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Module

1

Classification of Metal Removal Processes and Machine tools

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

1

Introduction to Manufacturing and Machining

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Instructional objectives

At the end of this lesson, the student would be able to :

(i)

Identify the necessity of “manufacturing”

(ii)

Define with examples the concept of “manufacturing”

(iii)

List the main classifications of the manufacturing processes with examples

(iv)

State the main purposes of “machining”

(v)

Define with examples the concept of “machining”

(vi)

State with example the principles of “machining”

(vii)

State with examples the main requirements for “machining”

(viii)

State with examples the main functions of “Machine tools”

(ix)

Define the concept of “machine tools”

(i) Manufacturing – Need and concept

The progress and the prosperity of human civilization are governed and judged mainly by improvement and maintenance of standard of living through availability or production of ample and quality goods and services for men’s material welfare (MMW) in all respects covering housing, clothing, medicine, education, transport, communication and also entertainment. The successful creation of men’s material welfare (MMW) depends mainly on

availability of natural resources (NR)

exertion of human effort (HE); both physical and mental

development and use of power tools and machines (Tools),

This can be depicted in a simple form, MMW = NR(HE) TOOLS where, NR: refers to air, water, heat and light, plants and animals and solid and liquid minerals TOOLS: refers to power plants, chemical plants, steel plants, machine tools etc. which magnify human capability. This clearly indicates the important roles of the components; NR, HE and TOOLS on achieving MMW and progress of civilization.

Production or manufacturing can be simply defined as value addition processes by which raw materials of low utility and value due to its inadequate material properties and poor or irregular size, shape and finish are converted into high utility and valued products with definite dimensions, forms and finish imparting some functional ability. A typical example of manufacturing is schematically shown in Fig. 1.1.

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A lump of mild steel of irregular shape, dimensions and surface, which had

almost no use and value, has been converted into a useful and valuable product like bolt by a manufacturing process which imparted suitable features, dimensional accuracy and surface finish, required for fulfilling some functional requirements.

Value added
Value added

Fig. 1.1 Value addition by manufacturing.

Production Engineering covers two domains:

(a)

Production or Manufacturing Processes

(b)

Production Management

(a) Manufacturing Processes

This refers to science and technology of manufacturing products effectively,

efficiently, economically and environment-friendly through

Application of any existing manufacturing process and system

Proper selection of input materials, tools, machines and environments.

Improvement of the existing materials and processes

Development of new materials, systems, processes and techniques

All such manufacturing processes, systems, techniques have to be

Technologically acceptable

Technically feasible

Economically viable

Eco-friendly

Manufacturing Science and technology are growing exponentially to meet the growing demands for;

(i) Increase and maintenance of productivity, quality and economy specially in respect of liberalisation and global competitiveness

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(ii)

Making micro and ultra precision components for the modern electronics,

computers and medical applications (iii) Processing exotic materials, coming up with rapid and vast advent of science and technology like aerospace and nuclear engineering.

(b) Production Management

This is also equally important and essential in the manufacturing world. It mainly

refers to planning, coordination and control of the entire manufacturing in most profitable way with maximum satisfaction to the customers by best utilization of the available resources like man, machine, materials and money. It may be possible to manufacture a product of given material and desired configuration by several processes or routes as schematically indicated in Fig.

1.2.

Processes Input Output (raw material) (product)
Processes
Input
Output
(raw material)
(product)

Fig. 1.2 Possibility of manufacturing in number of routes.

The various process routes may be different in respect of principle, technique, quality of products and time requirement and cost of manufacture. The best one is to be selected based on some criteria. Achieving the goal in manufacturing requires fulfillment of one or more of the following objectives:

reduction of manufacturing time

increase of productivity

reduction of manufacturing cost

increase in profit or profit rate

The most significant and ultimate objective, i.e., “Increase in Profit, P r ”, can be attained by

(i)

reducing the overall manufacturing cost, C m

(ii)

increase in revenue, R by increasing quality and reliability of the products

(iii)

enhancement of saleable production

As has been indicated in Fig. 1.3

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(i) R Profit C (ii) (iii) Q* Manufacturing cost, C T
(i)
R
Profit
C
(ii)
(iii)
Q*
Manufacturing cost, C T

m

Volume of production, Q

Fig. 1.3

Strategies of increasing profit.

Production management integrates and accomplishes all such essential activities leading to maximum benefits by best utilization of the resources and strategies.

(ii) Broad classification of Engineering Manufacturing Processes.

It is extremely difficult to tell the exact number of various manufacturing processes existing and are being practiced presently because a spectacularly large number of processes have been developed till now and the number is still increasing exponentially with the growing demands and rapid progress in science and technology. However, all such manufacturing processes can be broadly classified in four major groups as follows:

(a)

Shaping or forming Manufacturing a solid product of definite size and shape from a given material taken in three possible states:

in solid state – e.g., forging rolling, extrusion, drawing etc.

in liquid or semi-liquid state – e.g., casting, injection moulding etc.

in powder form – e.g., powder metallurgical process.

(b)

Joining process Welding, brazing, soldering etc.

(c)

Removal process Machining (Traditional or Non-traditional), Grinding etc.

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(d) Regenerative manufacturing Production of solid products in layer by layer from raw materials in different form:

liquid

powder – e.g., selective sintering

– e.g., LOM (laminated object manufacturing)

– e.g., FDM. (Fused Deposition Modelling)

e.g., stereo lithography

sheet

wire

Out of the aforesaid groups, Regenerative Manufacturing is the latest one which is generally accomplished very rapidly and quite accurately using CAD and CAM for Rapid Prototyping and Tooling.

(iii) Machining – Purpose, Principle and Definition

(a) Purpose of Machining

Most of the engineering components such as gears, bearings, clutches, tools, screws and nuts etc. need dimensional and form accuracy and good surface finish for serving their purposes. Preforming like casting, forging etc. generally cannot provide the desired accuracy and finish. For that such preformed parts, called blanks, need semi-finishing and finishing and it is done by machining and grinding. Grinding is also basically a machining process.

