf tjta Jinc t]ju twu furks. joining lu troating the p.-obic.n inatbcmat:c~!y of a movu~ source, .-u-ising fro.n thc fact th..L smn-cc any practic.-d ~ts a so as an ob.stacie. Thus in tbc case of a bc)I cm-ricd tho an, we s!.ou)d t'.rougb to solve a probk..n rcquire dif)1cu)t without ouougb H.e vibmtion.s incfuding at a)]. But thc so)utio,i of .such aprob]cm, cvcn if it couJd bc woutd throw no oLtainod, on particuJar i.ght DoppJcr-s law, and wc ,nny tbc.rcforc advanthe ta~cou.sly snnp)ify question thc bc!! into a snnpio by idca~n.g source of di~cutty
sound.

of this

Ti~cre is some

Tn
d..st..rbance

l.t7
Lu

v-c considcrc-d
t),u case of a

th

prob]cm

strc-tchcd

aenal ancrai ontcr

.vavc.s case to takc

m o,,o of
thrcc

a moving Thc string. of simDar,


i.s extension

.source thcory but for

of for tlle in

di.ncnsion
di.ncnsiun.s

is prcci.sdy
son.c

uf a motion po.s.sibiiity acro.ss tt.c d~ct.ou of the sound From 273, 27(! it r~ys. t!.c appuars th.t efrcet at any point 0 of a .sour of sound is thc samc, ~hcth.r t),c source he at rcst, or ~hethcr it. ,novc in on thc any ~nncr surface of a. spi.crc dL.scn))cd aLont as centre. Jf thc source inovc in .sucb a manncr as to change its distance fr.un its e~et (~) i.s aKcrcd in hvo Not way.s. of tho distnrbancc o.dy is th ~~c on arr.val at ~a~cted of distance, hy t).c variation Lut H.c~ a).so a undergoes Thc L.tter change. Lowcver co.nphcation may he put out of account, if wc limit oursc.Ivc.s to the case in ~hich tlie source is sun.cicntly distant. On thi.s we may understanding assert that thc enuct at 0 of a at time nnd disturhance gcncratc.I at d.stancc ?-LS thc sa)nc as t!tat ofa .siniilar distnrhancc ~ncrated at the time t + and fLt t])c distance )-- a~. In th case of a disturba..cc a velocity penodic of approach to an (r) is cquiva~ent mcruase in thc ratio ft f<+r. offrcqucncy 20f). an- conta.ncd of sound. AVc
~-i)[ within now a invcstigatc

account

of

the

ncec.~ry

tlie chambcr, ti.at thc


p. 27~.

forccd duc rcsutt

rcctang.dar

vibrations to internat at timc

of

t]jc

sonrccs < of an

By

2(!7 it nppcars
()) xt.nt.

1R72.

2M.'] B g g initia condensation '3

RECTANOULAR confincd

CHAJMDER. to ttic

143 of t!t

ucig!.bour!)ood

point

f.-n.n S

wltich

tLc ~7(!.

c.Hcct T).c

of

.tn

i)n)~rcsscd

force

a.s ..) Un.c


ru.suhant

m~y

bo

(Jc.)uc(~

di.sturb:u.ccjj'j' byJJJ')~.<
at tituc is

co.umu.ne;LtL..[ or ~,(~

B g

at' th

Lun~dcnotcJ
di.sturbancc

T)'c

.symmctry

of

thi.s

?/,

'.s an cxamp]c

cxpt-CMion of thc pnuciptc force, of

with

respect

to ( 107). (0 =~

y, a.td

of rcciprocity for which

.In fJtG ca.c f wc hav'u to considcr

h.-u-mntnc

cos?~

thc

vn)uc

thi.s StncUy spc.ing, wc ~s). for thu c.xpre.s.si.m

mt~al

bas

!ia

<tcf.).;tc

va)ucon)~

L..t wu nmst

if

of

(hu

f.n.ccd )~.cr

vit~ions

~t .y

u)tc~tcdf.mr.ii.,natt).c t),u ii,trud.,ctiou supposm~

t).c

of

vury

ii.n.t. .sn~)I

,n.yb~cc.a <)i.ssip~ivc forces

Wct,h)t.suut:ti)i

As m.~ht !c bccn prc~ictctL thc b~eomo cxp.-cssions in of a comci~~cc LeUvce.i tho pc.ria.t uf t)~ snurcc c~e oftho ofthc .tnratpc.nrKf.s c).mLcr. A.yparticuf.-u. Y.b,t.n will i~ot bc cxci~<), if tl.e source bo situatcd of its luop.s. Th cffuct cf a nu.p)icity of .sources n~y r~dify

infinitc

an.! one normal on onc

bc infcrrud

''ysumnnattonori)it(.raLi(jn.

H.i

U~LIMJTHD

Tt'UK.

t/

300.
si)np)cst

When Mnd of

sound excitation

iscxcitcdwithma.cylindne~pipc,
t.h~t we cun suppose is by th

the forced irmn

vibration th
\Yt)cn

Jn ttu.scase n piston. But it is Imp~rLnnt hcgimung. inst(:'n.d the ot'hcinL; source, of is conc~ttr~tuditiotn.'point Isnfjtu)n't;r\'<jdty thu wn.vcs source tn~) Lccomc

thc :dso
to

w:u'(js
irtqnirc

f~'c

ph~c

w1ta.b

section, howcvoi-, from


thc

uniiorndy'Hftuscd ofit. it. Ifwc:~sumG(wh:tt, t]):itat:L sufficient thc law plane, inf'orxKLtion. un~n~cd

h~ppcn.s thc over

distance

oi' rccipt-uclty

issuHitcicntto~uidcu.stothcdusirctt L(.'t~).
points

bc

asitnph'
normal

source

in nn
iu

<uh(~/)', tn of thc .source

two

oi'tttcs~Tnc

St.;ct.ion

thHrc~ionot'phincwavcs.

~.<- A~fC. arcthusHmc, sourcos this it :<.t fo!!uws


as if

thc ~nd 7~' funi

potuntiaisut/~and accordin~y 7~' wou)d ~ivc the


source

7/~h~ hythch~v thf .s:unc of :my

rcciprn(;i(yenu:d nt ~). From potontia! is t))c ovci' sn.)nc tho n,t section a. (hifusL-d

tlutt
thc

cn'<'ct
wcrc

source

distance, whidt
sources

uniforndy

passes
in

throu~h

it. phases,

Forex:).m])ic,
thc di.sturb:u)ce

opposite

if~:U)d7~werce<)U:).) hc ni). at /1 wou)d .source section the situated of'ti'c potentiel within tuhc due he to a, cr, itt

T)te
tuhc

cner~y

etnittt'd be sueh

:md

]na.ynow th source

Ly cah'nhdcd. thatin

a, simpit' If thc theopcn

woutdhc

th U)e of:),

\'u)ocH.y-p()t.c-))ti:U s:n))e:iLS if th
piston

at C!U).sc

:L (Hshtm-c ofthc

withio

thc wct'c total

tuhc thc

'i)l

bc

dist-m'hanec t))cs:i.mc

mnt.iou

!U)d th

!ttt)tenri~it),~ivin~ will C]nittcd cncr~y

nt.so be

ttic

MmnL'.

displacemcnt, New i'rum ())

~1
I!cncc,~sjn2.{.i, t)~ .source isgivc'nhy

I~ERGY

EMITTnn.

145

<)'cc!)p)-gy(~r)Rmitt~o)!C(7c/~t'(~

Le stoppcd hy an innnovit.bte {ti.stun thc source, tho \vho!e is onittcd in one cncr~y tins )s !i(-)t a)). In con.scqnc-ncc of th (ionblcd as n)uch f).s bcforc is ()cvc)nped, an.1 t))us in cno-gy

If thc tube

p):).cc() dose direction;

tn bnt

twicc prossurc, this c:tse

Thn)i;))-r<-)wpr th tubc,Lho gr~tcri.stiicono-~yissuinrffroni ?L ~)\'L;)t suut'cf;. It i.s into-c.sting to compa.rc tjtc a,sou)-cc;)Ltt))cstopp(-;(!en(tofn. :") ef)))~) source situatcd
wujtavcinthclattf-rcnso,

at

t))e

cy)in<)ncn.t vcrtex of a, cone.

cfHcicncy tubowiththatot' From

of

280

Thc t))at eut

Rncr~iM is, whoi otT hy thc 301. '\Vc

omittcd thc cne:


))nvc

in thc section frnni


now

two of thn

casps

are

t))C

sfune cqu:d

whcn to

m= tho

~'o-, an;it

a sphre to examine tube tbcir

is cy!int!(.;tof )'a(]jus x' hnw far

it is truc!

that

vibra-

t)f)ns suuicicnt to thu

w)t.I)in

a. cyimdrical ()ist:mce from

bccomo

source.

approxhnatdy <,hc nxis Taking


us

at n. p)anc of~ pa)'a!)c) t))t: ~dc stamt of a. fur

)notinn, -soxrcf-, r/' .+

Jincs gcnurati))~ whosc potcntial sitnatcd j' tlie at ~=().

of th varies If
oftho

lut. cyiitxicr, as e" nu thh bc t))C


is

invc-.stigatc

{.ositivc and

potcntial

cqnatton

]not.inn

If'

bt!

I))()upct)dcnt,

uf

it

tmnsvt.t-sGtnttiCfLxi.sofUiccytindur. prr-pnrtion~dtde'it ntnstsatisiy

t-cprcscnt.s li'tite

\')))!-atKm.sw))o])~ bcHto. potentiel

!()

14

VIBRATIONS

IN

UNLIMITED

TUBES.

[301.

as well

as thc

conditioti

that

over

tlie

boundary

of tho

sectioM

is rcst.rictod n~y be compatible, quations of thc to th pcriods dufinite vtues to certum con'usponding wh~'h A xcro value D~tu)':dvi!)r:Ltiuns. of~) gives ~)= constant, in th two dinicusion it is of no significancu p)'f)sotution, t)tougii rur oach athnissi~G we nha)l prusentty bave to c<'usi(!(.'r. bk'm, In ordcr that thnso v.duc such of that thcrc a sutution is f).dcfinite iH norma.1 fnuction M of and y ( 0~),

in which [n thu

corrcspondin~ actun]

tn ~=

0, is constant. samc of

sries, provide~ Hy substitution

in thc mity stiU bc expandcd prnb)cin as fnnctions t)):~t J~, ~1,, &(. bc t~gardeJ in (t) wc gct, liaving regard to (~),

Thc
f'urin,

solution
aecordixg

of the as

gcnc'rai

cq~ation is punitive

in

~t

nssunn-s

di~crcnt

or ncg'~tivp.

K'thc

furccd

DISCRIMINATION vibrion
vcr.sc n~ura)

0F thc

CASES, of th
i..

t~ purdy trans-

be graver
vibration.s.

in pitch
cvery

than
fimtc

gr~vest
value of;~

g,-(;aterth~

Ls<m.Hi,(j~at!vL-.

Pm.(,n)g

~w .notjun .sh. t).c ..s

un.). ducs not

th

L.ireu.n.sL.u~.s

suppt, with t),c

it so that

is C'vidc'I1t a)! t).o

thatthp

b.co.nc

infinie

c.ciicicnts u, W~ ,nav

I'su,ncwi.atdim..rc,.troason can bc. no wavc in

thc.~ncistn.cof. ngative dirccLiun.

t.Jt'jrctut'eta.ko
<~=~e')+~+~+,, 111 e

+ .(1_),

(~~

a.. Se~.

r.p,-ossi.n

which

rc.ducc.s that.

A\ c c.ndu.)c ~c~ ~-(~~c~e

Le its n.st tc.n. wi.en i.s suf~iu-Uy in ..]! ca.sus U.c ~vc..s bccunK. ukin.d.c.)y Jrctr~est cf tlie

!o, ?<<?-/ v.

;<M).s-.

to 33J) i' t?hat If ~ca thc wavc-Jc.ngth nf the

~cg.u-c.st 2.1.S.H vibrion !T!

trans=3..H.~ e..c~ ~'o~w.vcsuurcc tubc trans~ .nor.

forccd

uh.n.atdy tho bc.cun..p)..n.,n)t.].ou~. ~u i.cwav~ iaH .s .t of tl.c aL~.c ~.1. limit. F. if thc exa,.p)e. ot v.bmt.on ho .sy.nn~t.ca) with respect to thc axi.s cf t),c a <7. .situai) ,unp), source on the Hxis t),c ~avc..st it.c.!f, vci-.SG ~hrat.o.j ~.ith whieh wc .shouhi ).ave to d.at wouid bc
an octave than J.i~cr forced in th. g.ncra!

'c .)t valne.

~n

uf

ca.sc.

an.)

thc

H.

v.brat.on

n,i.r).t

),avc

Jc.s.s than

i~f t),c.

abovu

inasmnch a.

r/<r, accr,n!mg)y

A.c., ~) vani.s)~. t).at t)~ p]anc hya wavos a<, a dist.anco a.. pi.ston at, thcm~m, K)2

It appcar.s 'esamcaswonM

bcpro.juce.]

rigir)

t~8

REACTION

OF

AIR

[!

~iving "orm~ produccs

th

samc of

mcan w~ich

normal

vdocity

actuaUy ~n~ positive

cxists. p.~ts

Any

motion

uitimateiy

t.)'f- ~-t~tivc no cr'cct.

arc equaL

of tLe source, :ujd on thc eharactcr thcrc is no restriction Wilcn t1':m are graver vibrations natnrat whcn some ot' thc transverso and thon are positive of the !tCtn!U onc, sotne of thc vah'cs tcnns enter of th form

Indicating au in~n'tc Thc

that

ttic

pcculiantic.s

of tlie

source

arc

tiropagatc-d

to

distance.
prubt~m

hre

consido-c~ For

tionnfth!),tof26M. t,<- wcn-l.L.d out this tnust 302. au- duo ii~nitc mcut~.

complutdy be !uft tu tlic rcudu)'.

as n. gcncraH~may hc rog~'d'~ thc cfiLSuoi'n.eirc-nhu-cyHn'io-Itmay with Htt. aid or BL-sseFs functiun.s, but

In 27H wc )):u'e tu thc normal perdue cxtci)t. If clo bc

th fuUy dutentuncd of a bnunding motion givcn ~on~al

!noti<'n p)anc nt

of th'~ plate tlie of dc-

thc

yc-Ioeity

gives thc ~maimter

vdocity-potcntia) of this cha.ptcr

case of thi.s probicm pjirticulaira-hns of :u'ca rL (-ircuhunvMvaine constant Itas a giv~ Yulocity In particnhtr of thc- p!anc it is zro. 7~, whiln over t)tc rcmai)xk.r of th air will wh~t forces <1uc to thc raction wc shan invcstig:itc harmonie with a snnp~ act on a rigid circ~np)ate, vn.raiing eut out of a rigid ptanc p)atc cirodar in an (-qua) arcrturc motion extcndin~ For l.avc to intmity. tlie wh.~e variation of pressure acting nu th plate wn

Tho ?' from f~ at nny point 7' distant of thc to th cxfuninatum is devot'~ the nnrn~l whcn crises whioh

( 2-~)

3~.j

UN

VmKATfNG

CIKCLJLAJ~

PLATE.

~f)

wherc

o- is Ui<j naLurat

dunsity,

!u.d

varies

as <<"<.

D~us

by (1)

~.ch takeu c~un

we once

hve o.dy,

.,ow and

to ti.c

value, product

cac)~ is tu

of lments pair be sun.med after ti.d~nutua! A[~xwe[i a.s thcwork of of thc ni~tcr f..r th that

is

to

bu

bythc~tor..ti~ 1 he bc.s mcthud


potcntiat

n.ut~pi.distancu. co.n.non wou)d bu

~.t

s~cstcd (.)

by Prof.

Ihc t).c t)~

qu.ntit.y comj.~c is to .s.y.

con.su.nc.! O.c dLsc,

i. rc~rded di.ssuci~tion rc.n.vd

c.icmcnt cv.,y oa th othcr, tlmt the putu.iti~ .supp.sit:on of two to r-'e-proportio~d Tj~ a.nou.it et- work ,v)nch rc.[.urcd t).c initia dpends o.dyo~ ~d ~d state.s,,nay bu c~eui~tod the operatiou by .suppc.sin~ pcrfbnned in any way L.t Le must may convc.ni.nt. Fur this ~e suppose purpo.so that th d.sc is divided ,ut. elu.ncntary ,~d nn~, th..t caeli rin.r ~~d to away bcfuro in~ity any et- the Intenor arc ~i.sring.s tlll'ued. mfh.enco ot .v.ry clement.s is first c~c any of pomt stop dise of is
th

iu tlie

composn, from ti~

adcnhLt.on

of potar

thc

potcntlal co-ordinatc-s

radius

c.

(~) (p~

at

th .yith

Takmg

of th

circmnfuroico

for ple,

wc

hve

Dus quan~ty with

must

bc to

ntte~ate(t respect it will bc convenieut ih'.st tu cn'cct

nu,]t:Iic.! c bctwcun

hy thc

2~~ Ihuits

transfonuatioD

a.~d aftcrw~d.s 0 aad But Wc trn-c

whcrc

is writtca
Thcory

for 2.c.
of Jtesouanco.

(.)

is thc
yMfx.

B~c!~
1870.

onction

of .cro

J7t)7.

150
order ( 200), a.nd 7~(~)

REACTION
is a. function

0F

AIR
deHncd by th cquaticm

[303.

Frox)

this

thc so j.sothat K~

<ot:t!

pressure

is do'ivud

by

introdnctton

of

thc

!<'f/0-f/~) factur 7r TT

Thc two

re!K;ti"n

of thc

air

nu

thc

(fisc

may

tho.s

hc divulud

into tlie dis-

H u-~t is proportional p:u'ts, nfwhict) to thc accolcr~tion. dise, and thc sccun't pt!LCC<ne))t of the dise,
and

to tlie vclocityof dnote th If ~= :t dise, th ( 1 mcrtia = raction tj"~ c~ual

so

that

= of motion

wc hve ofthe

thercforc

in thc

cquation

of ) to

thc air is rcprospnted retarding '7TO' r~ ~~(2~?).


thc motion,

by a frictional and by an

force

ao-. 'n'-R". to the

accession

r)\

~02.] When (~2()().

ON

VIBRATING we have

CIRCULAH from thc

PLATE. ascendinc. iz sries

151 for ,7

is stual),

cocMcicnt must be of otherwisc thc raction positive, of tlie air would tend to au~mcnt i't.stc~J uf to retard, thc motion. Ic.ss That (~) is in f~ct dways x he vcrincd as Miows. t))an may If lie betwcen 0 and pr, and bc positive, sin (.: sin 0) sin is negaLive, and theruforc also
of

From

thc

nature

the

case

thc

Is ngative.
ncgahvc

But for
a!!

this

intcgm!
values

positive

is J, ofz.

(.:)

z, winch

is aceordingly

When fnct.cnat hve the becn

is tenu

grt, bccomes

,7, (2~)

tends

to

expeeted;

si.npiy for w!ien

a<r.7r~ is very

v~nish, This large, t))c

and wave

then

t))C

i-esu)t

might motion

of the ueighbonrhood dise becotnes ~pproxi.nate)yp)ane. h~e then by (G) ~nd in ~hich (8) 2~5, ~=~ is the density (o-); so that th retardmg = force is 7r7); a<r.7r~ We h~vc now to considcr otiter the titings term and among ofmertia, an increase, or t)tat asccndiug sries rcprcsGnting to prnvc t)~t this !ni itration altemtton Is of the

(~ is positive. By direct Intgration Is aiways (5) for ~(whieh convergent)

part of th reaction of th ah- is tlierefore representfd by tlie snpposing to vibmting plate carry with it n. mass of air cquat to that cont:uned in a cylindcr wliose base is the plate, ~nd whosc Q 7~ hcight is equal to so tliat, whcn tlic p)~tc is s~ciently sn~H, the mass to be added is independent of tlie period of vibration.

This

152

RHACTKJX

UF

AHi

[~U~.

an

Intcgrn.1

of which

l!).rgc, cos(3sin6) tends to thc i'orm

When s is very is positive. cvo'y douent tims 7~(~) nuctn~tcswith ~ruct.t nLpit.ht,y,:t)td

When

is grcat,

tho

aacemhng

sries uscicss

fur

7~ aud

7~,

thougb

atways

convcrguut.bccomG n)ti)n:~te)y to othcr Is nccu~sary tu rcsort thc diMcrcnti:).l to cquaLion th Bcsscl's right-ha.nJ form (1C)

itt c:t.)cuh).t,ion,a.nd furpract,ic:).t It will bc ohservcd thui pruccs.s(;M. sa.tisHt.'d < TT~ of saine by 7~ is th with tho cxccptimi Thc funetiou A'is as of th:Lt thc

be!onging terni

function sidc, viz.

on tho

thereforu

included
Hcsscl's

iu thc
c<(U:T.t[<)n

obt~nned

contiUtnng

soiutiun

of (!()).

Snch

to th genenti sulution hy iutding constauts two :n'hitr:u'y :U)y particular sulution is a particuhn'

~7r.A''(~)=~+l'3'3"l'C'=.~+l'.3=.5~.7'(21),

as

bc rcadi)y Ycntled may uf (~t) notwithMtandin~ right usc't) succu.ssfuHy for computatum

on

substituttun. its utthnato


whcn

Dt

scrics

on

thc

divcrgc'ncy, is g'n'at.. It

bc tnay is in fact

302.)

UN

YlBRA'nNC!

CIRCL'LAH

PLATE.

153

thc

anatyticd

c<iulv~]e!tt

uf~e'(s''+/3'')-

and

we nii~ht. taku

thc t\v<j fu'bitt'iu'y cnn.stiUlts of dcteDnining by !ui cxa.nunation furms a~su!U(;d w!)cn .? is very grott. But it is pct-hups simpicr foilow th method uscd hy Lipschitz' for Bcssefs fnuctions. By ('i') wc hve

thu tu

fe"f~w

Considcr
th fn)'m

tlic
?<+!

intcgral

) .-= ~vl+~'
Rcprc.scuLing,

wltcrc
as

~ i.s a complex
u.sua!, simultn.neoua

vfu'mLIc

of
of

p:u)'s

of a point, wo sec that tt)c a)i(t u Ly t,hc co-ordinats of value of Die intc~r:t.) will be xero, if thc intt.'gra.tion w!th respect th rcct!mg)c,hosc to M r~UT~~round are ruspccangutar points Thus A+~ , w!ier(; A is any rcat positive tivcty 0, quautity. values

Thcri!sttcrmonthjri~htiu(24.) therctorc fuDows by (22) .second and terni. By expanding


iutcgmting aftcrwit.rds

Iscntirelyunnginiu'y;

M part late~r.d of titc si~n,

that

~7rJ.(~) tho binumial fui'tuu)a.

is thc nndur

rc:U t)ie

by th

154
By stopping and th;~ thc

REACTION 0F AIH
expfUisiut) n.ftcr <u)' thc by any (tcsircd number it of

[302.
tcrms,

thc forniutg expression titC c-rt-ut' c~tunuLtud thc


)ikc

l'cmaindt;)', LiiC

Hc~icL'ijtn~ ( 200).
part

inny ~)c .~vcd rcma.mdci' 'cU.aoL

cxcccd In uf (24')

i:~t
m:t.nncr

tci'ni
tho

rctainct)

ItUi~inary

of

thc

nght-hand

mcmbcr

Is thc

e~uivak'ut

of

~t'7r/~(2),

su tha.t

It

nppears

then to J.

th~t z.

7~ docs But

not. vanish

when to

is grea.t, th

but

approximates

ntthough

tlie accession

mcrtin,

As wn.f!to ho cxpccted, tho ficrieH wititin brac~ets are tho samo as thoso that occur in tho expression of thofuuctiou '~(~). ).

303.] ] wh:ch is

ON pmpnrtio~al

VIBRATINO to 7~,

CIRCULAR !nH)]ite

PLATE. with

155 it vn.nishcs

bccomcs

')!thnat(;iywhcnc()rnparo()wit!)th''a)-(':),r,t't))(i~isr;)n<)wlt.!)t.!)n nt.h<jrtcrm whicii t))u ttisnip~Lion. rc'prcsotts wit!t whiLt \vc shouht f'rom tlic nnticipitte thuory If, p]atc jnotiu!) Im)cpcHdently bu jV, :U)d t))u of t!fu of thc furce rc:tction of nctcd
restitution

And ofptane tlie th

t!tls

~t-ucs \vavcs. uf tito of pro-

of

Lhc nii-, bc
mi imprcsscd

m~s

cquatiott
furcc

port,iot)!t.)

whun pJatu to e" will bu

u!t by

Two .Vand Lo no

of' this problem (k'servc notice. v:mi.s)), so t)mt t.hc plate, itscifdcvox) uf !nass, ut.hcr forces tha.n F a.m! t!iose from acrifj arisin~ p:u-t!cu]:u' tcrm

cases

First
is subject

let

pressurc-s.

friction:~ Smce ~=~(~,thc is very smail, ~et wh(;n

is reta.tivctyncg)igiblc,andwc

Ncxt wltcn 'tpoa

!ct

subject it. Undur

aud tu t!)e

bc such

(.hat t!te n:ttund thc

react.Kjn oft)ie !ur,is tljcse circumsta.nccs

of tlie plate, penod same us that imposcd

with (31), we sec tha.t tlie Comparing of vibration is amplitude in thc case whcn tlie incrtia of th air is bahtnecd, grcater in thc ratio of J C 3~ whcn i.s mnalt. shcwing In !a.)'~o increasc thu Hrst case tho phase of Lhc motion, is such that compa-rativ~ly )itt)c work is <!one by the force A'cry w])i]c in th second, thc incrtia of thc air is compcnsatol and t)tcn by th spring, bL-in' of tim same phase as the vcbcity, docs thu maximum a.mount (~' work.

C'UAPTEU

XVI.

'nmuRY

UL'R).JSUNATUR.S.

;ill,`3. ln cl'l.taill

th,

pipe

If,

(),le end

alld

open il

nt tllc ot]Il~I' wc luul IJI(JI'(~ ur If nuutiul cuutuiuecl 110t


tllC

lmriruls Jdl'tl~ i(JUI)L-11(lellc(" of tho pil: \l'ollld Ilavu 110

clafillite

to extl'rll;d tu

to

itsco/f

vilrratin~ Il'ss COIl1Icyolld witllin tlm coIlIll1n sII1dect to


air

atlliusphere. thu usca)Jo, :tilt! the

tlll! air

to

di.;sipatiou"

lit

system
aetllal tilt! illertiu f

C'xturnaI

~t?~?~ .?.r~~ ilJsiglli/iilnt, :lI1d tllull vimtions ou ce caciteti '1.'llu Ilarl'O\or itl tho

uf tlw tlie

pipe

ul' }Jl'I'.;i:tulll'C, ,),, '~di. '< wvvities of and fOl'ced ~EE=~ ~S~~ rI 'SUlla/ur th~rv sll10t. .s'yH~ 'c. U~ cOllstitllte sound, tllu l'usonators; colltviuuul "f

pipe ch:lIInd of ti,a L~n, uf

bu have Il co1-

~.)M,.I 'c. ill tlle ,ic vibratus lresellce in ullisou, iu tlie of

extc.n.J s. <tu ex tu l'Il a 1 alld witll ail

llcriml,,

l'iliing

ts .gl'l!at

intcllsity

appl'Oxiwitllil

yiclds

tliu

vil)l.~Ltioli.4

111)

as it wel'e

IJel'UlIling ~t.m,~s.e..n<i,u-y ~t.tu~


i,

it, T),c

.source

-Ic t c. i"c.~i.s. 8o t.lm


~<

case < ~i<!

of <~ of the that

<' T~ tlm air 11l'I'SSllr!! will is absulut.dy COIIstallt.

tlutt

If is

nosv cli:r tlm

CUI[aillt'd

F: lm aL :111)' tillle
dc:nsity)

vury

nuarly

Il

concH!wlldillg

(~tlIito tllr;

303.]

rOTnXTIAL

EXKRCY

0F

COMPRKSSIOX.

157

piston bc ni with that of the induded vcry considrable coniparison air, th natural vibrations from a displacemc'nt wiH occur resu)ting ncarfy ~s if the air Lad no inerti:).; and in dcriving thc poriod frotn thc; kinctic and putcntifd tLe former withcnergics, nmy bc ca!cu)ated momentary positon piston. out aHowancc and for th incrtia the air of thc Wt;re
acts or

uf th

If

th

tna.s.s

of the

ra~factio)i stances
its rsistance

condensation

ni)', fmd nnifonn. as

tho

taticr thc

as

if t)ic of

Undc'r a sprin~

c'ircnm-

cnntumptatcd
tn compression

meruiy

in virtuc

dilatation;

thcform

ofthc.contain-

ing
rcmains

vessel tiic
a

ia thcrcforc samc,
gas is

and t)ic p(;ru:)d of vibration Immateria!, t)te capacity bo not varicd. providcd
comprcsscd or rarL'ncd, th<;

W))cn

mccitanical

value

of

the rcsuiting cach infinitsidisplaccmcnt is found hy rnu[t!p!ying mal Incrcmcnt of vo]n)nc and by the corrcsponding' prcssurG over thc range rco~uircd. In tho present case It is of intcgrating course of pressure the diffrence on thc two sides of t!)C only -winch is aud this for a smaU cha~~e is piston rcatiy operative, of volume. to the altration, 'Thewhoicmechit.nical proportionat is th vaJuc of the sma)l change samc as if thc expansion wcro opposcd thronghout by thc ??;<?f!;?, that is )):i]f tlie nna), pressure thus to a chitng'! froin ,S to /S'+8)S', corresponding of vobfnn; since ?) = f<

Lut or nc'c~.

us It

now

connnnuicat.cs

a vcs.se't containing Imagine witli thc cxtrnat tittnospLcro t!if)icu)t to sce that this

air, by
a

~vliose
nan'ow

intcrior
apurturo

is capablu of system vihmtiuns smiilartot.lto.sc air in th nei"'hj)tsbc()nH)')u)'cd,tt)e hnm'hood of titc apcrturc the p)acf! of th piston. suj~dying By th pc-riod of thc vibration sufMcicntly increasin~ may be madc ns lon~ aH wc ptc~se, a)td wc obtiun a state of thin'rs in rinaUy
(!nmrfu-(! (1'~) 3iH.

is not

158

KtNETIC

ENEHGY

OF

MOTION

1n~cctc.) potcntial the c.~pt c,.o~y

which t'.c

thc~nct.cc.c~y.fthc .f le ~hourh. c.ic.fatc.d as if U.c th.

nation apeur,

n~ybo and the

T. <L~ aftc, .suc). p,-<ss.n.. t.)..

ou ).,s

t).c

two

~asc.].

si~.s, thc. air ,vcs w),id. t),c

~-0 c~~ or in virtuc .f'it.s npproxin~.tefy ~s~ )<i,ti,.

own

"v

;~d'r d

that

sj.<
ill

r" D.ruug). arc

~T.y n.t

w).c.L ..st.)y,
mwd

..h.ut

t.

pr.cc.cd

of arc

t.) r~i"?~

< "J!

s < < su~<t)y

accm-ntc

ca)r.,)ati.~

of

tj.c

r,iLch is

grullt =:

io eUlI1pal'iSOIl 'l'lie l:il'tic

witll

fllo

dilJH'lJsions tlie

of tlm

~'Jn-v ), is illdufinjt('!y

,`~()~1.

cll('rg'j'

motion

uf

ail

111(Y71171)!'CSSI))1C

dellsity =''=:-?.~
tll(: S:UIIl'.

p~ tlie

rnte

nl;ly lle uXpl'l'ssl'd or tI'aIlHfel', or cnrrcnt, l', tllc


varies as and

il

terms

tlie the cil'-

fur mulcr illotioli is


11'l~

Hi 1)('('

al \nj's
put

l'

11('('I'SS:ll'i]y

as

.2,

Illll.y

~~T' nlt;mm~l, be tlie

i,

a Ji'll'nl'

I~Il;ltltir,y, ;1~ lllay

on ~y 1)(t iufurrcnl

U.c

:3 in SP1l<'l' alJd -1 1 in timc. \'('!c)('it,y-pntvlItial,

..t.<f, t'l'III 11tllC filet 111 il'O

flmt

l'y

GrL'Oll'S

1111'01'('11), w](.re l1t a sld1il'il'nf

tlie

lltl'gmtion 01} l.illll'r \"allll's

i;

to hu l'xtf'lllll'} uf tlm

0\'(11' i,

sensihle. ~F=~ becOIIIOS

clistanr~c~

sicll'

C'ollstnllt,

:lIlt! if t1~

constant.

wlJieh :EE~

the'

{J'liC] flo\s,

wc' I,W(!

apl'I'IIII'I'. rp lm )PIIClt(.cI lu- ~y 1 nncl tllat Ilaif nt' fCl\Y<lrd.

304.]
Now, vah.cs, .Y == c (~~ ~), since

TIIROUGH NARROW PASSAGES.


within or wo gt is detcrmincd is proportiona) as bcforc to littearly (~). by its If

159
surface wc put.

Thc

cwitibnhnttcrundcrstondbyco))si(b;)-ing probicm, w))osc conditions arc mathonatK-a!)~ ideatica! with thoso of that undcr (Hucossio)~ Let us .suppose that theHuid i.s replaccd by unift)nn]ycon(]uctingmatcria], an.! t)iat thc titu dtanne! or is rcp]ad Lun)](]!nyof aporhu-c Wc h~ insulators. know that ifhy batk'ry powcr nr utho-wiso, a di~rcnco ofc.Icctnc on thc two sicles, tx'tcntial bc maintaincd currcnt stoa()y tlirou~h tho apo-turu of propottiona) will bu gt-nf~-atcd. jna~nitudc Thc ratio of the total currcnt to t)n. ul~ctrontotivc forcu i.s caik-d thc of the and tLus wc sec that C(~!</M~/< (-hiulnc), our coxstant c rcprusunts on 1)~' supposition si).)p)yt))is cnn<h)cti\'ity, that th t)ie (dectricid may bu tbcnvisccxprc~ud tii:Lt c is thc by sa-yin~ w)K)sc rc.sist.ancc cube, bcit\vu<;n f:)c<~ is t)to opposite .satncast))atoft)icc)unmu[. Lttbcs~~tut wushidioftcnavaii sicle of tbu m))-.sL'lvesof't))cc)cct,ric!t,)ana]ugy. ~Vhf-n c'asi)y cisknuwt), Since theprnpo-tnnc of tb~ rc.sonatorcanhc sp~Hiccoid.tcti)~ Thc sa.tnc t!)~ powcr of thc hyputhctira! sub.stancc
is unity.

nature

of th

constant

(tuduecd.

1CO

NATURAL

riTOt

OFJ~OXATOt{S.

f'~o-t.

nnd w.H ~ncsd.rc~iyasthchncar ho observe. is functiun

dhnc.n.sio.. ufth~sizc.

The~vc-k.n~h and .shape thc upon ofth~

h.

al.so 'natoron)y,whi)ot!,efreqncncyd.pcnds natur. <.i U.c ga.s a.id it ..s <.o rc.nark that important it i.s on t).c nature of n. and ncar t).c ci.a.nc.I g.s that D.c pitch deponds and not on that the inturior of th. vc.ssd, oecupymg for thu incrtia of tlle air in the latter situation dr.cs not cne int~ p)ay,whilc the eomcf ai pres.siblilty ga.scs is vcry approxunatciy thc .sa.uc.. Th..s In the cascofa thc pipe, substitution f.)r mrin t).<~ ofhydrr~.n oia a~jc nc.,g)t],ourhood wo.dd ,nakc 1)ut )itt)c di~.n-nco but its ~rtcct in <ho neighhourhuod ofa !nop wuu).! hc c<.nsidL.rah)e.
Hithc.~wchavcsp~f-u

r.fth.hann.)ofcnnunun!ca)!onas pn.Demis ~rt).c~.pK-ncyi.sst!)t hy c <hc whoie of the


aj~-t tn

sn~h',hmdt!K.rehcm.~than..n(..d,ann..),t).c os.scnt.attyaltcn.d. Thc.sam<.for.m.)a ifa.s npp).cah)G, hcforc~ u.)d~-s(a.,d t'vlty


channct.s

nnt

hctwccn
are

cnnducWhcu tho

the
.s~uatc-d

intL.rior

aud

cxturh.r far

vessc).
act

sumcicnt.fy

onc thosc

ofanothcr, bcinng.ng

rcsuXant to t].e ~.paratc

thc

indcpcndonDv

conductivity cha.u,c.]s;

simple othurwi.sc t)ic

i.s thc

.su.n rsultant

of

!.sJcsstha)ithatca]cn)atedhymcrcad()ition. If iiiterfc~, tho-e nnd be ~vh.~ two prccisciy conductivity simitar takcn c!)a!)nc].s, .sc.pa.-ateiy which is p, wc do ].ave ])<.<

~Oi.J

StJrEfUOR

A~D

I~FERIOR

L~n'rs.

ICI

shcw.ng channct
obser~cd

that in thc
by

th ratio

note V:~

).igher = ], or by
and pro~.d

is

than rat.h<.r

Ifthcre Jc.ss t).an by

wcre a

only f.ftl~-a.

o, ]~J in

Sondj.au.ss

t''e
Lofes

case,

whero

thc

tj.eo~.ticaiiy

Hdmho!t/

d.anndsofconunnnication

consistofsimntc

u)t]tcntnnitc)ythi;)sidc.soft))<.ro.s<.rvoi)-. 305. Th
an

invcsti~t;
important

of
part

thc
oi-the

condn<.tivity
th.cryofrcson.tor.s; so)ution

fur

varions thc

Mnds
b.,t

ofchanndsLs

m a!I c-.xccj.t bcyo,


r.nc.pic.s

very t).e po~.

icw

c.~ of

thc cxi.stin~ on thc

~ecur~tc

of

nroLi~ gcnem[ hc Jai.) .suHi-

,,mthc,ties.

So.nc

<!own cicnt

~d for

throwin~ ,n in.-u.y
pt~cttca!

)ig).t ~.e.sthu. jn.~y howcver ca.se.s of inturc.st an ~pp..oxi,n..Ltc solution, hc purposes, obt~in~ may

th~ thc 2~) oF fh.ij c.nc~y fio.vi.. channel tin-o.~h aumot bc grcat.r fhan th..t of .~ny ~ctitiou~ motion total g-vm~th~nc cnn-cnt. if th channct Hcnco, Lo r'arrowed in any or way, hc intn,.)uccd, ~ny r.b.s~ruetion thc con(~ <ct.v,<y,.stt.crchy nature oi an ~freeto cases whcrc <)unini.sh~,)~use additions) adopt a rigorons thc con.strai..t. distribution .sutution cannot Hetor. ofnow tho attention thc change is ofth.

