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Beyond Pizzas & Pies: Suppor.ng Frac.on Sense mathsolu.ons.com/presenta.ons Julie McNamara CMC‐ South/Palm Springs/November 2010 © 2010
Beyond Pizzas & Pies:
Suppor.ng Frac.on Sense
mathsolu.ons.com/presenta.ons
Julie McNamara
CMC‐ South/Palm Springs/November 2010
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Students’ Challenges with Frac.ons •  What are some of the biggest challenges students face with frac.ons?
Students’ Challenges with Frac.ons
•  What are some of the biggest challenges
students face with frac.ons?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
8 th Grade, NAEP 1996 Es.mate the answer to Answer choices were: + 7% A. 1
8 th Grade, NAEP 1996
Es.mate the answer to
Answer choices were:
+
7%
A.
1
B.
2
24%
28%
C.
19
27%
D.
21
14%
E.
I don’t know
2
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
“The difficulty with frac.ons (including decimals and percents) is pervasive and is a major obstacle to
“The difficulty with frac.ons (including
decimals and percents) is pervasive and
is a major obstacle to further progress in
mathema.cs. .
.”
—Report of the Na,onal Math Panel,
March 2008
3
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
In one minute, write down everything that comes to mind when you think about or see:
In one minute, write down everything
that comes to mind when you think
about or see:
4
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
In one minute, write down everything that comes to mind when you think about or see:
In one minute, write down everything that
comes to mind when you think about or
see:
9
5
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Compare Your Responses •  What similari.es do you see? •  What differences do you see? • 
Compare Your Responses
•  What similari.es do you see?
•  What differences do you see?
•  Any surprises or insights?
6
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Adjec.ves vs. Nouns (Adapted from Kathy Richardson, NCTM 2008) •  Young children ini.ally consider numbers as
Adjec.ves vs. Nouns
(Adapted from Kathy Richardson, NCTM 2008)
•  Young children ini.ally consider numbers as
adjec.ves or descriptors –
–  9 bears
–  6 cookies
–  20 students
•  Eventually, they come to understand numbers
as nouns or concepts–
–  9 is half of 18,
–  It is 1 less than 10,
–  It is 4.5 doubled,
–  It is 3 squared,
–  It is the square root of 81,
–  ………?
7
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Adjec.ves vs. nouns (con.nued) •  Students need opportuni.es to transi.on from considering frac.ons as adjec.ves –
Adjec.ves vs. nouns (con.nued)
•  Students need opportuni.es to transi.on from
considering frac.ons as adjec.ves –
–  1/2 of a pizza
–  3/4 of an hour
–  2/3 of a cup
•  to considering them as nouns –
–  5/8 is a liile more than 1/2, but less than 1
–  It is 3/8 less than 1
–  It is equivalent to 10/16
–  It is twice 5/16
–  It is half of 1¼
–  ……… ? ..
8
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
“It may be surprising that, for most students, to think of a ra.onal number as a
“It may be surprising that, for most students,
to think of a ra.onal number as a number
– as an individual en.ty or a single point
on a number line – is a novel idea.”
—Adding it Up: Helping Children Learn Mathema,cs,
Na.onal Research Council, 2001
9
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
4 th Grade, NAEP 2009 Which frac.on has a value closest to ½? A.  5/8 B. 
4 th Grade, NAEP 2009
Which frac.on has a value closest to ½?
A.  5/8
B.  1/6
C.  2/2
D.  1/5
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
4 th Grade, NAEP 2009 Which frac.on has a value closest to ½? A.  5/8 B. 
4 th Grade, NAEP 2009
Which frac.on has a value closest to ½?
A.  5/8
B.  1/6
C.  2/2
D.  1/5
25%
6%
41%
26%
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Why are frac.ons so hard? •  Frac.on nota.on – numbers must be considered in new ways
Why are frac.ons so hard?
•  Frac.on nota.on – numbers must be
considered in new ways
•  Prac.ces that simplify and/or mask the
meaning of frac.ons
•  Overreliance on whole number knowledge
•  Many meanings of frac.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
What is Frac.on Sense? “Frac.on sense implies a deep and flexible understanding of frac.ons that is
What is Frac.on Sense?
“Frac.on sense implies a deep and flexible
understanding of frac.ons that is not
dependent on any one context or type of
problem. Frac.on sense is .ed to common
sense: Students with frac.on sense can reason
about frac.ons and don’t apply rules and
procedures blindly ‐ nor do they give
nonsensical answers to problems involving
frac.ons.”