Machining to high accuracy and finish essentially enables a product

fulfill its functional requirements

improve its performance

prolong its service

(b) Principle of Machining

The basic principle of machining is typically illustrated in Fig. 1.4.

BLANK PRODUCT V c t Feed,s o TOOL
BLANK
PRODUCT
V
c
t
Feed,s o
TOOL

Fig. 1.4 Principle of machining (turning)

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A metal rod of irregular shape, size and surface is converted into a finished rod of

desired dimension and surface by machining by proper relative motions of the tool-work pair. (c) Definition of Machining: Machining is an essential process of finishing by which jobs are produced to the desired dimensions and surface finish by gradually removing the excess material from the preformed blank in the form of

chips with the help of cutting tool(s) moved past the work surface(s).

(iv) Machining requirements

The essential basic requirements for machining work are schematically illustrated

in Fig. 1.5

Power Blank Product Machine Machining Process Fixture Tools Environment Correction Analysis
Power
Blank
Product
Machine
Machining Process
Fixture
Tools
Environment
Correction
Analysis

Fig. 1.5 Requirements for machining

The blank and the cutting tool are properly mounted (in fixtures) and moved in a powerful device called machine tool enabling gradual removal of layer of material from the work surface resulting in its desired dimensions and surface finish. Additionally some environment called cutting fluid is generally used to ease machining by cooling and lubrication.

(v) Basic functions of Machine Tools

Machine Tools basically produce geometrical surfaces like flat, cylindrical or any contour on the preformed blanks by machining work with the help of cutting tools. The physical functions of a Machine Tool in machining are:

firmly holding the blank and the tool

transmit motions to the tool and the blank

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provide power to the tool-work pair for the machining action.

control of the machining parameters, i.e., speed, feed and depth of cut.

(vi) Machine Tool - definition

A machine tool is a non-portable power operated and reasonably valued device or system of devices in which energy is expended to produce jobs of desired size, shape and surface finish by removing excess material from the preformed blanks in the form of chips with the help of cutting tools moved past the work surface(s).

A. Quiz Test:

Select the correct answer from the given four possible answers: -

1. Machining is a

(a)

shaping process

(b)

removal process

(c)

regenerative process

(d)

joining process.

2. An object is machined to

(a)

fulfill its functional requirement

(b)

provide desirably good performance

(c)

render longer service life

(d)

all of the above.

3. Feed rate is expressed in turning operation by

(a)

mm/revolution

(b)

mm/stroke

(c)

mm per min

(d)

none of the above.

4. Rapid prototyping is a

(a)

joining process

(b)

removal process

(c)

regenerative manufacturing process

(d)

finishing process.

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B.

Exercises:

1. What should be the aims and objectives in manufacturing of any product?

2. Justify “Machining is a value addition process”.

3. Why even a battery operated pencil sharpener cannot be accepted as a machine tool?

4. Why is making profit must for any industry ?

Answers of the given questions.

A.

1.

– (b)

2.

– (d)

3.

– (a)

4.

– (c)

B.

Ans. 1 Aim – enhance profit rate and job opportunity

Ans.2

Ans. 3

Ans. 4

Objectives –

• reduce manufacturing time

• increase rate of production

• reduce cost of manufacturing

• raise profit and profit rate

Preformed

Machining

Product

• raise profit and profit rate Preformed Machining Product • Poor quality • Less utility •
• raise profit and profit rate Preformed Machining Product • Poor quality • Less utility •

Poor quality

Less utility

Less value

Dimensional

accuracy

Good finish

High quality

High utility

High value

Inspite of having all other major features of machine tools, the sharpener is of low value.

For

Maintenance, repair & replacement

• Modernisation

• Increase salary / incentive

• Expansion

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Module

1

Classification of Metal Removal Processes and Machine tools

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

2

Basic working principle, configuration, specification and classification of machine tools

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives

At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to :

(a)

Describe the basic functional principles of machine tools

(i)

Illustrate the concept of Generatrix and Directrix

(ii)

Demonstrate Tool – work motions

(iii)

Give idea about machine tool drives

(b)

Show configuration of basic machine tools and state their uses

(c)

Give examples of machine tools - specification

(d)

Classify machine tools broadly.

Basic functional principles of machine tool operations

Machine Tools produce desired geometrical surfaces on solid bodies (preformed blanks) and for that they are basically comprised of;

Devices for firmly holding the tool and work

Drives for providing power and motions to the tool and work

Kinematic system to transmit motion and power from the sources to the tool-work

Automation and control systems

Structural body to support and accommodate those systems with sufficient strength and rigidity. For material removal by machining, the work and the tool need relative movements and those motions and required power are derived from the power source(s) and transmitted through the kinematic system(s) comprised of a number and type of mechanisms.

(i) Concept of Generatrix and Directrix

Generation of flat surface

The principle is shown in Fig. 2.1 where on a flat plain a straight line called

Generatrix (G) is traversed in a perpendicular direction called Directrix (D) resulting a flat surface.

Generation of cylindrical surfaces

The principles of production of various cylindrical surfaces (of revolution) are shown in Fig. 2.2, where,

A long straight cylindrical surface is obtained by a circle (G) being traversed in the direction (D) parallel to the axis as shown in Fig. 2.2(a)

A cylindrical surface of short length is obtained by traversing a straight line (G) along a circular path (D) as indicated in Fig.

2.2(b)

Form cylindrical surfaces by rotating a curved line (G) in a circular path (D) as indicated in Fig. 2.2 (c and d).

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D (a) G D G (b) Fig. 2.1 Generation of flat surfac es by Generatrix

D

(a)

G

D

D (a) G D G (b) Fig. 2.1 Generation of flat surfac es by Generatrix and

G

(b)

Fig. 2.1 Generation of flat surfaces by Generatrix and Directrix.