Wc

know

t).cilm.! rn

finat!ya.s.su,ncd

we may use t),e to e.sti.na~ an inf.rior property limit to tho con.iu<-tivitv. i.c cncrgy ca)cu!atcd fn,.n a hypr,t)H.tica! law of <)<nv eau ncv.r ho c.ss than aud th.truO. nu.st cxc..c.d it un!cs.s )hc hynothctica! a.ndt))eactua!niot)ou concide. muninnm Anothcr more w.t). ~cncra! principh, .statcd concc.-ncd Avtuch
in .k.ctrica)

be chtainod

is of

frcqncnt of

u.so T).c
a certain

mav qua~ity
con-

!.r.

convc.nientiy wh.ch wc arc

iauguago.

is thc

conduc.tivity

ofmattcr <ctorcon.po.scd ofunih spcifie Thc con~.n.tivity. ,.s that if t).c rrn.c,pic <,f any of t).c condnctor conductivity part 'Je jncrca.scd that of thc who]c is and if t}.c incrca.scd, conductivi~ of any hc (hmini.sf.cd part that of thc who)e is dindnishcd Mccption ma.]e..f certain bcmg vcryparticn)ar v-hcrc cases, n.' .-dterat.oncn.suc.s. In its pas.sa~ Hn-o,~h acondnctorclectricity 'L.strd~tc.s se t],at t).c encr.~y itscif. i.s for a givcn di.ssipatc<! total

cnrrcntthc]ca.stpo.ssib!u(.S.'). P~-t be dumn.8t.cd, th even if t),c di.strib.ttion will .sctves this he thc thc so a.s to makc ~.ir.

-[fnowD.c.specinc total
(fissipation would bc

rsistance !cs.s t!.an

ofany heforc the.ninnnite)y

ofc..rrent.s case, w),c.n

rcmaincd <he currents a minimum.

unci.an~d redistribua If an

dissipation

162
thin lamina ofmathT

SIMPLE

APERTURES.
across thc channd will

[305.
bcmade

perfcctiy conductin~. nn]css t)tc iarnina ttal surfais. HOG. !nu.st))C In A))]f)i)~

strc-tc-hiog tin; rt.-sist.tncu with onc case

of f])e wholu ofthu MO cH'cct of cl):u)nc)s

bu diminishcd, cqui~n-

coincitk)

undistorb~) will !m

th

excc-ptcd

Le produccd. Important place

(1iffu'(;t)t

k)n(f.s

cunsiHt.in~ofsim~tcapcrturusinun!m)it;c(tpi!uuj\v:).!)sofin<tnitcsin):dti)te!<))L'ss. Inpractica.):q)]))tcatiuns it is HufHciunt thitt :). wa)! bu vury thin in proporHon tu thu '-hn)(.-nsi<)t)s of t.)tu a;)urt.urc, wiUutt a aud:t.p[)t-uxi))):ttc~y piano (hst.Lncu frum thu in propurt.iun tu thc apurturu i~mc lar~u quant.it.y. On
account

a.s.s)g))C()tot))0.su

of

(.hc; symmct,i-y

un

t)t<j two

sides

of

thc

wa!),

tho

tH()ti())t()t't!icf)nidint!~p):m(j()ft)tcapcr<,))!-emu.stbc!tonHa), aud tfturef'otc t)~ must bc c~st.imt; over thc vu)(jcit.y-}tf)t.cntia.I n-)n:undcr<jft.)t~ mosL bu exc!))M[\'c)j p)a.!)u thu mution tfn~ntia), so that. tu on one sidc of thc ~e h:tvu thc dtjturtninc piaoc coudrions thc rcst Since
-st'ppf'.so

(a) uft))c phmc

= const:mt cft!.c

ovcr waH, ~)

tl.c

~pertuj-e,

(/9) at

H~

= 0 over

~== constant

ititinity. \ve may of Htat condit.i..u.s

wc arc tt.at at

conccrncd

(/3)

and

(y)

itifinity arc satist.ud diHtnhutcd

on)y with thc di ~renes vani.s].c.s. It will b~ .sccn hy supposing to bu

t)tc

t!te of ov(;rt))capc!-turc-; cunsists i)i th distribution of mattcr dcterni.ung so that its putcntial bc constant over th may .satnc fu-ua. Tho is proi.icm thc saine as that of m:Lt]t~tn!Ltic.i)ty t].c determining df.stnbntiou of on a chargcd cluctricity situated eonducting pjatc "ian w))osc fcnti is that of t))c opcnsp~cc, nndcr con~pcrtm-c .nd t)iu stdLration, (,f thc apt-rturc cooductivity tnay be cxprc-sscd 'n ~i-ms oftj.e of tiju of thc statical e~x~ piate If prohicm. dc-untc tho constant, in th potcntiat thc ulcetricai a.pL-rtnre, rsistance (fur onc side oniv) will bu

attractif thc prubjon

natter

potoitfat rcmaindcr

of

th

intgration AI

cxtcndmg

ov-cr thc

arca qu~ntity

of tlie opcning. of mattcr Jistributcd),

ff~! jj~~=27rx(whu)c ifj~be thc total t).c

and

thus,

putc.nti.d,

or charge caj~eity, corn-spon()i,,gtounitrcsi~ncc is (7rJ/)fur th coaAceordiugly

~1

J
whieh

ELLrr'riC
is tlie rcciproc..J

APERTURE.
of t).G rsistance,

T~~

ductivity,

So hu. as 1 f.r '.c winch rc-.s.k cor Veau

aw.ro,

is ~ch.d.1

eitipse be dcter.ni.ed i. t,

tho

I.s t)io thcorctijy',

o.]y

f.,nn
in

of apertm-c
w!n~

l'.u 1~.?'

n th. h et th.~
~d

a shujt

e.Iip.conduct.r. Loundcd by two conccntric, si.nihu..ud uo f.rcc on .n i.tcru.) p.t..ie at dcn.sity ne .?-' .uypoiu~f. j~ ~j., P bo by ~~J th tallgent dunsi~, ;=

s..n!arly ~.s c..sy Pc peud.cui.r Le pc.nt whole


~dnece.ss.uytu

to sce

exert. .H.p.suids t)..t t).u sup~ci.I


.i~

~)

let

<) Tj.us if

in .sti.u. of qu~L.ty nu~cr

is givcn

.iwenow t.cuhu.c..se Lutwccu tlic

suppose t~tci.sinfinitdysma)!, of' an and citiptic pi.to,


t\o surfaces,

wco~unthcparif uo lungcr disth~ui.~

wu gct

Wu !,avc ~con~dcring tliat

nc.xt to find thc value

th of

va!ue

of

t]ic

const.-mt

potcnt.al p!~

at tUc

ccutre

of thc

(P) wc sec

~ruiL,

(c~IsnTT" j~t. ~7, b~

whnHo l8),0), fur the momeut

rusutt tho

is cquivn)t;nt thirj principe

LyHoi~h.itz tu axis (.S) of thu sHipsoid.

11-2

1C4

ELLIPTIC

APERTUHK.

['30G.

nsthcf)na]

expression

f()rt.))cc:)pf)c!tyofnne)]ip.se,wh(~cscn)iUms Jnthcpnrt.icolarcnsbofihc for circ)Li ~t' radius 7)',

t))!)j')raxi.si.sf!nth)cpc~)~ricityi.se. e = 0, ~'(e) = ~7r, and circle,

30G.]

COMPARISON

WITH

CIRCULAR

APERTURE.

1G5

From

this rcsult

we

scn that,

of au eiiptic oonductiv~y titfLt of a cirotiiuaperture "t'apcrturc m-cn. titcre ofgtvcu conduetivity,


c~sy to rc~ni.sc

smd), the is very ncar]y thc .samc as apcrturc o/' e</?<~ ~-e< various furms Among ecccntricity
inust bc ouc whic)t has a nnnimutu

if its

bc

itifurtor 'Livlty t)ic truc


approximation

limit

A format bc <)ifHcu)t, t]mugh proof ]night t)iat this eau ho no ot~cr thati thc circle, to th value of c is thus a)wa,ys ailui-ttcd hy tho a)i(], circle of c.~al arca, that is 2 V \7! may bc takcu and

it. is An cou~hcn

of ~e furm

is ncarty cu-cnt!u-, tu th rcat v~nc. of thon givcn

t]ti.s H.mb

M a close

Ti'c

vainc

))y

a moderato sti~ht)y ccccntnci~y~cc~ t).c value of c, 1 hve c~cuktcd th foHowing sl.ort tab)c wit)i thc ~d of L~en.h-c's va]ucs of 7-). wc hve Putti~e=si.i~ eus as tho mho of axes, tuul fur the condnctivity

In

ordcr

to shuw

iiw

e==shi~. o" 30" 5~ ~0" 70" ~0" 90" -ooooo -~204 -50000 -C~79 -rcGOt 'SGG03 -939M!) -98481 1-00000

~eoH~. i-ooooo -!)39<i!) .8GG03 .7~04 -C427!)0 ~0000 -3.~03 -173G5 -00000

7r-27''(<')(l-e~. i-oooo l.ooon 1-0013 1-OO.it 1-0122 1-0301 l r07i~ l-l'J5-t co

Thc ratio f<e~.

eonJucLivity that appears thc ratio of t])e axes 3 per cent, onty about of littic more th~n a It

vainc of thu

of t])e

last

factor ~-ivoi in t!ic fourtii column is tho of thc e))ip.sc to ci')-c/e q/' ~)<f~ o/' cvcn whcn tho cl) ipso is so ccccntric tha.t is 2:1, thc conductivity is incrcascd by which wou!<) correspotut to an attention comma ( 18) m tho pitcli of a reson~or.

166
Thcrc pendence may
condudc

CALCULATION

BASED

ON

AREA.

[306.
in<!cand we

Hccms

uo

rcason is a
soinc

to

suppose

that

this

of shape
wit)t

property
conHdcnce

to pcculiar that itt th

approximate th cHipsc, case may of accuracy.

oval aperturc, th r~t,c)y c!o))~tcd conducth'ity from thc arca alouc wittt a co))si(tcrab!u dcgrce If thc arca

of fmy modebe calculatod

bc givcn, therc is no snperlor lunit to c. For suppose the arca o- to be distnbutcd over M cqual circtcs su~ciuntfy farnparttoact Titc arca of cach iudcpGndcnDy. circle is Mand its comh.cttvity is 2 (~) Thc whole is )~ ccuductivity titues as grcat, and thercturc incrcasc-s with 7;. As a indefinitcjy ruic, thc more thc opcning gc-]iGt-:d is c]ungatcd 01- Lrokf;u up, tho grca.ter will bu thc cunductivity for a givcu arca. To find a supcrif.r linut to thc of agivcn conductivity apcrtm-e wc may av~il oursctves of t!.c princip)c that any addition to th must be attunded apcrttu-c in th hy an incrcaso vaine of c. This in thc c:MC ot'a square, wu be s..rc that c is ie.ss th.ui inay for t)te c.rcutnscnbcd circle, and wo ),ave ah-cady scen that it is <r,.e:iter than fur thc circlc of equal arca. If be thc side of th s<, ~u-c

of a rcsonator with a .square calcntatcd aperture from thcsc two )nnits wo.dd difcr t.y abont a. wi.otc tone; thc ~-avor of t))cm would <toubt)e.s.s be muett t!ic ncarcr to thc truth This sl.cws t).at cvcu w)icn exampic fai)s to give anajysi.s soutien in t).c niathe.nat.c~ sensc, we ncpd not bc a)tugct),cr in th <hu-k as to thc magnitudes of-thc quantiLics with whicii wc are deaHug. In t!ic case of si.mhuorifices, or sy.stcms of oriHccs, c varies as th hucar dtmcnsiou. Most

fhc

tones

rcscnatnrs uscd in p~cticc hve nccks of ~-Gateror Ic.ss length, cvcn w),cn thc.rc is that woutd be ca!)ed nothing thc t)ne].ncss of thc sidc uf t).c rservoir neck, cannot a!ways hc Wc .s].~ nc~ccted. t!)erefore examine tf.c of conductivity channe! formcd a by cytindrieal a.i horing tfn-ough obstruetin. plate b.~undcd hy para))d planes, and, thun~h wc fait to solvc t)~ we sh..dj ubtain information prob)cm r.gorousfy, .sufHcicnt for most Ti.u pract.ca! thick~ss p.n-pn.se.s. of thc p)ate wc sha!! eall Z and thc radtus oft!(c cytindricat ch:n)!)d /)'.

307.

307.]

CONDUCTIVITY

0F

NECKS.

IG~

Wh~tcver tho rc.si.s~nce will bc lessened by tlic


Dnn d)sc.s ofperfucb dises

TI.e ct-cct of tlie ovcr thon- are~, su.sccpt.b)c thc motion wh.n ~tcd, hctwucn cf is
thc thc

c~nnc! mn.y bc intr.xtuetiun of Iufinitc)y m n.n,) co~tnctivity ~) i.s to constant proch.ce


potJntud

of

th

~d

t].e

rigDrou.s
~ne obstn,cting

~ud

thc ou thc

a-nco jti t))ercfurc

thu.s inodiflud pruDcm is sointiun. Outsidc J .~Kt as tL~t invcstiprcviou~y plate is infim-tciy t.hin. ftow is unifunn. Thc rc.~t-' whoic

Th.s

correction

is in gnrt

undcr

thc cuntp..u-isonwith~ ~ysn~i,ri an<hnurc ~.ith tho .ctual n.arjy nation, n~-e oi a: m (2) tonds to buuotne correct. A snperior limit
motiun of

mark, but, a.ss.nncd motion ~nd t)n,s

thc

whcn

Z is

coincid~ t!,o va!ue

to

the

rsistance

th

coa.st.nt nt those vdocity p].s Withu, t).e tube th How will t,c. unifor.n a.s befo~ but fur tlie externe space wc Ih~'c a ncw prcb)em tocon.si.tcrTo .L-ter.ninc tbe mot.o.1 of a fh.id bounded i~nitc byan phu.c, thenor.n~ over a cireur, ar~ of t).e ptanc vclocity having a givcn constant and over tbc rc!n;undur vaiuc, of th p)anc being ~cro. Thc potential may sti)t bc rogardcdasd~tomattcl-distribntcd 1 ovcr tlie di.sc, but it is no over thc arca; longer cotant tt.e ~6~ of thc mattcr, I.owcvcr, to is constant. being proportional

I.ypoth~c..t t!nn p.stnns n~n.tety will be to inakc t)~

Huu).

introduecd normat

mny be c.-dcu!.tc<! from For t).is pm-pose wc will suppose at Yl and t!.c cr~ct uf which

T)ie

kinctic

cncrgy

oftttc

mtiun

I<jS

CONDUCTIVfTY

0F

NECKS.

[:~7.

If

thu

dcnstty rath)

uf

th(;

tnatt<r

Le takcn

as

unity,

~=27r, ~dcnote's

a)ul t)tC

thc

ruqxir't!

t.s~xprc.s.hy

-t,

wta'rc

p')tc))t!:ttt)))it.st']t'<'ft).('h'(.'u!;)t');)y(j['L'fj)):t<tei'(jfuniLdL'nsitynnd cf')'!h)i)[s7t'. T))csi)))[)k'.st)nL't])<)(l<)f(.dun].L(,it)~<)o))(')KLsup")it)icc~nsi~crnt.iuit <,)).')t itruprt.'MCtitMthewo'k i'c'([U)t'(jdt()Lruak (Hscintoiufmit.L'HunaIc'iL'mcnt.s othcr'.sinOucnct' a)i(t toi'L'movcthL'tnfruni (/?,~),thHp")c )tavc for !i)))its<ji'p bum~Oand

un

thc cncit

Ifw(.!t:d<:cp')]:n'co-r)t'(]it):itc.s t]K:

L)L'i))~).tt))u(;~Q"t'<tL'tU.scwh'jne)'a<n))sisH,L! atthu putent.ia.t put(. )''=;)'~6'< H(tc<js~tnd<)tus<of~bc'in~7rand-t-.t7r. T's Now Th )ub us eut work ()<)':). sh'ip tu j'c<[uin'd If thc we uf r=~(:). brcadt.)t titls

t))C

f)-o]n titc to an

rmuovu

cdgo inHuite

cf

t))c

dise. i.s

di.stanco

~7r~t.4H. canyidi intc~r~tij)~

piu'ing.s

th discduwu gr;u)u!tl)y parc to infixity, wc fhid fur thc tu from 0 to /<

touot])ingfu)d tot:d work

hy

\Itft

rc.spL'ct

part

of

!i<)'J is r<'jtcntcd

hnre

for

thc

nnhc

of

thoso

who

niay

wish

to avutti

tht'(im!cutU(.'softhM)t)ur(.'cf))nplt;tuin\-(.'i,t)Ht~H)n. TJiiti tncthoj uf calcult~tiug (.'tf'rkMnxwci).

was

st~cstej

to

thc

outhor

by

Professer

307.j

CORRKCTION

TO

LENGTH.

1~9

It end. tube

must T)te Iia-vin~

bc observai who)c the section

th:~ 77 7~.

a hore

dcnotcs to

thc

con-cctiun Z+2a

fur one of

rL-sistiUtce

cotTfjspottds

a. !cn~th

Wftcu

Z is vary

grcat

m rci.Lt!

to 7~ ~'c may

tf~ slinpiy

for an open ond (~ is a fonction WithU.e !ow<.r!imIt,vi~w))unZvani.s!h-s. mcrc.a.seswithit; butdo~r.ot,evenwhcnZis thc snpci-ior n'iddie limit 7~. For
consi.lcr thc motion

Tbe

correction

of

eo.ncidin~AsZincrca~ infinitc.attain

going

on in any

Thc kinctie piccc of thc tube. is grcatcr than cncrgy to thc lo~tli cf.rrcspuitd.s of t).c picc-c. incrciy If therefore thc be and th frce cnd.s brougttt piucc ronoved, the motion togcttier, <jthcrwise conthmmg as bcforc, th kinetic energ-y will hc diminisited more th:ui to tt)c fength of thc con-e.spond.s pice subtmcted. will this bc true oftite ~~?'i't'M~ real motion which would exist in tbe sitortcned evident,
constant,

tube. th

Th~t, normal

wlion

Z = ce,

docs

not

becomo

is

bccausc as was from


tiie

nssumcd
coitrc

vc-tuclty at th in thc calculation


and becomc

increaso

out~-ards

end, far from being of titis i-esn]t mu.~ Innnite at the cd'~e.

to tlic value of a may be obtained approximation by a variable at thc assuming of tbe mouth. vclocity plane Th c-alculation will be found in A. It appears that Appeudix in th c;tse of an Innnitdy bc so long tuLoeccannot grt as '82422~. T!tC real value ofa is probab!y not far from -82 308. channci W))cn obtain Eesidcs -whosc howevcr limits, there are cyHndcr can be dctcrmined conductivity tlie fonn is approximatbiy arc usefut as altowiug th very few forms we of

A furthcr

mathcmatica!)y.

which

cylindricfd us to cstimatc

may thc cHect

1~0
of snch dcpartures practicc. Au matc~y
i))ia~itj!uy

TUBES

0F

REVOLUTION'.

[308.
M must occur I[i

from

mathema.tica.l

accumcy

infurior

thorcsistanccofn.tiyc)nngatRdn.n<t~pproxic(jn()uct,(jr be obtait]~) Htt-:u~))t tnay ini!)ic()in.tc)y introduction of ait mftnite numbcr of piane pc-rj)nn<ti(j))iar
nny point

Hmit

to

by

the

co)i(h)cti))g' inycrs of thu ficction at di.stunt


is ccrtain!y

to th

axis. th

Ifo-

dototc

po'fccDy tLe arc;). t\vo layurs rsistance

y, tho thuruforc

rcsist:u~c

LctwL'ca whotc actu:).!

(~

wiH bc o-(~and
g)'cat(jr thaii

un]ess l'i cncrgy to titu tH thi).t munbcr


ncce-ssiu'ity

indccd or<]er of axis

tho to

conductur find

be truly

cynndricn.1. c~cu)atc t)tc tlie kinctic pM-~Ocl

t)tc cun'cnt iH unifurm wou)(t pistons


exccss

a supcrior Innit wc n~y on t))c hyp~thcsis tii~t over c~c)i .st.-(.-t.!on. Thc fuliow frotn th

vutocity

whi<;)t of n~id
in

tnuving
th truth,

frecty,
untess

motiuji !)ypot))eticaJ intrnttuction of a.n inHnito :),nd dtc calot~tcd rcsu]t i.s
thc suctiun he

of

:d).so)utc!ythat course t)tc tho

const;u)t. channol motion is

Wc

shaH

suppose
nhuut

for
H))

thc
axis,

sakc
in

of simplicity
which case oi'

synnnutricfd

of'thc

nnid

is synnnctricf).! the total poitjf

:d.so.

If n.xial

(IcnotR vc)ocit.y

a.t any

cun-cnt, rc

wc

hve

for

tho

308.]

SUPERIOR

MMIT.

1~1

is tho qnMtlty which gives a superior limit to tlie resist~nco. Thc first to-m, which to thc componcnt corrc.sponds velodty ?<, i.s thc s:m)c a.s t)tat prcvious)y obtamcd for the lowcr Junit as ttavc b~-cn !~ht forus~n. Th difcrcncc butwecn t)ie two, wh'ich givcs t).c utmost en-or invutvcd in tddng eit)ier of titGH/:ts tho truc vatuc, is

This

In thc

a ncariy found

cyHndrical in this

d.annd manucr

is a sma]!

qnantity

and

so

is closely It is not approximatc. U~t the section .simnid be nca.r)y ncs.s:ny but only that consent, it shouid 'l'lie success of the vary s)uw)y. appi-oxi.nati..n in this iu.d snni! cases dupends thc fact ti)at, tfto upon to Le quantity ~tHuat~d is at a ttnnitnuin. Any rc!tsonab!e to thc appmxim.ttion r~) motion will ~ivc a ru.suft thc truth vcry uear accordinrr to thc of t)m din'urentia! p)'mcip)cs calcuhts. By ftmctions suhttion. point mcans th If of thc propertics probJou dnote tlie th axi:d of adtnits values and of thc of potcntial actual titcsc and
approxitnatc

rusult

strc.tm

prsent find

ftitictioiis

at

7'; M, dnote

any

transverse

vclocitics

173 If
gnral

APPROXIMATE 7'\Jcuote values

CALCULATION. = of

[308. 0, thc by

tho vn.tuc of as a function of x, v'hcn of <~ a))<! may bc expi'CM.scd in ternis

m('n.nsof(7)a!id(H))nthc,(.'ric.

i.s thc
gtVtjn,

quation au<t wc

conncct.mg y and ]iavc tu express

7~ hy

lu

tlic

])tc:m.s

prc.soit of tt.

proUon y is By succcsijivo

approxnn:itiu)iwcubtainiro]n(l())

Jhc iic~tiou

expression

for

th

resisLmcc

n.dniits

of considcrn-bic tho

by intcgra.tinn by pru-t.s in thc case whcti iu Ut nui~hbotu-hooLl oft!)u !iniits truly cylindrical I)i tUs way we Und fur tlic fi)i~ rusu)t,

si)np!Ichannct is

of intcgrat.ion.

dcnoting It thus

thc ()iir~rcni.i:L)

eoc~n'iolts

ofy

wiLh respect

to a'.

mvestign.tion

th:it thc supcriL'r ]umt of thc prcccd!n~ nppc:u-s is in f~et tho cun-ecL i-L-su)t to L)tc second ordci- of

~/Mf/)<Htf;<;<:()/ r~'OCCCfh')~f'f~/f; /.<))t)yott Vo). Yfl. Ne. f~. .S'OC't'/y,

308.]

COMPAmsON

WITII

EXPERIMEKT.

1~3

npproxun~ion.

Jfwc

regard

2/as

a fonction

s.n:dt 'tu~tity.n~)IsMrr<.cmsf.i.sf(Tu~cont~,n, 30.'). resunators


:mdm:).thcnt:t.t)ci:ms. T).e oh.surv~iun

of~herc

~isa

Our

]<n<~v)..)gc 1. duc dcponds,

t)ic j.vs c,f to tl.c i.hour.s

on of

wf.ieh
scvcnd

t).o
cxpcr

pitch
ncntor.s

of

H.c pitch .nouthpieec of.t ~uuiy upun thc vu)mn. is duc to rosun~or dupcmLs Li.scuvius ..1.0 f..und th.t t],c pitch of ~)cd wit]. watc.r M part)y MtaUcrcdwhcnt).ci)n.sk w.-LS iuciincd. Thi.s r.suk~scon f!nncd hy Sond).aus.s\ Ti.o )~~r observer f.und th..t i,. iur~cr, thc case o< r..son~or.s witf.out neck.~ th influence of th aperture upon its ..u-<t, ,dt).ou~i ~hcn th ~po d~pcndcd .nandy vc..y a certain ri.s~ cf i.hc]~ u.s.ted. chjng~tcd, Ko g. t].c formu!~

<h~

fur

thc

unit Thc

uficn~th of

bcmg Uns

t)

mii]imctrc.

~Mry whorieiornuu~ts

kind

of rcsonator

wc owc

to

Hdmholt~

pmct.cc ).s so long that


ns itsdf (4) bc .supposes, ncg!cctc.),

ln

it thc
m,

doc.s

not

oftu.i

currc~iun
on us th suppose.!

h.~pj.un fur t).L. opui


hand, i~ (~.

dt).crt).at th ucek ends ean bc )K-]cctcd


so short U~t~b ~s 'r cubi~hon t).c c.u first I.feif~.

othcr

\Vcrt)R.i,n<

l'npll. 7-T. =

:1 rrn, r.xxxr. Crc))c, U.ber Bd. dk. n'ii. 172. 1S(!0.

tpn

l'f~fun

~r Luft in c.rhit~.n Seha)I.~hwinK,n von n~ichcr Wuitn. 7'),t.y~ix. Mcn.uire Hur )c.s vibrations sonorM I',tir..)

Glasri.Lrcu l.S~f)

u~

in

.edeck

174
to an aitd\. shc\v that addition

HELMIIOLTZ'S

INVESTIGATION.

[309.

titc (~) to

cffc'ct tim

of an leugt,h,

open

end

codd

bc reprcsoited ~arh.' of fur N is an .o, of

by

indcpundt.'nt, dutcHnination thc correction mcinud was wit)t His

approximate who gavu Hu)t)dK')tx, <itt.ed wiLh an infiititu i'ormH tt).t.b t-ccti~)) opc'n of tntjt! onc w])ic)i

Th

thcnrctica! 7r7~ as

due

to end

opcn

Hangc. for which thc agrcud most

consisted so)nb)G, a cy)indcr. whosc

prubfon m!:u-)y ft'otu

In invcnting and scluctin~ Tite radins whic!t corat th in tho

} 77- i.s ri~orunsty end and at a ~ruat ofUte that opun t))c tact

applicable (Ustancc end true

to a tnbc

it is 7/, but

HL'i~'hbu)))'])um) From

bulbes

.slightiy. !nay bc dcrivcd by int)ie re.sult thus obtanicd

thc

an t)'tj()ucin~ is too smal).

obstruction,

wo u)ay tbc

cy)indcr infur tbat

It is curions
Ht'tit givcn in th

that
menioir

proccss
oa

foUowcd to

in this
leads to

work,
cxact)y

which
thc

was
same

rc'snnancc,

r<sult, uniiko Thc

thon~h it would c'ach othcr. correction

be dif~cult

couccive

two

mcthuds

more

Icngtb will dcpcnd to some extcnt upoo t!iC itow of air front thc opun end is obstructcd, wbeLhcr or not. Whcu thc ncck projccts into opcn spacc, thcrc will bu less obstrnctiun than whcn a backward Ho\v is prcvcnted as by a nange Sttppo.d c<rt,ainty may approxinmte in<rodnccd in this take thc a=~'7r~ nccks arc in onr caicn!:<.tions. way as is
a

to tbc

Howcvcr,
important,

th and

unwe

not
sufncicnt

very

gou;)'a))y wht,'ti practicu,

a~rccs prc'tt.y wc)I witti tact, curnjcLion is itSL'tfofsuhordinatc Thc gnerai formula will

Die short, and whcn itnportaucG.

In approximation. of thc Han~e hypothesis thc uccks arc Jong, tlio

thuu

run

whure <r Is tlie

M'en uf thc

section

of th

ncck,

or in numbers

formula.

not

Loduncnt

of tlic

dtffuring rcsults of
'?..i"cxL.53,219.

mneit
I)!s

from

this

)neitsuru)ncnts,

was given, as th emwho by Son<n~uss'

1870.

30D.]
at tlie .samc time

MULTIPLERESONANCE.
cxprc.s.s.d
pf

175
it was no
,,atn,

eunviction

t).at

mre

".np.n~)

~mu)aofinturp.)atiM,L~t!,o.u..n, Inc ti,uury r~sonators wib). t.ucks wa.s give-a

~.nc

abo~u

tnnc

th

lu a mc.noir fur

un 1871,

Rc.s~nance fru.u

pub~hud w].icit inust

in uf thu

ti.c JasL icw

p~cs

)s :310.

durivcd. Tho .nethod bccn of

c.~c.uh.tingth. ..frcsouators pitch is .j.),)iu.bfc uc<picd to thu ~vc.st. ~cof v,br.tion ti.o ch.r ou)y, .,f distinct. ~.ch i.s.juitc 'ho ov.Ttu.cs ofrc.s<.n..Lur.s witll eontrac~d ncch.s ~.o n.Iativdv ~y tlic h~h and un.des of vibr.~iun c.,rrc.spon.]i~ arc 1)y no 'nc.a,.s .ndupcndcnt of t).c inertie of the ..ur in tho intcrior of the l),c ci.a~ctcr of thc.sc mo<).s wi)) be more ovident r~rvoir. K.n wc comc to considcr H.c vibrat.-ons of air within a cu.n-' c!d ]. c y as a v~d..such sphorc. but it will nu.dy h.ppcn tllat tho p)tch can be ca!cu)atcd tJ.eurcti(;:diy. Ti.crc arc, howcvcr, cases uf ,n,dtip)c rcson~cc to which our is t'.cory Thcse app),cabJe. occur wf.un two or ~orc vcs.sd.s c..n"atc ~th by channcfs each ot).cr and wit), thc externat air. .d .u.c trc.atcd rcaddy Ly L.rangc. n.cth.d, f course pro.idcd ti.at th af thc vihrati.n wav.tc.~th is iu comsuf!icic.ntjy I.rge p.-tn.sonwitht)~di.Hc.iu,).suft)tuvc..s.sd.s. w.di ~.ch
Suppo~ ti.at thc.rc arc two rc.s.rv.irs.

.simph ),~c

~it!.

cach

othcr

aud

with

tl.c

con~nunicatin~

c.Lcrnat

air

by ~arro~

passage,

o~

If wo wero to con.si~r a. a sin~c rservoir ncc~. an.! ~pp]y wc shouM bc ~f prenons !.d to cn-.n.ou.s fur rc.snit furmuf~ formula is fOlllldcd an tlle :~tluLt tll1Lt witlia aS~lImptiou the rescrvuir th u.crti.. of thc ,~hatiormu)~sf.,unded air j.~ bc ~u.nption Jcft eut of may th t).atw~h:n ac.our~, ~hcr~ tho rc.sc.'vcir it Is is cvnicnt that th cne~y of the motion th t)n-o~h conncctin~ hc a.s ~rcat a.s pa~gc iuay th two through others. a~ Ho~cv.
~')-uc~t' (~ </te ~(~(~ .S-~i(. Koy. 2.i, 1870.

17G

DOUBLE

RESONATOR.

[~~0.

invcsLig~ion

on

th

Hfune

K'c~l

P~"

~'

perfuctiy. tlirou~h
cncrgy

Dcuoti)~ by thc Un-ce pa-s~gcs,


t))C cxpi't's-iion

tr:u).s~.rs of Hnid 1 .Y,, A\ t])C totat as m (2) 304. fur thc kiu(jtic wc Lave

as

thc

cqu:ttirm

to

dtermine ~=Thc be Let

thc

nutund ~e two

toncs. values

IfJVbe of~" bcing

thc of if eut this

frcqucucyof course

vibt-~tio)),

rca.1 and

~'=<S'; ~=c,, case from tlie bp~inning.

ucgativc. but it will

fonnu]:).

simptifles

considcr~My

inore =

inst-ructivc to = ~'c. = ?"~

wurk

~J

noUBLE

RESONATOR.

~y

~'hich 'night ofT, aud

rc.juirc.s th~ t.:Lkc p)acc wcro bas its fi'Gfjuuncy

= 0. th

Tho

motion

is thei-cforc bctwccn

th

.sa.nc

Ct))u)nun!c:tt:on by

~'an<~S"cut

~ivcn

~1 ).c

vibmtion.s

~ro

tl.us

opposcd In this
as

is ~vcn h~ thc
passage

m phase.

Ly~=~+2: .shortcr penod.


acts m .somc mcasurc

of frcqucncics th.tt th second s~cwin~ mode mo.Ic of vibration t))c conncctinrr tn hoth ve~c]~ opcning hc contractcd. thc intervat

T!.e

ratio

a.second

:md

t!)us

of pitc)i

t])e pi~-).. bctwecn th t\vo of

nuscs

If thc pesage
notes is stna)).

A pfu-t!cu)Measc ohtfuned byputting~=(),


t))c commumcatiuns with

thc thc

~cncriL)

fonnuia

~Lich

amounts air.

cxtcrna)

of notice to supprcssins one Wc ttms obtain woi-t))y

is of

n. ir.

178

PAUTICULAR

CASE.

~310.

It

appcars

that

thu

into-v~

from

~to~,namc)y,(2'(JlS)=l'(i1.s, )t will be fonnd that hetwool :m octave A thc !uid two


a

JV, to A~ I.s tnc or ratbcr more

samc th.in

as from a fifth.

wh~~vcr caunot titini. is

th bc J'hu

vainc

toncs
minor

of w ]nay hc, <Lc httcrv:d 1~-ss th:in 2'4.).i., winch IsaLout vaiuc of?/t is 2.

con-c.spunding to any

sunilar of

mcthod

f'otnp)icat.u(!, ~in~c
voir.s aud

rcscrvuirs as tu

applicable aud

combination, puisages

howGvcr uadoof t)tc


is

cunnecting

thc rpser-

rcstricLioH
wn-c-Icngth.s;

thu
Lut

comparative
Hie examp]c

magnitudes
just ~ivcn

sumci~nt

to

iliustratc

titc

)UL-nts of th on rcsottanc-c, :]. no


wcn-

thuory of']nu)tip)c of duubtc rcsonators pitch refon'L'd to. atrcady winch quations thc (-scapc of
transfcr of

rsonance. arc dctailcd

A few

mensure-

in ]ny rnc-moir

Thc of
no

wc
encrgy

))ave
from ~ctwcon

cmploycd
a a resonator. rcsonator

Intticrto If'
and

t:~c tho-c
thc

account
rcnHy

cnurgy

cxt'jrna) jn'acticat
ru.i.sists

attno.sph~ru, iuterc.st;
In it.s

t)tc

motion

won)d

bo

isoiat.cd

and

of

IItUc

nuvcrthcic.s.s
vi))rations

1)10 characteri.sticcfa ~rcat for


mca.surc

rcsonator
indcpendent.

Vibrations, pt-riods at.nost


of

once \vit!tout cntify


is,

c.xci~d, nmoh ]oss

in b~in~ wii! c-onti.mc of

consiuL-riLbic

number

of

indcpc.ndcnt
howhvf-r.an

and HK.ir frc.mcDcy will bc rncrgy, of t).L. rate uf Tbe rate dissipation.
important fcatm'c in tLc chamcter

dissipation

~-1

COMMUNICATION

0F

ENHH(.Y.

l~:)

~f

circ.tm.stanc~ .~tcnaHy <!e,x.nd.s. It ~j)!bc n~crst~!t).~t t).c<]i.ssip~ion '.cro uf n.e~ns c..)y tii.. spoken f cner~y fn.m thu vc.I cscape aud its nc~),bour)tood, and Its ditl-us~on in thc .s.n-roundm~ and ~ot. t).c tr.sfu.-nmtion of o,-di,.a,.y cncrgy into ),~ ~n~hmn, Oi such tran.sforn~tion (nu- c.t..atio.).s tako no accuunt, uniuss tcnns bc imroduccd spcc.at for t)u- purposo of roprcscnLi, t]. cfucts ofvi.cosity, and of t!,e cond~ctb.i and r;u)iatiou of hcat.
Cl.

rcsonator,

on whic).

it.s bcL~io.u-

undcr

certain

In ~rcvicus chaptor <'n thc r.~t ,f Lh. i.~nitc Ycjoetty of the <huJ over

wc .s.w ).ow L. cxp.-o.ss th motion H.ngc (1~. (n). in tenns oi-ti.c ~rn.d tlie di.sc We foun.), 278 C:~ ( 278)

~cre~iHp)'op(H-tion!(I<oc' If r hc t),o distant


.s'n-tU

bctween

any

two

p.,ints

of thc

qna~.ty,

an<} 6--=1

.)i.sc, ~<. is

appruxi.n.~civ.

T~.

nrst

term th.~

<)op.n.).s
is

npon
constant,

thc

<!istribut:on

of

th

c.n-cnt. terni rcprcIcrgth. undcr

Jf

wc suppose
~nting

wc obtain or

u]ti,natc!y to'thc

anincrcasc to of Thi.s pi.f,

<~f I.c.-tia, ~-c ,t ind.-pc.ndcnt j,avc

a correction considorcd,

oqua!

n)rc.~)y r~~

t],c

s"p!.os,tion '"s.s.pat.on

~.pcnd.s, i.s

of thc distributiun

of current, ')~_2

180
hc'in~ a fonction

.RATH

0F

DJSSl'ATrON.

t':nt.
Coxfitiin~our

of<.hctct,a)

cxn-cnL

(.Y)nt))y.

at-(.t.'ut.i()H~)<.)n.st.t.')')n,W('i)ave

Th (J7I~

('f))')'(;sp"n()Ii)~work ~V; j'.


~Lllll fm~

()om; as It) 30-t, ;~s in :31)~

(hn-ingit.LriULsj'ur th tlie cxprc'sston.s exlressions

of

()))!<) ~Vis

siacu, sincc,

ftO-t~e t.hc Imtent,i;~l fnr potentat

nn(ikinetict;)iC)'gics:n'c

in phtcc of (3) 30~. In i))C-t!)(i(~fu)'t))uin(.ti:).(~t't,h(' <'o)'rc.s])f)))(!in~ -K<)na<,io)i(;')) f)f' (1i.ssip!tti\'c <,o tim is tcr)n of

thc

valuntiun

of c nu

aDowancc

nut.st

hc

<!ni(tont))cright-I):U)(I oxtittcd m th~ expresMon stamLtntfoDnfurt.hcfrccvihmttons dc~rcc afi't-cc~om itithu

sittoof-~t, fur ~).

thc ofnnu M'

sy.st~ms

( 't5). r~tic

T~e e:l 1

:m')phtm!cv:uiL'sa.sc't'l)~i))g(Hmmished

af'tcr:). ~ivcn,

tnoc&quatto )))(' vihratiotLS hve Lhc

Ift]tcpit.L-h((]ctcrminc<! thc )tcck ~re:ttcs<,p<')'.si.s<onccwhc)i isjnoutcontractL'tt. fur c its vahtc

by?<)bc c in

mn!~fL'st.,<.h!).t.i.s,w))L')t If ui'~and; )S' t'c ~i\'ct),

wc !i:tV(.t un

subsLitnting

in to'ms

shc\vi))gt))a[.tm(L'rthnnccircuni.st.;uiCt'Ht.])U(h[['~tiu))('fL))L')t)<~ion it)C)'tsc's)':q)i'Hy:t.s/t(HtninihihcH. Jnthcc:).sc()fsin)i!art'e.sot)at('r.sex7<):UKnLcn

'K.)Uftti(.n(.)it<<~)]ynpprf.xin)tt~nrLsmuc]tnHthodissi[)ati\-c Ltt('dont)jt;H))p])(~iti~nt)t)ttthavi))rati(~)isj)ermnuentiLntthiswi)Ucndtono !n)ttcritdo'rur\lK'nt.I)() dissipation iiiHmftU.

force iscfttcu-

3U.]
which shows

NUMERICAL EXAMPLE.
that lu fhis case t)te samc uf Ly proportional thc satnc thc loss numbcr of

181
ot' of d!-

n!np)it.udc ]'criuds. tncnsions,


.si))ii):).)-ity.

oecut-H :tftu)- thc atways )apse T))i.s rcsu)L bc obtidncd may as n of thc
eonscqncncc

mcthu<t of

priocipic c~G itt

dyn:unica.)