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Common Core State Standards “Asking a student to understand something means asking a teacher to assess
Common Core State Standards
“Asking a student to understand something
means asking a teacher to assess whether the
student has understood it. But what does
mathema.cal understanding look like? One
hallmark of mathema.cal understanding is the
ability to jus.fy, in a way appropriate to the
student’s mathema.cal maturity, why a
par.cular mathema.cal statement is true or
where a mathema.cal rule comes from.”
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Common Core State Standards Number and Opera.ons – Frac.ons Grade 3: Develop understanding of frac.ons as
Common Core State Standards
Number and Opera.ons – Frac.ons
Grade 3: Develop understanding of frac.ons as
numbers.
Grade 4: Extend understanding of frac.on
equivalence and ordering.
Grade 5: Use equivalent frac.ons as a strategy
to add and subtract frac.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Beyond Pizzas & Pies: 10 Essen,al Strategies for Suppor,ng Frac,on Sense © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Beyond Pizzas & Pies:
10 Essen,al Strategies for
Suppor,ng Frac,on Sense
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#1 Provide opportuni.es for students to work with irregularly par .. oned, and unpar .. oned,
#1
Provide opportuni.es for students to work with
irregularly par
..
oned,
and unpar
..
oned,
areas, lengths, and number lines.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#2 Provide opportuni.es for students to inves.gate, assess, and refine mathema.cal rules and generaliza.ons. © 2010
#2
Provide opportuni.es for students to
inves.gate, assess, and refine mathema.cal
rules and generaliza.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#3 Provide opportuni.es for students to recognize equivalent frac.ons as different ways to name the same
#3
Provide opportuni.es for students to recognize
equivalent frac.ons as different ways to name
the same quan.ty.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#4 Provide opportuni.es for students to work with changing units. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
#4
Provide opportuni.es for students to work with
changing units.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#5 Provide opportuni.es for students to develop their understanding of the importance of context in frac.on
#5
Provide opportuni.es for students to develop
their understanding of the importance of
context in frac.on comparison tasks.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#6 Provide meaningful opportuni.es for students to translate between frac.on and decimal nota.on. © 2010 Math
#6
Provide meaningful opportuni.es for students
to translate between frac.on and decimal
nota.on.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#7 Provide opportuni.es for students to translate between different frac.on representa.ons. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
#7
Provide opportuni.es for students to translate
between different frac.on representa.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#8 •  Provide students with mul.ple strategies for comparing and reasoning about frac.ons. © 2010 Math
#8
•  Provide students with mul.ple strategies for
comparing and reasoning about frac.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#9 •  Provide opportuni.es for students to engage in mathema.cal discourse and share and discuss their
#9
•  Provide opportuni.es for students to engage
in mathema.cal discourse and share and
discuss their mathema.cal ideas, even those
that may not be fully formed or completely
accurate.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#10 •  Provide opportuni.es for students to build on their reasoning and sense making skills about
#10
•  Provide opportuni.es for students to build on
their reasoning and sense making skills about
frac.ons by working with a variety of
manipula.ves and tools, such as Cuisenaire
rods, Paiern Blocks, Frac.on Kits, and
ordinary items from their lives.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
The Problem with Par oning: .. It’s Not Just About Coun.ng the Pieces © 2010 Math
The Problem with Par oning:
..
It’s Not Just About Coun.ng the
Pieces
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on of the square is shaded? Tell me how you know. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on of the square is
shaded? Tell me how you know.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Grade 4 student ‐ Hannah © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Grade 4 student ‐ Hannah
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Grade 4 student ‐ Jose © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Grade 4 student ‐ Jose
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What frac.on is shown by B? © 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on is shown by B?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on is shown by B? © 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on is shown by B?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#1 Provide opportuni.es for students to work with irregularly par .. oned, and unpar .. oned,
#1
Provide opportuni.es for students to work with
irregularly par
..
oned,
and unpar
..
oned,
areas, lengths, and number lines.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Unpar .. oned areas and number lines. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Unpar
..
oned
areas and
number lines.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Unequally par .. oned areas and number lines © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Unequally par
..
oned
areas and
number lines
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Top or Boiom: Which One Maiers? © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Top or Boiom:
Which One Maiers?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Circle the larger frac.on. Explain your answer. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Circle the larger frac.on.