Generation of flat surfac es by Generatrix and Directrix. Fig. 2.2 Generation of cylindrical surfaces (of

Fig. 2.2 Generation of cylindrical surfaces (of revolution)

(ii) Tool – work motions

The lines representing the Generatrix and Directrix are usually produced by the locus of a point moving in two different directions and are actually obtained by the motions of the tool-tip (point) relative to the work surface. Hence, for machining flat or curved surfaces the machine tools need relative tool work motions, which are categorized in following two groups:

Formative motions namely

Cutting motion (CM)

Feed motion (FM)

Auxiliary motions such as

Indexing motion

Additional feed motion

Relieving motion

The Generatrix and Directrix, tool and the work and their motions generally remain interconnected and in different way for different machining work. Such interconnections are typically shown in Fig. 2.3 for straight turning and in Fig. 2.4 for shaping.

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Cutting motion G D Feed motion (a) longitudinal turning
Cutting motion
G
D
Feed motion
(a) longitudinal turning

CM

D G FM
D
G
FM

(b)

transverse turning

Fig. 2.3 Principle of turning (cylindrical surface)

The connections in case of straight longitudinal turning shown in Fig. 2.3 (a) are:

Generatrix (G) – Cutting motion (CM) – Work (W)

Directrix (D) – Feed motion (FM)

– Tool (T)

tool work G D CM FM
tool
work
G
D
CM
FM

Desired flat

surface

Fig. 2.4 Principle of producing flat surface in shaping machine

In case of making flat surface in a shaping machine as shown in Fig. 2.4 the connections are:

G

– CM – T

D

– FM – W

which indicates that in shaping flat surfaces the Generatrix is provided by the cutting motion imparted to the cutting tool and the Directrix is provided by the feed motion of the work.

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Flat surfaces are also produced by planning machines, mainly for large jobs, where the cutting motion is imparted to the work and feed motion to the tool and the connections will be:

G

– CM – Work

D

– FM – Tool

The Genratrix and Directrix can be obtained in four ways:

Tracing (Tr) – where the continuous line is attained as a trace of path of a moving point as shown in Fig. 2.3 and Fig. 2.4.

Forming (F) – where the Generatrix is simply the profile of the cutting edge as indicated in Fig. 2.2 (c and d)

Tangent Tracing (TTr) – where the Directrix is taken as the tangent to the series of paths traced by the cutting edges as indicated in Fig. 2.5.

Generation (G): Here the G or D is obtained as an envelope being tangent to the instantaneous positions of a line or surface which is rolling on another surface. Gear teeth generation by hobbing or gear shaping is the example as can be seen in Fig. 2.6.

Fig. 2.5 typically shows the tool-work motions and the corresponding Generatrix (G) and Directrix (D) while producing flat surface by a plain or slab milling cutter in a conventional horizontal arbour type milling machine. The G and D are connected here with the tool work motions as

G

– x – T – F

D

– FM – W – T.Tr CM – T

Here G and D are independent of the cutting motion and the G is the line of contact between the milling cutter and the flat work surface. The present cutter being of roller shape, G has been a straight line and the surface produced has also been flat. Form milling cutters will produce similar formed surfaces as shown in Fig. 2.7 where the ‘G’ is the tool-form.

as shown in Fig. 2.7 where the ‘G’ is the tool-form. Fig. 2.5 Directrix formed by

Fig. 2.5 Directrix formed by tangent tracing in plain milling

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Fig. 2.6 Generatrix (or Directrix) in gear teeth cutting by generation. Fig. 2.7 Tool-work motions

Fig. 2.6 Generatrix (or Directrix) in gear teeth cutting by generation.

(or Directrix) in gear teeth cutting by generation. Fig. 2.7 Tool-work motions and G & D

Fig. 2.7 Tool-work motions and G & D in form milling

For making holes in drilling machines both the cutting motion and the feed motion are imparted to the cutting tool i.e., the drill bit whereas the workpiece remains stationary. This is shown in Fig. 2.8. The G and D are linked with the tool-work in the way:

G

– CM – T – Tr

D

– FM – W – Tr

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CM G FM D G D
CM
G
FM
D
G
D

Fig. 2.8 Tool-work motions and G & D in drilling.

B oring machines are mostly used for enlargement and finishing of existing cylindrical holes. Boring machines are of two types:

Vertical boring machine – low or medium duty and high precision, e.g., Jig boring machine

Horizontal axis borin

g machine – medium or heavy duty.

In

same. In horizontal boring machine the feed motion is imparted to the work to provide the Directrix by Tracing.

respect of tool-work motions and G and D, vertical boring and drilling are

(i

ii)

Machine tool drives

F or the desired tool-work motions with power, machine tools are driven by electric motors and use of some mechanisms like belt-pulley, gears etc. In some machine tools, the tool-work motions are provided by hydraulic drive also.

M achine tools essentially need wide ranges of cutting speed and feed rate to enable

M achining different jobs (material and size)

Using different cutting tools (material, geome try and size)

Various machining operations like high speed turning t o low speed thread cutting in lathes

Degree of surface finish

desired.

M achine tool drives may be

o

Stepped drive

o

Stepless drive

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Stepped drives are very common in conventional machine tools where a discrete number of speeds and feeds are available and preferably in G.P. (Geometric Progression) series. Whereas the modern CNC machine tools are provided with stepless drives enabling optimum selection and flexibly automatic control of the speeds and feeds.

Stepped drive is attained by using gear boxes or cone pulley (old method) along with the power source. Stepless drive is accomplished usually by

Variable speed AC or DC motors

Stepper or servomotors

Hydraulic power pack

Configuration of Basic Machine Tools and their use

Centre lathes configuration

-

Fig. 2.9 shows the general configuration of center lathe. Its major parts are:

o

Head stock: it holds the blank and through that power and rotation are transmitted to the job at different speeds

o

tailstock: supports longer blanks and often accommodates tools like drills, reamers etc for hole making.

o

carriage: accommodates the tool holder which in turn holds the moving tools

o

bed: Δ headstock is fixed and tailstock is clamped on it. Tailstock has a provision to slide and facilitate operations at different locations

Δ

carriage travels on the bed

o

columns: on which the bed is fixed

o

work-tool holding devices

uses of center lathes

Centre lathes are quite versatile being used for various operations:

external ⎯ turning internal
external
⎯ turning
internal

straight

taper

stepped

facing, centering, drilling, recessing and parting

thread cutting; external and internal knurling. Some of those common operations are shown in Fig. 2.10. Several other operations can also be done in center lathes using suitable attachments.