As an ex:unj)) mtu))(]c<) ncck, capaeity note of so that f(.'ut pur is -251


tnaxhnu))).

of fur cuhic

(.),

I may

rdc!-

to thc

of a g!ubc gas,

wit)t wltosu

hurtti))~ pho.sphorus fuct. It wa.s f..u,x!


rusntianGu )nath

oxygol

120

7t=12()x27r. sccon!, \Ye mn)

thc vch.city Taldn~ fron th(.'sc (]ata

t).at thu by (-xpcri.ncnt vibrations pur sucom), ofsuuud (<;) at )i.20

Jm)~i)ig ] t))ink ohs.j)-vc<) th~ury Wc of somu)

from
t))at

tllC
this

Sound
cstimn.tc

pro.htccd m)t.sf, of t.hu

wLcn bc too iatinite thc

tlie !ow;

g~bo but it

struck, .shoutd bu ia t,)tc

is

U):

tho infjucncc oow

ab~ncu vcry

nmst will

njaLcriaUy tlie f~rced

itssorncd fhmgc rato of dissipation. duc pressure i.c. 7''c""<, to c;t.!cuktc<I t)ic thc

~xanur~e tu tb<;

vibrations If source, hc the

to n, source 8;) at on thc th

externat of )))('

t-eson~tn)-. duc t,) tlie

jnout)) supposition
motion

r(;sQi)!t<,or

t,)):).t the
corrcspon<)it)~

mouth to (:

is cioscd, but

~pplicabic

of quation forcod vibra.-

tion

only,

is

w))!ch

agrccs

w:(.]i

case simple

whcru

thu

cqo~tinn commnnicatiott

thc

ob~inc<! with thu

by Hutm])o!f,z cxtGr!)fit fur

for

tho n.

i.s hy

!ipcrLuro(S()(;).

ThcprL-sc)itproh)cm

i.sne:u')y,butnu<,

1S~

r<JH(JKD

\')I!i{.ATIO\.S.

j~L).

(putL', upou

:). c~so thc fact

uf

t.])fit tru~tcd i))(i

iji

.K!, t)tu

diffrence

dcpcndin~ (7)i;!it.sr!f r

that,

c')'-)H<io))L(.)t'()is.sip;).tiu))in

:Lfu'ict.~)t~ft))Lipc)'in(f,a)Hl!)ut!t.n:L))S()!ut.(.')ycnn.-it.:u)t([um)tit,y. tf'tiu' /c,and~'hn p'')-h)L),()(!t('nttit)t'dby ~i\'(-n,('))s))c\v.sU)at th<)in~Tii:([\'n.ri:diunofp~.s.sur<~(<)!s!Lnt~in])nnw!)cuc=/< d)aL i.s,\vh<'n t))un:)t.m-;d n"tc()f't.))uro.son:tt,~(f~1cu~(:(;<)wit)t<.)nLfU)u~it!ci()t-tIi.s)j)at.iun)i.st)t(;s:))))L':)st)t!~ot'thu"-('t)c!).tu)"' .sutm'). Tt'c maximum \i))r:)ti()!),A\'))()nth)ic<'inc)()('))cu()t'p(,'['if)ds
i.sjx.-r~ct, varias invt.r.~ty as <S; hnt,if'A'bcHm:L]),!tvcrys)i~ht,

tn cause int'')')atityi)tL))c a )narl<L'(tfa)nn~ pcn~i.si.s.s)tf!!ci(..nt ufl'inth~ uf'ti)u~so)):Lnce h) t))<!p)'~cticat mtcxsity (-)'!)'). us<-<d' rcsonat~r.s iti.sn()t.at!v:utta~'uustocrn-)yt))C!'cdnct.[u~ t)hS':n)(t<cryfar,pr''ba))iyh('c:Lu.st!thc;u-ra))~(;)nc))~)](TL'ss!u'y thc inttior t'orronm'cti))~ w:~ t!)cci)r )):n':tt.usi))\-uh'ca.t]rj)a)'t)n-cfn~n cahi)hth()))s :).)'(-fu)))h)(;(],w)Nchb()t-())nL'sn~)ntant) :L.sti~c()inte))si.))ts:u-t' i.s itct.ineotmuuti~n~ith
r(;i)tihrci!)~thc

oroLhtjr.~nsidv'ia.))w)nc))thn tttDHUppo.sit.ixnso)) !n<)rc impurtanL scusitivc nppfLmt.n.s rsonant)'


mvcsti~Uon

rr()uc~).

W)~at!m

Lhemtc-rior.it.sInthccxpcmnL-nLut'

(-t))ur

ck'ntoits

n<)un(i()t'~tUHin~-i'nrkhyn)c:U).s()f!L Gnt.cr Intu thc (tuuiiLiuu, :md adist-inct (;!)')).

i.s nt'ccs.Siuy

)n\irLnuuft)tupt'it)cip!u()frc(;]p)-()cityt.cinvc-sti~th)nofthn
prec<din~pamgr:)p)t

soun'uof 3]~.

sound 'now

)nnyb(;a])pijc-dt<jc.d(;ut:ttc mt.uat.t'd in t))cintu)-ior(!t'iL)-('.so)i!tt.or.

thu

ci)'cctof:L

discussion p:)s.s on tu thci'm-thcr ()ft]tcpnd)]rtn \Vu t))!t.t t.hc opcncndofthc ofthu.~pL-upipt'. sl)!))[m)pj)f)sc wiL)):m intinit.c ])ipc ispr\'i(K'd th:).t.its dmmc~r ();u)~c,:t))d i.s sm;dt in C(j)np:u-is(j)~vit.)t t))u ot'thu vibration \v;Lvcie)~t.)i um)o'cot).sidr:Ltit)n. As :m introduction t))C())K.stion,wc winftn-thct-suppnst; pipe i.s htt.<-()with~fr<dyi)h)ving pi.st.un )n:t.ss. Th~ froin p)'ccc<)in~ pn-)!)tons, i"rc:)titybutiitt)u,)):LY<j:d)'<u!ygiv(;n Du; j'n-s~t)C(i.)t't))(j piston Witiii)ith~t)))jc~csup])u.sc(2.5.')) wiH~u)s.; tu

thatthemoutiiofthc
wiLhuut thic)<n(.'ss

inu)

w!)if)) usn~son

thL'pt-L~ntdiH'cr.s tuthink t))at )nudinc;((ion.

nuitopurtitttt

t)t:t.tthL;VL')u(.'i(y-pot.u))ti.di.s

31~.] 1 th right t on~i js by 302 On of thu

oi'E~

rjpE.

183

pistou

th

rchition

bctwccn

and ~) \n

v
Froni this t)t solution of thc pipe. hc obtrunod ]"'oLh'm without as to thc tnn,y :H)y restriction .smuHness ui' it is ody whcn sinco, /c~ is smid) Imwcvur, tf~.Lt t))Li prsence uf th wan)d nut piston nt!).tcri:d)y mudify thc ([estion, wu nmy as weU )):Lve thc hoiefit of thc sitnpiification aL uncc by taking as in (1) 3)1 buing thc radius of th

sinc:e N~w,sincc Nuw,

the pistoll thcpist.onoccuntcsnospa., occllpil's

no RpaCl',

tlie the

vaincs valllos

of ot' Ol.c> \.c/ '1

)nt).stbo<))Cs:u)tC()nbothsi()(;i()fit,n.n<lsinect)[C)-cisnont:Ms, thc Itku must bu truc oi't)tc values Thu.s ofj~f~o-.

thisexprcssum :ut(! is dissipation, `~"Il involviu~ 1. air in thc pruvious

In

tlie
th

te-rmcuntfunin~Hin~ as if sunic thcrc wcre cfti:ct uf cft'L-ct f']' t)tc

dpends

no piston, inertie

upouthc whitc tha.t, caterual cxtcnmi with 1

1 rcprcsent.sttto

f. th of 1

of thc mouth. ncigtdjuurhood rcsult.s, !ct a be sucti th~t ~7.'

In ordcr

to comp:u-c

184
Thse formu~

THEORY 0F OPEN ENDS.

[312.

-show that, if thc dissipation be ]oft out of account thc i.s thc sa.nc M if t)iu tube v/cre vcioeity-potejttia) Jun.~hcncd of thu and by th opcn end tlicii bchaved radins, as a loop. Tho amount of thc cnrrcetlun WLth what prev:ous agres investiwouM Ii:Lve Jed us to ssons as H.c rc.sutt of thc Introcxpect duction of thc pisto!). Wc i.avc sccM rcason tu know that t!.u true val.ic of a Hcs bctwccn dous not aHcct and ~7~, ~nd U.~t thc prescn

of t!~G piston t)to tenu thu dissipation. rcpresonting But, b~forc discussing our rcsults, it will bc tu ii]advanta~cous thon afrush by a rathcr VL-st.~tc dincrcnt which Lcsides lucthod, of somcwhat bcm~ grcater will hdp to tlu-ow ligtit ou gcncndity, thc tncc!):u)ics ofthc<)ucstio)). 313. Fur tins purposc it ~iit bu convcniont to tiltift thc ori~ta in thc ngative direction to such distance from t)ie jnonth t!at, th wavcs arc thcrc a disp~eonent ~pproximatcly plane, which to our nccd aecording not :unount suppositions to more than a sm~H action of thc wave-Icngth. Thc difHctdty of thc question consists in finding thc connecta betwccu th wavcs in thc pipu, whic-h at n sunicicnt dist:uice from tt~ mouth are p)ane, and thu wavc.s wi.Ich at a modumtc divcrgin~ ontsido, distance bo may treatcd as sphcrica). If t!)c transition tako ptacc within spacc .sinaH comparcd witb thc whicit it must wavc-Ic~th, evidcntiy do,tt tho dmn)ctorbc.s.na)Icnough, th prubtumadn.itsof solution, wh~tcvcibu tiic for)n of .nay thc pipe in th uf ncighbourhood thu niouti).

.L puint, 7~, put,cu(.j:dis(27U)

wiiosc

distnncc

from

~1 is n.~k-mtc,

t)iu l'elucitj,tliu vducit.y-

3J3.]

TMEORY

0F

OFEN

ENDS.

185

Lcb

us considur

thc

bch:n'iour C:md

of

t.hc

nmss

of

air

Inchu~d

bu-

twnthcp~ncHecL~H~t is~l,iuid d):U)tct.L-r ot'tho )';))~tL. Wit)tD)


centre

n,hcnusp))<ric:dmtr{~ccw!tosu
in conipari.so)iwit.)t

radius

?',)'bcin~I:n-g-tj

t)tu \t\'L':).n. thc hcmi-

pipc,b)tt..sma)linc(')))p:).risonwith<L)i<j tins sp:L(:ct))u air nu~tniuveitpproxitni~cty~s Ouid -\vuuid du. Nuw t.hc uun'cnt ncru.s.s

incun)}))-c.ssib)c sphcric:dsm'i'n.c<j

This buen

is tlic

first that

cunsidoratton

condition; thc total

tlie currcnt

second

is to bc

fuuud

from

t))e

is proportionfd c(tun.ted) tun)H!t:).!H. Thus, if c dcuotc t\vccn ttiu tertninal surfaces,

hn.vc just (wliose two v;ducs to thu di~crcncc of p(jtcuti:d at tiiu th conductivity of thc pussa~c hc-

fn tins expression thc sccotid tcrm thu first, i'ur c is at niu.st. 'tunat.ity

is ncg]i~!))]c ot' t!~ s:unc

in compariso)~ with ordor as thc radius

18G

CORRECTION

TO

LHNCTH.

[313.

If/t! Whoi di.st.utcc

bc thu tlie A7,

radius tube

uf t,hc tube, is a. simple

wc ni~y

rcp!:LCC o- by

7r7~. !ic.s at who'u (thc oi-i~in :t

Litu rnouLh.wu i.s :). n)[)n))oi-at.!tcr grc.itcr thau t:d<~ti uc:u- titu Luing sxtHcicuDy tmd titL-rcturc fron. (10)

iruta

and thc origin cylindo-, know that o-c''=AZ,+~, 7r. inouth) In such ycK is a case
:). mnaU

qu:mt~y,

At Th~

tllc

.~m~ tcnn

Litnc itL

cu.s~

nmy

bu

iduntiticd

whh

principe) if t.)iu tuhu latud, i~mL.situat.udaL:n)Istancc~ hiunL)j, iu nccord:Uicu

~invotvu~ wct-c prolon~cd, witit

co.s?~, )n~y t.)ten and i))ct-c wcru :t, luop :tt ,). the actual of ti.u huyont posidun w).at wc t'ound bufurL-. Th(jsu rusult.
ri~-uruus w)iun

unity. heealot-

appruxitnatuiat-urdimn-y i.-j rud~ced \vit.Luut iimit,

tubes, bucomu fi-ict.Ioii bcin~

thu diatnutut'

nc~cctud.

3)3.')
If tho-c

RATU

0F

DISSIPATION.

187

Le no n:U)gc nt J, the value of c is s)ight)y modined bythu)\'niova)ofwhat actsasan but th principal obstruction, cH~ct is o)) thc tcrtn tbc Ifwc rL'prc-sonting dissipation. snpposfa~ an approxitnation t)iat thuwavcs arc sphcricai, divo-gingfrom~ wc ~ve iiiiist nmst takc fur titl~e 1(ir t]te tite ettri-ciit current 4-n-r f/ instcad i IlSte~t(I C)r of thc wcU ~Trr'~ ~y-' Thu 0

u!ti<nate<t.ctoft))<t-at,i<jn H'c V(.-)<)city-p()tcntifLt spun<)ing second tunn

wiH )j2 to hnjvc uutsi()(; tho muuth, tis

cxprcsHion for ILS thc corrc:uuount

')tMs)]):Lti<.))jLis t!ms which t)m \v:Lvc's arn fruc t<j divo-gc, must nut bu r~mk'd :L.s tnurc than Tiiu c~rrt.'ct (H)
f~nvt-vur,

in (invoivi))~ .sinM~). .scctL todupcnd ))):ttcri:).t)y

T)tu

of

ontitcdcgrecitt atK) onr a)i:L)yttc~ cxprf.'s.~iuus run~h c.sthnit.t~.

:nid

c:n'!ic.st

(i2), di'rct-.s suintions

thcory wfm

open org.'ni-pipc, including cqu~tioxs di.scovcrcd w)K)SG method, hy Hut)n)toltx', from t)mt hcru Th~ cot)side-:).b)y adoptc'd. uf thc probicni ]). BcruunU), and by L~t-fin~L-,

<'f thc

weru foundcd on tho a,sst))nptio)i Etdc-r, that~ta~ end opcn thc pt-c.s.sut'o cou)d not, vary ft-om thi).t of tho atmo~urrutmding w))ich Mphcru, a. principic cvu)i now be consi()crc() )nay pcr!)aps to an ond wliosc opcnm-ss apphcahic is ideaUy pcrfcct. TIiu tact ttiat iu au ordiaary casus cncr~y is a, proof that tttcrc is cscapus nut anywfturu in thc pipe au absolu te )oop, nnd it might hve bccn t))at the ino-ti~ oi'thc ('xpectud air just ontside the tnouth would ha.vu the eUccI of an iocreasG in thL: of tho Iu)gth. Thc positions nudcs in a soun()in~ \cre pipe invc.sti~at(;() cxpcrimcntauy hy thc r~uit that thc intervai bctwecn !S<).vai-t"andI[o])!dns",wit)t thu mot)) a)td thu ncarust )c.ss titim t)tu h:dfof that noduisa.I\vays
s~pa.t'ating consccutivc nod~'s.

d~'tDi-nnnationsof t!.c correction for an Expo-imcnta) )iavc gcn(.'ra))y beun )na.dc wittiout t)ic usu of a riangc, opun on) a)))) it t)tL'ruforcbcconics itnpurtant tofortna.tanyra.tGarough u.stitnatcofitsctrect. :m unOangt'd opcn ofthuproDt~nof cn<) ))as )nthurto hccn givc'n, but it is casy to scu t)i:tt t))o rcmovalof tho ffangc will ruducu thc correction -~i27t' (Appcndix In the abscncu tn:Ltcria)!yhc'!uwthcv:dnc A). ul' tticory I hve attcmptcd Hic innuoice of a naxgu to dutcrtninc
'Cn'))t',]3~7,r.l. 18(!t). ~HcchL'r(.-)tL'isnr)MYibn)ti<'))St))jt')ti)'t~f/o'xt.t.xxn'.l.S' -'Acnftt )')1. 1~ vihrittiuns incyliudncnit.ubt; c'ftHt&ro/~f j~Y~

31~

No

ttK'orctiea.tsotution

~83

INFLUENCE

0F

FLAN(!E. [314. L.

f~vnr't'imfntnUt)'

givc countablobcatswerc biownfrom an or'~an tho cifect of t)~ nangc was (icdnccd bdiows; fro!n titc dift'cr~cc in thc frcqucucics of t).c be;Lts as ono of tho according was pipes or not. Ti)c correction nitugcd dnc tu th Oangc was aboit -2/t'. A (prohaDy more of' this cxpuritnt.nt tmsLw.rttfy) ~}K-t,itio)i ).y Air Jj<.s:uu)uct Jf wc Huhtt-act ~:Lvc -2.')~. -2~7t; frntn wu -S27~ ct'tain -8/ w''ic)tninybcrc-g:u~(~asabntttt)hJprubah!(-v;dnL-of thu conwt.ion f<m unft!.)~) npt.ncn.), ..))t])e.s))pp)siLi.)t).at iti thc diani~Lcr thcwavc-IcngtitisgrcaL cunip;u'i.-iunwi(.h <jf thc pipc. t~ (~to-muic th cnrrcction Attcmpts from cxpo-inx-.nt cntirdy Lavu not )cd !.iL))crto to vcry prccisc rc.sutt.s. ALua.suronent.s Ly Wurthcita' on doubfy as a. muan opoa ptpcs gave (fur cach en.)') winiu ~r -~i: pip(j.s opcu at o).c end onjy t))c muan resutt was -7-tUA'. In two carctut uxpoi.ncnt.s on Ly Bo.sa!X)u~' duubiy thc ('pt'n correction fur onc end was pipes whcn \= -C~7~, 12 7/ an.) -5.):i w),en =:~U. as a gcn~-at Bosan.,nct Jay.s it duwn i-)t)c tLatt))ccorr~iun i.t'crcn.scs (uxpr~.dasafr;Mtiunof7.') wit]i t).c ratio of diatnctcr tu wave-fcngth; of this I.icrpa.sc part Ilowuvur bc d~c to thu .nutunt inay rcaction of thc- ends, w].ich causcs thc p!anc of to behave likc a rigid wa)!. .symmetry Whc.n t).c pipe is oniy in proportioli modcratdy to its dia.netcr, long a statc of things is appro;Lchcd w!ac)i bc more rnay ncarly rcproHcntc-d by tho prc.scnec t!)a)i by thc absence ofa ftangc. TIjc comof and obscrvatiort pan.sun Hicory on this .subjcct is n mattcr of -soinc dimctdty, because whcn tlic correction is sma)), its va)u~ as calcutatud frum i.s aH'uctud observation, as'to by uncertaintics ab.s.dntc and t).c pitch of sound, wtnie for thc ca..so, wbcn vclocity t))C correction is relativdy w!tic)t is more iarger, co.nexpcrimcnt to duat pctctit wit)), titcre is at prsent uo thcory. rrobab)y a. more accumte v~luc of th correction cou!d be obtaincd from a re.sonator of tbc kind considcrcd m 3<)(i, wh~-ro thc
communication witb

cxpcnmcnta.Hy'. onuanot!)L-r

~t\.r~

Two

organ-pipcs

ncariyenougb

in

unison.with

to

t)ic case cfthis will

outstdu ~ro,and hmd,

air thc

is

by

a simple correction

in whic]),

bu fonnditimytncmuir

th "k-ngth" is aperture; in tbat is Somc mca.suroncnt.s cverytiung. ))n~-cvc.r, no grr..at was attemptcd, accurapy on rsonance' ]S77.

'r/;<7..v~(.))!iS(;.

=~t;t).(;/NM.(:t)t.x.\xt.p.;);)~ ~~t/1A;f/.(n))v.p.~)u. is77. ''7'/<t/.7'nu<.<.lH7]. S~a]sn.S<~t])i)tuss,r,)~t.ltn,21U(lH7<'),(ind[ ~uutc rcjuarki, tiiermjx~ ],y myself (/u, Hrj.t. 1870).

314.]
Varions re.sooators havu b'jcn

EXPERIMENTAL METHODE.
mcthods hve bccnu.scdto Most after frc;()ncnt)y, t)ic manncr thci)' dtermine thc

183
pitc!)nf rcsonators by gnod to tho In mn.dc a.cross to t])e
as

cx])cri)n~i)ta1)y. madu t.o N/)e~' bh)\vn bcun obhfjnc'Jy obtaincd wiod

tl)c perhaps, of organ-pipcs

Kt,t'(?:)ni. ofnir rL's~it.s modt~ of hve


action

across lu this

months.

oFthc

way, onr rc:)](tL')'n Lho mbthod pipes wcrc not jets of air usti)nntL-d frum

AIthoufh as ignorance
uns~tisfitetory.

Busnoquct's spc:).k, but ~))t;n end, thc sound .sonn;titncs <io)tS as

Mxpt'rimeiits sitort discontinuons thc piteh

thc

wurc thc

acLu~Hy btowu
frcc

bcing di(.-d awa.y. A )n(.'thud,simi!at'in wit!t a.dvn.tita~'c consists cmpioycd


uf a

vibrations

that 1 Iiave principte, I)i uxcitingfroei'vihraas we)] dufincd n. note of th pitch, tcst-tnbc bout t))c hardnc.ss
contact to

hy !ncans

Uuw.

In

order

to obtain

pnssibic, substance

it, is of importance te accomtncdate with w))ich thc rcsonator coincs into a soft, in
a

th a

a loAv pitch rcqninng may bG dutcrmincd !\u(;c.


I)i nsin~

b)ow.

Thus

thc

mumoit

by striking

nf pitch it against

t)~o

this thc

mcthod pitch t))C

\vc

fact <(iDn

that

natnra) Ing npon

not onght of a vibrating of thc is

cntirdy hody dissipation. diminishcJ M to

to ovorloo~ is attcrcd With from t'xccntcd

tho hy a thc ?t to

dpend of

sqnarn

nntfLtion ?'() c~r''), tt)C amplitude

tho 45, frcqucncy or if A' bc thc nurnbcr ratio e

of vibrations 1, from

whi!e

faHs m thc

correction, itccnuut:.
Th mc.isuroncnt.s

Thc

howcvcr,

-\von)d

mrc]y

be

wortit

tahin"'

illto

givoi

jnytncmoh'nn

rc.sDna.nce

wcrc

co)uh)ct.f;<l
tnft.xImnniL

npotin.dii'f'L'rt-'nt,
rt.'son.'utcc'.

princi~tchyc'stimii.t.n)~

the

note

of

TItcearwaspLLCctIincommonicn.tinnwith

thL'[)jteri()rofthccaYit.y,Y))i)ct])ccI)ron)!'ttie8c:t.)cw~.ssoun()c!d.

to o.stiinn.t.e way it was found pns.stbtc with !i HtUe practicc t)K' pitcl) of a gnod rcsor):Ltf)r to about tt qufu'tcr In ofa scnnt.onc. the citsc of'.sman n~s~s with Jong noc~.s, to wL!c')) thc n.bovc mct,hod W()ut<] 0; not nea.r bu thc ap])!ic:d))c, vibmting it wfts wires funod sumocub of n. pianofoj'te. ofthn body ofthc to ho)d thc nu'rcly Tito resonant note f)as]e, the e:~i]y npr-

tu ~)us

:)~))~o~)ncu(~ <'cptil)tu thcnittd bchvcoi hy

itsutfby

a.'nuvu)']))~

titcnngcrs. ]nunH)~t)ns)nc't))odit,i.si))ip(.)rtantt)):t.t .s])ou]d bcfrccfrombiasin snb-dividing'


conscutive .sonitone.s.

intcrv:).! rcsu)t

two

Whcn

thc

thcorctic~t

~0
i.s known, opinion 31.'). it
is

DISCUSSION OP MOTION
atmost,

[314.
an Indcpcndcnt

impossible

to

an'ivc

at

hv'xp('itiir'nt. Wcwi)) c!ose)y by thc

no\v, fu])uwing examine Hu]mhohx, more ~hc nature of thc motion within t)ic pipe, rcprcscntcd Wchave funnn~(H)3)3.

whcrc

M is a.

posttivc

jntcgcr.

T!)C (1ist:mcc v:duc

hctwccu

conscutive is sec~a. (a; a) =


Thc

m~xim~
miniinnm

is thns
va)uu.s ci'

a~)(~ thc Z/' occur

cf thc m~xnnu))! wlieu

npproxitnatcfy

M<7r,

315.]

ORIGJNAT1NG

WTHIN

AN

OPHN

l'IPE.

191t

of tLc maximum is ~sec~x, tuagnitudc a.nd <hnt ofthe mminuuu A:o-coH'47r". It ti)C appcars that of velocity tnaxima. oceur in the s:unc parts of thc tuhe as thc nnnimit of condcnsit.tio)! and the (:md nuninm of rtn'cfact.ion), in thc samc places as <.I)e nmxi)))~ ofcondun.sfitiot). yclocity Thc scries ofloops nnd nodcs :u-G :uTa.)tgc() if thc in-st loop werc at a. (listance a bcyond th month. fipproxin~te WIH) rcg'fn-d
w sec t!~t in th phnscs, bnth and arc in and thcreftjre with t1)C exception of thc ph~ccs ,7' arc ])ofn' tileir rninima. the w]io!c motion is

Th

~encrt s)naH whcre 7,' and .synchronous, Hit!)crto


p):ui0 wavcs

as if there werc we hve thc

no dissipation. thc t)~Ir prohtcm gradu:d of th of th(; and dinnslon plane passade of frojn tho thcmmotion that tiic

considercd pipe to thc thc

month, sctvcs.
is

fdong -\Ylthcnt regard A)l tliat


within

wc hve to the of

ori~in assumcd is that \Vc vibration

-avcs ofthc

t1ic origi)t
now suppose

somowhcre

mution at
whcn

is

duc tlie

pipe. known

will

of at

A'===

origin

co-ordinaLcs

bcin~

situated piston, thc mot]!. Thus,

a.

n.nd

tins

imist

hc

!n:~c

p):inew!).vcs,~cncmlixc<) :uidp)ia.sc. AVcmayta~c

to corj'cspom) with it)tro(h)ction bythc

titc

expression

for thc ampjitude

ofarbitniry

by which In

tind

e arc detcnnincd. wiL)i by Tt (12) 313, th corrcsponding divergent

:tccoi-d!uicc

wa.vc is rcprcsc'iited

1 QO
Il. Iv W o

AIOU'IO. MOTION
givcn, is ,s ~.catmt,

DUE

TO

f;~
t)~t In h

Jf<?)M ~.en.

whcneo.,K(<+.).n

of 71 .t.,
hun~uU..much th.n~h n., n~mtc. cont.rac~, c~ is ncccssa.y that sincc

t).c

~t.i~

.Ibr~i.n
bcco..c

v.y
Wi.cn .sn..)., h.t t

cos~can~t~is),. oos.y t)~ a.)ju.st.,ncnt

in very

t!s

c.

in onicr tlie

thut

thc Hr.st

te. ~p~c.i:

:~r: l'quaI
Tho

.;ecolH1.

to unity.
ininhnum of

cf ( i'.) ,n.y il

of ncrio ho b. n~ le CC)SAC2 i. lie.-ll-]Y

vibration tLc

occur.s pi.~n

whcn is ~cd

snch at r~p

t)~t

tlmt

Case

T.cv.br.ion out.si.jc c.,ua)to.r.s~a]fc,'t!~ tlie 316. .f Let tl.c hlane, Onr motion

tbc than

tube i.s
th

tben,
vibrion

accorda
~.ich

te tbo value there wouU P~~

of be

"S

cqu~ions

may

cxc~cd in the

in first

pL.tc fo~ing <h.c to t).c cxt.n~I p~cnha] ovur t!.c plate) .s undcr tbc.sc

uyuppo.sc c).soJ by a ~.cd

bc ~ppUed to the investigation tube by cxtcrna! sources of~nnd place tliat tho ~out). of tbc tube i. part of the y. p]ane, .nd tl.at the .sources constat (approximatoly
..J.so c;rcum.sta)icc.~

~-he.-c .mngc t)~ potcutiat

Is

composcd

of as

thc

potcntini

due in 27H.

to each Inside

.n th be

.source t!~

and tube

its lut

pi~no,

c.xpt.h~d

so that <~ and ils difrcrcntia! c~mciont ).:UT.cr. Th<y.sical nK~in~ofthi.s


~OnntLctuhc suc), a ~r-t.ion as is

are

eoutinuons Is.simp)~.

ae.-oss

tho

extermine.)

hy

ti.atthcvdoc.ty at thc moutli thc.nouth

at thc is th

Wci.n~me th conditions

inc~sed.

is zro, and that thc condensation same as that duc to thc sources ~f sound who)i h. i.s obvions that undcrthc.scn.-f-u.nstancos

n~nth

~nc.j
t)ic elosing

EXTERNAL

SOURCES.

193
in th altration finite at velocity pipe to be t!icrc at a; == that is thc contiitions :u-e

withont plate may be rcmovcd any motion. tficre is in gnral Now, ijowcvcr, a Htcrefure \vc cannnt .T=and the suppose But \vhen therc liappois to bc a nodo stop])cd. t" say wiicn is Huefi t))at eus/<-(/+a) =0, a)l sattsficd, a))(t t)tc actual mution withiu thc

pipe is that cxprcsscd T)iis tnot.ion is cvi'K'ntiy thc same as might ~y (2). obLain, iftttc atn! in cxtcrnal p)pc wcrc c]osQ(l at LoUt ends; thc potcutiat spacu is thc sa.mc ~s if thc mout-h uf th pipe wcro ctusud wit,]i tho ri~id p)n.te. lu we tho tljc gcncra! must superpose kind case in ordcr on tho to rcftucc thc air at to rest of hy (2) another as to givc a.t a; = i first. Thus, if th =

invcstigatcd a vclocityequat and second motion bc ~ivcn

rcprcsentcd in 313, so dctcnnincd to that of th opposite by

motion

as might ]~vc bccn nppcars, wiieu thc t-cduccd lngth grc~tcst 317. From thc

It

tha.t tito rsonance expcctcd, is an odd multiple of

is

that in t~to neighbourhood principtc of a node thc mortm of thu air docs not conic much into play, wc sce that in snc)i p]accs thc form of a, tube is of little and that conscquencc, cnly th capacity need be attcndcd to. T))is considration ~lows us tu calcu~tc tlic pitch of a pipe which is cylindrica.1 througb 'nost of its leng-th bttt ncfnthe closcd end cxpands (~ into a L"]b of small Thc rcducc<t is thcn c~paeity (~. cviIct)gth Jcut]y

'Hd)n))ott~,C)-18<!0.

R. H.

I!)4

EMARGEMENT

AT

CLOSED

END.

1317.

whero the

is thc

correction s(-c),io)) of

fur thu thc

op(;n

(-n<], nn<) piu't.

o- is 'i'his

thc
fm'muta

Mrcfi of
is

tr:).nsve)'.se

cy)in!))'ic:d th

-c).u~L~~y!ph~i~h~~ih~dc~aU~uf~~)~~

cy)[n(h-ic;d AVhGn of tion takcn tlic

f)-)u thc

<)ucs not

take

.shapc

ot'on

enitu-~emunt.

oikrgGmcnt trcatment,

rcprcsunted

by

<S' is too fuitows. lu the

abovu

buing ucglectc~, tu bo

wc )n~y procccd as Die vuincity potential

)a)'~o to a)]o\v T))c dissipatube !n:).y bc

is thc

the

cqufttion

application 7'm7i.9. (P/i~. Simil:u-

dctermining of (3) are 1871, p. H 7).


provcs

thc
given

pitch.
in jny

Numcrical
mcmoir on

cxamphs
rsonance

nf

tions, duunctor bchitvcs Huui

for

rca.sonit)~ ~'hich tlie of t)ic

tl~t

w~vc-Ien~t!) th end bulb, as an od if

any cn.se of is Hcvcra.t thncs of t)ic end Le tube if

iti

sta.tion!i)-y
as

vibraas the

grt

approxitna.tcty :ts :i stnppud o-, and Thc of sound and actio)) in

opcn

mncb

thc I)u)b adjnining ~,9 bc inuch grcatcr luss than o-. thu

3~8. source duUcacy

of a rcsonator unisoi with aud

whcn itsctf is

under a

innucncc

of :t

i:npor~ncu,

onc

on

uf point w])ic)t t))crc

considrable ])as b(~n

318.J

ABSORPTION

0F

SOUND

13Y

HE.~ONATO!!S.

1S5

good

dcat

of confusion

among wbcrc

acoustical

writcrs,

thc

autbor

not

excepted. Titcrc attracting rL'gions suppose narrow cfnscd oxicmal 'ptenco source, are thc whero
that thcre

cases

a rcsonator to itself aad would


source

vibrations otherwisc
is a

thcy
simple

absorb.s as it wcrc Sound, so (tiverting them fron bc fe!t. For cxampte,


of

sound

sitnated thercof) at any


inuncdiatc

in a from distant
consu-

tube end,

at a distance and

point of thc t])Ct'e

(or any odd muttip)c not too ncar tho mouti): thoi its cfuct is ni). This i.s an of no recipt-ocity, variation bccanso of

principtc cuuld bu

if

~1 werc

th

too grcat restriction, precludin~' bc dispcnscd if wc with, suppose (jvcr t))C cross unifornily section, point. thcrc Thcn, wltatcvcr

at A Th potcutial a proxinuty to thc mouth, may th source to be din'used instcad of conccntratcd in onc

of thc section, may bc thc Hizc and shapc is nbsoiutuiy ne disturbanco on thc furthc-r si(h'. This is c)car frum thu thuory of vibrations in onc thc reciditm.-n.sion wbatcvcr procal form of th propositionthat sources of' distmbancc ;nay cxi.st bcyond thc section, bc provcd jy~-rZo- = 0tuay ft'om Hc))nh()ltx's furmuia t]te vclocity (2) 2'): hy inking for of thc purcly axial vibration ofthc saine period. potcntia! scarcc)y ncccssary tho source does cinittcd,
thcre thc case shaH of bc no variation

It

is

to

is
that

whcncver say that, no work; and this


of pressure at th

cnen'-y not reqnircs,


source,

no

for that

in part

tion,

a simple source Is impossible, but that th variable of th pressure sbaU bave exact)y th phase of thc aeccicr! and no componcnt with tho phase ofthc vclocity. cxanip!es hy certain Quinekc' uf th to stop
absorption of

Othcr an'orded uscd tlie by car. In th c'ntcrs nator

sonnd

modincations tones

of Hcrschers of de~nite

by resonators interfrence froni

are tube

pitcb

reacitin'

combinations

at frcciy at of pitch identical

of pipes rcprcscntct) it nnds itscif at


with its own.

in Fig. (!3, th soun() th mouth of a resnUnder thse circumstanccs

it is absorbcd, and thcre is no vibration propagatcd a]on~ 7?~. H is cJear that th cylindrica! tube ~C' may bu rcp)aced by any othur rcsonator of th same tu t)tu piteh (7), without pn~ndicc

'{'{;f~.cxx\'))i.!77.tn(;f!.

L;

l~G

QUTNCKE'S
1 f' m 1

TUBES.

[31g.

action

of thc apparatu.s. Thc ordinary (so ea-Hcd) of direct t~ud reffcctctt wavcs

cxplanatiou by intcrfcrcnc is thun luss applicablu.

Thcsc
innst net

cases
bc

~hcrc

t]te with

source othcr.s

Is

at

thc thu

mouth source

of

a i-csonator
thu intc-

confuscd

wbcru

i.s in

uf a. stuppcd tubn w])oso rcductjd is t])e iatcnsity at fm cxtet~id Icngth point m~y Lu vast)y grL-atcr t)i:ui if th~u h:td bccn ])o tube. lu fact thc ~t duc tu t)ie potential sour :Lt is thu s:unc as it would Le t).t wct'c thu Muurec at J..
31~). For a do.sor uxatninatiuti of thc mcc)h'mics

nur.

If

be :i source

at t)i

huLtotn

or

iu a !'L.rni disutnbarrasscd proDcm of unue~ dif!icutt!cs t)ic rcsuj.ator ccssary by suppusing to consist of a smati eircular bae!.c-<I hy a spritig, ptatc, and hnbeddcd in a!i inde~nttc It was provcd ri~id p)anc. iu a proviens chaptcr (:30) tl.at if J/ bc th ma.s.s uf t)tc ptatu, its displaccmc.t, . titc furcc of restitution, 7i' thc radius, aud o- thc of thc dcnsity of vibration air, thc quation is

wo shaH

oblain

rsonance

thc

where

Fand natund

arc propoi-HonaI

to c" (tlie rcaction t!.c cquatiou of cxtcrnal rcduces to air

If tl.c indudcd)

cojncide

of vibration pcriod wit), t!.at i.nposed,

319.]
Lct sound, ua giving now

RKSONATOR

CLOSE

TO

SOURCE.
to a.)i

197
source ot'

suppose

t]iat

is

duo

externe

whui

bc nc~riy

consta,!i.t

Dm plate i.s rcst a poto)ti:d ovci- th fu'ca (jf thc plate. Thus

which

~ill

so that n~tor.