Explain your answer.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
“If the denominator is smaller, the piece is bigger.” © 2010 Math Solu.ons
“If the denominator is smaller, the
piece is bigger.”
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on of the square is shaded? Tell me how you know. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
What frac.on of the square is
shaded? Tell me how you know.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
“This one is bigger because there is more pieces.” © 2010 Math Solu.ons
“This one is bigger because there is
more pieces.”
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#2 Provide opportuni.es for students to inves.gate, assess, and refine mathema.cal rules and generaliza.ons. © 2010
#2
Provide opportuni.es for students to
inves.gate, assess, and refine mathema.cal
rules and generaliza.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
•  Is it always true? •  What do you think of ___________ ’s answer? © 2010
•  Is it always true?
•  What do you think of
___________
’s
answer?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Understanding Equivalency: How Can Double Be the Same? © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Understanding Equivalency:
How Can Double Be the Same?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#3 •  Provide opportuni.es for students to recognize equivalent frac.ons as different ways to name the
#3
•  Provide opportuni.es for students to
recognize equivalent frac.ons as different
ways to name the same quan.ty.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Measure the marker with brown rods © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Measure the marker with
brown rods
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
1 and 2/4 brown rods © 2010 Math Solu.ons
1 and 2/4 brown rods
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
1 4/8 brown rods © 2010 Math Solu.ons
1 4/8 brown rods
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Comparing Frac.ons: Do You Always Need a Common Denominator? © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Comparing Frac.ons: Do You Always
Need a Common Denominator?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Use a common denominator to compare the frac.ons below. © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Use a common denominator to
compare the frac.ons below.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
#8 •  Provide students with mul.ple strategies for comparing and reasoning about frac.ons. © 2010 Math
#8
•  Provide students with mul.ple strategies for
comparing and reasoning about frac.ons.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Using the Cuisenaire Rods to Par77on the Number Lines 0 1 Find a rod that fits
Using the Cuisenaire Rods to
Par77on the Number Lines
0
1
Find a rod that fits on the number
line exactly two ,mes.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Using the Cuisenaire Rods to Par77on the Number Lines 1 0 © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Using the Cuisenaire Rods to
Par77on the Number Lines
1
0
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Mark ½ on the number line 1 0 2/2 0/2 1/2 Con.nue using the rods to
Mark ½ on the number line
1
0
2/2
0/2
1/2
Con.nue using the rods to mark thirds, fourths,
sixths, and twelwhs on the other lines.
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Inves.ga.ng Benchmark Frac.ons © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Inves.ga.ng Benchmark Frac.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Frac7ons Equal to ½ •  What do you no.ce about all of the frac.ons that are
Frac7ons Equal to ½
•  What do you no.ce about all of the frac.ons
that are equal to ½?
•  How does the numerator compare to the
denominator?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Which of these frac.ons can be compared by using ½ as a benchmark? © 2010 Math
Which of these frac.ons can be compared
by using ½ as a benchmark?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Using Benchmarks •  What other benchmarks could students use to compare 2 frac.ons? •  How could
Using Benchmarks
•  What other benchmarks could students use to
compare 2 frac.ons?
•  How could benchmarks help students with
frac.on opera.ons?
•  How does the use of benchmarks support the
development of students’ frac.on sense?
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Frac.on Sense Strategies for Comparing Frac.ons © 2010 Math Solu.ons
Frac.on Sense Strategies for
Comparing Frac.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
Thank you! To access the slides for this presenta.on, please go to: mathsolu.ons.com/presenta.ons © 2010 Math
Thank you!
To access the slides for this
presenta.on, please go to:
mathsolu.ons.com/presenta.ons
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
What is Frac.on Sense? “Frac.on sense implies a deep and flexible understanding of frac.ons that is
What is Frac.on Sense?
“Frac.on sense implies a deep and flexible
understanding of frac.ons that is not
dependent on any one context or type of
problem. Frac.on sense is .ed to common
sense: Students with frac.on sense can reason
about frac.ons and don’t apply rules and
procedures blindly ‐ nor do they give
nonsensical answers to problems involving
frac.ons.”
© 2010 Math Solu.ons
mathsolu.ons.com 800.868.9092 info@mathsolu.ons.com © 2010 Math Solu.ons
mathsolu.ons.com
800.868.9092
info@mathsolu.ons.com
© 2010 Math Solu.ons