Shaping machine Fig. 2.11 shows the general configuration of shaping machine. Its major parts are:

o

Ram: it holds and imparts cutting motion to the tool through reciprocation

o

Bed: it holds and imparts feed motions to the job (blank)

o

Housing with base: the basic structure and also accommodate the drive mechanisms

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o Power drive with speed and feed change mechanisms.

Shaping machines are generally used for producing flat surfaces, grooving, splitting etc. Because of poor productivity and process capability these machine tools are not widely used now-a-days for production.

tool post job tool headstock tailstock saddle rack leadscrew feedrod bed
tool post
job
tool
headstock
tailstock
saddle
rack
leadscrew
feedrod
bed

Fig. 2.9 Schematic view of a center lathe

turning facing grooving forming threadin Fig. 2.10 Some common machining operations done in center Lathes.
turning
facing
grooving
forming
threadin
Fig. 2.10 Some common machining operations done in center
Lathes.
External
Internal

Fig. 2.10 Some common machining operations done in center lathes.

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clapperbox ram tool housing Power drive bed base
clapperbox
ram
tool
housing
Power drive
bed
base
clapperbox ram tool housing Power drive bed base Job Vice Fig. 2.11 Schematic view of a

Job

Vice

Fig. 2.11 Schematic view of a shaping machine

Planing machine The general configuration is schematically shown in Fig. 2.12. This machine tool also does the same operations like shaping machine but the major differences are:

o

In planing the job reciprocates for cutting motion and the tool moves slowly for the feed motions unlike in shaping machine.

o

Planing machines are usually very large in size and used for large jobs and heavy duty work.

Drilling machine Fig. 2.13 shows general configuration of drilling machine, column drill in particular. The salient parts are

o

Column with base: it is the basic structure to hold the other parts

o

Drilling head: this box type structure accommodates the power drive and the speed and feed gear boxes.

o

Spindle: holds the drill and transmits rotation and axial translation to the tool for providing cutting motion and feed motion – both to the drill.

Drilling machines are available in varying size and configuration such as pillar drill, column drill, radial drill, micro-drill etc. but in working principle all are more or less the same. Drilling machines are used:

o Mainly for drilling (originating or enlarging cylindrical holes)

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o

Occasionally for boring, counter boring, counter sinking etc.

o

Also for cutting internal threads in parts like nuts using suitable attachment.

frame tool Job power bed drive base
frame
tool
Job
power
bed
drive
base

table

Fig. 2.12 Schematic view of a planning machine

Feed change Speed lever Spindle Column Drill Job bed base
Feed
change
Speed
lever
Spindle
Column
Drill
Job
bed
base

change lever

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Fig. 2.13 Schematic view of a drilling machine

Milling machine

knee type conventional milling

machine with horizontal arbour is shown in Fig. 2.14. Its major parts are

The

general

configuration

of

o

Milling arbour: to hold and rotate the cutter

o

Ram: to support the arbour

o

Machine table: on which job and job holding devices are mounted to provide the feed motions to the job.

o

Power drive with Speed and gear boxes: to provide power and motions to the tool-work

o

Bed: which moves vertically upward and downward and accommodates the various drive mechanisms

o

Column with base: main structural body to support other parts.

ram Speed Gear Box Feed GB MOTOR base
ram
Speed
Gear
Box
Feed
GB
MOTOR
base

job

Cutter

Fig. 2.14 Schematic view of a milling machine

Milling machines are also quite versatile and can do several operations like

o

making flat surfaces

o

grooving, slitting and parting

o

helical grooving

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o forming 2-D and 3-D contoured surfaces

Fig. 2.15 shows some of the aforesaid milling operations.

Fig. 2.15 shows some of the aforesaid milling operations. surfacing slotting slitting gr ooving forming Fig.

surfacing

slotting

slitting

grooving

forming

Fig. 2.15 Some common milling operation

Specification of Machine Tools.

A machine tool may have a large number of various features and characteristics. But only some specific salient features are used for specifying a machine tool. All the manufacturers, traders and users must know how are machine tools specified.

The methods of specification of some basic machine tools are as follows:

o

Centre lathe

Maximum

diameter

and

length

of

the

jobs

that

can

be

accommodated

 

Power of the main drive (motor)

 

Range of spindle speeds

 

Range of feeds

 

Space occupied by the machine.

 

o

Shaping machine

 

Length, breadth and depth of the bed

 

Maximum axial travel of the bed and vertical travel of the bed / tool

Maximum length of the stroke (of the ram / tool)

 

Range of number of strokes per minute

 

Range of table feed

 

Power of the main drive

 

Space occupied by the machine

 

o

Drilling machine (column type)

 

Maximum drill size (diameter) that can be used

Size and taper of the hole in the spindle

Range of spindle speeds

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Range of feeds

Power of the main drive

Range of the axial travel of the spindle / bed

Floor space occupied by the machine

o Milling machine (knee type and with arbour)

Type; ordinary or swiveling bed type

Size of the work table

Range of travels of the table in X-Y-Z directions

Arbour size (diameter)

Power of the main drive

Range of spindle speed

Range of table feeds in X-Y-Z directions

Floor space occupied.

Broad classification of Machine Tools

Number of types of machine tools gradually increased till mid 20 th century and after that started decreasing based on Group Technology. However, machine tools are broadly classified as follows:

According to direction of major axis :

o

horizontal center lathe, horizontal boring machine etc.

o

vertical – vertical lathe, vertical axis milling machine etc.

o

inclined – special ( e.g. for transfer machines).