2-n-A: If ~bu

i.s tfie

in~ to (5) ta.kcs

of thc w.ivc-icngth writtcli for ~/+!jo-7~ tliu i'ortu

)in.tum!
t.)ic cquation

noto

of thc rcsocon'cspond-

if /<=/<: thc cfDcicncy of thc rcsonator is iii<)cpe)x)cnt of ./< W)tcn t!tc ndjttstmcnt is impc'rCcct, tho ]a.w of f~Hing oil' deponis upu)). J/ T))U.s ifj/' be grcat fm<t Tt; MmaH, atthou~h thc mnximum cfHcicncy of the rcso!]n.tor is no le.ss, a, grc~tcr is ficcuracy of adjustnicnt in ordcr to approac]) rcquircd t)io maxunun) ( 4')). lu t!ic case of rc.sonators wit)t so t)iat suup)c npcrturcs J/'= ~)/ 'ovaries as jf)' j-esonators with s)n:LH apcrtoi-c.s Accon]iii~)y rcthc of ttUiing, 'p)irc but thcdi~-rcnco grcatcst pt-ccision is not t'nport.-mt. th~t uf :ni iuront a.ccordin~ Wo wift f'n'ther tftat
Front a comp:n-i.son

from

winch

wc may infer as a..source

us bcforc

that

it appcnrs
as inturnal

Hic prcscnt with investi~tiou tl~t thc conditions of cOicifjncy arc difor externat cffucts a.ru considurcd.
of

no\v ttic

rut.m-n extornal

to the source

casu of

of isucfn-omsm
Sound to which

fmd
thc

suppose
rcsonator

yl rusponds, of a simifar is thc motion plate c from ~1 is a quantity iti comparisou wilii I:u-c

w]jose thc

distance

dimcusious

198
of tlie phLtcs.

REINFOnCEMENT
T]tc intensity

OT SOUND
be suppo.scd

[319.
to be such

of 7~ may

tim.titsnutc)iti:t.[is

Th Jnduc~d bt-ing

relation vibration
suhject to

of phases )nay bc as proce~hog


au additionat

reprcs~ntcd frojn by retaniation of is c + of 1 ~c. In

th rcgarding as way of J, and su that D.e whoie hy of amptitudc

retar(!atiun 13 ~i-catcr Tf~ts greater, permittc.! quarter It


is

betwccn t))au when nnd to thc ~e tuta]

7~ axd in thc is ratio

respect

.sj))n!), soun() lu

H.c is

Induccd much case hn~cr thc

vibration tnau is if

is

much wcrc by

H]c nut a

po-ate.

this

phase

rct:u-dcd

of a pcriod.
important to

hve I)t

c~ar

i<)e!t

of

th

cause

of

this

aug-mcntation ~heit that, at ilr.st hve

of sount). ~1 is ~xed, been was pfu-t Now cxpcctcd tJ.at t))e

a prviens ont much gives from of thc thc ouiy sets

ch.-tptcr ( 2.SO) wc saw ics.s sound tkui n.ight Thc pressure duvclopcd.
was

expiu.nat.ou thc hn~cr of of


t]ic

prsure

of

it is conccrncd
:ur, and Is

in

ovcrconung
towards m inutlun thu

unfavourah)c thc incrti:t.


perfonuanee Is

surruunding

incHectivc

work.

thc

pressure, do work. that of thc aud hetwccn ~ud a

aud T)ic

uot

pressure thc inuruiy of whoto vanish. largcr

which

t)~

who)e of itscif that

motiuu of th shai) thc thc

insignifiant is duturnu.tcd prcs.surc But part bas upo.i uf' t!m thc

part

that

would condition i.as

cu.nponcnt thc vulocity, mution thcrcforc th of~,

by thc it, which

prcscri))ed componoit

conditiuu of' thc with Thc t)te

that pressure of thc acclration; phase a)i requires cfptaUt.y duc to ~t's

t))c phase is due to

stu:dl

pressure large rL-.s~h is Of course thu

pressure much by the

pressure due to

comparable ~'s motion. source its efTect

conponeut that .i becoines no work work dune is

niotion, of thc a donf at 7?,

tnorc piston

powerfui ~1

titan is to

augmcut

319.]

BY

REHONATOUS.

1~9

modifymg' phases ut' tbu by Thc m ordcr inHnitc

t))c

othcrwisc

unfavourabic

relation

betwccn

t)to

pressure ptane

aud

of t]<e vciocity.

sprints.
sources

in thc preccding (hscussion is otdyrcquircd tfiat it fur oui' toachincry of wu may nnd roon) bchind If -wc arc content with still norc hig)~)y idcabzcd

wc ni~y dispoisc \viL)t it. Tu utn'h piston t-~unatu)-s, niustl)ca(t<.)cd a. dupUcit.tc, Inas!n)i)ar but in vibrating tnfmncr, thc cppo.sito <tir~ctiun, t))e ufluct oi' which A\'i)l bc to tttal tho nonuat of th nuid vanish ovur t)tc pl:tnc JA vulocity Under
it.u<!

in~ootcc fmd may Le plium is without runovcd. If thu sizc of thu pintes witLuut limit tlicy bc rcduccd bcc'oxH- uh.imatcty sourcps of <]uid; aud wo ('(jnivajcuttoshnpie co)ic)udc tlif).t a simple source will Lccumc more efficient than bc'furc in thc ratio of 1 /cc, w))cn at a sma)l e from distiuico
thusc

circmn.st:utC(js

tho

It thuru it)

is a!)uwcd pitch, imd

of I)kc

tu oporatc a. simple in t!)at is, a sourco


H nid is

rcsonator whicit by cxtcrna)

(as wc may cali t))c inci-tia of t))c


Ly sfxne adquate

iinmcdiatuiy

surroutiding

compcn.sated

m:).chine)-y, In vibrating tllu

which

is set in motion of our

causes

ordy. of

prsent

.statc

whiic titc Huids, arc for tho mo.st part still to bu ovurcutne, of cotKJItionn any simplification whie!) afiow.s progruss wltitout to bumade, t!to ~Lo]]y dcstroying charactur of thc qucstiuu, pr:).ctical bc a stcp of "-reat tnay for Sucit, was thc introductioti importaocc. cxamptc-, by Hchnhu[tz of th idca ofa source concuhtratcd in onc point, rcpruscnted at tliat anulyticaHy by thc violation of th eqnatiou of point in Hkc manncr t))e i(!ea. of a sin)p)c rcsoeoutinuity. Pcrhaps nator thc thin~ may bc uscfut, would bu stiil moru althou~h to construct than a simple source. impossible is a grca.t of augmentation when tuned snund, rcsonator is close to a sinip)o source. Much more is this thc casu, whcu thc source of sound i~ Tiio potential duc to a double source is ( 294~, 324-) cumpound. 320. Wo havo sccn a suitabty that tburc

of thc knowtcdgc of dduction difHcultics

incchanics

200
and thcrcforc

RESONATOR

AND

DOUBLE

SOURCE.

[320
distance is

thc

potcutial

duc

to the

resonator

at

If~, that wchnvc :s,

thc rcsonator Vtuush, wi~n thc r~on~or

is without Iles on thc

hut effcct; axis oi- th

whcn double

= + 1 source,

Thus

wo

mny

consur that

isgreater
th anguiar

than

variation

duc to ti)c rcsonator potentiat duc to thc double .source in thc ratio 1 bcing disregarded. at its centre; Lut th by pennissibic wl.cn th is .smaH In coinparison wit!, c: oLhcnvise th action .sphre modines of thc resonator gives thc same .source situatcd this fact is on)y kind of motion to thc

that

th

A vibrating surroundmg
substitution

rigid .spiicrc au. a. a double


suggcsted

radius tlic

of

th

sphre

presse Ncvertitdes.s in gcuM-d position


is suc)t

of tlic th

distance. One

shews Investigation, how powcrfui th resonator is wt~'i in a suitable placcd e)ose to a source of sound, compound whosc character that it would of itself but little produce efruct at a best cxampics of g)ass, of tins use

prcceding action of a

of a rcsonator is an-orded bar by a vibrating or mtal, heid at thc nodcs A strip of plate about a fout ]ong and an inch glass of mdium broad, thiekness (say at about 3 inches inch), supported from th ends mcans of by twisted round .string it, an.swers t!.o purpcsc very wc)i. WI.en struek it gives but Iitt)e .soun<t by a hanter except and e.cn ovcrtones; t)K'se mayaimo.stbe got rid of by choosi~ a hammer of suitable .soft.ic.ss. This of' sound denciency is a of th sn~U consquence di.nunsious of t).c bar in comnarison t).e ~ye-Jength, wiucfj a!tows of th of air ca.sy tran.sfercncc ~th from onc s.dc to ti.c other. If now t!.c mouth ofa resonator of thc nght be I~dd ovci- one of th free pitch' ends, a .sonad of conToKet hc fmai .r and adju.tmcut tho thcu bo.st thc n~y efeet. pitch bo m,.l. t!,c mouth of tho rc.s.nnt~. t.~u tho amouut c.nH'.t it ..o.d ifs d~MIy by v~yi~. io ho pr~tv b. 1~ T e!o~ to

of tlie

reBotiators )g of grcat nutiquity.

of cb~ructiuu

~usc

of

320.]
sidcrabic bio\v. with na.tors. toncs In force lu this

TWO
and

OR MORE RESONATORS.
bc obtnincd )j:u'tnuiuc<jn Le t!ic hy may a. wcU

201
managcd bo consLructcd, wi~tout reso-

way much !owcr tlic

purity may a.n irnprovcd thau ttic

wouRI bar

praeticab)o

ordina-ry pcrnut

instrument

short to eicntly a.ir indepundently.


Tho rcinforcemGn),

a-ro snfHwavc-IcngLhs to communic~Lc -vibrations to tlic of a LcU mstancc


cxpcrimcnts

of to Snvart~ tlie

th is most

soutid an

in

n, weti-known same is in ~odc thc


rcqnirixg

oxperiment action, rangomcnt but

due

exemple

of t)ic

of M'thc

peritaps

tonc.s, pure menthe of reson~tors. 321. wit)i wure tho Wlicn

ndopted by which a.re obtaiued

striking Hchn!)oltx in his Ly Itolding

tuning-forks

over

source, ouly onc.


wu nn).y

rcson~toi-s snnpic in tune separtitely arc close togcther, the eMbct is Icss th:m if Lhcro If thc potcutials duc rcspcctivcly to J~ ~(~ be
tn.ko

two

Lot th:u,

i-cprescnt would uxist

tlie

distance if t))cro

aud wct-c no

tlie

couditiuns

at ~t~, to dtermine

rcso~toi-s; arc by (5) 31:)

potentiaLs thon the

bincc r'n!y
dnninishcd

onc out

is Hmd), rcsonn-tor.
cUbctivcncss

thc It
is

cfTuct
mu.st due

is much bc
to

!css

than

if there t!mt
putting

wcro tlio
ono

obscrved
titc

howevcr

rcson:).tors

of tune, tuid if thi.s be conipcn.sn,tc(! tcodoicy 'by a)i ftftcration in t! .spriog-, any numbcr of rcsonn.tors ])c~t- to'thcr )mvc just t]te ccct of one. This point is iHnstratctt hy :{()~ whcrc it win bc SGcn (32) t!)!it titougit thc rcsuuiLnce docs not depond upuu thc sixc of t))C ptatc, still thc incrtia of thc air, which bas to Le couipcnsated by a spi-in~ docs dcpuud upou it. J~t. ff. C/t!'m. t. xxiv. 1823.

anothcr

202
322. an objection, It wiH be w!:if-h

FORMATION 0F JETS
to say a. fcw words propcr ha.s bccn forwa.rd brougbt thensual caicutationsof to th strc'atn in th!s

[322.
place on

possibiy sonators itnid motion

inva!idnting and ci' thc on

correction

iiows

in a. stca<Iy

thcfowpn.s.susidcisby ~OU. ]nstc:ut invc.sti~Ltcd in su us tu futiuw t)ic .surfaco oft))c

]cngth :(, hoie in a t]un thn)))~h phtc, no ]nca))softhcc)):L!-actciof divo-~in~ :Jtcr p~sing L).c ftnid sh~pc.s p)atc,

.t. hy Busam~tct' thu of repitch Wfien ofor~an pipes. thc

Htc itself

hu!c into

forthuca.scot't~o fmappn~i)nat(.')ycy)in')rK'a)jt.'t,whn..cfonn dimensions canbccahutatcd ironi formuki~ivcnbyKirchhnf' On Htc high .si()c thn motion prc.ssurc dues not dc-viatu so widuiy fro)nt))atdctunnincdbyt).cdcctrica!Ia\ InlikumantK-i-nnid pas.sin~fn)t.\v:u-dsfrom continues toinovc in :icy)indrical pipe stremn. If thc extcrnal hc thu ~rc~tei-, thu ci):u'actuiprcssnru of t))u tnotion is di~urent. In tftiH case tilL- .strcani Hnt.s convoie from a)) directions to thcmunth of t.])C pip(., aft.c-rward.s~tin.ri~ t)tumsolv~ into n. pnr.diui whosu .s~tiou is ))nnd)c, considcrabty IcsH than t))at of thc pipe. It is ck-ar that, if tite formatlun ofjets took tu considuraDu uxtcnt pla.ce t!ic passage aoy of air dnring H)C niontits of rusonator~ our c~IcuLtions thrung-h of pitclt woutd Itave to bu scriousty modinud. Thc prcise conditions nnd~winch Jets arc formod is a. snhjcct that thc

ofgreatd.dicacy. at aU in irictiuldcss

It!nay(iV.jnh.()onbt~Iwhct]K't-t]toyw,,n)doccur ituid movin~ with vdocitios so nrc pn~portional Hut wittt nfthp that to air,

sntal)

cor)'ospondin~prL-.ssun's,whie]t thc are vc)ocitk's, incon.sidcraoh'. !)a.vcIt,moYingurH!cr<!)u it must n'sonators, bo

tho as

of squares \vu actuaity in

action admitted

pressures

ta Le fonnd

JL-ts n):t.y sonnjtimcs occnr. \Vhitc about twu onc cxptjritnuntin~ of Kuni~'H yuars ago witit brass i-csanatur.s (jf pitclt that c', 1 noticct! whcn thc norrusp<.n()iu~ fork, stnjngiy was ]ietd to thu moutt), cxcitcd, a witid uf cunsid~ ~bic force issncd froni th nippie at t))c side. T!iis ~ft'uct opposite rise to snch as to L]ow out a catidio jnay intcnsity whosc npon wick thc strcam is diructud. It docs not dupcnd npon any pL'cniia.r tnotion of th air nL-ar thc ends of thc fork, as is proved hy thc fork upon its rcsojiance-box inounting an() thc opun prcscntin~ end of thc of t))C fork hox, instcad to t)tc mout)i of thc itscif, whcu thc cilect is ohtaincd rcsonator, with but sligtitjy dinunishcd
'J"~f;VM;Aun.lH77.r.l2S. l'hil. Dec,

1S7~.

322.]

OURI~G

SONOROUS

MOTION.

203

A simitar rcsult wnsobtaiijudwith Intcnsity. an oct,a\'(! jowcr (~. bou.dt, (:[oscr ot'pitch thc fact that at t))~ .sidcs of t.]te )npp!c
strcam \vas rcpiaccd ))y onc in thc opposite

a forkand
examinatioa npvufdcd

rc-

tI)G outward
direction, so

nowiu-T
that n,

to enter c:m)HuftppO!a-C(t thc sanic Urne thn.t annt))cr c~hHc situatcd in front was )))o\v)) nw.~y. Ti.o two efFocts n.rc of imm<-([i~tc')y cour.su in rc:L!itya!t(.!rnatit)g,:u)d onJy :tppe:u- to bc sitmdtanerms in conscqucncc of th in:d)i)ity of thc oyc tn foUow snch rn.pid Thc fortnation of mxst ma.kc .1.scrious changus. draft on thc jct.s t)tc rcasnu Otur~y of thc tmjtion, an() thi.s is no donbt w))y it is thc: nipptc in ot'dut- to ohtaitt ;). po\vcrf)n nncc.s.s:).ry todosc Sound fru)n :). t-c.son&tor uf this furm, witen tunud f'ork is prcsuit:ddy scnted to it. At tion thc same fiinc it docs not tt)~t jet fonnftnppca.r prob;tb]c extcnt !).t t)tc )nont)ts of t-csonators bctwccn t))C obHGrvud and agrcenK'nt a sntneinnt
concluston

of n:nno tondue t))c nipp]n

frotn

<). suitabtyp)~ccd

to any appreciabie as ordinariiy uscd. Thc ncar thc c:dcu!atu(t pitcit is ahnost
iLr~umcnt tonling

occurs

pnx'f
ninybu

of this.
dt'awM

Anutl~r frum th durabcyuad

to

thc

samc

frcc pcrsistenccofthu t)on scoms to excludo the commuuicatiu)i lu thc fu),


ttjcsc

vtbmtions

ofresoun.tors

( :ni),

whosc

Ct).usc of dissipa-tiou nny hnpurt.fmt of niotion to th surrouuding air.

ingt!<at

supposcd from the phenomena. of .stcady tnu'y c:u), 1 thhik, safc)y bc dra.n tnotion. la thc opposite case of impulsive extrme motion jets ca.nrtct bc fonnod, as fot)o\v.s from Thmuson's certainjy pri~icipic of least to wilich extroue tho cncrgy ( 7!)), and it is doubtfu) case of ponodic tuotiou bu assitni)nay with gruatcst plausihihty of intermittent Jatcd. Observation illumination by thu mcthod lcu.d to further Infortna.t.icn ( 42) might upou this subjuct.

case of organ pipes, wt)crc thc vibrations are vcry powcrarc Jcss cogent, but 1 ncc no reason for t!unkarguments th motion nt the uppcr&pt'n ouhHO'crs thn.t greatlyfrom ni irchnhottx'tj cfdcuhttion. No conclusion to t))u con-

C'HAPTER

XVII.

APPLICATIONS

0F

LAPLACE'S

FUNCTIONS.

323. rcfcrrcd

Tim to polar

gcncral

of n, vcioeity cqn~tion potcntial, takcs thc foi'tn ( 241) co-ordin~tos,

w!)cn

If /c vanish, wc hve thc quation as wo know, is sa.tisHc<I, if '=~ which,


sphcric:U surface harmonie' of ci-dur ?;.

of tho

ordinary poicnUa.1, wttcrd dcuotes thc


it appc:u's

On

substitutiuli

t)mt

th

quation

sati.sficd

hy

is

whcrc

will

satisfy (1)
wu hve

a.!i.

cqun.ti<m

sueh

ns

(2). to dtermine as a

Comp~ring
function of ?',

n.nd

(2)

wc

sec

that

'

1 On tho of thoso fnnctinns the tttcory ~'M)t<-<;uM JL~t/tc, fuif~ ~t'M< Laplace,

If~tost Enf{)ish \vnr]is aud Fei'rcfs' ~/terf'cat

nrc

ToJhnntor's TYan/tottt'ctf.

333.]
In i.n-~).u, LhcuLhc order

SOLUTION

IN

LAPLACE'S

FUNCTIONS.

205

to

solvc i!,c is

this

quation,

we

may

observe

th~t

when

).,i(!ji(;

tcnuisrelativcjy

solution

ncgligiblc,andthnt

Mnn nmy De assumer ta itoid good cquatujn !Utd uo lungcr (4-), it' we look upuu as funcLit.n.s of ?-, who.so !i:Lturc is to bc dctcrmined. in (-~), wc <iud fur 7)',

.nu

h:ut~

for tho complte as constants, but, Substitutin~

.Lhc

symbois

of th any two thcrcforc

angular

and~, co-ordin~tes
~1,

surfMo spherical bo Avrittcn

though indcpcndeiit of?-, M-e functions in thc most gGiiei-~ case, they arc harmonies of order M. Equation (a)may

On thc <i.

Communication

of Vibration

~om

a Vibratiug

Dody

~<t!.rr<;))s.l8C8.

to a surrouudiDc

20G

EXPRESSION

FOR

RADIAL

VELOCITY.

[323.

Thc
th

forms

of thc

functions

F, n.s far as 11= 7, n.rc exhUjttud

in

n.ccompa.nying

t!t.L]c

Jo m'dur wc It:u

to intd

thc

on rtjvct'sm~'

]!u)ing thu surius

turtus in (!))

iu 7'~(~)')

whcuMris

srn:t,[),

32t-. rcprcsents At:tgrc:).t thus, ifwc

An

case of our gnera.! formulai occurs when important n. (iisturbance which is propagft.tcd w)tol]y oM<~(?' distance i'rom tlie ong:)),(w)=~(-~)-)=l, a.nd tlie time factor (e~), wuhnvc

rcstorc

of

which

thc Under

second the
= 0, and

iuwnnis.
fm'u to Utkc

a. disturhn.ttcc part represcnts travcDittg circumstanccs wc are thcrccontemp)a.tcd


thus

which

rcprcscnt~

in

t.hc

must

gner:).!

manncr

the

?)"' hiu'numic

c'))u])t'n~ntcfndiMturb:uT.cc out.a)'()s]ntoi~f))))t'jsp.icc.

oft)ic~ivcnpcriod<.]ifru~i!igit,sc)f

324.'} T))c motion <.ha.t :)t suntcd thc m'igin of tho of tlie

DIVERGENT (hsturbfinco n, sphre thc spitere in ancrai

WAVES. mny bc in n. prcsci-iLed ofmdiu.s Lf't. us p. th outward n,i'uuction vchjcity of t))e is

207 normal suppose reprcof

surf~cof on

!').ny point hy ~'e' consi()e]'c(). bc cxpfmded

bcing

ROHition

puitit Lt'

i)i tlie

sphcric.'L)

hiu-mnnic

scries

whcrc M.

the sunimation

is to
this

bc extcndcd
will

rca.! part of duc to thc normal )'=c. sphre Prof. Stukcs

Tlie

e({uation

vuloeity

f/cos/<

all (nitcgra)) values of give thu vulucity potcntiid 1 at thu surface of thc

to

bas apphcd this solution to the cxp~natioti of a remarl<ab)c to which it n.ppea.rud cxpcrinicnt Ly Ij(\stic, ncc-onhng that t!ic sound of:L bu)! vibrn.ting In f). part~Hy cxh~ustcd reccivcr is (bmini.shud of )iydrogcn. This p:u-a(tuxical by the i)it)-oductiou ha.s its o'i~in in t!tc n.))gmentc'd duc to phcnomcnoji w:ivc-!cngth the addition of hydrogcu, in of whiuh tlic hc)). loscs consquence its hold (so to spc:d~) ou the T!)c gc'ncnd surrounding gas. exp!anation Cimnot be Lutter givcn than ni titu words uf Pruf. Stukus n. sma.U Suppose :). pet-son ~o jnovc his han() to and fro through Ttic motion w]neh is ucc~sionud in t))c air is ;dmost spaco. cxactty thc stLmu as it would Itave huun if thu air ])!n) hL'cn nu incompressible fhud. Thcrc is mcrc iocrt.! reciprocaLing motion, in which thc air unmcdiatdy in iront is push'jd forw:u-d, :md that Immcbchind aftur t)tc inoving diittuly w!n!c in thc itnpcDd hody, thu :ur rccudus from the eno-oachmcnt gcucr;d)y t]ie Die postcrior moving body, and itt f!n\vs spacc gcnoraDy from :in sides to supp!y tlie vacuum which tends to bc crcatcd tha.t in latral directions thc now of the fluid is backwards, antcriursp:Lcc
Thc Yc)~ciLy t;cncM! assuniptiou t~ Lu ht th iaotion of fi real vulue ai) for U is cquiya]out tu limitinH To inc)~ tho normal tho nio.t t

of in so a.

Htunn

uuriut

phitsc wouid hfLYt' t')

f)v<'[' t!)n

f<]))u')-o !'=r. hn tt'c:it,f'~ fts co)i)j.)cx.

208

0F SONOROUS FORMATION WAVES.


of th cxccss Now of ihud in t))c front going conoive po'iodic to supply time of th

[324.
th dcmotion

portion

altcrnation of movGGradu:dtytho mcnt beco;ncs too nLpid to permit of th(.! fu!I Gsta.Dishmcnt of thc and f)ow; th air is .scnsibiy cotuprcs.sed mct'c-)y Ioc:U rcciprccn.tin~ a-nd i), sensible suunft wa\'c (or wnvc of t))e samu rarcRcd, nature, in c:t.se t))c po'iodic tima bu bcyoud t)ic )i)nits suit~bic to hcarin"') ispro}~giitu()to an<) thc niure
f), ()ist;u)ce. TLc s:unu t:(.kcs ofeondunsatKjns p)!).cc in a.nygas,

behind. ncicncy to bc contmuany

diminishcd.

rapi<) bu tho pro])ng:Ltiun factions i)i t)tc gas, tbu niurc ncarly will t)ic motions wc ]t:LVu undur considcra.tion,
incompressible

:md

rfu'e-

it approacb, in rctation to tu thc condition of a.n will thc solid conditions bc satisncd of th by a

dispincmnunt
murcly local

nnid of t!)G

thc
gas n.t

more
thc

ncariy
surface

oftiie

rcciprocating

itow." (.), Prof. Stukcs gocs on to say, function~(~?-)' bc-

In discussing "At coincs a grt

the solution distance from

ulthnatulycquat

thc sphre th to 1, and wc hve

"It velocity
direction

nppcars a]ong

(from thc

t)ie

va.Iuo of vcctor is of tlie radins

) that thc ordcr

couipcmcutof

the in any so f" neighin thc

radius

that

tho

pcrpcndieular latcra! motion ofthc order sphre. to examine of th

to may the

thc bo

Ycctor

?' and that of the order in tlie

disrc'gardcd

cxcept

bourhood In

influence
us

of thc Interd
compare

motion nctual thin each

ncighbourhood a.ncc at a grcat motion had

!ct sphre, distance with what bcen

tlic hve

<.1isturbconica) boundcd

itwcuht

bccn

if a-Il latral

partitions dividing surface by a couical "On this

preventcd, suppose hy inHnitdy tlic ftuld into donontary canats, having its vcrtcx at th centre. thc motion

in any canal would cvidently hc thc samc bc in a!l directions if thc sp))crs vibratcd and expansion of the surface, thc same a round, by contraction and such that th normal of th surface was thc samc as velocity it is at t)ic pa.rticuhu' at which thc canal in question abuts point on tlie surface. I~uw if~werc constant thc expansion of ~wou!d supposition as it would 1 hn've mane aomc sliHttt chMRca m rrof. Stores' notation.

324.J

EFFECT

OF

LATERAL

MOTION.

20~) 9

Le reduccd shou)d

to

its

Hrst (.~),

tcrm

and

seeing

tha.t

i)ftvc from

(~r)

= 1, we

Thi.s expression wi)! apply tn a.ny p:.rticu!ar cana) if we t~c to doiotc Lhu normal sm-fa fur t,hn.t part.icJtar vctocity at t.hc spl.crc's and thcrufure canal to uLtiun tm expression at H))cc appHcabic to aU tlie e!Lna)s, w~ )):tvu to writc ~'fo!'i\) faci)ita.to mcrdy a- compari.son with (~ and ((!), I sha)t, howevcr, writc for U. Wc hve then,

Tt must cabto

be rcmcmhcrcd to ail thc

that canais, radius

this t)ic

at once

is merciy an expression motion in each of wincft accordin~tyt!je to or M with

applitakes

thc place wholly alollg vector.and sion is not to be differcntiated wltit respect of fmding tlie trans verso velocities.
On comp~nng

expresth view

for the function in th fK;tu:d motion at agrt th sphre ((!), wc sec th:it tlie two arc idcntictd with the exception is dividud that by two different constants, in tlie former na.mc!y ~(~c) case and Tlie sa.me will he true of th 7'(!<-c) In the latter. terms Icading (or those of the order r'') in the expressions for the condensation and velocity. Hcnce if the mode of vibration of th sphre be such t)tat the normal of its surface is expressed velocity by a function of any one order, the disturbancc Lap~ce's at a grea.t distance from t!iG spiiere will vary from one direction to another to th same law as if latral according motions had been prcth amplitude of excursion at a givcn distance vented, from tlie centre In bot)) cases as the amptitude varying of excursion, in a. Jtonnal of th surface of the sphre direction, itself. Th' on)y dinerence is that cxpresscd ratio ~(~e) by ttie symbohe 7~ (<). If we suppose to th form (t'/te) reducecl (cos a,, + i sin a ), tlie amplitude of vibration in the actual case will be to that in the case as to and th phases in th two cases will stlpposed differ by o~-a, expression distance from "If th normal velocity of th surface of th sphre be not

(7) with

the

expressible but only by a sing!e Lapkce's Function, imite or Innaltc, of sucli functions, the disturbancc R.IL

by a series, at a given 14

210
grt distance tion to another of thc surface

EFFECT
from
thc

0F
centre

LATERAL
wi!)

MOTION.

[:24.
from normal ami vary one direcvelocity hkcwise with thc

to th according sincc of th sphre, imaginary


thc

no h)nger vary saine Ia\v as thc t))C quantity moduh~s 7~(~c) cxprcsscd
thc numcnciLl

thc amp]itu<tc ofthc ordcr of thu fttnctiou.


Lct us now suppose

disturhunce

'fonction ahcration motion "T!)e

ofsomo of winch

ordcr, and scck a.t a. distance, intcnsity cxists. actutdly ono will bc measurcd

hy a La.pIaCH's v:duc of thc by th latcrfd

produccd

in a hy tlic vis ~< produecd will vary as th density .~ivoi consc(jucnt!y muttiptictt of propagation hy t]ic velocity mtdtipHcd by th s<)uaro of th of vihratton. It is thu )ast factor atone that is diifercut amplitude h'otu what itwouhl hve bccn if titerc had bcen no latral motion. T]te amplitude is ahered in tlic proportiou to so tliat if of/~ thc quantity that would /~u'' == by winch thc intcnsity ttave existcd if tho nuid had bcea hindcrcd fTom latral motion intensity timc, :md lias to bc dividcd. "If be the Icngth of thc sound-wavc of thc period cn'eumfo'cncc that of thc vibration,/c=27r\so of thc .sphcrc to thc lengtb of a wttve. If we supto bc 2 fcct, which '\vou)d correspond pose th gas to be air a))d to about 550 vibrations iu a. second, and tlie circurnfL'rcnce 27rc to be 1 foot (a sizc and pitch which v'ou)d correspond with thc case ofa tahtc connnon givcs wc sh:dl hve houfic-bc))), of thc squares of thc values Tho A'c=. fuHowin"' tho modtnus and of th corrcsponding ~c is t))C ratio to th

xc

;t=0 l ;;=! 1(!'25 S M=2 l.l'87n <)';)lL!5

?;=!} --l. l!8-t8 M

t;=t _1. 20-177 l.i!);8

17 5

1
(~

2
l-ax

5
1(!

89
l:):i<)'2

3i)'
2:~91

30()):t7
720H)::)71

0'5 0~5

1'2:' l'()<~5

S S. S-

1B'2i M'()t!2

W:\O'2 ~()87H

ll.Sii789t) 12:!IJl!H
0-81.15:) 16 1M~~ 18Si).'<:i muCS~l)~

720Hlj:J71 181f;()xl0" lo~

4 2 1 ()-~ 0"

1 1 1 1 1

0'M58~ 1 'J'C 1:< (:U-2'.)t

0'87.T~ ]'8<J 41~ JDfii~ J'JHM

l-tuf::) 2!)U-1C 1;-it)<w:n 57':<)')!)7 1?(J!JJ:<]"

F S 2.

ratio

7~ for tlie ofthc vaincs~,

ftmctions

.7~(t\'c)

of thc

first

ih'c

on]t;)'s,

for

e:Lch

2, l,[md~of~-c.

JtwiDprescntlyappcar~y

324J

STOKES'

INVESTIGATION.

211

the

table

bas

greater than ficant figures "Whcn

extendcd further in than it lias in tlie opposite at least are retained.

bccn

the

direction

of FIve

values signi-

direction.

wo gct from th ana!ytica! expressions 7' =1. Wc sec from th table tluLt when ~c is somewhat larg-o f,, is liable to bu little !css titan 1, and the sound to Le a little consequentty more Intense thf).n if IntGrn.1 motion }i~d becn prcvcnted. T)tc possihility of that is cxpin.incd that tlie wavcs of byconsidci-ing ft-on thoso of th sptto-c spreading compartmcnts w!uch fit a givun moment arc vibt'ating ~.e. outwards positively, ~ftcr the hpsc of a hatf pcriod n)ay Iut.vc sp)-ca.d over the nci'diwnich arc now in t)icir turn bonring cottipiu-ttncnts, vibrating so that Htcsc latter in thehposittvcly, outward compartments motion work than ag:u)t.st a somewhat if snch grcatcr pressure )iad opposite to it only comparttnont ttie vibration of tlie bas winch It Lad itself occasioncd; and th sajnc cxp]anailuu applics MtM~~t&- -);t!<i~~ to the waves of rarfaction. th inHowevcr, crca.sc ofsound thus occasionecl of Jatm'at motion by the existence is but snitdl in any case, whereas when /cc is somewhat small In itrcreases a.nd tho sunnd hecomes a mcro enormous)y, uothing with what it would ])a,ve been had lateral comparcd utatiua heen pre-vcnted. TIiG higher be the order numbcr of compartments, their of tho
g)ven

~c=cc

condensation

of th

function,

mode sphre

of vibration

alternately at a given moment, We sec

the grenter will and ngative positive into t)ie which table the that from

he the as to surface for a

will h dividcd.

timc as well as radius periodic the value of 7,, becomcs considrable whcn ?t is somewhat Hovever vibrahigh. practically ttons of this kind are produecd when thc elastic sphre excutes, not its principal, but one of Its subordinate th pitch vibrations, to which rises with the ordur of vibration, so that corrcsponding /c increascs witti that order. It was fur this reason that the tab)c was extended from /fc=0'5 further in tho direction of high pitch than low pitch, and only oue octave namely, to three octaves higher lower. the sphere vibrates about the centre, i. e. symmetricaHy so titat of th surface are at a given any two opposite points moment with cqual velocities in opposite or moving directions, more generally when the mode of vibration is such tha.t there is no change of position of th centre of gravity of the volume, there "WIien

143

212

LESLIE'S

EXPERIMENT.

[324.

is no term bcU order t!tc

of order

1.

For

vibration principa.1 2, to which 1 sha.11 now more for


shortness. ~c"

a sphre is that

vibrating exprcsscd particu)a.r!y

in

thc

manner

of a of thc

by a terni attend.

ruttinc.

<7. wc hayo

so that unounts "I

the

utmost

incrcasc 15 pcr cent.

of sound

produccd

by latral

motion

to about now come

to Lcsiie's expcrimcnts. particuhu-Iy Nothing is stated as to th fonn, sizc, or and evcn if thse pitch of lus bcll had been accuratdy there would have bccn n. good describcd, dea.1 of in fixing on the sizc of th sphorc which should guess-work be considercd th bcst reprsentative of the bcU. Hencc a)t we cn.n do is to choose probable "I winch such values for and c as are compare an with the couditions posscss may a of thc cxperimcnt. bcll, belonging be somewhat to o!d boU-In-air appn.ratus, used by LcsIIc.

more

probabjy

sMnihtr

to that

It is ncarly hcmi.spheric:d, t!t0 diamctcr is I-9G inch, and Hic pitch an octave above t)te middtc c of a piano. titc numbur of Taking vibrations 105C per second, and th of sound in air 1100 vcloelty feet pcr second, we hve \= 12-5 inches. To reprcsent thc be)l by a. sphre ofthe samc radius wonid be to undcrra-tc t!ic vcrygreatly influence of local Ctrcu)ation,slnce ncar the mouth the gas bas but a little way to gct round from thc outside to th Insidc or the To rcprescnt reverse. it by a sphcre of hait th radius would stiU be to underratc thc cnect. apparentiy Neverttte)ess for tho sak of rathcr
cause Itre

cessively, ~c = -G3

thc innuence of titc cxnggcrating 1 will make thse two suppositions sucinvestigated, c = -98 aud c = -4.9, ~-c = ~D2(~ und giving respectivcty for air. undcr-cstimating

than

324.]
"If gas to it wore gas in

NUMER1CAL

RESULTS.

213

not for latral t))o proportion thci-efore a standard

motion of tlie as tlie

tlie

intensitywould into tho density


iuto

propagattot~ the density pcuding


gasus and

and under

pressure

tlie

from of velocity root of square

vary

on tho
gascons

devoiopment
mixtures

ibHowJug

Table

the

rirst

if we take tlie factor depressure, of heat as sensibly t)ie sa.me for tlie wit!i winch we have to deal. lu the column th gas, the second tho gives o m
w o o e5 co to 'p M o c-<

O*

~-j o p i-)

$000000 ~o~So~c~o CID ~n sgg~ssp: '<' co

t~C

00

f Q Ip

g~ts~cacaf ~Q 'p!~ O

<f:

[~ 9 UQ^ G~~1 p p

oo OD B '-t 0 <p r-<

0~

rl f< p

o .O~ ~f <-< 0 <p

m eo ro

'-< M 0 <p ~-<

))
u

t_"

tg<g<DO<C<OM mBfoBmMM

t~-

W
e~

r-) c~
e? Q 0~

*-<

'-<-}<~0f-<9< ob

t~
&< rM

~< t~

th M

L~ r-

t~ tr 0

f~ f Ot

0
[~ o

o
CO o~

e<)
M m o

c)

r-<
.-< <-<

t.

.-i c< <? o) 'o

f~

co o

d Ot

w o

t" o

M 00

CO r~ <?

?< rd r~

W
P .r

S t~
0 t,n. 11

s g
u g :a g

s .ri
g S 'o S

.h

E-'

<i

214
pressure pressure pressure sity h:ut in iur

DEFI.CJKNCY 0F TERM 0F XEHO ORDER. [324.


tho Z) undcr density of thc air nt th atmospht.'nc dunsity as unity, t))e fnurth, w])a.t would hve been tlie intott))0 motion beeu \vhol)y radial, referred to tho iutcnsity the third tlie :).t attnosphcric pressure a.s unity, or, in othcr 1)\ aetual word.s, Thon a. x (the varying as values of (/ a.nd to air as htjfurc. at pressure dcosity th Jast Lciu~ thc in fol~), in atmosphres, referred tu thc

quantity in\v thc ruferred

iutensity headed

An it~pcction ofthc numbers eontaincd wl!! shcw that thc cause hre investiga.tcd for tho fa.cts mcntioncd aceount hy Lcsiic." Thc

the-columns

is amply

sufRcIcnt

to

of the suhjcct, and thc master!y importance which it lias hecn tre~ted \viH prubably hy Prof. Stokes, tins long quotation. sufHcicnt Th simpiieity tojustify
cxphufation contrasts rcinarhabiy

mander

in

bc thought of thc truc had prcwit.h

bccn advanced. Tiousiy tbat thc mixture uf two din't'rcnt stining ~25. velocities of t))C suund. Th to'm might

Sir gascs

J.

that conjectures for cxampic, Hc'rsehe),


tcnding a. confusion to propa~atc rcsutting

with

thought
snund

producc

ia a. rapid

of zero order

is a, complex of a to the pntential constant, corresponds M!t?'ee of arbitrary and phase, at the situated. ~'w~ intensity centre of thc sphcrc tlic in practice, ( 27!)). If, as often Imppens source of sound be a solid body vibrating of without much change this tcrm is relatively In the case of a rigid vulume, dcHcicnt. about a position is of cquMihrium, the deficiciiey spliere vibrating where absotutc', by a tcrm inasmucli of order titc ovcr as th 1 and whole motion will then thc body term of th whenever be rcpresented is very smn,)l in zero order of must motion, th body

with comparison be insignificaut. \7'+~=(), and a sphre

th wave-length, For if wc intc'grate the sma,U volume

equation Inciuded between

closely surrounding it, we sce that the whole quanand leaves this space is small, and that tity of nuid which enters therefore thcre is but little total flow across th surface of the sphre. 1 Thc centre of tho spitore being the origin of coordicateB.

325.]

REACTION

ON

RIGID

VIBRATINCt

SPHERE.

215

and ~is proportiona! tion considcrcd same thc fonn as thc

to

thc

a.nd

somo

potcutial

of t]ie angle bctwccu tho direcTliis is of thc iixcd axis. expression of n, (loitble source a.t ( 2D4-), situated

cosine

of two cqun). i~nd opposite centre, a.ud coniposcd simple sources wtiose distance is innnitcly ]yin~ on thc axis in question, npai't of the intensities aud Such t)iat tho product S)na.t), and intensi.ties distance angle
duubtc

i.s fiuite. hutwcen


source is

For, if x and r bc proportional

? bo tlie

axis, and thc cosinc that tlie potential it is vident to

of the of tlie

It appca.rs thcn as a. rigid sphcro source douh)e a.t thc snhcrc's

that body
tho

thc is

disturbfmeo thc
whosc

duc as tha.t

to the

vjbrutioM

of a

same

ccutrc

n.xis

coiucidcs

to n, corresponding with tit Hue of

vibratinn. of thc air on a small sphci'c vibrating catculatcd sphcrc as a, rignl from prca.b time <,

Tho raction body ceding with formula.

a. harmonie If

motion, may bo l'cadily of the dnote thc vcbcity

21G Thc incrti. and


:u)d

INCREASE of opration of th spho-c thc

0F

EFFECTIVE

INERTIA.

[325.

to ret:n'd

cqu:t! to of thc f)-c<}ucney of vibration. :md 7~ we nnd

a.ir is thcrcforc to incrcase tho effective inorthlof by~) timesthc t))cairdisp!nccd, t))G motion force to t.))C vctocity, by a. proportiond thse eifcetsbeing in gcucm] ~-n-pc" fmicuon. By introduction of th vatucs of/

xc is sma)), we hve approximatu)y ~=~, <y=~V. Hcncc th cucctivc incrtia of a sma)! is incrc:iscd spbcrc by oncba]f of that of tho air displaecda of thc (p)antity indcpcndcnt and thc same as if tlio nuid wcre frc(]uoncy T))c mcomprcssiDc. which di.ssip~tivc term, to thc cncr~y is of corresponds cmittcd, ordcr in ~c, and thcrcforG high cfccts of viseosity (the bcing thc vibrations of a smait disrc~rdcd) arc but slowly sphre datnpcd. an incompressible fluid bas etHpsoid through bccn investigatcd and his rcsnit is applicabto by Grccn', to thc c:).icu)ation ufthe inercascofufFt.'ctivc int-rti~duc to a compressible tbo nuid, providcd dimensions of thc body bc smiJt Ht compariso!! with titcwavc-JcngtIi ofthc vibration, rur a snndt circulai' dise at rigbt to its p]anc, vibrating th increasc an~es of cneetivc incrtia is to tbo mass of a sphre uf nnid, wbosc radins is tu optai tbat of th dise, as 2 te 7r. Tbc rcsntt for tbe case of a sphum abovc was ohtaincd givoi a sbort tinic bufore tbu by Poisson", of Grucn's publication papcr. Jt tbc bas bccn provcd harmonie as duc Thus by of Maxwell'
th connnou

Whon

Th

motion

ofan

that

thc
potcntiat

various may dpgrces

tcrms bc

of rc-

gardcd plexity.

expansion to p~if~t/~e~o~~

of corre.spoading to to'thc coincittc.


AJso Grccu's

of comthere

is proportionat nfr'' with

~.hcre axes

arc t differentiations numberofwbicfnnay


7~ ~H.~tctt-oM~, Furrers. ~LtoniDat)

respect in particutar cases


]R, 183H. & Co., lti71. ~< .S'c''))cc<, Ton. Ch. Dec.

7~ &c., a)iy

Itmigbtpo-haps
~ti/.w<tffct J'~x.

cthted by

.1/<?w.'n'.< (/c /f(~f~)~ M)t)LWt;H's A'~c~-;)'<y

xi. !x.

p. 521.

n)M/ .)j<if<t!M<,

335.]
hve bccn cxpectcd with thc

MULTIPLE
that
a simitar

SOURCES.
taw wou)d of r" for hohi ?' for tho Tins

317
velocity howcver

it tuay bc .shcwti tliat thc potentia.1 of a quadruple (~ e in uot to thc source, dcnotcd by corresponds ccncnU ?' M/< e" io'm of thc second ordcr but to a vix., simpiy, ~(!'x)-), cu)nhin:diun i'urc hutds tliough
cnUations

potcntia) is not thc case;

substitution

of this

with

a. term

of zuru ordcr. uf tlie ~6 fd'tcr any


fuudfuncntal

Thc

uniy in thc sing)c of eoursu titu function


continues

iastim )-e" tlic

ana.h)gy therepoint or source, nuniber of dii'cr-

to satisfy

quation

It

is pcrhaps

wort,h

notice

that

t!ic

disturbancc

outsidc

wltich comp]ete)y encloses thc origin imaginary sphre as duc to thc normal motion of the surface tnay Le reprcsentcd of concontric case whcn t!ic auy smaHcr or, as a p!U'ticn!ar sphcre, ra(hus of thc sphre is innnit.uly sina!), as due to a source concentratud la one pohit at thc centre. T!ns source will m gnerai bc of a combina.tion of multiple sources of ail ordcrs of composcd complexity. is the vibration of a origin of thc distm'hancc to its axis of rvolution, the varlous r!g)d body p:t!'aUel sphcrica.1 Itarmonics rcduce to simpte of th zonal fia-rmonic multiples as thc coemcicnt of c" in thc cxpan(~). which may Le durincd mon of {1 in rising And whencvcr thc 2e~+e~~ powcrs of c. sohd, busides about an axis, is a.Iso symmetrical bcing symmetric:d with respect to an equatoriat with thc plane (whosc intersection axis is takcn as of the expansion of thc origin co-ordinatcs), harmonies wlllcontaintcrmsof spho-ical Fur exampic, if thc vibrating body wcre a circulai' dise moving to its plane, tho expansion pcrpcndieutarty of -t~ would contai n tenus to In proportiona! (~), 7~ (/<.), (/u.), &c. thc case of th as we hve sries reduccs sphcre, S(.tcn, thc to its nrst tcrm, amt titis tei'))i wiH gencrally be prponabsn!utc)y drant. rcsultingdisturbance odd order ouly.
On

any of sound

32G.

WIien

thc

in

thc othcr an axis

hand

wo

may

hve

vibrating

System

symmetri-

cal

Avith respect to a.n cquatorial plane, but in such a mannur that th motions of th parts on thc two sides of thc plane arc opposed. Undur Uns !ica.d cornes thc idal tuning

about

and

218
furk, cumposcd di.stattCG apart

ENERCY
of cqual spitcrcs varies pcriodiea!]y. bcit~g thc satue must

EMITTED
or para!t<jl circuhu'

[32G.
dises, wbo.sc shcws thc titat

t"!ym)nc;try :).b any

vutocity-potcutiaL thc pLnu of nytntnuLt'y, foru L'x)))'essihic 7~(~),(~),

u.sn.dfy in particidar if thc prcji~ndcra.tc, ca.scs, though cxn.mp!c of two (Uses very cioRC tngctitcr in conpfu'ison Lody ~o'c cutnposcd wit)) thci)' dia.mctcr, th symmctric:d tcrm of' zcro ordcr nu~ht bceome A conm~-ison with th k)iown sotutioti for tho important. whosc surface vibrtes to any ]aw, will in most Hphcrc a.cconh)~ c:t.sc.s fttD~sit matcrmi fur an c.stima.t<: a.s to thc relative i)nport:m of thc various tcrms. of cucrgy is hy a vibrating spitcrc round by )nu)tip)ying th variable part of thc pressure (proportioual tu ~-) by th nonnal and. integrating over thc Hurfacc velocity In virtue of tbe conjugatc th varions ( 2-t.). propcrty sphcrieal harmonie terms tnaybc takeu scparatclywitttout lossofgeucrality. Wu bave ( :) 327. Th tt:).! mission

by a, scries ~c. Titc second

:).L its imii.ge in pointant} bc an <;v<j)] function of ~u., and ttrcc<jnt:uriin~ ouly thc cven funct.Ion.s fhnc-tion ~(~) a.s fur wou!d

327.] Now, cno'gy


surfhcL's, inust

FROM since in
t))C

A VIBRATJNQ titero space eau Le on

BPnERICAL tho whol.c two cner~y

SURFACE. no accumulation

219 of

thc
rates

mciudcd
tr:uis)~is.siou

bctwccu
of

concentric

of

spherical n.cross titesc surfaces

bu t))c same, that is to say ?- (:['/3/3'ct) must bc mdepcndcnt It~ order of?'. to dctunninc t))C constant value, wemaytnkctlK; case of 7' mdcfinit.dy whcn p!).rticu!ar gi'cat,

It

may

bc by (-?'),

obscrvcd t is
thc

that
imaginary

the resuit

!eft-hand
part

membcr

of

(5)

when or saying of

multipticd (~r)~ tha.t th

of

so tha.t our part

may

(x+z/3) (a't'/S') be cxprc.sscd by

iniaginary

of j~, (~r)~,

(- '/o') is '/cr, or

In

this Thc

form

we

s!~l!

hve

occasion

prcscntly

to

mako

use

of

it.

samo conclusion

by a.)i application M and functions

at somcwhat may be arrived ]norcdircct!y of Heimhoitz's thcorcm ( 2!)-t), i.e. that if two satisfv tlu'ouirh a. closcd sDa-ce S the Gnua.tmr)

220 It no)')n:).l will bc more at thc

SOURCE instructive suri'ace

SITUATED tocxhibit ofi), sphurc ~a.safut]ctionof of ra<)ius c. From

[~27. tho (2)

motion

Tins M =1,

fur)nu!a tt-catcd If

vcnfied for tho partieular )Mybc in 280, 32;') respectively. th source surface of disturb:uice of tlie bc

cases

~=0and

~28.
~)n:U[ p:u't

a normal

motion

of a

iti Lhe mnne'Imtc Hphurc (?'=c) of titu point wc must takc in th gcncr:d )K'i~)tbour))Ood /t=l, to divergent Hulution appHc:t.btc waves, viz.

of thc

328.J
We will ta~ing distance tive

ON THE
nw cx~tnino

SURFACE
t)tc
probluni

0F

A SPHERE.
wjtun /<-c i.s not

221 1
vcry smn.)),

fct'simplicitythc Ot~iy, su th:).t/,(~)-) in various

cascwhr'is = 1. Tj:f! dirucLiuns

!'?<))'<t ihctor on windi is

n ~)'c' tite rela-

iutun.sitic.s

(tcpcttd

of calculating J~ and fur any whcn /<:c=~, 1, or 2. lu thc last c~se it in ncecfjs~ry to ~o as far as ?: = 7 to gct a tolumbly accurate rcsult, a.nd for !arger values of /vc tho calculation would scon bceome very Jit-bonons. I)i a.)] of Uu.s sort. tbc harmonie sccms prubtcm.s analysis to lose its powcr whcn thc wavcs ni comparison are vcry small with thc dimensions ofbudic.s. foHowing value of givcs mcans

Thc

table

tho

/<c==~.
2ft 2~ (M+~a~.(~+~) (,t.~)~-(~+~)

0 1 S 3 4 C

+ +

2 C4 ~(:(i

+I.t')()~ +175CU2

1 7 35 8M + 8M1 .)-:}~1~H) +

+'4 +'J8td.) --()6()J:i!)l -'()();i-lM7 +-n<)(~()5!) +'UUUUlii

+-2 2 -)2307n8 --0:M88M +-()OC:M()1 -)--n<)<)~~ -'UUUU2)i~

222

NUMERICAL

RESULTA.

[328.

/<-c=l.

r' a ~J -t. + i 2 n:) t.) Bi)(! d~t .)())!):) -U:}(::i.i() + + -I :il7') f'h~it +'!<)1~17 3l -<i i H ~~a +'<: -J.tD.ttO --f)tr.7H.t f'()(~t.t:tH .f.'()')')7.s7 -'0()<~))7 --ooouOf! -)-~5 -'a -t7]0 .)'o:t0t))~ -)'()()(i!))~ -'()<))).(); -'<'()))t)7:! -t'ooooo.~ a (N+t)ft-(a.).j8") ();)~)~-T(n')

n i 2 i) 't 3 n 7

-1

f/

2.

a 0 1 i< 4 .'i G 7

'(;).~)a-(a.)-) !.(+ 2 1 S!'5 4 35'm.~ 8;')'4:;7. ri -)-I +-<: +-tn'.)80 -(.') i --t))H70 -)-f'l:<tf! .).'()'U --(JUU7'

(t))-)~(ft=+~) +-3 +':( -'(.7114 --173 -t'IOM? .)'()1)!~ --tHtt.f! --oou;)~

-)+ +

1 2

1'75 8 IC-IM73 -)-]8<(~i; +!i:!H'H() -8M1-7

+ ~t~ .t -U77-H~iG'8

Thctnost usisthe

source, 3y ti)c principlo


"bscrvation relative intcn.sitics

on which this interesting question analy.sis influence which a rigid sphre, situatcdcfosc lias on tho of Sound in dif['c')'cnt i)itcns!ty
may

informs

tot))C directions. p]~cc of know t)m


source ~t

of reciprocit-y ( 29'j-) thc be into'chnngcd. AVhcn


nt twn distant points 7~,

som-CG and thu Uterefore


7?', dnc

wc
to a.

en thc surface
(tncasm'cd

:md 7~
Asa.

of the sphre, wc hve tdso th relative intcnsitics at thc point ~1, (h]0 to distant sources a.t by potcntial) On this account thc problem lias a. doub)' Intcrcst. t)ic values ofj~-}'<7 ~f

nnmerical

aud J~+ ~.=~=J,~=0, that is, louking from thc centre of th sphre, in the direction th source, in thc and IatcraHy. direction, opposite Whcn ~c If! zero, thc value of F"+ on thc samc sca)e as in th
source

1 hve c~dculated cxatnptc C'~ fur th a.hovc vtdues of ~c, whcn

rcprc~'nts an unubKtructcd

ofc'fpia]

magnitude.

<v~ !s '25, which therctorc t:d))e thc intensity due to Wc may intcrprct ~c

328.]

NUMHIUCA.L

RHSULTS.

323

as thc oi'thc

ratio sound.

of tlic

circtnuibreuCL-

of t)tc sj'hcrc

to th

\vavc-)ci~th0

M I._p 1 -1 1

7'f'

J~hC=

-).():!)-'L):H17' 'J.Lt!)-)~))t!); 'iH~ii-~K:i:!i)t

'2')tH')l -H;);)7~) -}1U!~)

1 1 -1 1 0

-(!)i7H.8) -t<)(~)(~);():)f

'2:i.-<(T.!)<

-(M1(;1 -s.')~j'o -CM.S

-)-'H'!li)Uii-'i)()JH)7.i;

1 0 o 2

-7')'!)-)-2:i)21t 'lij:HH --15:)M1-~7(!<J; '[j7(jIW

-(!M!)8 -;i.(;~ 'ajlj~

lookingat attottion is t)tc i)i thc fercncc sca)-(;e!y pcr))~ps iatensity


Tias rcsult

In

thse

figues

tllo

nrst

conparativeiy intensiticsindifTerent of t!)C sphre anyLhht~ still more behmd tlic

shgttt directions.

\v]nch attracts point dviation from unifunnity Evenwt~n thccircmntito-c w)).tt


cases

to twice thu wavc-It-o~t)), amounts n. sound shadow. to bo cancd But is t])at in tl)c fh-st two uncxpcetcd sphre cxcccds t))at in a transvcrso

is is tlic

diroction.

of t!)c tcrm of dcpcuds !n:LHi!y on tl)c prcpondcra.ncc thc first order, whic)i vfnushcs with /n. Thc ortler of the more tcrm.s Ino-c'ascs with ~c; whc-)i is A-c importfuit the pruictpu.l 2, t(.'rtn is that of UtC second ordcr. Up incrcase
twiec as

to

a certain total
ellcrgy

point cnorgy whcn

tho
mueh

augmentation bccausc cnnttef), close to M rigid of thc table

the

of

thc

a simple plane as -whcn this effect

sphre wH! source cmits entirely masks tlle

lu thc

open. obstruction due the ihtensity than Jcngth


rcmaining

Within
to an

the limits

is greatowhon it

so that when ino-casing sphre, u.=l, whcn t))C circumfo'cncc is twicc thc wavcis hatf thc wavc-Iength, thc source itscif

constant.

If
rebdive

the source
proportions

hc not simple
of thc varions

harmotlic

with

respect
wih

tn timc,
vary tosonic

thc

const.ituent.s

cxtcntboth <jf t))C point


of thc analysisinto

wititthcsixc of ohservati~!],
simple

thc direction sphre, andwith t)ie faudatnc'nta! cbaractcr illustrating harmonies.

of the

224

KFFECT

0F

SMALL

SPHERE

[328.

WhcnA-~ Le con'iuct.cd

i.S(]('('i(]r)))y!(;.ssth:u)onc-ha)f,t))cc!dru]nti<'n with .s))f)ici(.'))t approximatiu))

a)~uLr;uc;!))y.

o~y Thu

!su)t,[.s

It:ipj)(':).)-s<))f).t.st)f:)r:tst)K;tL']'tr]in~t))cint(;nsityis;ut ('vc))f)))ict.iu))<)fjU,,vix.t)tc.s:L))K;at:tHytwn directions ")'))".s(!<L F"rt.)tupti))dj):)) ()ia)nc(t'ic:d!y ~=+~ur(),thc))U)))cri(-:).) points

c'!L)cu):).t.h)t)ut'L))Li('<)cf)i(.'iL'nt.<)f'/f'c;'isc!tsy<)))!tcc())mtufU)Csin)p)u fonctions/ Titus v:t.)uc'.sthL-nn,ismnt:J!)y<t(j

\Yhcn direction by th

/<:c" catTL bcncgicctcd, t.hn.n nnmcdi:).tc]y

tlie i)i frunt, a Kourcu

Ititcnsityi.s uf or buhind

]c.s.s iu thc

h~c~! 0)-,

sphre.

at a (H.st.:mcc reciprocalproperty, wingivca.grctd.cr 011 t)ic sm-~cc of a small inten.sity ab titc: point fm-t.hcst Hphere frum the source titan in a hLtcra.1 pusitiuu. If we apply t))c.so formu).c to tho case of ~c = t, wc "'ct

wmcn
catculit.tlun.

f~rcc

prctty v:ducs

ctosciy

witti

thc

rcsuiLs

of

thc

more

complote

For

othcr

of

th coc~cient of
tables of

of ~<
Legcndre's

In

(~0)

CiJcuIn.tcd t)tc fullowm~

with

t!ic aid

functions,

bc nil~ht or fi-oni

aigebraic

cxprc.ssion

in tcnns

of~

Thc =

of iutcnsities in f~o'~ce 1 inay bc very simply cxprcsscd.


1 For tLc forma of th

th

directions Thus
7~, Hoc 3M.

/~=+1

at)d

funetious

328.]]

0F SOUND. ON A SOURCE

9'~ -j*7

At

thu

.sanic

timu

thc

totat

v:L)uc of

J~~+

f< nppruxiin:t.t~s

tu

'wh(ji)~<)SH!un)). ~'ttCsct)))h'1"sh:).(.'at)mt,L!rc's(i))~))u:u'h~('Ht))Ccx~]a:)ati"n ()f't.hep:trt.p):)ymt)'yt)~t:\vou!u'.sinthc f)'U))TL~')Hc)t:L.S()))~dp)'('CL'C()H. jft shouht diruct.iotts ))uohHurvct1 :Lbuutwhic)i that. \u thc Viu'i~tions itavcbucn (jfiotcnslty in (Hffui'f.'nt <)uc totitc pcrc(.'pLtun<)t'tiiu<[t)!U'tcr

spL'!tkit)~:u'u

prc.scncu t't.hespho'c Lhc source i.s n titc thu c(.'])trc. At a

!L.s:t))<)Lst:Lc!c,n.n<l)n'ttothcfactt)):it circtu~fo'cucc ~)'cn.t (tistfuicc Lhc ~~<-sc ot'titCHphuroiusLcfut :i small (i)sp):).cc'mc))t but )h)t,t))(ju~c;i.uia.))y ofat cf

finurcuof.su)m')wHt:Ln'L'(.'t direction. In
.s))!teru

onh')'tf'fhxl

t1)~:L)t''r;(ti<~t

tjfpim.se

wch:LVcfo]'a,s)n:dl

iront {t.s if

which thc

<.)~t, thc pitasc ~'c tnay infcr at .sotn'cc Lad hccu sit.ua.tcd no ~nd

(in.stc:).d(.)t'~=(.'),a)idthc't'c)tadbcun 32!).
tcrms of

puint obstacle. niny bc

ut thc

(1!.st:uicc

i.s th /t=l,

.satnc c

)'==:jc

Thc 7\ It

fm~ctiona! is !\nown'

Hy)n))ols that

expresscd

in

C'unsidcr))f)W

th

sytnMicopc')'))-

t P,,(!),fmd)ctit.

(/Y

f'pcratf'nn~
'Thnmsnn)U)dT~it't,.Yf~.7~7R~(~u~t<'[UnnM~fnr~~yt. H. 11. )5~)

22G

ANALYTICAL

EXPRESSIONS.

[~20.

330.] ] MO. iLSsumcd infmity. condition investi~'atc cxprc.ssion.s.


Rcvcr.sing

MOTION Wc havo

CONTIN ah-cady

UOUS co]).sidcred

THROUGII m
whcn

POLE. dtail
is no

227 t!tc
source

sonie thcre

form
at

Ly om- gC)~r:Ll exprensions Au ci]u:L)!y important eta.ss that Lttt'c be no soarcc at wluit l'c.stt-iction is t!i(;rcby

of t.hc

cases origin.

is dcnncJ Wc on.

Ly 8h:d!

tiic now

itnposcd

our

gcncra!

t.hc scrics

for~,

\vu )):t.vo

Sincc expression

thc for

fmictiou

P,, is cithcr \vho!)y odd or who)!y is whuDy rcid cr whoDy hn~ii);u'y. of~in(.))'cma.!nsfinitc that

evc']), thc

Itt.o'dcrto \hcn t- vani.si~s,

provcthatthc~'n.toc wc bogin by obscrving

~53

228 8

ANALYTICAL

EXPRESSION!

[330.

asis()Lvi()n.sw~c)iiti~consn)crcdtI):ttt))ccfT~ct()f()itTt'L')tti:)t)nL; c")))yitun)))<~t)rtin)(!.s\ith!-('.s~~ttow thccrr('spu)n!i)~p)W(;i-<.t' Miun()nt))eti~))Linn.sccndi))~pu\vL-r.s<jf'7'. ist'))n))itit)!yi<.h~ !tt-u)i)!U)tst.jcx)):H)'[t)nj~i))~.s~cha\u u

Nuw cxpnmtcd uf itigh~st.

any positive intgra! po\vt.r in a ter)tnn:~ingHc)'K-soft))C ontcr buin~ 7~, Jt ful!o\~

of

such fonctions

ns

c-nn

hc

7', H)cfnncticn

th:it,

if~

< n,

by knowu of~-inj tenn,


wc

pn'po'tic.s /-n
~(/<.)c'

of Utcsc

fonctions;

so t,I):tt thc
K~ainingon)y

lov'c.st Lhc

powcr )cadmg

i.s(/~)".

may

writc

~0.]

FOR VELOCITY-POTENTIAL.

32!)

~'hich

shcws

that

ViUti-ihcs sries fo)'

with

?', cxccpt whcn t))crc

when is

?! = 0. ho Snrcc at thc

Thu

cctttplutc

p()t~,i.s)u'))'e cot)vc))K'nt.!y obt:um-dLyt.ht':iLi<t iiL'.s.sL-1'.s fnuct.ion.s. Ti)C(Hn'ut-CtiU~eqm).tion.s


byt))c;.seinnct.ioMS,vix.

oftttcttt~oryoi' ~00, sat~Hud (-)

i.s thu

Bcs.sul's

fmtction

ofordcr

~i. ?~ ): + :'i, but hcrc wc hn.ve mt.cgra!.

Wt)0) tu ih do

?. is mtc~rd, with )?t fractiona).

r (~~ + I) = 1 2 :n)d of' thc fonn

being'

t.]tls CiLSC

230
Now satisfics tlie function

DESSEL'S
wlt.!i

FU~CTIOXS.
which wc :u-c at prc.soit

[330.
conccmu'.),

(.i.) 32:3, vi~.

3:~0.'j It wHI bc convctucnt -Jr~nd ,f"r<.h'Htt.t~cor<I')'

PARTICULAR to write

CASES. duwn fur rcfcrcticc tlic

231 forms of

33!. is to t))e

0))c

of the most Tu

investigation cnvulopc. tha.t in

sphuricid
to suppose

of thse rcsulLs n.pplica.tions of a, g:is within a, rigid of th motion t)tc frcL: pcriod.s wc Imve on]y detcuninc
intorcsting

va.nisttcs,

when case of

)' is cqua.1 to thc tlie symnictrical

radms vibrations,

of t!tc wc

T!tus cnvclupc. havetodutenninc~

the

ta.n~'=A:r.(1), {m cquntion mctnhnuics, to the sponds of


wh.sc on

which 2()7.

wc hve Thc

n.h'e~t~y first nnitc

considcrcd

in

thc

hi~hcr
mdli

vibratio)i symmetrica.! root, Uio vibt'i.Ltion in quc.stiun roots. to t)tc infurior correspond
w)tosc vortex is

i-oot (/<= l'-t3037r) lu the of lowcst pitch. !ms .sphcrical

ehaptcr eon-cca.so

node.<i,

Any without Th

cne, ~n'ccting loop.s,

at the of thc

ori~'in, question.

m~y

bc

nuulc

rigid

thc conditions or

(~)''sin/o'=U,
zro.

of no pressure places M or /<-)'=W7r, w])crc tito

aro giveil v;u-i:).tion, by is any intcgct-, except, bo


a

T)tG
tnct)':).], is

case

of )t=l,
thc

whcn
most

vibnttion.s
~S'

may
bcing

ca.Dcd
harmonie

<U;T.r

pcrha.ps

intcrcsting.

ofordcr

1, is proportion:d

to cos 0 whcrc

is

the ang)e

bctwecn

L~2

DIAMETRAL

VIBRATIONS.

[_L

an<tsomc~xcd()h'cct.ion
it.tthcpi)lu.-i,t!)('():u'))oco~ieal)iutfc.-i'

ofrcfcrcncc.

Si)ice~va.uis))fson!y
~vithvL'rt.cxn.tt.'iic centre.

Any ]'!gi(L
d~ngc

jne]-i(H:ui!d AJong
sign,

piiLnc,

!~o\vcvo-, ra.dins
(~)' sin

is nod:d, vectur,
vix.

n.nd fim)
wLon

tnay

be

supfoscd iuxl
T))c C

nny spccificd
Avith cos

vanish,
i;u) /<-r=/<-r.

loops ofthe

in thc' r:u)ia)

prc'.suttt case t)ierctut-ucoinci<tu vibraLiun.s.

\it))

thu nod:).) surfaccH

Tof!)x~))csph(.'ri('a]))H:)c.s,\v(;]);tvc

Thc T:')')(.-s

fh'nt Ly

root

is

~'=0. c'rmr, 1

t.riat tlie 1 ~tl

:m()

Cidcutatin~ fi)idfurt))u

from

Tri~nomct.ric:~

))t'\t,)'(~)(,w)(K')tco)'f)..sp)tcrc,

rc~punt.Lstu ~-=ll!)'2Gx-

Yibr~thm s<jtlt:tt.

orm'j.st.intpo-Latiwitttiti )-: \='3.313.

T))cairs\vny.sfrun)sidut<'si(k'in]tU)ch
n)

<.))C.samcmnnncras nug'httmticip~tc titan for !).ciosc(l (turivcd f'rotn thc

a.(1ou))!yc)<).sc(t

pipe.

tt)att.)iL;pit(.tWonhtLo pipe ofoqua! with cylin<)(.-r Jung't)), c]osc<!

Withunt-an~ty.si.swu fur thu sphre h~~u' hecausc thc spho-c may bc C!t(ts,hyf)))i))~t)pp:irt'.f'tt)u]:itturwit.)i

u1)St)-)K-tin~)natcr)!)],thccnL'ct,of'w))ic))]nu.sthtoMlt:)rpc~thc t))C))i:)s.stohc mo\')'(I rondins .v])i)c lu f:K;t, fur a. c)').sc<) pipe of'lungDt 2/

but.iit.Uc

c));H~(.'d.

Tf'csphcrci.sthn.s])i~))crinj)it.eht))ant)tecy)i))(IerLvab(.)ut, aFourth. T)"vibrt ion !)ow)i))d<;rcons!(Ic')'f)t!onist])C~ra\'cstofw]ti(')) i.ssuch

<)'<sp))(;r(-i.sca))a.b)<iti.sn)()rut.)ta))a)t<)('ta\-c~rav(;r<.))ant))c radia) vibration. ~vc.st, Tf)un('xt\')))r:diuHuf'i)u!jty})e tli;Lt nn t)~tA~=~4()~or ~>,i Jo~ or

:HKttst,J)L'ruforch)~hc)-lh:mU)u)ir.sLra()icL).

'A)h~).!i~asut'~cp\\i!it'hn)i;;ht))CHt)pp()~Jnj.th),v.x.('m.aL'r!H\\hi(;i)Uterc i)-!)o)nutt~t).

331.]

VIBRATIONS

0F

SECOND

ORUER.

233

is gre:<.t, t!n; );'t''dbv!"f'f'~sof'n.Hn)'n:s.

Whcn

rocts

of (2)

mny

be convcnicutly

CtUcu-

It'/<'r=)/t7r?/.t)t(')'

fn'tn

which cases:

wc mny .SL'tcct fur

spccud

con.sidL'ratu~n

L)iu fuHo\vh)~

nutabtu (a)

thuxonai])fL)'tnonic,

'Hcrc; whcn surface, ~=~7T. .so t))nt

is

proportiunal
Titis.shcws

to

s!n20,

and

thcrcfui~

YtUii.shes

thc

s:mic

U~tthcc~hd niotiou might duu.s not invulvc

tak~

isn.!)f)(1:~) p1a))f a closcd pt~cu within pIcUte

Ai.~u .sinec )tu)t)).sptx;rc. :m rigid. n):ty Le rcg:u'()cd (~3)


tlie .sccLon:d

N, :my muridiatud

I~n'tnonic

H'crc

again But

varies

as

sin

2~, and

and

thc

cquaturial ducs nut

plane vanish i))'dy thusu

is

nodat.

varies

as

sin~M,

tito'cfcr

it)dcp(.:ndcnt]y that h\'o, aod are at ri~'ht ('y) thc

ui' 0, cxcupt, whcn inuridiana! hut.two,


angles

sin 2M = 0. planes

IL appcar.s accord an;' uoda), aud th:tt

to onc

anut))cr.

tct-scral

)iai')nonic,

Inthiscasc~~v[H)t.shcsindcpcn<Icnt)yofMwithcos2~t))at is, Avitun 0=J7r, vcrtic:d or .7r,


\v]nch givcs a nodal

cne v.u'ic.s

of i'cv<j!utlun a.s sinM, und 1

1 mitose

1 t :mg)u. ] 1 a))g]u 1.. i.s n rig-ht

rl~ M

<hust))Ci'cisu)K'n')f')'idi:)n:)tno(hdp'):mc',nn'1))))tonu.

234

AVAVE

LEXTHS

0F

VU3RATIONM

['331.

gtvi)]g

a Lonc g)-a.vct- t]i:).n any gcn~ral sphcrc

of tlic

radi:t)

gr~op. thc cqu~tioti givit~r ~'riLtL'n~)) tLc

Li t)tc ca.su of thc toncspo.s.sibtuwidun:), ~(J

hannonie, of radius

;'jf):tybc

corrcspnmfH.g cxhihitu.] thu of thc


~-avcst,

Lu n.einuru of f'rc(j))(.-ncy whoc My.stchi.

important
thu varions

.uod~ofvibr.i..u.
vibrations

In~iJ rcfL-rn~ iar to tho t

Thc

'i~bic

includc two

i.s extcndcd

cnou~h

octaves.

TAni.n A, Civu~ tho Yalnes of for a at'bcro of unit radius.

Order of II~naonic. 0 1 2

0 3~
~ c '3 r ICI

l~:i -81:).~
-f;7(i~ -.il<:7i) -:if! 'n<)8:M3

S'OJSf;
1~77 -C8~51 -SOM:i ..10;);~) -;);)C2;<

l.MOO
-80!).~ ~~U8 '0'*8' -.15:~0

l.:)!)3
-7;~<) -c~.i8

].ll:t
.c;).~

.o:ioo

.g~

1
2 3 4

gt~ C

33L]

wf'niiN

sniEnicAL

ENVELorE.

2:35

TA!<M;n. I-H.chofcaeh ruturruM tuoo, tuno.r.ferrud toh'raveat. _`_ 1 Ordc.r of of HMinuine.

~ritchofc.~ f.l1Itlll)(H' "t..ue,~fcn-cd "t lIUI CH..

1tnoe III

of CllC\ tuH~vcst.

Or.h.r 01',1(,1' of IlM'manic. 1

1 ~') N.UI~lher "f'"t~ 1101 OH

Il

l'OOOO J-C056 ~'l'~S


2-KiU 3-713

1 2 0
!) 4

o 0 0
0 il 0 II

2'85.10 3~~8 Ii :<)21


!711t !i'773

1 S 2
0 G

1 0 1
1 O

!2. tion for

If wc drop the vibrations

mmcccs.sfu-y

constants,

t))o

ot'gns\vit]nn~sphcric:d

solup:u'tictd:ne:)LSCof radius

uuit.yi.src'prc.scntedby

In gc'ncra.ii.sing t.])n.t thi.s, \vc must rcnicmbcr mily bG comtu cach of winch there may terms, corrcspondin~ poscd ut'scvcml :utd pha.se. c'xi.st :), vibration each oi'm'bitnn'y ampHtndc Furtiicr, tcrm in ~S' may bc associatcd witil any, or a)!, of thc vaincs of (tctcrnnncd might hve by (2). For example, nndcr t)iu Iicad of M = 2, wc

arc co))jugn.tc, i.e. will vanihitt, A]iy two of thc constitncnts of w))L'u mu!ti])iicd and intcgrat.cd ovcr th Yolmne of th togctiio', This fo)!uws fron thc propurty of t)ic sphurical sphre. harmonies, whcrcvcrthctwotGt'ms considcrcd diffcroitvtducs of co'rcsputidto din'ut'enL constituent.s T)~c ouly or totwo ofA' for considura.tion us to .shuw titat rct~uires ca,sc rcmamin~

23GC)

CASE

OF

UNIFORM

[:}32.

which!snnimni~)iatcc<mscfpK'not'a.fn))(huncntaipn)p('rty<)f Ttn't'cisthcn-forcno <)K-S(;functit)n.s(~0~). !tI)<jgu))ut';UM())))ti()n tu pr<\scri))(;(! initit

(Hfticuityhtadaptcij'cmn.staaces.

L]0)-d<'rt()i)i)).st.t-;dcthissuLj('ctwcwiHt:).kcthcc;tS(\AvIicro in its position nntiaDytheg'asis ()f'('()uiiih)'i))mh))t.is))')<)vin~wi(h constant. Thi.s condition wuul't \'c)ocit.ypa)';t]!t;)t');r. of'thin~-s :)ppn)xi)n:)Lt<iyrca!i.s<),ift))t;casc,h:u'in~ ftn'm motion, w~r~.sud~chly stopper.
Sincctnct'C! isno

bc

)~c])pruvi)[.s)yi)iuni-

Inititnc'ondcn.sntionot'nu'ofactiun, ]f ;~)'u i)uti;diyu)tity,wch:i\'('~==.c=~, ff~tt.'titisoxiy


'J'hcsotution is

nHthc

(jnn.))titiL'.s~v:u)i.s)). ~'hicit nh(~H

tlhitth('.S!))ntion Itar~tonics.

tc-nxs

of

t))c

fir.st U~

o)'duri)isp)K')'ic-at forn]

t))<jru)'urcof

33~]

iNrrrAL

YHLoci'rv.

237

fl

Thc

(.'ViUttation

of

)'<

(/<r)~

)n:Ly Le cH'cct.a! fonctions.

hy t.hc

!ud of

:)~cuur:).tt.hcurc))i ttinL't'untiaiL'quat.toB

)'c)atingi.othc'sc

HythcfutKhuncnt.iLl

233
shcwin.~ ijnpurt.nmt. Jft may )jo wcit to j-ccait t)~t

Sl'HERICAL
Lho Hi-st tcrm

SHKLL.
fur is by

[332.
fiu- t,!m most

m th scrics

hpt'u t)t;tt

333.

In

n.

sunihu-

manncr

~c

m.~y

trcat

t))C

proDcm

of

th

vibrattons surfitccs, vani.s)) for

of
whosc

air
mdli

inchtdcd
arc ?-,

bc-twn nnd

ri~-id For

conc~ntric Ly (J3) ~3,

stj)uj)-ic;d if dl'

thc'.sc

vatucs

of)',

H33.] When thcdittbroice

l'LANE botwcct~

WAVES. is vcry snudi

239 with i

)-, :md

comparcd

"tctittftL-siLscH'witttth~Lot'tJx.iviItrationcff~ is .sphct'ic~tHhuut,uf:ut',n.nd bustnuh'<diu(k'pt.'udL'Ht.iy. ln(l) as itis :!2~f-~bc]ndcpu))duttuf; vident, tim.tiLntu.st:).!)bu iu t)tc c~ML;snpposcd, -\vc )):ivu proxim~t.ciy
citttcr.Lhcpnjbtum

Thu

tonu (/< =i) !Uid Um ncxt i.s sncli ttmgravest thitt t,wo of t,hcni wou!d nuLkc a hvuti'Lh (octave Thc pro+<ift,h). btum of Die .sphcnc:d .sliect of g!M will bc f\athcr con.sidcred in L)iu i'uUuwing ~t. chapter. ~ppticn.tio)t t)i~ wc st):t.!i n~kcof Litu .sphcnctU

jntcrv.d

bctwecn

TI) next

is tu invu.st.i~tc tLe hat'niuuicantJyMLs (Hsturb~ncc whidi unsues w])(;)). pttUtu wn.ves of sound on aiL hnpingc Lstructinf spitere. th(.' centre of th sphcre as origi.n of po)<u' Tnkin~ and co-o)-din:t.tes, th direction frum -\vtiic)i tijc wavcs corne as thu :ixis of tel 6 hetttcpotcntktofthuunobstructcd plane waves. Thun !e:u'in"'
ont !t.n nnn(!Ct's.s:uy co)np)ex coeincicut, wc havo

nnd

(:hc solution

cftiic

proHon

rc<juh'cs

L!t c.\p:msiou sytHi~ch-y 7~ (~), tlic so t)iat

of c" tnn-monics wc

in

hat'moruc.s. Ua !Lcc(jnnt of tho sphcrica! roducc thonscivcn to Lpgonh'c's i'uncttous tahc

may

\v)iorc :drc.tdy

J.