According to purpose of use :

o

general purpose – e.g. center lathes, milling machines, drilling machines etc.

o

single purpose – e.g. facing lathe, roll turning lathe etc.

o

special purpose – for mass production.

According to degree of automation

o

non-automatic – e.g. center lathes, drilling machines etc.

o

semi-automatic – capstan lathe, turret lathe, hobbinh machine etc.

o

automatic – e.g., single spindle automatic lathe, swiss type automatic lathe, CNC milling machine etc.

According to size :

o

heavy duty – e.g., heavy duty lathes (e.g. 55 kW), boring mills, planning machine, horizontal boring machine etc.

o

medium duty – e.g., lathes – 3.7 ~ 11 kW, column drilling machines, milling machines etc.

o

small duty – e.g., table top lathes, drilling machines, milling machines.

o

micro duty – e.g., micro-drilling machine etc.

According to precision :

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o

ordinary – e.g., automatic lathes

o

high precision – e.g., Swiss type automatic lathes

According to number of spindles :

o

single spindle – center lathes, capstan lathes, milling machines etc.

o

multi-spindle – multispindle (2 to 8) lathes, gang drilling machines etc.

According to blank type :

o

bar type (lathes)

o

chucking type (lathes)

o

housing type

According to type of automation :

o

fixed automation – e.g., single spindle and multispindle lathes

o

flexible automation – e.g., CNC milling machine

According to configuration :

o

stand alone type – most of the conventional machine tools.

o

machining system (more versatile) – e.g., transfer machine, machining center, FMS etc.

Exercise – 2

1. Show the tool-work motions and the Generatrix and Directrix in external thread cutting in centre lathe. Also state how those ‘G’ & ‘D’ are obtained.

2. In which conventional machine tools flat surface can be produced ?

3. State the major differences between shaping machine and planing machine.

4. In which machine tools both the cutting motion & the feed motion are imparted to the tool ?

5. How is feed expressed in turning, shaping, drilling and milling ?

Answers

Ans. Q 1

G CM D FM
G
CM
D
FM

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G – x – T

D – (CM+FM) – (T+W) - T

– F

Ans. Q. 2 Flat surfaces can be produced in

• centre lathes – e.g., facing

• shaping, slotting and planing machines

• milling machines

Ans. Q. 3

Shaping machine

Planing machine

o

for small and medium size jobs

o

for medium and large size jobs

o

tool reciprocates and provide

o

job on table reciprocates and provide CM

 

CM

o

feed motion is given to the job

o

feed motion is given to the tool

o

G

– CM – T – Tr

o

G

– CM – W – Tr

D

– FM – W – Tr

D

– FM – T – Tr

Ans. Q. 4

Both CM and FM are imparted to the tool in

drilling machine

vertical boring machine

Ans. Q. 5

• turning – mm/rev

• shaping – mm/stroke

• drilling machine – mm/rev

• milling machine – mm/min

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Module

2

Mechanics of Machining (Metal Cutting)

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Lesson

3

Geometry of single point cutting tools

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Instructional objectives

At the end of this lesson, the student should be able to :

(a)

conceive rake angle and clearance angle of cutting tools

(b)

classify systems of description of tool geometry

(c)

demonstrate tool geometry and define tool angles in :

Machine Reference System

Orthogonal Rake System and

Normal Rake System

(d)

designate cutting tool geometry in ASA, ORS and NRS

Geometry of single point turning tools

Both material and geometry of the cutting tools play very important roles on their performances in achieving effectiveness, efficiency and overall economy of machining. Cutting tools may be classified according to the number of major cutting edges (points) involved as follows:

Single point: e.g., turning tools, shaping, planning and slotting tools and boring tools

Double (two) point: e.g., drills

Multipoint (more than two): e.g., milling cutters, broaching tools, hobs, gear shaping cutters etc.

(i) Concept of rake and clearance angles of cutting tools.

The word tool geometry is basically referred to some specific angles or slope of the salient faces and edges of the tools at their cutting point. Rake angle and clearance angle are the most significant for all the cutting tools. The concept of rake angle and clearance angle will be clear from some simple operations shown in Fig. 3.1

Velocity

rake angle, vector,V C γ rake surface Clearance γ angle, α V C Flank surface
rake angle,
vector,V C
γ
rake surface
Clearance
γ
angle, α
V C
Flank surface
α
Flank surface

Ref. Plane (π R )

Reference plane (π R )

Cutting Velocity, V C

Rake face

Fig. 3.1 Rake and clearance angles of cutting tools.

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Definition - Rake angle (γ): Angle of inclination of rake surface from reference plane

clearance angle (α): Angle of inclination of clearance or flank surface from the finished surface Rake angle is provided for ease of chip flow and overall machining. Rake angle may be positive, or negative or even zero as shown in Fig. 3.2.

V C V C V C π R π R π R γ=0 +γ V
V C
V C
V C
π R
π R
π R
γ=0
V C
V C

+α

+α

+α

(a) positive rake

(b) zero rake

(c) negative rake

- γ

Fig. 3.2 Three possible types of rake angles

Relative advantages of such rake angles are:

Positive rake – helps reduce cutting force and thus cutting power requirement.

Negative rake – to increase edge-strength and life of the tool

Zero rake – to simplify design and manufacture of the form tools.

Clearance angle is essentially provided to avoid rubbing of the tool (flank) with

the machined surface which causes loss of energy and damages of both the tool and the job surface. Hence, clearance angle is a must and must be positive (3 o ~ 15 o depending upon tool-work materials and type of the machining operations like turning, drilling, boring etc.)

(ii) Systems of description of tool geometry

Tool-in-Hand System – where only the salient features of the cutting tool point are identified or visualized as shown in Fig. 3.3. There is no quantitative information, i.e., value of the angles.

Machine Reference System – ASA system

Tool Reference Systems

Orthogonal Rake System – ORS

Normal Rake System – NRS

Work Reference System – WRS

(iii)

Demonstration (expression) of tool geometry in :

Machine Reference System

This system is also called ASA system; ASA stands for American Standards Association. Geometry of a cutting tool refers mainly to its

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several angles or slope of its salient working surfaces and cutting edges. Those angles are expressed w.r.t. some planes of reference. In Machine Reference System (ASA), the three planes of reference and the coordinates are chosen based on the configuration and axes of the machine tool concerned. The planes and axes used for expressing tool geometry in ASA system for turning operation are shown in Fig. 3.4.

in ASA system for turning operation are shown in Fig. 3.4. rake surface principal cutting edge

rake surface

principal cutting edge

Auxiliary cutting edge

Tool nose
Tool nose

principal flank

Auxiliary flank (clearance) surface

(clearance) surface

Fig. 3.3

Basic features of single point tool (turning) in Tool-in-hand system

Z m ( ) V C Y m Y m X m X m π
Z m ( )
V
C
Y m
Y m
X m
X m
π X
π R
π Y
feed

Fig. 3.4

Planes and axes of reference in ASA system

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The planes of reference and the coordinates used in ASA system for tool geometry are :

where,

π R - π X - π Y

and X m – Y m - Z m

π R = Reference plane; plane perpendicular to the velocity vector (shown in Fig. 3.4)

π X = Machine longitudinal plane; plane perpendicular to π R and taken in the direction of assumed longitudinal feed

π Y = Machine Transverse plane; plane perpendicular to both π R and π X [This plane is taken in the direction of assumed cross feed] The axes X m , Y m and Z m are in the direction of longitudinal feed, cross feed and cutting velocity (vector) respectively. The main geometrical features and angles of single point tools in ASA systems and their definitions will be clear from Fig. 3.5.

Z m, V C

π X π Y π R γ X x m α π Y x Y
π
X
π
Y
π
R
γ
X
x
m
α
π
Y
x
Y m
π
φ
X
e
Y
m
Z
X
α
m
m
y
φ
s
π
R
π
X
π R
γ
y

Fig. 3.5 Tool angles in ASA system

Definition of:

Rake angles: [Fig. 3.5] in ASA system

γ x = side (axial rake: angle of inclination of the rake surface from the

reference plane (π R ) and measured on Machine Ref. Plane, π X .

γ y = back rake: angle of inclination of the rake surface from the reference

plane and measured on Machine Transverse plane, π Y .

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Clearance angles: [Fig. 3.5]

α x = side clearance: angle of inclination of the principal flank from the

machined surface (or

V

C ) and measured on π X plane.

α y = back clearance: same as α x but measured on π Y plane.

Cutting angles: [Fig. 3.5]

φ s = approach angle: angle between the principal cutting edge (its

projection on π R ) and π Y and measured on π R

φ e = end cutting edge angle: angle between the end cutting edge (its

projection on π R ) from π X and measured on π R

Nose radius, r (in inch)

r = nose radius : curvature of the tool tip. It provides strengthening of the

tool nose and better surface finish.

Tool Reference Systems

Orthogonal Rake System – ORS This system is also known as ISO – old. The planes of reference and the co-ordinate axes used for expressing the tool angles in ORS are:

π R - π C - π O

and X o - Y o - Z o

which are taken in respect of the tool configuration as indicated in Fig. 3.6

Z o ( ) V C Y o Y o X o o π C
Z o ( )
V
C
Y o
Y o
X o
o
π C
π R

X

Fig. 3.6

Planes and axes of reference in ORS

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where,

π R = Refernce plane perpendicular to the cutting velocity vector,

π C = cutting plane; plane perpendicular to π R and taken along the principal cutting edge

V

C

π O = Orthogonal plane; plane perpendicular to both π R and π C and the axes; X o = along the line of intersection of π R and π O Y o = along the line of intersection of π R and π C Z o = along the velocity vector, i.e., normal to both X o and Y o axes. The main geometrical angles used to express tool geometry in Orthogonal Rake System (ORS) and their definitions will be clear from Fig. 3.7.

π o π o
π o
π o

Fig. 3.7 Tool angles in ORS system

Definition of –

Rake angles [Fig. 3.7] in ORS

γ o = orthogonal rake:

angle of

inclination of the rake surface from

Reference plane, π R and measured on the orthogonal plane, π o

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λ = inclination angle; angle between π C from the direction of assumed longitudinal feed [π X ] and measured on π C

Clearance angles [Fig. 3.7]

α o = orthogonal clearance of the principal flank: angle of inclination of the principal flank from π C and measured on π o

α o = auxiliary orthogonal clearance: angle of inclination of the auxiliary flank from auxiliary cutting plane, π C and measured on auxiliary orthogonal plane, π o as indicated in Fig. 3.8.

Cutting angles [Fig. 3.7]

φ = principal cutting edge angle: angle between π C and the direction of assumed longitudinal feed or π X and measured on π R

φ 1 = auxiliary cutting angle: angle between π C and π X and measured on π R

Nose radius, r (mm) r = radius of curvature of tool tip

π C Y o C ' π o X o π o ' π C
π C
Y o
C '
π o
X o
π o '
π C '
X o '
π
o '
α o '
C
π
C '
Z
o '
Auxiliary
flank

Fig. 3.8 Auxiliary orthogonal clearance angle

Normal Rake System – NRS This system is also known as ISO – new. ASA system has limited advantage and use like convenience of inspection. But ORS is advantageously used for analysis and research in machining and tool performance. But ORS does not reveal the true picture of the tool geometry when the cutting edges are inclined from the reference plane, i.e., λ≠0. Besides, sharpening or resharpening, if necessary, of the tool by grinding in ORS requires some additional calculations for correction of angles.