:u'c functions provcd wc

of~

but not t!~t

uf/t. ~t,

Frorn

w))at

bas bccn a.s a func-

mn.ytmti(.-ip:Lt.c

conHidcred

t.i<uiof)',m.ustv~ryas

but

Lhc; s:imc

rcsu]t

may

f~sHy

hc oht;unt'd

dircctiy.

M)))tip!yi)!~

~0

SI'IIERJCAL

OBSTACLE

f~

C~) ''Y ~=+I,wc~hu)

M,

i~.d

intcgrating

wit]i

ro.spM-t.

io

fron)

~=

1 to

I" Le 'Y

thcpn,L]<niin).an<! d.v.)u.) into to

th <wo parts; un.li.sturL..) prince

~vh<.)u th.

motion f,that,

nut.si.L.O.c.spl.cre n.pn.su.h.d .-u.Xhc.s~ ),y<&

c.o,)i, ~s<ha..rc.hn,t~h< ~I~H.i..d


rq))acmg

phm.v..s,

(-~

on

~thusp!.<.rc~ndmdi..Lti,~ct,tofU.. ]aU.r ,.u-L h~,


)t:u')no))ic ,S' bv

~havo

t])c

~oto-a!

~ovc!<~t.ypotcnt~ofthow)m!c r~a,.i ~,t~ c-nsta.ts ~)H,sc fonn .Icp.nds c.n~it.ons. t.r.nh.dbyth.s).hcro. an. hxcd .sphc.rc, i.sthnt anj t),cn

.notion

isf.n)n.t

Lya,)it,on

hci~do~ni~by ..pnn t).c ct.u-actcr

<).c'h<-n.y of t).c ob~-uc 7. lec

Tbc.sHnp)cstca.sei.st)~of~"ri.ri.l Ll.u cundition to bc sati.silcd whcn

334.]

rnc![D

spHH)m'L

ousAC'~H.

241

At

a. su~dott

distance

from o)-t)t-)t.o thc (Jti this

thu source to ruid au<t

of th

()is<,U)'')):mcc mitution

h)k~ probton,

~(~r)=l.
wc

Ta

wc m!iy of i-L~) and arc

m:tys(.'par!tt,o

t))nnv!).w:tyth(.'):).tt.('r. )'cpr(.sc))tc'!hy

.sn))posit!o)~

imn.~in:L)'y thu p!:).nc

pa.rt.s, w~vus

Cunfhnng

our.sch'cs

for simpiicit.y's

sa.ko

~)'(j:Ltdi.st!).ncci'n))n <xtrt).ct thc rca.t cvcn or wIioUy

<ho sphre, w)u'rc/~ Sincc thc pa.rb of (8).

tn p~rts cf spa. a.t ft we pt'ocpcd to (;<)=], functiona 7~ arc w)io)]y

f)d<1,

As

cxa.mp)c.s

we

may

writc 0,

down 2. TIie

th

ternis

voiving futictinns

hannonic.

of ontcrs

futiuwing

in[~], tab!e of the 1C

in

7~ (~) wi)) bc uscfu).

L:.tl.

DJSTUBBANCE

DUE

TO

f334.

hcre obtained, probicm though ann.!ytica))y is ]iard!y of pmctical quito gnerai, use cxccpL wltcn ~c is a sm~ la this case we may '{uautity. aJvatit~eousIy expa.)id our results JU rising powo's ofM.

Ihc

solution

oft~e

~d

PIOID

SPUKRCAL

OLiSTACLK.

343

Itnppcfu-.st!i:tLwhi~

[~,]

and

[~,]

aro

of t)iG s~mc

orJcrh)

t!.p.srnfJIquant.ity/ce,[~Ji.shvom-dur.s Wcsha)IHn<i in~ier. t)t:it )):u'mn))ic cronponouts prcscutty thehighur in [~-] dpend upon stii) nxn-c e]cvatcd powc-rs of A-L'. For n first approximation, thon, wc may confine cur~tvc.s to tho ctcmunts of ordcr 0 aud J. conta.in.s a cosino, n.nd AIthou~h [-J [~-J t). sine, they thetcs.s (.liH'm- in ph:LSc hy a. sm:Ut fptit.ntity on)y. Comparlug ofthe values of~" in (2)) 330 wc s~c that. nevertwo

Whcn

M is

very

ncady 'Whcn

fi)) high, tftc expressions idcnt.ica.) for mojcmtn vaincs


at

tan /<:)'nnd /3 f~r. mnnncr,

s< bccon')

M is (M, wc gct

in !i ncar)y

similar

~44

I\TE~8ITY

OP

SMCON))ARV

AVAVES.

[~34.

'i')ieYc]ocit,y-pot('n)iaIof<))cdisturb:u)ce f'.n.ni:\e(!n"~).'<tit~i\-t~r.j.})r..Aj,,)ith'!v,

duct~asm~tngid

For

givcu

obst:M-]c

aud

n.mp]it~d(js portiorjft! intenshicH In to

of t)n; sc~to-cd
thc ioverso

intensitics of thc nnd pruniny scatto-cd t!ic former Rounds, we may suppose to ori~nH.te in a it, bc simple source, providcd distant 7'. surMcient]y (/<') from Thus, if

is proportiona! order to compare

i.s in ~cnen~ p)-ouftLc Lhe n~iu of s~uiu-c wavc-Lngt.h,and to t)tc inverse i'ourt)) pwcr ( SOC). th

a gi\)i (Hst~)ice and th ttircL-t wavcs

thc

ratio

of

H)C

It must nppty aud

bc wc)t undcr.stood must bc grcut compiu-cd bc grcat th


compared

tL~t with witb

In ordor th X. expression

that

ihis

n..su!t

iinear

dunc~ion

in!ty of

must

To find sma!],

leadhig term in th wc !)avp in tlic ~rst place,

for

when

is

334.] ]

FURTIIHR

APPROXIMATION.

245 5

wLiie

if

M bc

o<td,

we

hve

mcrc)y

to

replace

t"

hy

thc

t-esnkbch~thcustiltre:). Byn)C:msof
(~pressions ir,r[~],j~],

(;!J)

wc
In

nmy

vo'ifytitc
).

rn-st

two

t~nnsin

th<:

()7),(t.S).

T.t))cc:tsc<.t'~=-.(),(:)

<k)~.sn(jt;(pp)y. Ag!un,hy (3)),

C~nbihin~ (17), (18), (~3), (:~t),wc !ubvcthf!v:dnoof[~-j as fur a~ t!ic ternis which arc uf thc ordur x"c" cuinparud comptute

~C

i'R.SS(JR.S

ON

OUSTAt.'LH.

{'334.

witli

th two

leadiu~

terms

givcn
ncssary

ui

it is a.s pfu-tial expressions, tLu [jhascs oi' thc cutuponcm.s but forpurposes
rc()uir)')!g

us with nue

la conpounding thc(21). to Le exact with respect tu respect, to their amptitmtcs!)n)-)nouic clment

th
jnay

phase
takc

is uften

ody (jf suburdinatc

importance.

at ft titu~ In sueh cases wc

(,r (~!2) if ~hat t)tc tuadin~tcrtu iti riscs appoar.s two wlt)) cac]t st~p in the ordcr of the Larmoxic; and that is itsuU' cxprcsscd by ;). serins co)it.:uning on!y evct], or (jnfy of/cc. udd, powers But bcsidcs uf hi~hur ordcr in A-c, Utc huin~ ict-m hectucs smitHur as ?! incrL'i~c.s, !mt)n~ ou account )'apid)y of thu uthur factors wh!ch it contnm.s. I.s c-vident, Tins futbecausc :Ui values uf ?t and < .sa)nc thu i.s truc uf (:H) ontur.s in
jf\ (ju.) 1, +

Ft'om

\vhiKlu may
havu

t" oniy particuiar vains)..


in such

aiuct.s

thc

phase. any one (12) of


sinco

cases Frum
a case

the

harmonie ~+~

clments cannot

of

(11),

vanish,

[~ l wc

tLc tious

f~mo

crjuatinn in

as

th.~t n.c)o.su.)

which

givus

ufort.k'r?! taI))L: (' ~:U

s~hcof

L))c pcriud.s )'i).dius c.

of

thc

Ylbra-

Aiitticco))(..xpcctcd.

sutL'f-ationwtttshuwthat Tho

t))isrc.s)))tmig])thn.(3bccn is app)ic~b)e t.n <.)ns(~<stiu)t

a!)(t sl~ws,

:unon"J

cUtcrt)!H)~,t)j:tL\))cnA:cissni;t)t,no)iarmotiie(dcn~cntiu[~] cati\i).))i.~)t. of tlic ncrial th sphnro conscqucnec is f~f;tfi(~ on pj-essurcs to tlie axis of by a force p:)ra)tcl w])ose is to set tLc tcndency Tito Mphci-c into vibration. of Dus furcc, if o- bc thc m~gnimdc of the uuid, is givc'n by dcnslty In

iii which, thc tenn

by th of tlie

conjngate propcrty first ordcr aH'ccts

of Legcudrc'.s t)tc rcsuit uf

functions, oii]y tlie intgration.

~ow,when~=c,

334.]

SOURCE

AT

FINITE

DISTANCE.

247

which that,
vibration.

cannot if th

be sattshcd sphre be

of xo. We conclude by any rc&l value frcc to movc, it will alw&ys bo set into

If InstG~d their from


orig'iti iu

of bcing
a. unit

absohtt.cly source

p):me,

tlie

centre

of tlie

at a grea.t, wc hve sphre,

primary dnitc, though

the

waves distance

have J~

SYMMETRICAL

KXI'UH.s~ION

r~S~.

is requij-cd putcnti.d ~t (.3~8),!U]d i.s ;n) cx;unp)c <jf- t)K. gnera! rr:neip)c ofReciprocity. J!y n~m)iing tlic prineip!c, and n~kin~ )t.sc oft)tere.suJt (~) cf'~ :~)S, \vc Hec t).at if thu s..))rcc uf tlic w:ivu.s bc a fi..itc.ti.sta'ticc pri)n!uy thc va)nc of~.e li, tot.al potcntiat :Lt nny p.,int on t~.sphcrc i.s

~'ichisthesfuneasifthc at w!)ic]i th point

source t!).'

h~Lconoi

th

spito-c.fmd gr~at (hstancc

7~ Lo any two extcntal to thc spi.crc, points a unit source at ~1 will give th sanic total putcutial at as a unit t .source at would ~ive at J. In (.iH.cr case th total is potentiat or two ofwi.ieh madcup tf~fir.stis parts, th same as ifthcrowpro no ob.stac)c to t]tc fn.c of th wavcs, aint tlic second propagation tlic <li.sturbance rcprcsGnts <))tc to tlie <J)Kt!tc)c. Of thse t\vo th nrst i.s obviou.siy parts Die sanu-, whictiever of thc two points Lu ~~u'ded as source, and thercfore thc other mnst a)so be parts cquaL ti.at is tl.e v:.htc of~- at 7~ whcn i.s a .source is to e~ua) thc value of~at .1 when is an cqua) source. Nuw when th sourcu is at a grt distance t).e vatue of at a point whose .Hstanc.. fro.n anguiar is cosand iinuar distance h-ota th centre iM ?', is (30)

li

.4 and

accordnigly w!icn t!~ .source


outwnrds

and

On.s i.s the

1~ aiso 7~.

tLc

value
since

of~~ta
Is

greM
disturbancc finitc distance

di.stancc
radiati,~

Hut

from

Le cach

intcn-cd i~r.non.c

frum

sphcrc, t).at at tho

it.s value an factur limite (~.

at

ai)y distance

tcnn

Wu

hy intro.hci. ti.u.s obtain

7); n, in't., t~ fut-

luwtng-

symmctricn)

oxpre.ssi]i

which~iv~tl.ispartufthc uthct')S!)unitso)))w.

potentia!

~tcith~r

point,

whenthp

334.j

FORSECONDA.RY

DI.STUHBANCE.

2-H)

It ducs

shodd

be

ohscrved upon

nut dpend From thc t)t:tt

th gnral of thc pat thu obsta.c!u bunig eiti~er sphurical


Itarniooics,

tha.t

argument or ri~td. 'WG may

(tc'htce som'cc

of e" ut expansion sphet'ica.1 of thc pot.eutia.l of w~ves i.s.sumg

i'rora

a )nut

-'f. fhiitL~y distant (/') frnm thc origin of co-ordnm.tcs. at :). p<j!nt 7~ :).t a)i itifinitc distance -K from th potcnti.d :md iu a dh'ectiun with )', will bc making au auglc cos't

simple T!te origin,

f)'om whidi ductiu)) T)ms at ~1 is ofthu tlie

wc pnss

to tlie ca.sc (t~~). at

of n. imite

Ti* by t)tc sit'uptc

inLro-

i':tci<jr/, poteot):).)

fi)tit,L'ty

(KsttUit

p~jint

uf :L mut. sotu'cc

!). spherica! investigation

Ha.ving obstacle, ~vlieu

considcrcd wc
th

at now

some

icngth briuf!y
gascons. is

the tho

case

of

will

skctcit

course

a, rigid of t))c

In ail A!t.hough is nearJy wc will suphatura.1 thc thcsa.mc, eotnprcssibility gascs th:Lt t))c m:Lttcr occupying thc sp))urc pose for th sakc of' gcncndity tttu mdium \ve)l as in dcnsity.froin in ditTcrsin comprcssihiHty.as
obst:).c)e

which

th

phmc to furm bc

waves the as thc

advanf'c. <~ is thc Fur thc Wfn'c-k-ngth,


sanie cxac~y,

Exterior t))L'. sfuno ~=27r-X'

Hphcrc, bcf'x'c. internai

a.)td thc sphcrc,

is

of if

motion (2)

inside 330,

satisfying

Lhe ecudition

ofcontimnt.y

throug)i

thc

nti'c.

0 UASEOUS OBSTACLE. r33~,

cxpressu~ re.spectivdy of th pressures on th thcsc we


torms,

th
two

equalitic-.s
sidc.s of th

of th
bounding

normal be

motions

and'
From

surface.

the Gquat.ons will hre confino


w))o) /<-c, A:'c arc

coni~Gtc our~.fves
vo-y sina!

soh.tion to rinding

may tite

wor~d but eut; Vfdoe of thc Icadinc

lu

this

case, when

?'= c,

335.] ]

CASEOUS

OBSTACLE.

25 L

of thc disturbimportant part Ibt to (~1) 334 for a nxed rigid aucc, sphre. corrcspondixg hve bccn expecto), that thc term of zero order as :ipp(;n.)'s, inight is ducto thc variation and tt)at of ordcr one to ofcomprcssibility, as thc expression for th rno.st th variation, From ofdettsity.

(13) wc tnay faU hach on thc case of a rigid nxcd sphcrc, to makc o-' It is not surucicnt both o-' aad Mt' inrinitc. by maMug time if ); at th same bccausc, by it.sdf infinitc, apparently
rem:t.i))cd assumed. hnitc, ~e'c woutd not bc smaH, as thc investigation bas

Wlicu

-w,

o-'

o- a.ro smal!,

(13)

bccomcs

equivalent

to

correspoudmg agres with ofnnyform.

to

<~=c<')S<~

at

the 296,

centre in which

of th thc

th resuk

(13) cf

This sphre. obstacle may bc

KQL'AL

C'OMPRESSIUILITIES.

):~5.
t-

Inactu;dg!LSG.s~'=~,an.tthct(-r.nof~)-oon)crdi~ppcars. If tiic ~as occupyin~ t)tc sphcric:d .sp;tco bG inca)np:D-ab)y


tti<mt!tC!ut,)iL'rgits,er'=(),an(t

limiter

so th:Lt in thc Lody, a)td

term

uf onh.r

onc,

t)te effect

is twicc

th~t

)in..s t)te ruYursc

of a n.ri()

si~n.

Tin.- grcfd.L-t- ]~:u-t of Uns froa two paper.s c))!~ptG)- is takcn by th author "Un thc vibmtiuns contimicd within uf~ ~.s ri~<! .sphcricfd funi fui "Jnvesti~~ion cnvuinpc," ofthe disturbancu produecd ohst.adc by ~spi.urica! on thc waves uf sound' aud from tho pa.pcr by Profussor Sioke.s atrcafiy refut-rcd to,

'S'uc~~2'~w<MarehH,

1872;

Nov.

1.1, 1872.

CIIAPTER

XVIH.

Kt'HHRICAL

SHUETS

0F

AIR.

~OTLON

IN TWO

DIMENSIONS.

~30. Fnuncr's

IN

former

tlicorummight

(~t' n, -vibmting strmg. of :). spl]erical shect


t-xpunsion

( cbnpter bcobtaiucd A sunilar air witl. which

135),

we

s:w

hyconHulering of trcn.tmcnb us to is

a proof of the mccha~k's of th probicm tlu~t

Icad

for

n. function

n. proof of Luplace's of ~t evcry point nrbitrary of equation M, t~kcs

a spbenca.1 As in

surface. 333, if to rcfcrred is thc the thc vclocity-potentia], polar co-ordinates ordinary

contiuuity, the form,

Whatcvcr Le

iina.lyscd of which nature considorcd quation

may bc tho into n. sries M

chamctcr of simple by

of th

th

frec

motion,

it cnu

harmonie

ia detennined

thc vibrations, functions eorrcspouding Thua, if -<xe" and N is thc

ou sp!K'e. dpendent of as a function to dotenuilie

wh~tcivcr fonction Again, iu a sries theorem' Fourier's of~. Thus

n~y of
sincs

be,
and

it can cosincs

bc

cxpanded by of thc multiples

Wc Bphnro.

hre

iutroducc

th

condition

tho.t

recuis

af<cr onc rvolution

round

th

~.J-t

(:H\E);AL

DJFJ.'KJf.EXTJALJ.Tjcx.

r.3:;G. L.

<)..

c.~c.c.nt.s of .sati.~y t),e thc

.v~-c an.) hy titonju~atcpn.pc.-t.y <crm of tlie .scnc..s must Accot'dn~ty,

f,ti, <ircu)ar c~u~~u

,f ft)nct.ioi]s, indcpcndcut)y cnch

frf.m wt.ich quation <!<-te.-mincd. Tin.s cqu~bn Jn tcrms of (= cos B),

is thc

thc

c).a)-ncter of bc vmtten n~y

r.)m vanuu.s

is to

bp

way.s~

to the

\\hen th on~na! the pole, that is,

equations first. In tcrtns

is symmctncal onction with respect dpends Jatitu.Ic upon and on!y, vanishos, Thi.s case simplify. we .n.y take conveniently of

hc

sofnt.cn

of

thi.s

t.vo mn!t.p!y.ng in th o.-d.n.ry w.iy hy as.snmin~ ~n t)if. cxpnnonts t~rnmnng an.) cne~cient.s

In~)vc.s cqnation dcHnitc fnnction.s of

constants and rnny be ch<ained seric.s anc) dcasccndin~ hy .substitution ~rhu~

t~-o

arbitrary

in which Lct round (~<.h

.1 and

H arc tu-bitrnry .suppose


.sy,nn.e(.-ic.!

eo))stantH. t)..t t~.siJcs

us now f.nt.Lcr thc ple a~ is ~.n).,g!y

bc.i~synunct,ie.] t: r.sp.ct tL th;it

33C-] ere~ function it

coxDiiox of thc is cicar sine that

nj.; sATL-sf.'m;) )atitudc

AT

po!s. thcse vrduc

255 circun)of Le

of thc 7~ mnst

stances cxpresscd constant

Undcr (~). and thc vanish,

si)np)y by th nrst seriez, multiplicd by t))c arbitrary ~1. This va]uo of tho vctucity-potnLia! is thc It~icnJ of t)tc onginal (Uifc)\;tit.i:d consquence {uid of thtwo c-quation restrictions as to T))c vainc of A' might symn~try. appcar to be arbitrary, but fron what we know of tho mcchanics of t!ie it is certain befurehand that /r is reaHy pru'bicm, iinnted tn a of particular sries values. T])e condition, which yet remains to 'bc introduced and by which /i, is dctcrmincd, is that thc original that th t)ie eveu will
quation is satisned a. source

at thc
and

po)c
this

itsc!f,
rcquires

or in
us

othcr
to

words
considcr

pole value of function bu th

is th of

not

scrics if thc

when

~.=1.

1. /~=thc fonn ?t(M+l), whcrc is an even integer, tho scrics termiand therefore ntes, romains nnitc whcn but what wc ~=1; no\v want to provc is tliat, if th sries renmin unit forjM.=I, is neeessarily of th a.bovc-mentioned form. By th ordinary rule it appears at once whatevcr be the that, vahto of /t" th ratio of successive terms tonds to the limit and therefore thc scries is for ail values convergent of;u. less than unity. But for th extreme va)uc /<-=]f, a highcr method of discrimiple
nation is neccssary.

pole ~=+1 It is (-.vidcut

.thc scries is an bo not a source, ncithc-r at once that if ~bo of

SIncc

It

is known'

tliat

t!tc infinit

hyporgeometrical

sries

is if th

convergent, c+~-H~ va)nc of

if bc c+~ Of v:)hu'sof

c+~& or

be

(~(~u~I tn, itttbrds two c+~ titc value divo-~ent

grcatur )css t)tan a scrics

t)mn ]. Jn

.1, and thu t)jc abovc of

c1ivc)'r''cnf. Ia.ttcr case dc~rce form, of for

critcrion of thc

(Uvcrgcncy. w))ic]t thc mfinitc Our Ly taking Thu.s

for which

a.)-c(tiffcrcnt.,t))atot)cis?-c~~c~ of c +~ais t])C smaDcr. may whcrc bc rcduc~) to nssutocd thc standard to bc fonn intpf-nJ

prsent ~=7!

scries (7;)-]~

(7)

)t is not

nn<i)c''f ~'t')))' /n')t''f.<,

]). 7f).

('RtTHRtox

OF

D!VEnr:CV.

f'33G

Accnrdn~y,

sincc

~= 1, ~x/CM even intcgcr. tho pote is not n. source, an<! bc of th form ?;. (); -}-1), whci-

c+~l, and it ~-)~i';)f~c; AVo ~)-c tf.u.s ]cd


is

tho

serins

is

to-minatus oniy to thc conclusion


an (.ven fnnction

divergent wtien that


of~u.

for is an when must

)t is an cvcn

intcgcr.

In !ihc .nanncr, ~-c juay prove t!~t w])cn is an odd function !Utd th poles :u-c not ff~, sourcc.s, mu.st bc of thc =(), attJ ibrm ?:(?t + ~), bcing au o~(/ intogo-. If H bc fraction~, both sc-rics arc for ~=~ and divergent a combundion of (hon although which may bc ibnnd remfun.s ~nite at eue or othcr po]c., t).crc c.-ui bc no cojnbination wbich rein~ns finitc at If thcreforc p(,!e.s. iL be a condition tbat "o point on thc .sm-face of is a thc..sphcre wc hve no source, atten.~t.ve but to makc aud cvcn thcn wc do not int~-al, .sccut-c hnitenosa at tho poh.s ui.Icss we furthcr.suppo.se ~=0 whcn js odd, and ~=(), wh~n 7~ i.s cvun. Wc concludc that <or a. compote t).c only admissible .sphcrical Jaycr, vahtes of which are function.s ofj~titudc and on!y, to !.arnionic proportional
fmicttons oft))c ti)nc. arc inc]tn)r.d .m.~n..

w.K-rc

(~

is

J~cndrc's

funcLion,

and

is

'n~e. I~.tnde

Th in

any

ndd

or

even

pn.ssibility n, .sries of
I.~s

of w)~t .sc.jnence of thc laycr of~.s

an cxpanding onctions Legcndrc's now b.-cn p.-ovcd. hy t)tc so-ics

of

functio.i of arbiLrary is a nccc.ssary conAny pus.sH~ motion

is rc-pt-escnted

3:}

G.]1

TRANSITION

TO

TWO

DIMENSIONS.

257'

;ind

tho

vatuu

of ~r who)

~==0

is au ~?7~<tr//

function

of latitude.

')'))<nct])()<tt))at\(!]):)V(']m)'(ifot)(j\vud)ta.s!t)s<)tI)(.ulv:uita.gc ofpt'uvm~thcet~tjx'atcpr~ncrLy,

who-n arc thu

Hand ))<t(~

~t!U-c<1H~;)-('))ti))tt\n\'r.s. functious(')4)for
fuut

Furthcfunctions thu vibt-!).ti))g System for titc

-P(~) nudm]unct,ic

('onsitturation, ('no~'y tf(!~) L'nter. Thu c:m ttu

ot))y nut. hotd

thc acct))'()in~)y lHVu)\-).; thu A'<<c.s ~uud,

expression ut' thc ~Oto'n.lixcd of th

vctociLics. must

t))C~(jf~<c~'a).su

\'c!ocities

of i~- npprf~x-iit.te to n, ~/)!e of vibmting )aycr g:).s cnn ofcom'.sc! bu ()u<)ucc(l !Ls :). pa.t'ticuiar c'n.sc of Die gcnend .sotution to a npherical oursutves to U)o :L))])Iic:)b!c I.~yor. Cottfmixg t)H'rc i.s nu source c.'LSc witcrc at ttiu pote (~.= )), wc; h:(,vc to mfumi nf -~= C'(~), whcru VL'.sti~iLte t))C )i)nitin~ (~+ 1)=/< whcn c'' a)t(t /t' an.: attd Fur infinitc. At th s:L!nc tune 1 and radiu.i funn a.rc (/'), ofj~(~) sn infmitcsitta), that is that ?u<=M'. uf Murphy' c~ passas into th poiu' piano thi.s purposc die jnosteonvcuient

vaiuc

that shcwing of Lcg'cndrc's W))0i rjun'cs


.strctctting'

thc

BcssuJ'.s

function

of zcro'ordcr

is an

extrme

case

functions.

thc

sphcncal
tt-fntmcnt.

IfLycr

:h dif~'rcnt

tuvlving

:dong two

two
:u'bi.trary

paral)c)s
constants

thc rcprobicm complte, If thc g:ts he bouxtied Thus, bywa.))s thc compote of.t:t.titudc, intgra)
witi

is

not

in

gc'ncral

be

necessary.

Thom.'i<mnu<t'nut.'s~<t<.P/f!783. ~~)yf;t' 2''NN('<))i!, Ii). n. t).

[/-Bin=.uotf!iitt~P.]

Todhuntcr's ~7

~58

VIBRATIONS

0F

SPIIKRICAL

.SIIEET

[33G.
of/~ nrc tn ho :dtLc Th~v~u~

Tt'c

ratio

nfthc

constants

and

thc

admi.ssihh.

v.~uc-.s

~tcnnuicd p:)LmlIu).s of~


:mvay.s

LyU.L.,um!ary~.n)itinn.S(.xpn~h~'],;)<. in fjucst,i<.iit)tc motion in ]<it,u~ i.sw])(.!)y bdns'thrm.g].out 'ncricd~!c.s.s'tnanu~<y,t)ic.suncsarc


convergent.

If

~c

portion

of)]ic.surface

hchvcont~o

parafK.I.s

ocL-pi~])y~s <.f )atitu.)c ai. c.,ua) in t).c

Le thaLindu.]~ distants from ~hc

~nator, thcqu~iun],cc(,)np.ssi.n)~r,si.jCf t'.c constants and 7~ in (7~ vani.si.u.s lunctiot). 337.

D.cnf.ncarothur.-f case of c-adi nor.ual

~)'L'nthc.sphcrica)arcac<.]t~int)]ato(tindndMap..]c. as I.i thu case uft).u.up)utcsp),L.n.,tointr..ducct}.u a.source. cond.tionthatthcpulei.suot F~th~puq~s~sdutioniMtcr)nsof~i.c.sin<?,wi))Lcnior<convc))iunt. we hve, If wc wc restrict putting oursetvcs = for Otc ~3G, prc-suut to Hic case ofsynunctry

liavc,

0 in (~)

Onc

solution

of tins in co~i~nts <).c

cqu~ionisr~diiyobtaiHcdinU.cnrdinnry ;,n asccndit.g way by as.sn.ning seri~ and su)j.sLit)tti).~ .hfturcntiai to dtermine L).c cxpunpnt.s cq..aLion and J Wc~ct'

Dus tl.e

value condition

of~, of

is

thcmn.st
wh~.u

ancrt ~=().

so)u~,n Thc

of(1), c.,np)<tc

(hntcnc.ss

suhjcctto .suiutJ(,n

".voh'n~ intens.ty ~=0.

two at U.c

arbitrary p.,Jc,

co.,stant.s in which

f<,r a prnvi.tc.s snurccofa.tntra.-y case H.e value is innnit~v~n nf~

-A.t)y.soiuti<.nw]tic)trc)namsfiHitc-wfion~=()!,n(]mvo!vo< is t)..i-L.f~-u arLitrarycunstant, t),. ,nost gc.ucra! pos.s:)<)o uudcr titc ru.sL.-)chun t!,at thc pulo bc n~L a sou.rc. it Aecnn]inrr]y f.,r o,,r uunc.s.sary pu.-po.sc to .npjc.tc th suh.tiun. T)~ ..aturc of Lhc second funcLion a )o~arit].ni (inv<.)ving wiJI bf. iih.sof~) tndcd in th particu!ar case of a pianc tu be con.si.tc.) Jnycr prcscntly. onc
'n('in).'sA';f';f~.h)M(~/f~),'?t,{;28.

337.]
By writin~

HOUNDED

BY

SMALL

CFRCLE.
wiH'in ~rac~cts bccomcn

259

)) ("+1)

for/~

t.ho

so-ius

Sioco from

c + f7

<v

0 tn 1 i)K'h)si\'p.

j,)h' so'ics = To values of

convo'n'cs <? (= sin''

for

al)

vo.h)cs than

of ~r

t'

~) grca.tcr

<hcso)ut.i(~nisi!t;)]~))ic:d))c. 'h('t) Lc~cn()n''s is functinn nn int<)', 7~ (~.). \vit.)) thc If


scrics bocomcs i~oitica.!

wit)) th scrinH

t])(;

iotc~nr uf~,

bc

cven,

<'oi'ninn:)h"but,()t))C)'wi.su)'cmaiit.s)))nnit(?.

T)tus,w)iC)iM=l,t))c'

HrriL'.s i.s i([u))t.ic'al of~. 'J'hc cxp)'f'ssi<i)) to thc invc.stigat.iot) cal the inyo'

thc <j\j):u)sion

viz.

\/(1

in powurs

nf~ mnybcconvononttyapplicd <~f t,h(;; froc vihratioo.s of n. sp))crisynuncLncat radius is Juss titan uf !m', buuttdcd Ly n. small cit'c)e,vhoHc TtK; which condition th
possible

fur

in to'tns

quadrant. hy givcn

tubcsatisficd
va)ucs of

i.s simply
or A:V, :u'c

.~=0,an (IV
connectcd

uquatinn with thc Certain


mcaus of

boundary

Viduc cases of

of

f. this
proLIem fur may cxa)np)e, bc t))at

p:n'ticn!:Lr
Lc~'ndrc's

trcatcd
7t = G,

hy
Hf)

f'unctions.

Suppose,

that Thc

/r=/c'~=42. ~rcairs!. to wo \'a)))o <9= 3:)"): r~=?'so

T)tc of

con'cspunding /n for = ')0f tha.t,r ~hic)) 37 radians'. is thc

suhttion '=() f jl, is

is

-~=ytjf~(/~). corrc-

~.=-.S3()2,

.spnnding If

takc

mdius

of

the

smfdl

ch'c!c

)'nef).surcdaiongt)tcsp)tcr(\wc~'ct

which

is tht- f'quft.Lion with thf thc v:duc "f'/c (=27r\) conncctin!~ eurvp<t radius case of :). suiatt rn,(ii))s ?', In th ci)'c)< \v)x'.s(; a~gulfn' If thc; )ayci- wcrc pl~rtc is :;3" 5;}'. ( 339), th \-a)uc of K)- wou)() hc 3'~3')7; so tha.t it makes no pci'CL'))t.ii)!u of tlie thc tono wl)cthcr radins gravest <]ifrcrcuc< ()') of given in thc pit.d) h~ tengtil

T))~ r)).<t)ftnin thc nnit. uf cu'cnhu' mca.snrG. )73

~GO

UNMVMMHTRICAL

T.

MOTION.

['337.

strai~ht,

crhccun-<.d

to

an

arc

nf

M".

Thcn~tofM~c~.n-

par)sonw<nt!<tjHnv~Y<.rJicniah..ri.)ny t.hc ~)]gt!i ot' thc circutnfo-cnce c~ = ?' hy c~ = ?'. is, rcp)acc

(tinrent, !fwcwu)-(..t.otak(. ns t)m s:nuc :;) L).u hv.~ cases,

Otat

Inord.;rto(]L-ducoUH.sym.not.-i<-aI.s<.)uti.,nr<n-~p]:c .Us<u,)y~.ssaryt~cinfini)<w),i).c.,nain.s~.itc .~untnfthc infinie va)uc~r,t),u )~)!1a

],,ycr On

.s.ut.i.,nas.su.uc.si)K..simple

An

")<iq~)).h.ht!))V..sti~t!<nta)~.so]))ti<.hfot-tI)c

phtnc.praLbm

wi)ihugi\'('np)-cs(.)tt)y. ~{S. ~< ,sis<]i~.n.nt r~n. ~<).)incnnti!dcquati<t

s!ittMi)c'(H)yt!t<L'()('nicK')tts()f.sii).s'f<),c()H.~u,i.s

'.c~utinnn.n.vh. ~n.~) .s ~<n~n~u~~(~n~y~h~

').yt~)it!~nufa~.o~.Wun..tinn~.riv.'J ~itiY.i,,t~r. Th.nu.th~of

n. ..)~ r.\(')~j~hcd)U'(ht).yt))<ji(.<c,,ft)j(.),hm(.);).,

procure

will

).c

338.]

UMYMMETMCAL

MOTrON.

2G1 1

Wc vibrations

havo fa

])o-(!

t.!)cco)np)(j<c

so)))ti')n

t'f

t)~!prf<)!ein ))V!tsn)!)])circ)c

oftLc

~)))(.')'ic;)!

taycrof~]~))))))!)'') ~,t)ct.ci'<))i)!~d

\vt)'r!u)iusisI(-<,st.)Hmt))~(jU!t(h-))t. arc a St't'ten of'p~JHsiUe\L)n(j~uf ~=<w'Hy()ft.)tcscvduesof~thL;t'nnctmn )-i_L;ht-)):n~.si<)rof(2),\vI)~nn)u)tipn(.-d n~rnmtnxH.~iun ())'<.))< .syst.utn.

~o)'(':n-!)\)!H('()t'.s',t.)n'r(j Lyt)tUt.~)tdiun t)ycr).s.?M or.siu~M, Oif: is~

'.i'!hj:)~r~!tt.(.~)t':dtth<-n<)nn:tt

s :)!)(! ;vith fu]j('(i())is<'orr<'spn))<]H)g).(jt-vcryfn!))ti.s.si))!uvatncof ;m a)'))itr:))'y cocf)k'ic)it tu L'acii, :m cxprcssio:) pn~xud ~ivL-s t,hui)titi:L! vainc capable (.)t'))(!i))jL;'it)t-t)tific(twit)) of-i.u.vit.hn i'mtctiungivu)):u-))itrat-i!yuvL'rt.hc:u-u;).()fUnjM)U!dici)'c)u. W)[uut.h(;ra(1i)~()ft.hc.sph(!rcci.sini)))it,ctygrc:).t,isiufi))it.(j. .').!)() ~)))L'L'U)ttL"j Jt'C~=; ~=A~~

:). funcLtun In
cfHcicuL tunns

of )- prupnrtiomd of'/t,
(jr

to </ (A:~). di)'e)-(jnt..ial


id

thc

cquatu~tt

sa.ti~fiet!

by

tLc

co-

ofcus&'M,

siu&'ct),

a.ud is

su)).st.it,utLa(x-1);
:t f~ f'~und

in so

(~). tliat by

Thu :(=(), c~)):ttn)g

corfticicnt~ftht' or ?=). t]~!

Inwcstpo~rof T)t(.'r~)ati<j)) Ct)'j(tic'iunt.


ut'

but.wct.'a iH

U) xui'o

~2

COXDITIOXS

TO

BE

SATFSFIKD

[338.

Wuha\~]i.)\vtu})ruvc a.source ru<)uirc.st)i;~ une uruL).r

Ft'rthi.s}n)rj)(..s~

th:ttt.).ucut)dit.iunt.)t!Lb)~.it.)H.Tpu]cis hua positive w)u'c)i~sc i)it~r,m ut' thu .suriu.s m fur ~t~ninatu.s. titcuxpr~.s.siu.t it~iii nuLhc Lo.sftcw cnou~!i Lhi~thusurn.~ M-

(u)iI~sturnun:~in~)arL-in)i.ntuw)tun~=il;it~i)jh~s..uy tu pruvu U~L ronnitt :d't.t.r L),y div~r~-nt nmitipiicfLtifnt ura.swc (1-~)~ J'):Lyj)ntiL))H)rL;c.)nvutuunUy,t)i:(tt))'y:u'u ItwHibu innn[~whL'n~=il'cf~~<<r~?;A(lsuf)iciunt to cousider iit dtail t)iu casu uf t.hu fli-tit scrics.
Wchavc

by

:~8.j

WIIEN

THE

POLES

ARE

NOT

SOURCES.

2G3

On

th

otho'

h:md,

tlic

bmomnU

thcorem

gives

for

tlie

ex-

n:u)siunut'(l)"*

Sincc for<~ aru

1 > .~s- 1, it. nppc:u's U)at inHnitiL's of ordur ]ti~ht'r

thc

so'tcs

iu

thc

t.)):m

(l~)"

expression :).ud Lhurc-

f()rurc)naiui)ifmit.u:Lft<t'ntuttipi[(.'i).t.U)tt))y bu finitu at Luth canitut potc.s

utituss

(!)~. onc ur ut.itcr

Accordingty of thu .scries

).~)')nin~tu,\v)H':hc:m)))yii:tp))c)t\vI[cn~s'isxL;ro,c).'a.))o.sitiv If Lhuint.)'bu L'vc<),wch:Lvestillt.t) h)(t.~cr. :unt it' thc intu~L'r be odd, ~i=(), in order to

suppose/~=0; sccm'c linitcuess

at

UtUpufL'.S. Jn put ciLhcr c:)sc t)) value of for t!t0 conpietc sphcre may bc

inLo

L)tC iur))l

whcrc

thc

constant

Hiun l'or t)):Lt part li-ithurcfot'c

mi)I(ip!icr of wtuch

is omittcd. contains

complete cxprescos~'M or sniS) as :), factor

Tho

For the tcrms

most

purposes,

for

w)uc)t

isthc!:i:).!nc.