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These two limitations of ORS are overcome by using NRS for description and use of tool geometry. The basic difference between ORS and NRS is the fact that in ORS, rake and

clearance angles are visualized in the orthogonal plane, π o , whereas in NRS those angles are visualized in another plane called Normal plane, π N . The orthogonal plane, π o is simply normal to π R and π C irrespective of the inclination of the cutting edges, i.e., λ, but π N (and π N ’ for auxiliary cutting edge) is always normal to the cutting edge. The differences between ORS and NRS have been depicted in Fig. 3.9. The planes of reference and the coordinates used in NRS are:

where,

and

π RN - π C - π N and

X n – Y n – Z n

π RN = normal reference plane = Normal plane: plane normal to the cutting edge

π

N

X n = X o Y n = cutting edge Z n = normal to X n and Y n

It is to be noted that when λ = 0, NRS and ORS become same, i.e. π o ≅π N , Y N Y o and Z n Z o . Definition (in NRS) of

Rake angles

γ n = normal rake: angle of inclination angle of the rake surface from π R and measured on normal plane, π N

α n = normal clearance: angle of inclination of the principal flank from π C and measured on π N

α n ’= auxiliary clearance angle: normal clearance of the auxiliary flank

(measured on π N ’ – plane normal to the auxiliary cutting edge. The cutting angles, φ and φ 1 and nose radius, r (mm) are same in ORS and NRS.

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π

π

π

A

n Y n Z o Z n π n (B-B) Z n α n Y
n
Y n
Z o
Z n
π n (B-B)
Z n
α n
Y o
X o , X n
γ n
Z
Y
o
o
Y n
π o (A-A)
π o
λ
γ o
α o
λ
λ
γ o
A
λ B
γ n
π C
π R

(a)

(b)

B n
B
n
o λ λ γ o A λ B γ n π C π R ( a

R

λ λ γ o A λ B γ n π C π R ( a )

Fig. 3.9 Differences of NRS from ORS w.r.t. cutting tool geometry.

(b) Designation of tool geometry

The geometry of a single point tool is designated or specified by a series of values of the salient angles and nose radius arranged in a definite sequence as follows:

Designation (signature) of tool geometry in

ASA System –

γ y , γ x , α y , α x , φ e , φ s , r (inch)

ORS System –

λ, γ o , α o , α o ’, φ 1 , φ, r (mm)

NRS System –

λ, γ n , α n , α n ’, φ 1 , φ, r (mm)

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Exercise – 3

Quiz Test:

Select the correct answer from the given four options :

1. Back rake of a turning tool is measured on its

(a)

machine longitudinal plane

(b)

machine transverse plane

(c)

orthogonal plane

(d)

normal plane

2. Normal rake and orthogonal rake of a turning tool will be same when its

(a)

φ

= 0

(b)

φ 1 = 0

(c)

λ = 0

(d)

φ 1 = 90 o

3. Normal plane of a turning tool is always perpendicular to its

(a)

π X plane

(b)

π Y plane

(c)

π C plane

(d)

none of them

4. Principal cutting edge angle of any turning tool is measured on its

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

π

π

π

π

R

Y

X

o

5. A cutting tool can never have its

(a)

rake angle – positive

(b)

rake angle – negative

(c)

clearance angle – positive

(d)

clearance angle – negative

6. Orthogonal clearance and side clearance of a turning tool will be same if its perpendicular cutting edge angle is

(a)

φ

= 30 o

(b)

φ

= 45 o

(c)

φ

= 60 o

(d)

φ = 90 o

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7.

Inclination angle of a turning tool is measured on its

(a)

reference plane

(b)

cutting plane

(c)

orthogonal plane

(d)

normal plane

8. Normal rake and side rake of a turning tool will be same if its

(a)

φ

= 0 o and λ = 0 o

(b)

φ

= 90 o and λ = 0 o

(c)

φ

= 90 o and λ = 90 o

(d)

φ = 0 o and λ = 90 o

Answer of the objective questions

1 – (b)

2 – (c)

3 – (c)

4 – (a)

5 – (d)

6 – (d)

7 – (b)

8 – (b)

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Module

2

Mechanics of Machining

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

4

Conversion of tool angles from one system

to another

Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional objectives

At the end of this lesson the students should be able to

(i)

State the purposes of conversion of tool angles

(ii)

Identify the four different methods of conversion of tool angles

(iii)

Employ the graphical method for conversion of

• Rake angles

• clearance angles

Cutting angles From ASA to ORS and ORS to ASA systems

(iv)

Convert rake angle and clearance angle from ORS to NRS

(v)

Demonstrate tool angle’s relationship in some critical conditions.

(i) Purposes of conversion of tool angles from one system

to another

To understand the actual tool geometry in any system of choice or convenience from the geometry of a tool expressed in any other systems

To derive the benefits of the various systems of tool designation as and when required

Communication of the same tool geometry between people following different tool designation systems.

(ii) Methods of conversion of tool angles from one system

to another

Analytical (geometrical) method: simple but tedious

Graphical method – Master line principle: simple, quick and popular

Transformation matrix method: suitable for complex tool geometry

Vector method: very easy and quick but needs concept of vectors

(iii) Conversion of tool angles by Graphical method –

Master Line principle.

This convenient and popular method of conversion of tool angles from ASA to ORS and vice-versa is based on use of Master lines (ML) for the rake surface and the clearance surfaces.

Conversion of rake angles

The concept and construction of ML for the tool rake surface is shown in Fig. 4.1.

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Z m

X m γ T x π X O ' Z o X D' Z o
X
m
γ
T
x
π
X
O
'
Z
o
X
D'
Z o
o
Y o
π
C
Master line for
rake surface
γ
o
π
O
'
Y
O
'
o
m
π
X
o
R
Y
T
o
C'
Y
m
O
O '
X
Z m
m
λ
φ
D
π
γ
y
Y
π
R
C
π
R
T
A'
B
B'
T
A

Fig. 4.1 Master line for rake surface (with all rake angles: positive)

In Fig. 4.1, the rake surface, when extended along π X plane, meets the tool’s bottom surface (which is parallel to π R ) at point D’ i.e. D in the plan view. Similarly when the same tool rake surface is extended along π Y , it meets the tool’s bottom surface at point B’ i.e., at B in plan view. Therefore, the straight line obtained by joining B and D is nothing but the line of intersection of the rake surface with the tool’s bottom surface which is also parallel to π R . Hence, if the rake surface is extended in any direction, its meeting point with the tool’s bottom plane must be situated on the line of intersection, i.e., BD. Thus the points C and A (in Fig. 4.1) obtained by extending the rake surface along π o and π C respectively upto the tool’s bottom surface, will be situated on that line of intersection, BD. This line of intersection, BD between the rake surface and a plane parallel to π R is called the “Master line of the rake surface”.