Titus

it is more convcnicnt to group ]]owcvcr, thc s~mc, ratticr M ts tliau thoso for whicit s for any vainc ot'~

who'e Lune

cocfHcicnt cvcry factor of tfte funn


ati

~1,, (10).
fu-bitr.n-y

7?, ma.y

bc

rcgn.rdcd

as

coutaining

is ItiLtiaDy any suc)~ funct.ion

function

of

ju.

n.n(~ M, and i)) tt)c

tLcrcforo ff)r)u

is cupalde'

of)jeu)~

roprosente')

2G4

FORMULA.

OF

DERIVATION,

f'3~8.

which Froin (':),itis

is

Laptacc's thc

expansion

in

.sphoical or

surf.LCC its

)):u')no!)ics.

difTurcnt.iid

cquation

(;~),

g~n(.')-:t)

solution <)!),so

c;)..sytop)-ovGth:)t~i!-i writc

nfthcsii.muforHia.s

t)i:).t.\vctn:)v

Equation
iunctiunsu.S(j(iin(~!).

(13)

i.s a

gcncralixaticn

of

tho

propcrty

of

Laptacc'.s

Thc ()c(h!f'cd,!)s in (1~),

con-(-H))un(ti))g]-~]at.in))s

))tjfo)-c, (14.)

byat.tachin~an is :u-bitra)-y, am! writing

furthc-ph).nc inHnito ?~=

probfcmmnyh va)nc! to ?<, wh~h Smce + = 1,

~n

bcing

rpgnnh~ .s))))JL-et ta

as

functitm

of

n.

In

Ujo

],it.

(~cn

()t'))]~h

')ii'['cuti;Lt.iu!t)]nayl)eidu)ttitiL-dwit.)tt))tity,

n)idt!mswujnaYt:(.ke

\\hen T)'u ru:uj)fy

ihc constant

poic

foundby

is proportiona) to ./(~-). source, )cft. utxtctcrmincd c<)c)!)cit.'nt,, )n;)'v ho hy ()5), ot' t)n: ter)n.s. aco]))p:u'isun iLthu.'j i<utin~

is

not

:U)peartith:Lt

a wcil-known Tho

propcrt.y of

ofUcssc! a plane

.s functiuns'. 1. iaycrofgns iu'cofcou~c more

vibrations

casilydcaitwit)j,than

t))usuofaJay(.T<)i'ih)itceurvatu)-c,Lut, T(~hn))tt.')'<~f~~r<<t;('); ;)!)().

:~38.]

VIBRATION

IN

TWO

DIMENSIONS.

2G5

h:tvf

prcfcD'cd

te

cx))iLit

thc

indirect

a.s wc)!

as

thc'. du'cet

!netht)(1nfit)vc.sti~!(,tim),h<)t.hfo)'t.})CS!)1\C()t't.LcHphut'ic:))pn)b)cni it.sutfwiUtthccorn.'spontii))~ cotmcction ))(;t,wucn thc nut to bc ~oto'n.Hy


Liiphtcc's explosion', :ux) bucause

I!c.sHct's:t.))d

L:tp)iL(;c's

functioosappeiu's procucd

undL-rst.out]. trc:).ttnLiuL gcncml

to t))C in~(.!f')i<)L!nt 33f). Ifi't. thc

'\V<j tnn.y !)o\v~ howuvur, of t))C phuic }u'ol))u))). of simple aermi

cqna.ti~n

vibraduns

isofthcsamcformasthat.'withwhichwchadto quation d~d in troating ot' circult'tnoabraocs (~ ~00); t)i0 t\vo dit~crutTUC bctwcun ]na.t)icmatic!Lt questions tact tliat at w)ntu tlie m thc botun)ary ratticr to case of
jnonbram.is

This

thc

principal IIus iti tlic to intct'cst ci'rcbc

thc H'c prusunt

cuudttitja case

sati.sncd attaches

is '==0, the

i't

itsuif

boundary ofthcg~sby

coudltio)i < '=0. ft.rigtdcylmdnca.I

spondmgtotitc cnvclopc. Tlie polo not

couinement

bcing

a source,

tLc

solution

of (3)

is

1 1801,

1 )m\'o und by

hccn Sir

t))U(;h W.

assista
Thonison'H

L.y

Hcinu's ou

/~M~tt;/t L~ptaeo's rG~lnr

papurH

~<T 7~),(M~ of tltu Thuury will

Derl!n, Tides, ~<t/.

~Yot.)v.m75. 2 1 itre rf"~pnndH

rcouuf

to

tho

HS)m)

natation,
Hoctio)~.

but Th

tho

undot-stand

that

cnr-

to the

prcccdin~

)t of Laj)tacL''f)fnitctious

isnnwmfthitt'.

~GG

HIGID

CIRCULER

BOU~DARY.

[339.

Thc t:d))u',

!owc;r
whidt

vahu\s
w:)..s

of

/<

satisfyin~
iront

c:t)fn)a,L-tl

(.) a)'(; iL'm.smt'.s

~ivcn

in thc

t~tjlc.soi'thu ~)['cSHcd

f'uH~witig ruocti.tu.s in LurutS

t/ by tnn;u).s of ~and
fsntnhrrofm-

uf <.)tc ruht.t.lun~

:d)<j~i)tg

tu bu

h'rnn) circu)!H'))~(h'S. 0 1 3 3 4 3

tt-0 p :}-.S;!2 7' ~i

-/t

M-~2 :)~.t C-7"~

i't-.3 3 .j.~oi 8'()L~

t-.S!l 5-:i~~

I()')7~
l:t I(:')7[( 1 H'-Ci':

S-)C
H-7<)<! ]t-.S);j ].s'u!(;

u.U!;5

ll~).i

Thup:n'ticuhu'm)htLiuH)i):~yLuwnt.t.ut

whcrc M. a)id/<

~1,

7?, 6', As

:u'c

:u-1)itnu-y

j.,r

cvcty

!utn)issib]c

value

of

i'iLL)n'um'.spum}In~pru])]c)n.siurtItosphut-en.))<t
)nust.

uIrcni:u-n)L-inbranc,Lhu.suiti.)t':tHthcp!u'tic))int-Hu)utK)tis bc ~ctio-id tu rcprcsoit, w)icn enou~it <==U, and As an exampJc that thu of conpound initit coudit.ioi
vihr~tio~s wc

arbitmry

v.ducs

of

m.iy

iu ~32,

ci' thu

gas

is t)):~

as suppose, dchtiud by

'X..trs~t)tc.s~r.sL'nuc~u:

/))')/,<

Kuv.l~.

339.]

CASE

OF

COMPOUND

VIBRATIONS.

2G7

an tic:d

C()U!tt.ion pt'uct'.ss

which

may

bc

vurificd

siniit:n'to

tit~tapptiu~

m)tncric~))y,or hyan a.n:))yi)t t))u casuof()'~ :{:j.2.

~Vu)nny}'t'uvuL))aL

Frnm
to Liiu

this

(12)

i.s d(;rivnd
diit'L'rott.iaI

by

pntt.in~
cqua-tiuu

~=1~

and

ha.ving'
by

regard
which

i'undameut~l

s~tisticd

shuwstii~t

IIitherto rucm's but


ii'instc.ut

Avchavc

~ft.cc

cach ot'titu

supposcdthc witich rvolution,

cyl!ndcrcomptetc,so that l'cf~Hrcs thc witi


IInuts

that bu mtL'gnd iuciudud premust

tjut.wcoi
sent

0=0

~uiJ

wo ta]\c cy)indur conphtc vtues of~ ~=/3, ft'i).ctiun:Ll


Siuco vanishcs at both

soctor

lu gcuul'a.i
of

t)iemsc!ves.

beofthefonu

whcrc

!=!7T~f

7r (oi'Tr itscif), tjf as tni~ht tractional Au spftuds urdc).'

beinguttcgnu. t))<j com~!utc so~utiou )i:).vc must Lucu iurcsL'ot bc mtroduccd.


cxampic occurs

Itpbu~nahtptot mvulvcs on)y but,

mt~nd iu gnera)) fnuct.tuns

partot' values oi'

ititct'estuig tu t.))c casu

\Y!)cn

~=27r, by

wfuch a rigi't

corrcwatt

of

a.

cytindcr,

travct'sc()

2G8
st)-f;tc))i))g

ANALOOOUS

PHOHLEMS

rOR

WATER

WAV).

[339.

f)o))i

thc-o('ntt't't.()t])(-circni))fum))(c<))tip.u't'2n7). thcwa)) undL-r tLn

T))L-L-ih'<'t<)ft))c~-atiis<.<)n;)).)~)-j)('ssi))!c:t()ifr(-)'(;))L;(~)f}))-t'ss)))-(i no.such un]tst.~omdns;h)tt,w]t(_'u (Hff't'~tjccoccurs, ))C ~nd t)<c vibrations !n:)y ]~nYovu(), itruinchnh~) <.)K'.)ry of ~L~tt~i.scvc!).

:L cu)u]))(.h; This .st:t<c oftLu~s cyHndt..)'. But wttcn~is (.ni.), ~is<)rt.h<'f.))-n)(int~(.t-+~), (.))<.))(; Lwoni(tt'.s ut t)tt'wa!):u'<<)i)1c)~nt. anttt)i(.!])r~su)~s ())'' is cxprrs.sihhin finimtunn.s. ):)Lt.Lct'('iLSc~ T)n; (.uHuisubta!)K!dbyt.:Lkin~~=J,orM==A,whL!ti

oconr.s

ht gr:).vc.st

""<)t])cadniisHih)o\ah)t'S()f'~a)-uthn)-outs(jf<:)n~ fu-.st. rout, i.s K=.i-l(! (;dtur /<-=())

Tho curn~jx~htin~ (n a <))(!

~L-ci()c(I)y~nn-crt]):))ia))y<)n(-,of\\)ticht)n;c..)Utp)ct.ur\)Ht(tt.ri.-j C!)p!Lh)c. Ttie


thc

prcecding

an:))y.si.s

bas

an

intt'cstit)~

~n!Lt,))e)n:LticatIy:m:).)ugut)n])rub)uniuft.hu in HL cyHndricat vcssc! of mn~nn consulta on wavc.s ])apcr hy t)tcfur ~/f~c Apri),l87<J,an()papGrsby rcfcrcnccisthL.rc is !na<)c.

application vibrations ut T)tc t])c r~dut-

to wa.Lcr may

(L-pth. authur in Prof.

7V7~)/<r</7 (it)())ricto\vhi.t

Thc()1).s.;rvat.iu))ot'thcpcri~]icti)n(j ai) exprimentt v'')-ycasy,!mtIint)nsway)naybc()htai))L! thuoruticnl so)))t.iu)iut'pn)b!e)n.s,wl)u.su trcatincntis farbL-yuntt tlie power uf knuwn tnuthud.s. 340. closcd by to

Rct.)n-ning rigid

Utc

tran.svcr.se

compL'to waHs at

cytind~r, ~=0, and

Jc-t vts sopposc it. and rctnnvu ~=/, transvo'.su H) is

thL')-u.sti-ict.i()ntIjatthun)ut,I),ni.stu))(jt])c.s:unuina!i suctiuns. Tito gtjnerat dii'crcntia) c<)ua.tlon

whf'rctitccocfifu.nts

7~ mayhc

fonctions

of?-:ut(~.

Tiusfonn I,

su(-ur<jst]tcf)[tfi!)nc))tr.f't))L:1)u))))d:n-yc<jm!iti())).s,w])(.'ns=0,~=/,

3K).] 1
.'m'! Ti.n.s c:n'h

VnmATOXS
tcr)n)~n)st

IN
sati.sfy

A CLOSRD
thc

CYfJNDHR.

2G9

difrt.')'c))ti:dc(p)nt.innHCpar!itc;!y.

winch is<'f'<]h'.S!mt(!fo)'tn s, ~)H'i))~')'t.')'i!n'r'thy/<7: t))urt.'t'(j)'cbcwrittcn

as

\hc)t).h);

motion

isuxit'pntiuntof ))'ay

'i'))~p!U'ticuhn'MnhtLit))t

w)u<'h)))u.st,l~<'t)c']':))ix<'(thy:),t.)-i}))os)t)n)t):tt)<)t),W)th :< intc~'r:)) ;t))(.) )),;))) id.so v:)hn's uf'~ V!).h)('.sut/f,(.tL;t(.')')uiHL'(thyt))CL'')uati<))),

respect \ith rL'.spccttoati

to U~

ftxi:d pun')y nf)tinch)')cditit))ctabtc. 3~L Die contplutc

Th

vibrations

curt't.'spond

to n. zcro

v:).[uc of 7t",

intcgnd

of thc

cqun.tio)!

w))('nth<')'(!isno)i)nit:)<.i~))!t.s ))~)(',mvo)v(,'s!),sccotit1 '(~')takG(2()0) T)'"s, omitting fonction

to

th

.thscuccof:),.source.'t.tt!x' by we may

()f?',whichm~y))o<)c!)ot('(1 con.stiUtt unuccL;ss:u'y multipiicrs,

bntt))uH('c')ru)s(.'ric-s]'c()uii'c's)n<)dific:tt)0)),if))bc!i)ttc'gr:d. <hc hvo sries bccom nnd /<=(), ith-'utica), )'~utt~t'.s))))p()si))g~=()in(2)t:Lch.sthncccss!U'ygcner:Uity.

Whc'n tims thc imnic~ia.tu Th~

270
rt'tjnit'cd.solution ap))]icah)'su<'hf':L~s. in (~j by .(/'),

C!HRAL

SOLUTION.
l'y ot'~tfu~i

['341.
)'utc

)nny,])nwt'V(')',hc'<'Lt:)i))(''t1Ly{hcnn1!)):t couOici~nts Dt'))~tn)~t])t.: /'('<), wu ]):L\'c

:i.] ]
Tho

HXt'HH.SSION

BY

DESCEND)~;

S)':I{')KS.

271

fu)-m))):L<)f(]t'rivat.ir))t

(.~tnnyhc

oLCuxcddirr'o~yfrom

()tcditrm'cnti:tt<([)t:)tiun()).

~r!t)))~))'/<')':Uhf;)Ht.ti)~

which

is equivaicnt.to

(.')), .sincc

thc

constant.s

in

iu-earbitrary

mb~t)t<(~ta)i('n.s. Tin' :d) scri:Lt (.'x)')'ssujns of titc argument,


gruat. Jn suc])

for Lut
cases

thns arc
wc

obiaincd practic:J)y
tnxst. hve

arc

v:duc.s

cf'nvc)'<nt u.s<)css whcn


r~course to

fnr th(.'
.suuu-

ar~mount

i.s

convur~cut Equation

scncs (1)

cort'c.spondu)~
may

to <)):tt into titc

of (10)

200.

he

put

fonn

DIVHiKiHXT
Whcn <).ve,ut, H is intc.L;-)'a),(~c.so sries

WAVE.

f:~n.
L..

!~m

infimtcand dsnot

hut(~~)().

;~)thi.scircu.nstaucc

u!ti.natc]y interfre

Wtt])t)K'H-pr;t.ic;d)tti!i)y. J.s toThc)))u.sti)np.j)t:u)t,)p)ic:ionnft])ccu!)tpl(.tcl))tp~ra]nf(~ rq~.nt.h.sturt,an .!ivcr~n~frn.nthHp]c, w'ch)n,.sbt.ntn.at.n,ySL.,).sin).i.s.n..moironth..(.on.municanon ~vth.-ati.s<.0!s. T~.cu.~iti..nL).;L<,t).cdi.sturhan n.)~s..ntc.) Lu by (1;~) s),)) ..xdu.sivt.jy divergent '~J'i~a~or e CiKnl l Y yll 1I1 In5111~r Ly.s..ppn.si.~?t.c (.sist.s q.st.un f-o<fhc.~nts.-i't)~
9' l)C 1'l',1 tO hevu.-y '3 ,~t'c~ut; ~t; m 1

~prnh)c.

is

.sin.piy uf th

tlu; 1)rilmil~;)1 t).upnn<.ip~<Hfncnity<,j-' 1. fI' H, b.jtw~. .]i.s(.vcri.~w)~tr..)atiun

as~jh~

.sc.riL-.sc.)rn.s)H,,).Lst.)t],is~n.].ti..n

~.r~nc).purp..scSt.sc.n,p)..y.st)n'.su!.t(i.muf'())i,.tL~m-.u ofa. <.h.f,n,t. !nt~ra]. Wc.shaDattaiu t~oro.S)).)p]y,1,ynsH)~t))cr~))]t.S.jf~0~.

t!.c.sa.nuobjcct,purInLp.s

-md f.'nu ;~and

thustho of tlie

qucsti.,nn.dncc.s r.~).t-ha,n) H.u.nber 200 wchuvc (.) +~.(~)} =~+~'7r+

itsdft.uthc .,f (1.~ wi.c.i

dtermination is ~n~H.

ofthc By (:)

~)

higher

terms

in~(l.-j), {~~

s~U~taHth~rcma~sistufmdthc~nnofthcddn~cintc~~t ni (l~hen ..s s.na)i. P~ti,~ ~~+~=~

341.]

DIVERGENT

WAVE.

273

constant y is Euler's as we m~y casily ('5772.); and, tiatisiy ourscivcs by Intgration do not hy parts, th other Intgrais contnbute to the Ic-a.ding temM. anythmg TIius, \vltcn z is very small, whcre

Reptacing by when ?' is sma! we must tako

and compa.rmg with the form assumcd by (4.), wc sec tliat in order to makc thc sones identicat

so that

a. sries

in desccNding

of w;),ves dtvo-gmg sns is

from

tlic ple,

wLusc

expression

(11) to tlie dcsccndiug eseries, and e+'~ as fa.ctors will evidently coutaining romain and tlic complete for th gnral distinct, value intgrt of ?, subject to th condition that the part containing e+" sha.11 not appear, will be got by diferentiittion from tlie complete for M = 0 subject to the same condition. intgral sinco Thus, applying the parts by(5)~=~,

In

th

formula

of drivation

274
or, in
tcrms of

SOUNDINGBOARDS.

[341.

tlie

asccnding

series,

Thcso

arc apphed Stukcs expressions by rrof: tosbewbowfccbly the vibrations of a string, to th term of order (corrcsponding to thc surt-onnding onc), arc cotmnunicatcd For titis purposo gas.
makcs a comparison bctwccu th direction, actuiU sound, wcre thc .md latral wh:~ wonid Motion

ite

h.ivc of thc

been

onittc-d gas m tlie

in thb

~mc

ncighbourhood

of thc

stnng

to tho middic piano string corrc.spondiog of t)ie C, wirc may be abont-02 is about u.ch, and 25 inchcs; and it that t)tc sonnd is ncarty appcars 4(),()0() timcswcaker than it wou!d h.ivc bcctt if t))o motion of thc partic)e.s ofair )md taln place m p)anL-s passittg thc a.s of titu strittg. tbt-ough "Thi.s shews tho vit:d uf nuportance i)t
.so)t))(]ing-horn-d.s strmged instruments.

prcveutcd. thc radius

For

a.

thc amp)itudc AIthough is n)g-board extrcnK.Jy of thc string, yet as it to excite loud
sonorous

of vibration of thc pin-tidus of th sound~ sma]I compa.rcd with tha.t of t))c partic)cs a broad surface tu tho air it is able prGMcnts
vibrations,

string in an absotnteJy supported the vibrations rigi(t manncr, whici) cou)d excite directiy in t)tc air w~u)d bc so .s.nal) as to be abnust or Inaudibic." altogcther l''it! '!t.

whcreas

wcrc

the

"Thc

incrcase

of

soun.!

pro<!ucc<I

motion i~ke a

hy

thc

,~y
tuuing-fork,

Le

stoppao-c

of tatcr~ cxpen-.ncnt it bas bccn

prcttilycxLihitct] and holdmg

hya vory .silnpie it in thc fit.gcrs aftcr

341.] ma.dc knifn, tho th furk, but


Sound

SYMMETRICAL to vibrato, witb fork


ft.s

DIVERGENT of

WAVES.

275

place cd~e

its

convc'DKjnUy

bstac)c

coincide

or th bladc of a. broad paper, par~tiu) L~ Lhu :t,xis of {.hc fork, and as ncfn' to If thc plane; of toucjnng. mnybcwithout witit eit.))Ht' of thc p)ancs of symmetry of thc a. sbpct in section in au at ~1 or j~, no effect is into'mcdia.tc such position, produced as (7, ttic

a-s t'cpt'csL'titcd if it bc p)accd


becomos mucb

strougor

~42.
mctricn.1

Tbo
wavu.s

rcfd
divo'ging

expression
in two

for

the

velocity-potential
is obt~incd

of
from

sym(1M)

dimensions

~-H imaginary

aftcr

introduction pa.rt it is

of

tbc

time

factor

e'

by

rujccting

th

in which, a. mu!tip)ier to thc

as

twn :n'hit)'ary constants of thu w)))c: cxprcs.siou and


usu;d,

may

hc

InscTtcd,

one as addttion

th othcr

as an

thnc.

of a. lincfu' source of uniforni prnDcm Intcnsity may f).1so hc tt'e:itGd by the g'cncnd )nut!)')d ~ppliciL~tc In thrcc dl;ncnsions. Thus ctcmott ~.<; from 0, by (3) 277, if p bu thc distance oi'any thc point at which is to hc cstimatcd, t)te potoitin.! and r hc thc TitG smaHest value ofp, so thut =)'' +?' we ]nay tal<e

from ~r by

which

thc

vfirious

cxjx'cssions

fu!!ow t!ic

a.s in (14) mtu~r:).l sinco on

is grcat,

nc~ecttng Hnctuntiou rapid

an nppn'ximit.t~ titc vm'iatioa uf sign

ViUue of

When 341. may ue obtaiucd [(.ccount wu uecd of the attend

cr \/(2r+y), caused by th r/(t!. yra'

factur

e'

18C8.

183

276

LINEAR

SOURCE.

[342.

as

tlie

value

of

.shnilar
sion

argument fur tlie velocity-potential

vclocity-potcntial is appHcabIe to shcw on normal

thc

distance. A grcat that (1) is aiso the expresone sidc of an Innnite p!anc of an Inmutcshnal strip

at

( 273) due to thc unifurm boundcd Unes. by paraUel In Ii!~ mn.nncr

motion

wn )n:ty

(20) :~1 as the expression sources uniform)y distributcd FrMn tlie point of view si~ificancs the results intgration th who)c of of for
thc rctardation

of t)ic first or<!er regard thc tcrm of the vclocity-potentinl due to double linc. aloug an infinit strai~ht of tlie
of

thc

zones by Huyghcns' ( 283) effuct is tlie lmlf of tliat of tlie nr.st zone, and the phase of thc cnect of the first zone is midway between the ph~ea due to its extreme i.c. behind thc phase duc to thc central parts, In thc prsent case tho retardation of th rsultant point. rcla.to the central clement is less, on account of thc prepontivcly derance of the central parts. of 341 wc may take the prohicm of tho disturbancc of plane waves of sound by a whose radius is small in cyhndrical obstacle, with comparison the Icngth of the wavcs, and whose axis is paraUel to tlicir plane. Let (Compare tlie plane 335.) waves be represented by 343. In illustration of tlie formut

section foUowing .surface distributions

section prsent winch f~ppcars In (l(i), (17).

we

sec

the

in (1) and in tlie ordinary

Thc uSeetod,

gnral expansion the coefficients

of of thc

in Fonncr's various
tcrms

sries

may being,

be readily as might

343.]

CYLINDRrCAL

OBSTACLE.

277

bc

antieipa.ted, as ordcrs; but,


t])C mdms f thc

thc simply wc confine


cyliudcr

Bcs.scI'H onrscivcs
Is sma.li,

fmictions ho-e Ave will to at

of the

corresponding case wLere cxpa.ud

c 1)1

once

powurs Thus,

of 1'. when )'=c, if e" be omitted,

Th

amount

and cvoi of thc

thc la.w of th disturbance We will bc~m

dpends

by supposing mn.tcrial of thc cylinder to bu a. gas of dcnsity o-' and comprcssiof tbc probtem for a, rigtd obstacle bility ?/6' thu solution may with to ?/t'. finaUy be durivod oby suitu.btc suppositions respect If K' bc tli mtern~I vduc of K, w have inside th cyliuder by thc condition that thc axis is not
a source

t]tc c])ara.ctet'

obstacle.

upon th

( 3~0),

278

CYLINDRICA.L

OBSTACLE.

[343.

.as \"S might Ijave been varius invcr.sc)y uf duncn.sions anticipatcd by thc motitod as in thu con-espondmg fur the sphcrc As in that case, thc proDum (33.-)). synunctric:3 of tlie w:L\-c dopcnd.s pfn-t divcr~nt of comupon t)tc van~tiuu and wouht di.s:tppc;np.ssibiJity, to an actua.1 in thu application of the first ordet- deponis gas, and tlie turm of npon tlic variation that dL'nsity. By snpposin~ that their ratio sponding in sud) a manner o-' and 7~' to becomc innnitc, rcmaius we obtain fiuite, tlie solution correto a rigid and iM)novcab]c obstacle,

Th

tact

Thc anaingous

aualysis problum

of this section of H)tding

is appUcaDc to th matlicm~ticaDy t!ic ctt'ect of a cytindrica! obstacle

343.] on plane directioti

PASSACiH wavcs of
vibration

0F

SOUND

TUROLTGII ni an

FABRICS. clastic solid,

279 thc

of transvo'sc

vibration

to tlie :txis of th bcing p:u'aHcl If tlie dcusities be o-, o-' and thc ri~iditics be M, and thc tmnsvcrs thc bound.u'y conditions arc disptacctncnt,

cyHndcr. Y dnote

to

an application to the thcory of light thc a papcr 'On tl)c manufacture by thc author,
gra.ting~

Fur

roader aud

is rcferrcd theory of

diffracLiun

T)tc
wh'cs or

cxcceding nbl'es

smaUness
to th passage

of th
of

obstrnction
sonud i.s stt'ikin~Iy

nncrcd of stUF fcit

by
iHustra.tcd

fine an

i)i some iuch in

of Tyndatl's
thickness allows

cxpcrnnonts.
mucit more

A pice
sou)id

hait

to

pockct-handkcrchicf, its porcs behaves fogs, aud even of or propagation of a hiss, be apparent.

which rather raiti aud sounds

consquence as a thin lamina.


snow,

in

a we~erZ pass than of tho ctosinf of


the same rcason

For

interfre

but

little

with In would

th tlie

freo case

of moderato acute

other

very

wave-Iength. the cilcct sound,

perbaps

P~t<1/y.

Vul. xn-n.

187.1.

C1IAPTER
FLUID FRICTION. PRINCIPLE 0F

XIX.
DYNAMICAL 8IMFLARITY.

344.
that the

TiE

wehavcdcducett
mututd

of Chapter XI. aud the consquences quations that fromthctn arc b~scdupon thc assumption (230), action betwccn of fluid separatcd anytwo portions surface corne np is normal to thi.s to that idal iu surface. Actua.1 Sui<tn

many phcnoinona thc dcfcct of Huu)it.y, usually callcd viscosity or ftuid friction, plays an a,)id evoi a prcponderating It will therefore important Lo part. the laws ofacri:d vibrations proper to inquire whctijcr are sensibly iunuenced by tlie viscosity of air, and if so in what mauncr. In conceive order to understand a nuid dividcd into stratum moves
occurs

by au imagina.ry howcvcr do not

clearly

the

nature

wItHe cach

strata. parallel in its own plane


in

of viscosity, let us in such a manner that


with uniform velocity,

a change of velocity TIie simplest supposition ofa)l


ht

passing
we ca)i

irom
makc

one stratmn
is

to anothcr. thc vclocitics

which

that

thc strata
as

are in tho
wo

sanjc

magnitude

of stratification. betwccn the

pass Under strata and

along thse

direction, but incrcasc uniformly a linc perpendicular to tlie planes ch'cumstances into play, a force tangential in the direction of

of magnitude to th rate at proportional which the velocity citangcs, and to a coeflicicut of viscosity, commonly dcnotcd Thus, if the strata bo paraUcI to by the lutter of thch' motion bc pamUul to titc tangcntia! a'~ and t)ie direction force, reckoned (iikc a pressure) pcr nuit of area, is

contiguo~ts relative motion,

is caHnd

Thc

dimensions Thc

of~M arc [J7Z''7~'j. of t!)c It force Lclon~s origit) of th tangenti~l )ias bee]i exp!:uncd in acby Maxwell

exa.minatioti science.

to motecutar

345.1 ~j cordance with tlie kinctic

FLUID

FRICTION.

281

of molcules change Both mon~ntum. haa been conclusion of tlie is mdepcndent Maxwell' found

from mterof gascs M resulting theory of thc strata, between giviug riso to diffusion th rcmarka-ble and experiment by theory widc limits th forco that within esta.bliahed density of th gas. For air at Centigrade

tlie

centimtre, 345. Th

gramme,

and

second

being

units.

of nuid in motion of th equations investiga-tion be considcrcd forces c~u sca.rccly is pfdd to viscous which regard of tins work, but it may bc of service to thc subject to belong with th more to point out its close conneetion to some readers geMera.lly Thc isotropic known potential mattcr tlieory of solid cla~ticity. of uniformly stra.incd of unit of volume encrgy 2 bc exprcssed" may

is tlie 8(= e +/+~) of stmin, couuceted componcnts by tlie quations in which

c arc tlie six dihitn.tion, e,~ < a, with tlic Mtua,! displaccmeuts a,AY

of which mcapurcs
stress P,

M mcasurcs th rsistance
r,

thc

n'yi'~y,

or i-Gnist~cc of ~o~t?~.
rcspectively

to change
corresponduig

to &7~(t?a.nd K T!)C componeuts of


to e,~ a, &, C,

are

f'jund

from
thtIS

by simple

ditiercutiation

with

respect

to those

<l)innh)t.)f'H

1 On 18CC.

tho Viscosity and

or Interne Tait's

Friction

of Air

nnd

other C.

Gases.

Phil.

2'rM.

Thomsou

~<f<xr<~ T'oxo~/ty.

Appondix

S 82 If

EQUATIONS

0F

MOTION.

f345. pcr

~Y, F, Z bc thc component.s of tlic applied force reckoned unit of voknnc, tlie equ~ti~ns arc ot' thc form ofequilibrium

from
hymens

\v1)ich

thc

cqu~ion.s

of motion bccutnc

arc

immedia-tely

obtfuna.bio uf tlie di.sphtcc-

oi'D'Aionburt.sprincipIu.
thcsc c<{U!tti'jus

In

tenus

tncut.-j a,

1)1 th ordin.n-y

thcory

of

ihtid

friction

no

forces

of restitution

!n'C!lnch)ded,b)ttont)motiiCt-!]a.)idwe)ta.vetoconsiderviscous forces w))osc rc~tion to thu vu)ucities of'thc nuid cicments (,M) is of prucisctythu s~mu c)mracter as t)t:).t of th forces of restitution to thc <)iHp)accincnts sulid. (a, ~3,~) of :m isotropic TiiUH if S' bc tlie vetocity of dittt.ta.tion, Ho that

Lut Ititasbccnar~ncd constants; th.-tt there is no Stukus, rc!t.son a, wt~y ni al! (.)i)-cetio)i.ssLou)<t givcriscto tu diffcr from thc s~ticat prc.ssut-c pressureto t!tc actu~ In correspond)!)~ a.ccordnnce density. wit)i this :u-c to put /t=0; iu'gmncntwc from (C),~ eoincides and.as ~ppcars witit th ()u:uitity denoted Th prcviou.sly frictions! by terms a.re thcreforc x~)d?!f).rcn.)-bitr:uy wit)i ~-C!tt force byPruf. motion ot'(ti):).tatioau)ntunn vi.scuns for, 0- c:u)su tho

Sofaj-

345.~
or, if thcrc nc~ectud., bc no n.pplicd

rr.ANn
forces

WAVES.
:ui.d tlie squa.rc of thc motion

283
bo

Wcmn.y correspond rL'spcct


ui'i:jotropic

observe tu
:). dissipation

ttm.tthcdis.sip~tivcfurccsiturc whosc fnnctiuri, of with

cotisidered furnt is thc .santC wit)i

tu

u,?u vs tlt:).t
soiids.

Thus

puttin~

to a, /3, y, i)i ttie rospect A: = 0, wc Itavc frotu (1)

ttiuut'y

in forcement ib)' thc c~sc :~fi. vcsUgft.tiun xo'u a.nd ~13) ~

with

Prof.

St.okcn'

ca,!cu!a,tion'. Huid tlie sonnJ. was first

of n compi'cssibio Wc of tha-t will


pt~nc

T!n.: theoryuf friction given by Fuissur~. inin'e from

)iow

app)y
of

diiei'e;ntl!U

wa.VL's

to thc quations t.h:t.t v a)id Suppo.sin~ of ou)y, wc obtit.in

n,

&c.

arc

functions

which Lct Jcugth

is thc us

cquatlo~~ now inquu'e

gtvcn how
inanitcuncd

by Stokc.s~. a, traiu at
18:')1.

of harmonie tlie ongni

waves

of wavca.way

which

are

(a; = 0), Me

Com~rf'f JoNntff/

7'M;);!ffc<tnH.<, </e <'A'co/<'

~/)/f<'c'7t)tt'~)', 184:

g ~9. t. xni.

cah.

20,

p. 139.

C<tMi')')'f~<'

2'<')t.i<fc<<('x.

284

EFFECTS

OF

FRICTION.

[346. M e' we find as ia

as .c iucrcascs. 14.8.

Assuming

tliat

M varies

lu

tho

Hidcred ue~lected.

application to bo a Thus

to vury

air

at

ordinary qu:mtity

smaM

pressures and its

ma.y square

bc may

conLe

th~t to tilis ordcr of a.pproxima.tion tlie vclocity appca-rs sound is unnH'cctcd If we rcptuce M by 27ra\ Ly Huid friction. thc expression fur the cocfHcicnt of d(jc:t.y bccomcs

It

of

s)icwM)g that tue inimcncc short Tlie wavc-)L'j)gth. C 1, wlicu x =f" In

of viscosity :unplitudc c. O.S. mca.surc

is greatest on the is ditnhus!tud iu


wu may take

wavcs

of

thu

ratio

Thus jnctres. to

the

diminishod

amplitude in the

of wavcs ratio e

of one 1 after

centimtre

It a.ppe:u's therefore thu.t at t))e influence of fricLion is not to bu atmospheric pressures Hkdy to ordiuary sensible nc:).r tite upper II)nit of the observation, cxcept musical sca)e. 'Die mellowing as obscrved of soonds Iti by distance, mountainous is pcrhaps to bc attribnted to friction, countrics, by of which th opration the higher and Iuu's))cr componcnts arc climinated. It must oftcn have bccn noticecl that gradually the suund s is scareciy, if at al], rctnrncd by echos, and I hve fuund~ that at a, distance of 200 nictrcs a powcrfui hiss loses its charactcr, even whcn Uicrc is no refiection. Uns enect aiso is duc Proba.b!y to viscosity.
AcofitictU Observations, P/t~. ~/<t.'7., Junc, 1877.

A wave-lcngth for this case a; = 8800

travc)IIng of 10 centimtres would mtres.

is wavc-Icngth a, distance of 88
correspond ncarly

34G.]

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS.

285

lu

highiy

rarcned being

air

th

value Sounds

of a as even

givcn

incrcased, bc affected From would

constant. niodcrate

of grave in thc

in (8) is much pitch may thon of Gcncva, it

withiu

distances.

the observations

of CoHadon

Iakc

da.mped appcar that in water grave sonnds are more rapidiy distance from a bcH, struck At a moderato than acute sounds. and sharp, without musical undcr water, he found the sound short charactcr. 347. contact Th with effect of viscosity thc motion in modifying from be best uudcrstood of air in

th soluvlbratingsolldswill Lct us for a very simple case givcn by Stokes. tion of tho probicm harmonie vibrations In thn.t an innnito plane (~) excutes suppose in parallel to itsclf. TI~c motion a direction bcing (y) parallel and thc variable are funeu and M vanish, strata, quantitics tions
pressure

of a; otdy.
is constant;

Tho

nrst th

of quations correspondiug

(13)

345 shews that in v takes quation

the tho

furm

sun)]n,r now

to thc

suppose in a; Is

for tho tincn.r conduction of hcat. If wc quation to e' tlie resulting tlm.t v is proportional quation

si.do of tlie vlbrating plane gas bc on the positive when Hence and thc is to vanish a:=+cc. J9=0, of the imaginary bccomca on rejection part If th

the motion value of v

a.t a;==0. usually

of thc fnnd in contact velocity to be tlie sn.me a~ tha.t of tlie assu)aed Th

with plane

plane is itscif on the

thc

28G

PROPAGATION

0F

SOUND

[347.

nppa,rent!y

snfHcicnt

itif-mitc'y ~-ren.ter ti):m wit.)t respect tu itscU'. nn'tion uf t)ic finid on tlic p!:uic Thc biven by (G). force

g)'f)nnd sjnc'ithofss

thiittLcc'mtnn'y of <n (htid w;th On


t.)ns supposition

would "(..sp~f-t to

nn imply t~ t.hi! soiit' t!)u tliu

positive

sidc

due

(5) expresses a motion of

tangcnti:d

pet- unit

a)'c:i

n.cting

on th

plane

is

'f~t.=l. stop thc ino-caHO both

Thc

fir.st tcrm

thu motion in thc ino-ti.i

a dissipativo t'cp)-(jscnts second a f")'cn rGprcscnt.s of t.])c vibrating thc fn-f~tuncy body. ofthc

forcci
G<~)iv:Jc-nt

holding
to

to
an

Thc vibration.

m~mtudc

uf

.t'urccs (h;pcmds Wc wi)i in app!y


tubes

upon

of

sound

th)src.sulttoca!cu!atcappt-ox!)n:t,t(j!y so Ufu'row tbat t)K' vi.sco.sity As section in 2(!), !ct JV dnote of t)m tube at thc
actih~

th nf air total .f.

VL-iocity (.'x~rciscs a. of fo~'c, a; and

scnsiDu

mfiucncc.

thc point sticc

transfur T))c

<i))Ki duo .e +

across to

t)tc

hydrostatic i.s, as usua),

pi'cssurt.

on

th

bctwcun

Thc H)r :ur


:L

force
vibi-ftting'

uuu

tu vi.sco.sity

may

bc infcn-cd thu

fro)n t))iduiuss

t.hc

atUt(j)-i)~ t))u (tliDn~t~-r. thc

Ui~ p):u)u, pt-ovidL-d to thu W!i)).s of the tulxj Thus,

invcstigatinn of thc fayur

of

bc sn~]! cf in'm w))usc

of thc vutocity thc tube, tangcntiid Ly (7)

if 7~ bc t)tc puntm.'t.ur auTent at a distance force on t.hc s!ico,

in co]np!m.s'))i with thc :n)<) rbc tube, 0~; volume w:i.!Ls xf is thu is

347.]

1~

NARROW

TUBES.

287

Thc An

rc.sult

cxpresscd

in

<'):dx'mtu

Kn'chhoff, i'rictiou is d' (c~Hcd thc ~) but

invustig:)tiu)t who inchKicd atsn th:)i ufthe as (12),

(12) wn.s first of this pruUon iti las c~cuht.t.ion couduction but ~/(~.p'')

oht.aincd

by Hchnhoitz. ])as :)!.so b(.-cn givcn by aot only tlic dU'ct, of Kit'chhofr.s hy t](c n.'su]h q)):uitity

ofin.-at. i.si'cplucud

samc

form

whore
cfHciunt

/< is Newtons of conductiun, `. dintinntiou by t.hc

va)ue

of thc

vcioeity

equal of thc

according

of sound, and to th kinctic

t/ is a cothuory of

gasusto~p" Thu iudiciitcd by Kundt Scimeebuli' vclocity

vcloclty

of

sound

in nn.n'ow

w:t.VL!-t(.'ngt)Kjfst:Lticna.ry

vibrations,

aa tubes, was cbscrvcJ by of it

( 2CO), and bas becu speci:d)y and A. Sucbeck~ It appcars thn.t -varies as?' rat]ter in nccordance to K'~ than witb to bc (12), but, Since incrcasod

invcstigatcd thc ditninution wbcn n varies,

is proportionat of thc dunsity 34'8.

(~)), t]ic effoct wou!d of this work

is indcpcnduut in rarcficd air,

wc Lave )iad frquent occasion to notice the importance of the conclusions that may be arrived at of dimensions. Now that we are in :t. position to by the mcthod draw Hhtstrations from a grcatcr of acoustical varicty phcnomcn:), vibrations of both so)ids and it will be conre!a.t.ing- to th iiuids, venicnt the to rcsume principes In uniform th subjcet, and to dcvefopc rcsts. upon -\v]tic]i the mcthod
Systems, such as

In the course

sonewhat

in dtail

th case of isotropic

heHs

mntcna!,

and vibmting
1RM. 1870.

or tt)ning-fo)\ks, formed of of cJasticity, in virtuc th


1SC9.

'7'n~)t).t.cxxx!7.177. ~7'f~t)f.t.cxxx!X.l(tL

''ro~in);.t.cxxxvi.29(!.

288
acoustical constants by ~rM' tion thc be clments

DYNAMICAL

8IMILARITY.

[348.
Hnear dimension c, thc

are

th

shape,

th

of clastieity q and method of dimensions, as th lincar dimension, in thc same

( 149), and th density p. Hcnec-, tho periodic varies cfe<e?'M time at lea.st if th amplitude of vibra-

if thc ia\v of Isochronism proportion; aud, be assamcd, tI)G !a.st-named restriction witL. Jn may be dispcnsed fact, since thc dimensions o.f q and p arc respectively [Jt7'Z'' 2') and is a mre the [~Z'"], wliile number, only combination a thue is y'~ ./3~ c. capable ofrepresenting Th ofthc whose same, argument which undcrUes this two
at

mathcmatical gnomctricallysimitar

shorthand

is

nature. Conoive following mccitanicai constitotion to excute similar


muvcmc'nts

corrcsponding
in such a

points
manncr

bodics, is the that t))o

to tho are proportional linear dimensionsin thc ratio, say, of 1 ?;. Then, if the ono movement be possible as a consquence of the elastic forces, th other will bc also. For th nasses to bc movecl arc as 1 ?", th acclerations as 1 and tlicrefore the necessary forces arc as 1 M'; are thc same, tins is in fact th ratio of tlic and, sincc the strains
corrcspondingctiangcsoccnpytimcs'

which

clastic If th in the motion Thc

forces elastic

duc forces

to

them

when

rcferrcd

to

are competent to producc first case, they arc atso competent to produce in the second case. dynamical similarity is disturbed

corrcsponding the supposcd

a-reas. motion

thc supposcd

of a by th opration force like gravity, proportions! tothc cubes, and not to thc squares, of eorresponding but in cases whcre is th lines; sole gravity motive power, dynamical similarity may bc sccured by a different relation between and corrcsponding times. con-csponding spaccs Titus if thc ratio of corresponding bc 1 of spaces ?), and that times bc 1 )r, th acclrations are in both cases corresponding thc same, and may bc thc effects of forces in thc ratio 1 m" acting on masses whieh are in th same ratio. As examples comingunder t!us head the common may be mentionc<) sca-waves, pendufum, whose velocity varies as th s()uarc root of the and th wave-]ength, whole of th comparison of sliips and thcir models theory by which Mr Froudo prcdicts th behaviour of ships from experiments made on models of moderate dimensions.
th

1 Th conception of an altration of sealo in spacc has ~ccn mado familiar by


nuiverfifd use of mapo and n)0(tc)s, but tho con-ospondiu~ student. conception for timo

is often less distinct.


diflerout spcods may

Rfrence to tho caoo nf musieai


nssist th imnginntion of tbo

composition performed at

348.]

DYNAMICAL

SIMILARITE.

289

that we bave c'mpJoycd abovc for clastic comparison sobds app)ics a)so to acrial vibrations. T)<L- pressurer, in th cases to bc compared arc th same, aud thercforc wlicn acth)~ ovcr areasin. thc ratio 1 ?r, givc forces in tbc sarnc ratio. Thse forces operato on masses in th ratio 1 ?~,and threforu in pro(h)cc acclrations thc
both

Thc

same

ratio
spaccs

/f, winch and times rosonant


dimcnsiuna

is th

ratio

of th(; acLuat

accek'rations

wJten

of simiJar thc lincar t-i:LYart. Sincc .so)id.s and into


of a

pcr!odicti)ncs Accordix~lythe H))t.'d ~'ith thc sa.rnc i~as, arc dirc'ctiy as cavitius, )aw fh'st f<n'niu)atcd Yc'ry important hy

arc as 1 :7:.

thc

s:m)c

mut.hod

to cta.stic both

winch
systcm

nuids, ~ind.s of vibration


ofa

of conpaD.son an cxtcnsiua c'ntcr.

:)pp1i<s

both

to clastic

compoundcd

hining-fork

nmdc to Systems mayhc For cx:nuph?, tho sc:do of nn nir rcsonnfor and in tbc
.samc

maybe
~han hncar that

supposed
i:)vo!vcd dl~ncnsions.

to bc altcrcd
in takit~

wit))out
thc timcs

change
in thc

motion
ratio as

ot.hc'r
th

JIitItcrto nnifonn this

thc

altration
but principe

of

sca!c
Hierc of arc

bas

b<;un snpposcd
cnscs, not c'oniiog

to
undcr

bc

simihn'ity maybc dynannMd most for c'xamptc, titc i!cxural Let us considcr, usefuDy applicd. vibrations of a sy.st.em oi' a tbin clastic hunin~, phtncor conposed of thu Iann<t:t cnrved. thc thicknc.ss Dy 2L-i-,2L5 wu sec that and thc mechanica) const.'u~ts y and p, will occur onty in tbe cotnbinations and and thns a contp:n'ison may bc made cvcn

m iiU dimensions, to whieh thc hcad,

tbc attcradon bc not in. t]tc Hamo proportion of tinckncss although as for thc ot-!)or dimensions. If c bc thu ]Inear ditncnsion who~ thc tilickncss is disrcgardcd, t)ic timc.s must vary c~o'/' ~)fu't'~<s and shapc, thc as ~3~.c\ yor a givcn uiatcrial, ttnckncss, of tbc )inoar dnnc'nsion. Jt must as tbe.s~~' t)ot bc forgottcn, Itowcvci') t)tat rc'snits such as thcsc, which invo)vc stand on a dinercnt Jcvct a )aw whosc truth is ody approximatc, of shnifrom thc more Immdiate of t))u principic consquences titnes arc thcrcforc Im'ity.

THE

END.

R. !.

1 <)

APPENDIX

A.

307).

Tho

probtcm

of

dctcrmming

tho

correction

for

th

opcu

cud

of a

tubei8oneofconaIdct'a.b)cdif)icuKy,cvcnwhenHu-rci~au HtLnge. ~7r7?, th to


thc

Innnitc
that th co)')-uction a in

Itisproved n.ud tcsa of


is

in t]<c text Q tha: tho 7~. !not!o)t ovcr of tho


ccntro of

( 307) Tho latter

grcnter

t]mu

vahio

is

obtuuied

l'y

c:duuhiting p:u'a))c) this no sl)~)'p


onc.

encrgy
axis

on

tho tho

suppositiou plane total of thc

t)mt mouth, TJtC

thc and

vn]oc!ty con)])arit)g

constant

encrgy doubt,
tidge

with mercasca
a.ud tho

th

square froni

tho

ctu't'ent.

actnat i))<inito

volocity, at thc

ontw:u'ds, tL constant value

bnconnng
ia a

assumption

sotucwhat

violent

NovcrthcJoss cxeess pecting of tho

tho

value

of Tt

a M if

so

Cidculatcd t]tat n.n

turns wo

eut should

to

bc not

grfatly in for]u

in cx-

truth. good

vident we

hf: justifier of tito

i). Ycry

rcsult,

assunic

axdal

velocity

thc distance of tlio point ?' dcnotmg Mul and thcn dctcnuino mouth, minuuuin. bo a very Ttte cncrgy
so ca-lcult~cd,

cojisido'ed

ft'ovn tho

centre

of tho

so as to tunko
tho~tgh ucccssurily

t)tc whole

eucrgy tt in cxccss, must

good upproximn.tion this of


tho

to t!tu tt'uth. distinct pro~lems (2) it~ido to de;d t))o wit.)), l,

In can'yingout tho dotenninatioli Th former, TIte van.iBh, bcing

phui. 'wo hft.vo two


motion

t!io e~Iei',

tuid (I) ontsidc, wo will takc (Irst.

eylindcr.

conditions except over

are tha.t ~) Y{mis!i a.t uiduty, tho area, of thc circle r=

n.nd that whcre

wlien

= 0,

MtC

Uadcr

thcso circumstanccs

we know

( 27'8) that

l')2

2S2

CORRECTION

FOR

OPEN

ENDS.

(]iu<.ti!ico of t)( pumt ft'mnLhec'Ioncntofn.rca.f/u-. 'Nuw


wLero p dcnoies

tho

wlicro

Is to bo estiinated

Thn

vahin for

hf

7'

is

tu

l'f

c~cuhtt.f~ At,

hy thu

t.hc ~K'Lhod edgc uf tho

onpioyud dise, witeji

in

Lho eut

t,(.t du\)t

(~ 307) tu radius

t). unifortu

dt'n.sity.

f<,wo)t!L\'(:L)t(;puLL'ntiai

on c<ct,Ii)~ thc Integmtinn. kitit,Ic cncrgy ofthe uiotiou Th tut:d cm'n'ut,

This JcfmcJ

qu)Utt,ity Ly (1).

<U\'idcd

Ly

givcs

twice

ijto

Woha.vcnoxtt.ocons!<!c)' incotupt'pssiLie !txi:d vt.']ucity ~uidwithin shitH bc unifut'nt

thc )-i~i([

pi-oLIt'jnofdctcrnunit]~ cy)im)frundcr w)n'~ .'<; M and


thc

thc
coudit.ions

motion t])at 0 sItaU

of

nn thc

w)t(;n

a:

ho

of

t))C furm

if for

thc

sft!:e

of

brcvify

wc

})ut

7~

1,

'Thp~f')))i)tyofthcnunlisH))pposcdtf))r')n))ty.

CORRECTION Now <~ ma.y bc cxpauduj

FOR in thc ncr!cs

OPEN

ENDS.

293

E)t.ch

tenu

ofUtis

sries

sitLi.sfic.sUic

conditmn

ofgivin~

no

l'tutitd ]t t

vu!octt.y,v))('u)'-lj rctninns Fron )'to dtitcrnuao I, wo

innlno!))<)tio)ioE tlio nmst coc(!iclcnt.n hin'o

!myki)n!,w][cun;co. so as to saLiijfy (G), Avhun -O.

0 to r-

thc

sunnrtiLtton

cxtcndu~

uow to iin'l bctwccn sensibly

t))0 cnorgy x = 0, and = constant. tlicoroni

Wc ]m.\c values of 1;. to :dt Hic admissible of jnotioti of so nmch of tlie flilid as Is mcitutcd l, witoru is so grca.t that tho volocity la tliere

By Grccu's

Thc

uumcrieal ~t=

vn.Iuca 3-83170~

cf thc roots

aro appi'OMmatc)y ~= 7-015, ~=10'17~. ~=19-C1C.

~=13-321,

p,i=l(W71,

294

CORRECTION

FOR

OFE~

ENDS.

KothiLtt.hoscccmdtot'mis
Iti catculating

7!7(1+~+~')".
~rst tcnn,

tho

wc must

rcnx'mhcr

thitt

if

nnd~

tx:

two difTuL'cnt values

of~,

To nf~~O.

t.)us

:ult)<;d tho cno~y Ou(.))owho~


must hc

of ttic

rnoUon

on thc

poHitIvc

Hido

CORRECTION FOR OFEN ENDS.


)Utd our <S':uid of x= Le two <S'S" tu'o uljcct is to detei-tninc functionH, by
tbo cubic

2955
la geneDt] vaincs if:

its
th

mnxhnuta
mnxmuun

Ytdno. and

qu~dmtic gh'cn

mminnnn

cqn~tioti

and
unacccntcd

0',

A',

arc
Ictturs.

dm'tvcd

from

and

A by

nu.et'changing

thc

acccntcd

and

lu iLud

t)io

prsent

case, two factors tmuu'ricul whiu)i of !(.ttd

si)ice<S"is arc thc v:dm.s, M


tho

product

of

liucar

factors, A 0

A'=0, sunpiy. wc

aincc

th

MiLUtt-, 0' =- 0, so that !md <-f)'ucting


uf

Substituting (iud wibh

tho

Lhu
Lho

c:).!c(dado!is,
uonsistcuL

= = '~!898G~, i'< Tho values

nm.xiuumLY.duo

fracdi).

con-cHpoudmg ciumob
wo assumu

Y:duo bc ~ruatL'r. -0, tliu

of

is

-821:227.

LhtUi

winch

Lhc

tnn:

corrcctiti If whn:!i whh:h

~rua(,(.'st a

Ytduc

of.:

titcn

possible

is

'021~63,

fi\us givus .'8281.iG7~. = 0, tho 535 3 A'. n'unit buttai' th~t Un) variable t'y a tct-m parL f'f thu as maximum value of s conics Iiand if wc

On out

th

othor

put a-82

'027G53, wouhl vclocity by value


vclocity

winjucc

It norinid tliau TI~


normal

nppca)' at thc

from nnjuth as 12~


assmncd

this is

t-~pruscatud

vm'yio~

une

vnryihg M '82
bu

is probably
constant,

p)-(.y

clo.sc a-'8~S2GA',

to

thf!

truth. ifofLitnji-m aud

Jf

thu 1 Uh; !na<h:

1+u.?'~ forni tho

a-'828157~, l+/jL!~+~

w)f'n e'jntami)~

isHuitabtydctcrntined; iuiutbcr w" gt;t arbitrary a --82i2A'. '82/t*. uno-gy con'csponds

wi~'u is

constant,

fomulation Tlic In truc thc

of Ya]uc case of

thc ofa

ca!cn)atiou, is pt-ubab)y thu

about

nnnhnmn

to

l'U.):

so

tliat

On about

thia double

snpposition of that ncar

thc

nornud t)tc (.'t-htrc'.

yclucity

of thu

cdgf;

(<'

-/<') wou!d

1~~

'X~tcsfnUc~t.'l'fifunctious.

J'/tf/<Xov.187:

29G

NOTE

TC)~

27;

nK'Lhnd

nf

o))t..unm~

L'uisson's

soluLio!!

(8)

~ivoi

l'y

Mouvitlu'

in

wru'U)yfjfn()<iu(.\ !f)'L('thr'p()]~]')'at!t)ts\T'ct,()r]nMsur('(tf)'o)na!)ypnintO,n.n<lt))<' g<')u')':t!d)f)i')'(')tLiid<qu!).t,iutt))('htt(~)'at('()()V(;)'t)n!V(~))un(iin(:I)utud Lu t.w('t'nH~)t(-rica)H)n-f)te('i()i'ra(1ii)'aud ii')itoft)t(!.s(;(-'o))dint.('~)'!d~y(h'c(')t'.st.]n'or<'m !'+< wciitul on tnu)ni'<j)')n!).-

~\` ~~<~r,thaLi.st.os!)yi.sj!n)pnrt.!u))aItothH]aca)tva!m' of </) rcckotu'd ovcr t])c sphf.'t'ioU surr~cf; of nuiiu.s )'. Lo i'(~)H-(tcd thc cxto'f.ssioti natcs ?', M. soluttou of (fjt) iH
as a)i cx~'asion

mw)nch<\

(.5)

241

fur

Eqnatiun (n) nuiy of ()) 27iJ; it may a).so )'o pruved from ~<~ I)i teru)s of Lhc ordmary polar co-ordi-

TJic gcm'nd

wp H!)7

jVo~

<))? 7~)'<.s'tM

!)~(u~(~<t )~ whcn ~t'oup

7'oc<'c~ty.'i /~r. ~'u.ll').

</;

Zo;t(~

JA(~eMf<<t'<<s'()f7y, Jt iuLo viduitt hiY.s oftcn sti!) ~'att')', ~ceu rcnuu'~cd of thaf, tlio

.~ro~pof is Ic.ss thati

Win'os th~t of

a~vanccs t!)ti indi-

Oa: Y<(;iLy

w~vcsoi'whichitis ')j'")~ t ns onncd

conpum'd; !Lwny!'s

t.]tCwaY(.'snpp('!ti'toa'h'anu(.' t!t('yn]~)t-o:(c))it.s :)n)r!)'ior!i)ntt..

t)))'ou~))t)!u~ruuj', 'l'his ~ardcd of wttvcs, jtjn'nottu'nunwu.s, tho ~r~up of

))t'.)[u'<iu'Htcxp)!L)m!d))yHt())<cs,w]torcot' two t'y t-))o sopo'pusition imd of ])c:D')y cqun)

infinittttmins ad-

C(~]!t)

tUttrittudus

waYG-tc'ngUiS,

vancingintit(i.S)U~odi)'ccti.on. ahout occun-cd Suund" lu~'H w:LVCs !). gronp disturbed two tu ( shcwn \viiose yc'ars me 191), Hott, Mince Ly ~n'

Myat,t,c))tion\as(:'a))c<ltoth(!sn~uct Fronde, ]u
tho

!U)d

(fx;

siuuo

cxplanatiou

t]ten "Thuoryof

i)LdcpcndcntIy'.
1 La\'c eonsidcrcd

inyboo];;
question

on
more

t)io

gaiendty, of thc tmy kind

and of of

if

Lo

tito i.s

'ctocity and tnnnbcr K cf

ci' 27r\

pt'opng~tiou tl)cn atldmo'ving

w.LVc-L'ngt]). of

vclocity into

compo.scd p.n't

n. gi'cat

wn.Ycs, )'y

(m un-

of Utc ntedium,

ia cxpresscd

In and cos

fttct,

if

tlio

two tlicu'

itiiinito resulta.nt

tmius

bo

rcprc.seutc.d Ly a:),

!jy

eon()"):)

' ( t~-x),

is roprcseutcd ) + cos x' (

cos K ( F< 1 Another

aJ.-iO mcutiotictl to lue hy ~[[ Froujc!, of a ndmits phouomcuou, A steam In.uueti similar tho water is nctxpittun.tiou. moving quickty thron};!) most comp&uied by a pcculinr Hy.stcul of Jiver~i])~ Wftvcs, of which tho stri]:i))g of tito Iiuo tho fon.turo ia tlt0 obliquity devn.tious of suecossivo coutn.iuiHg grcatcst waycs tmtturii rnny bo oxpiaincd by tho snporof two (or more) infinito trains of wn,Yes, of slightiy positiou diiering wft.Ye-Icngths, of propngn.tiou whoso du'cctionH and velocities aro so related in ench eas th~t thero is no eLfiago of position to tlio boat. Tho modo of composition will bo rcla.tivcly bcst, uudcrstootl on papcr two sots of parnUtil and cquidistaut by Jrawiog lincs, to tho abovc condition, to rcprcaeut tho crcsts of tho componcut eubjeet trains. lu tho cnso of two cf tho of tho trains angle angle tangent tangent of slightiy diiercut wavc-Ioneths, bctwcou tlio liuo of maxima and betwccu tho waye-fronta and it may Lo pro~cd that tho wavo-fronts ia hait courso. tho tho to tho wttvo-fronts. Thia ~mvo

tbe boat's

2:~8

PROGRESSIVE

WAVHS.

whichiHuquidt-u

If vanus formiug

K'-K, slowly
<). scrics

])o from
of

Hinft)), point

wc to
separatcd

htivc

n. tmin

of

W!).vcs tho
anoUtor

whosc limits hy

amptitudu 0 tmd
cotn-

ono
groups

Miotlier
from

hctwcen
ono

2,

l'cgiona

pM-attVc!y of Umt

-ec group,

froni
which

di~turhanco.
w~s imti:L])y

TLo at th

position origm,

at

tuno

t of tho by

middiu

iH givcu

winch.

shews

that

UmveiocityoftItC!

group

is(/<r)-(K').

InthcHu)it,wi)('uthc]U))nLfrufw!LVusnieaehgroupisindoTinItt']y titia rcsult eoincidus witit grent, (t). T))0 latcd fur fo!)owu)g convctiicuco ~-0, ~) 6' r, r, 6' 2 r, particutar ca.scs arc worth notice, a.ud :u'o hcro tabu-

of comparison ]!('yno!ds'di.sconncetedpcndut)))ns. Dt'<'p-wat<jr~ravit,yw:Lvcs. A(.')'ia)-a\-('M,Ac. (.')t])iHary Figura) arc duc JtaH to


tLcH

Fcc, fee~, ree. )' M . r T]t0 thiLt to Nov.


ruapohding

watur waY.;s.
whosc

wavcs.

=c ", ci~fiihu-y furcc of

watcrwavcs restitution theo-y j)cxund Pouding

\)n'c-]t.-ngUt

i.s

su

sinidi

tho

Ctq'mfU-it.y givu for w])ic)t rud

I'n-~c)y Ly
TitOtnson

oxeceds (/< F, jdatc arc

t)tat

duu J/f~

gn~-ity. 1871). to 191). '<- paper

TJtcir Thc thu

hccu

wav(.'s, uf an

~=.2 or

t)toso ("TJtcory

corof

clastiu

Sound," In

rcml printcd

at

<.ito in

rfynumt.))

)ncct.ing

of ~:), of th

t))(! British ]877), fact Prof. that

Association Osbornc ft group of titoindiany point. nccesif thu of

(a.ftc'rwardM l!.(.'yn<j]ds dccp-waturwavcs vulual whun nary train ~atcd


t~ gi'.vu

.Nature,"

~t)g.

dyuiunicid

L'xp).t!i)ttio)t

ad\U)cuswit)ion)yIta]f ]t of
tii

therapidity cnc'rgy is oniy in p)-opagat';d onc-h:df thc samc th:it Lccat~sc hc its of ti)m', front this in-ross t))o so

v'avcs. a tral)i
supp)y

aj'pt-fu'ri wavcM
w.n-c.s

t))!tt

thc

i.s pa.s.sing,
w)m.t

ouurgy t)tat, Lo

pass

of

wavt's ttic of

hL- limitL'd, fuH morf vctocity ('ttf'rgy t)i(i th(; wavcs to ratio tho of

IL i.s i)))j'ossi)j]c of thnti cases passing rt'suits thc tin! wavcs, faet ?/!e'rt; tho

can -ou)d Prof. propagatcd Lis tftat of

prop:ttue

wit.L

imply Rcyno)ds

ac~uisitmn not did correspondu applied must wavcsis

(-:m m whurc m

su))))!icd. is but

contonpiatc tu converst')y

t'])c'rgy tinu'

thau

saine givcn,

argument, suu)t tho cnso3 passin'~ F

a)ruady cuo-~y

s)icws to in tho titat unit

cxjst.

Tito r;

pro]'ag!ited

t))ust))n<'ncrgypr()pagatcd

thncis

PROGRESSIVE of Ut)t.t cxL~ing Icngtb. Energy inunihiungth


As tili cx)unp!c,

WAVES. U timcs tlmt cxis(,ing in tim

299 UltiL

in n. Icngth

F,

or

Accorttmgly pt'opagittcd in unit timo Etx'rgy contn.hicd


(on au ~vcragc')

=~(!"):(/'<, 1 wH) tiJ

~y(~). in'otjttional from the wnvcs i)i

tho c:)sc of s!n:dl

downwai'ds If x t'c ncasut'cd dcpt!i !md thc cluvtt.Lion (A) of tho waye bo douotcd hy Wittct' of fhuto

Hurfacr,

Tins tionid

vainc motion

of

fiu.t!afLcs tho goicral makcs ~==0. Thc tho

dKrcrctitlid vertical of

Cf~mtmn

for

m'ot~

(\7~=0),

Yclci~y-~zuro~-hen propngniion is giveJt t'y

and-wf'cn J<

vclocity

Wc HUpxoscd nin.y bc For

inay to lui't tho

now includu ont

cftieuhtto no grcut

t,!)C enor~y :<. Jiumber

contiuuRd of wayes

in

n. hngth t!mt

:c, which ptu-b

is

fmctio:ml

of account. wc I~c

potentud

cncrgy

hy und tho

(1) of

funi thiM

(G). p~rM', ci' itt

If,

m t!)C

nccordanco of cqua!ity f'ottow.s

wiUt

thf

ar~mncnt bo asanmed,

advn.nccd tho

ut Ytduc

U)n of Thc

vclocity encrgy

propngattou tlio

nnd 7' F, t)ic ft'oxt )i Ibn~Lh

prfsoit is

exprossions. thp!'cfn)-c (fur

wholo

w.n'csoeeuj'yin~ r.+~(~),

cncit

umtofbrcadLh) 7/ dcnoting
thc !)iax!i~mn

c!cv:Lt.i(jn.

rruf. mvoh'es

HcyMida tnakcuittr

eo!)HukM rottitifin.

UtG troeh.~M

Wftvo of

n~nkhtc

nud

Frotulc,

which

~00 Wu pLuMfoI):n-c

PROGRESSIVE ucxL to cai'uh~t'


constant,

WAVJ.:S.

U)e enci~y or, i

p)-o]<:)~att'(t

i~

thue

< ncross

:t t

which~i.s

<)t)tcrwo)-(!.s,thcw(M-k(!~)t.h:)t

mustL('<1nniuo:'tot'tuHU.st!ti)tt!)(;]))<)tinaofthopLm(-((;o!t!ji()t~'cd an!Lf!t'ib!c))nni)ta)i)it!)('f)tccoi't!mf]ttidpresHU)'c.s i')-o)tL of it. T))H Y:u'iaMo pitrt ~i\'(.t~y Hic acLtn~unouDit' at dr)!t,h

of

prc.ssuro

(~<),

in

As nn cxfunph' of t!ic direct crdcuLttion of waves tnovjng und<;r th joint mHnencc Itis{)roved)'yTi)ontsunt))at

of

we

of ~'n.vity

!nay tllke titc and cohsion.

ca.sc

Whcn butwhcjt, s~tcd. vclocity

is snmU, t]t0 surface tension i.s nngligi)')c, and th~n ~'= r; on tbo contrary, is Ifu'go, ~r, iLS lias alt-eady hccn Witcn ~'=r. This to tho nunhmntt ?"y, con-cspoiuls
of propngitttou i)ivcst!gatcd ~y

Thomson.
groupa scons s~tisfactory,

Althongh fui mdcpoidunt

t]io

nrgtimcnt

from

mtcrfo-cncc

H dcsit-a)')c of thc ruititi.ou Letwcen invcstigatio]i :md enct-~y propitgatcd. Fu)' sotnc tmio 1 Anm at ft !os8 cncrgy cxisting fur Mcthod to ail khul.s of wavcs, not socing in pfu'ticular applicable of nergies should hitroducc Uie consLderat,Io!i why tho comparison of

PROGRESSIVE a variation inci'cincjtti ]nect ofwa.vc-lcngth. Tho

WAYES. fullowlng inay of cvcry investigation, porhaps in.

301 which tho to

of wave-IcngHi thc want,


us suppose

is ~~Ky<f<r~, tht! motion

Le considcred

Lct

that

part

of

tho

jncdium

Is

re.sistcdt'ya.forcoofYcrysmaUmaguituduproportionaltothcmaHS and to thc yc)ocity of' tho part, thc cn'cct f winch at DiC origin ~cnct'atcd whieti m thca~sonof under ttto
a

will

bo

t))at

wavcs

graduaUy frictujn of friction


cocicicnt:1~

iniincuco
StuaH

die :Lway as a; inovascs. Ti)c motion, would )j('rcp)'(;HC!tt(.'d by co8(~), is rcprescjttcd hy e'~eos (;<<-.'<'),
stnctncss

is who'c aLso altcrcd

posiLn-o

t!)(; vainc

of K is

but tho adoration is of titc second ontcr as l'y Dte friction; th ft'ictional ~tidor thf circumforccH, and r'~ards ]nay Lu omittcd hci'c suppo.s<;d. Thc cucr~y of tho waA'cs pcr unit IcngHt nt stitnccs in proportiotiaitothf! anysta~oofdc~radatiott square of thc a]np)itudc, and thus cncrgy origin, or unit force
of thc as

w)t(j]c L'nprgy on titc positive sidc nf tho ori~in is to tho of tho wa.vcs at their ~reatest of' HO jnuch Yiduo, i.e., at thc
wooid hecoutainod

thc

lu tho

unit

of lun~H), throug)it!tc and,

ns~e'~f/.E

],

as

Thocncr~y (~)' time is t!tC satnc as thc ncting


c)cmcnt

trnnstnittcd cncrgy of mass

on thc and

cloncnt

dissipatcd Mt bo/t7~M,

in th engin if t))C frictional is

/t~?HU" or t)mt cncrgy in tho twccn For tho

2/ kinctic

is constant, th onnrgy oiergy. Luing tho kmctic Is ])a]f tho wholo cncr~y
in ns tho unit tuao is rcmains

whurc'uistitcvclucity in unit thno dissijtatcd Thus, on tho

transuntted unit

lungth

3~.

It

wc cucrgy, to tho grcatcst encrgy cxisting to tiud thc conncction Lo-

assmnptio~ .rntd that tho

/t and this purposc it will bf conYcniunt to regard cos (M< -M') as tho

rca~ part ofc"~c') hy thc mtroductiou in thc thft'crentiai in place snhstituting


corresponds

!t.ndtoinqnirohowisa.fruct('d,w)x'n~isgi\'('n, of friction. New t)tn c'n'oct of friction quations or, mnco of titc
motiojt

is rcju'L'scnt.cd of j+/tto e' of Ly

hy tho motion thc

substitution is proportional introduction (t~c

of

.j,

wl)o!o

for ?~. Hcncf -?~+t7~ of M from to an a!tt;ruLion and n.ccordingjy


./< is

friction of <

M to M-Ai/t
aht-rcd from

Bqnam K-

hcing

ung)cctcd),

tu

T))C

sohttion

t!m3

bccojucs ,.ff)f dl<

(;'0'<r),

or,

wl(cn

thc

int.~gina.ry <

,1'

part

ia

rcjcctcd,

'eo8(~<-<.T),

80

t]<at

~< unirtinK't"

and

A:

T))(''mtioofthf'('ncr~vtra))sn)ittf'dinth<'

302
U)C cnc'rgy or '/ <f It )iaa ofton cxiKting

J'KOCKES.StVH
in t))R unit

WAVES.
h'ngth is tl)('cfoi'(c'xpro'.sr'd hy

11\! provc-d. was to hc as wns 113 pI'OY(,(1.

cases h<'cu noticed, in particuh~r of wavcs, progressive nnd kiupLic nergies arc cqual Lut 1 do not cfdl to t))at tho pobential ia not of Dm question. Tito tileorem trcatmcnt ]nind any gcncra! Lut must Le for Lhc jndividuat of t)'c truc tnndhnn', j'arts usutdly of wave-tcugths, or to to rcfct' cithcr to au intcgral tnm~K'r imdcrstood

that :t spacc so considcrftLIc may hc k'ft out of nccouut.

t)t0 outstandin~ As an cxtunp)e

fra(;t,ion:d wt'Il

parts

of waves

1 will tn.k<i thc case of into thc question, Hr'ht f'ireular jncjn~rano 200) viLmting ("Tiieory of Sound," Thc fundamcnta! eirck'a nnd diaumtcrs. of nodal tmmLcr not nttcr quitc dt'tcrminatc in couijcqucucc In ordcr of thc synunctry, rid of this

to givo inadaptcd a uniform. stretched with a. g)ve;i jnodcH arc any diain()cternunatcfur

io get may bo mado nodaL to to carry n, sniaU Joad attachcd ncss, wc tn~y Hupposo tito mcinLrauc arc t]~'n two dt'nnito on a Jioda! circic. Thcre it anywhcrn exempt lies ou a uodal. fundamontal ditunctcr, modt's, in oue of which titc Jo~d bctwccn nodal diano cfrcct, n.ad in thc othcr jnidway thus ]~roduumg eftoct of Sound," n. maximum it ])roducoa wh~)'c ("Tix;o)'y nictcrs, arc thc ofboth modes If vibrations going on. siuuntaneousiy, 208). of tho vhotc motion ne calculatcd and kitietic nmy cnorgi.cs notcuti~ Lcb us now, aupposing of thosc of tho componcnts. <t~to~ by St'y~e thc cqual rcstdt
load to di)ninisl) wIDtout

htnit.,

haaginc

that

tlic

vibrations

arc

of

of a pcriod. T!ie aud diu't'i' in phase hy a quartor ampHtudo nn.d kinctic arc whos~ potcutml is a y~'o~ressti'c wavc, cnergics of whictt it is composcd. wavcs of tliosc of thc stationary tho suma wo Iiavo r,==~'cos*?~, a!id For tho rat componcnt ~==J?sin"~<; so that tho second ~=~'eos'~j for eomponf-nt, ~siu'?~, of tite and kinctic + P' == 7' + 7~ 2', or t)tc potcnti~t nergies of aro '\vavo equa), hcing tho samo as t)io w!io!o encrgy pro'n'cssivo of proof hcro entployed TIio nifthod appcara cither of th compojicnts. to bo suSIeIentIy which Innguago diilicult tiLOUgIi it is rathcr to aU kindH of wa.vcs. is a-ppropriate gnera!, to cxprcaa it in

AMal

warea

Mo an important

exception.

CAMftIUDO!

t'K)!)TKD

i)Y

C.

J.

CLAY,

H.A.

AT

THE

UStVKtta)TT

MESS

TUE

THEORY

OF
VOL. I.

SOUND.

8\-o.

dotl),

pricc

12$.

G~.

Thc Authnr physics w]tiuh


po.sHi))!o,

wi)l

mo'it

in thc if ho

and l)c has

inttUtMn~tics

highest c~htinuus

tho dcgrcc Uto wot-k

thimk.s ia thc

;dl w)to atudy in Munc tf):n)nor bas routtcred fur it tho eMe

of

)nost Umn

Tho Aut))('r first Yhunc. it in thc ]~nn ofthc arrangutncut .sy.stutn~Lic )'y th yery cnnvcuicot to 'jo now ntudiudwiHtfi.n' of acou.stics diMeuit pn'hions in Nature.' IIchtiho~tx hitIicrto.Pt'of. Wo look forward wit.ti

whulc, grcator

squent acoustics J ('t~)y.

of tt)C subtu t!io [tj'peamnco tttc grcatc.sb inhcrest of Thc th t)[is proparcs study for whiuh highor way. volumes, wilcu will bc n diit'crent titiag attoguthcr Lhoy M'c in onr tutnds.

IttACMILLAN

AN!)

CO.

LONDO~.

In.

Crowii

8vo.

pricc

S~.

G~.

SOUND

AND

i~rusrc.
Trcn.tiric Oti t))0 Physica) C~OHtituLh'n of Mn.sK'd

A Non-Mathcmaticfd

S<)H)n).'jatHUIann<)))y,i))L')ndh~t])cchiufA(.'nu.st,ic:dDi.sc~YcnL!snf]'roHi.ssor [Idn)h.)it/. latc Liy Si'JIJijf' TAVLOU, ~I.A., CoHcgo, "In (Ja)uhrittgc. no
prcviou~ .sciuntiftc treatitiodn wc remcinhcr

ycUuw

of Trinity

so uf vibration

cxhimst-ivc

ami

Ho l'ichly

a. <Iuscript!(Ut ttlut.imtianuidtj.J/tM/(.'<:<S'~</n~<n<

i)tu.stt'atcd

of form.s

iUtd uf w:n'c-

ON

SOUND Mat)tctnatic:d l{nyfd.

AND

ATMOSPHUHIC of ~fn.sic. .md Dy

VIBRATIONS. Sir G. K AIHY, Hvo.

Wit!. Astronon~r Oif.

thc

Eturnuntu cdit~n],

Sccund

ruvi.scd

cnt.n'gcd.

Ct'own

AN

ELEMENTARY AND ntoniutn Kunsit~ton, Associ.ttit'n TE~t'EXA~fHXT. (.-xttit'itcd

TREATtSE With in tho Lo.~H an

ON

MUSICAL of an

INTERVALS Enhfu-innmc Uar-

accouxt

Cn))t;ct.i~n Hnimnnonic 1S7.'). Hvo. ]!y (if).

<~ Scic-nti~c 0)-K:m R. 11. M.

i also df:ut Ls7(!; of' Lando)), May,

Soutit nstnunotts, <x))ihitcd tn Lhc ~tn~ical BOSANQUET, FcHuw

<)fStJ(jltt)'~C'un(;gc,Oxfnrd. SOUND AND

MUSIC.

By

Dr

W.

n.

SON). Cruw)tM\-o.

Two (!<

Lectures

dc!tVcrcdat.Snut)tK(;)t.si))~tun. LECTURES M!CAL Edition, ON SC'rKXC! ('nhu~ud. SO~rE

muhtt'~tcd.

RECENT

ADVANCES M.A.

JN H)n.stratud.

PHYSucund

~y I'r.,fc.s.~)r L'ruwn.iv~

P. C:. TAfT, !).<.

THE

APPLTCATrON.S

OF

PHYSICAL hy Mt-.s

FORC'ES. aodcditcdwith L.~yt'r, \VithCut<)n)\.))P!a)<-sat)d

Trans~trd 1iyA.(:Unj,EM)X. Additions a))dXut.('().yJ.I~.ckyu)',F.J;.S. inuori'~u.sinustr.ditU~. Hny.d~v~.

:}).<.(! 3

~).\('fLLA~

AX))

~a

L~Xno\.