From the diagram in Fig. 4.1,

OD = Tcotγ X

OB = Tcotγ Y

OC = Tcotγ o

OA = Tcotλ

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Where, T = thickness of the tool shank. The diagram in Fig. 4.1 is redrawn in simpler form in Fig. 4.2 for conversion of tool angles.

Y m Y o X o Masterline of Rake surface X m G O D
Y
m
Y o
X o
Masterline of
Rake surface
X
m
G
O
D
F
φ
φ
γ
E
C
M
OD = cotγ x
OB = cotγ y
OC = cotγ o
OA = cotλ
]
B
A

for

T=unity

Fig. 4.2 Use of Master line for conversion of rake angles.

Conversion of tool rake angles from ASA to ORS

γ o and λ (in ORS) = f (γ x and γ y of ASA system)

and

tanγ

o

tanλ

Proof of Equation 4.1:

=

tanγ sinφ

x

+

tanγ cosφ

y

= −

tanγ cosφ

x

+

tanγ sinφ

y

(4.1)

(4.2)

With respect to Fig. 4.2, Consider, ΔOBD = Δ OBC + Δ OCD Or, ½ OB.OD = ½ OB.CE + ½ OD.CF

Or, ½ OB.OD = ½ OB.OCsinφ + ½ OD.OCcosφ Dividing both sides by ½ OB.OD.OC,

1

1

1

=

=

sinφ

+

OC

o

OD

OB

+

cosφ

i.e. tanγ

tanγ sinφ

x

tanγ

y

cosφ

Proved.

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Similarly Equation 4.2 can be proved considering; Δ OAD = Δ OAB + Δ OBD i.e., ½ OD.AG = ½ OB.OG + ½ OB.OD where, AG = OAsinφ

and

OG = OAcosφ

Now dividing both sides by ½ OA.OB.OD,

1

1

1

sinφ =

tanλ

OB

OD

=−

x

OA

+

cosφ

tanγ cosφ

+

tanγ

y

sinφ

Proved.

The conversion equations 4.1 and 4.2 can be combined in a matrix form,

where,

tan

tan

(ORS)

γ

o

λ

sin

cos

φ

φ

=

sin

cos

φ

φ

cos

sin

φ

φ

⎤ ⎡ tan

tan

γ

γ

x

y

cos

sin

φ

φ

(ASA)

is the transformation matrix.

(4.3)

Conversion of rake angles from ORS to ASA system

γ x and γ y (in ASA) = f(γ o and λof ORS)

tanγ

and tanγ

x

y

=

=

tanγ sinφ

o

tanγ cosφ

o

+

tan cosφ

tan sinφ

λ

λ

(4.4)

(4.5)

The relations (4.4) and (4.5) can be arrived at indirectly using Equation 4.3.

By inversion, Equation 4.3 becomes,

tan

tan

γ

γ

x

y

=

sin

φ

φ

cos

φ

⎤ ⎡ tan

tan

cos

sin

φ

γ

o

λ

(4.6)

from which equation 4.4 and 4.5 are obtained.

The conversion equations 4.4 and 4.5 can also be proved directly from the diagram in Fig. 4.2

Hints To prove equation 4.4, proceed by taking (from Fig. 4.2) Δ OAD = Δ OAC + Δ OCD, [involving the concerned angles γ o , λ and γ x i.e., OC, OA and OD] And to prove Equation 4.5, proceed by taking Δ OAC = Δ OAB + Δ OBC [involving the concerned angles γ o , λ and γ y i.e., OC, OA and OB]

Maximum rake angle (γ max or γ m )

The magnitude of maximum rake angle (γ m ) and the direction of the maximum slope of the rake surface of any single point tool can be easily derived from its geometry specified in both ASA or ORS by using the diagram of Fig. 4.2. The

smallest intercept OM normal to the Master line (Fig. 4.2) represents γ max or γ m as

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OM = cot γ m Single point cutting tools like HSS tools after their wearing out are often resharpened by grinding their rake surface and the two flank surfaces. The rake face can be easily and correctly ground by using the values of γ m and the orientation angle, φ γ (visualized in Fig. 4.2) of the Master line.

Determination of γ m and φ γ from tool geometry specified in ASA system.

In Fig. 4.2, Δ OBD = ½ OB.OD = ½ BD.OM

or, ½ OB.OD = ½

Dividing both sides by ½ OB.OD.OM

2 2 OB +
2
2
OB
+

OD .OM

1 1 1 = + 2 2 OM OD OB 2 2 or tanγ =
1
1
1
=
+
2
2
OM
OD
OB
2
2
or
tanγ
=
tan γ
+ tan γ
m
x
y
Again from Δ OBD
OB
tanφ γ =
OD
tan
γ
or
φ
= tan
⎜ ⎛
x
⎟ ⎞
γ
tan
γ
⎜ ⎝
y
⎟ ⎠

(4.7)

(4.8)

• γ m and φ γ from tool geometry specified in ORS

Similarly from the diagram in Fig. 4.2, and taking Δ OAC, one can prove

tanγ

m

=

2

tan γ

o + tan

2 λ

one can prove tan γ m = 2 tan γ o + tan 2 λ φ

φ φ

γ

=

tan

⎛ ⎜

⎜ ⎝

λ

o

tan

tan

γ

(4.9)

(4.10)

Conversion of clearance angles from ASA system to ORS and vice versa by Graphical method. Like rake angles, the conversion of clearance angles also make use of corresponding Master lines. The Master lines of the two flank surfaces are nothing but the dotted lines that appear in the plan view of the tool (Fig. 4.3). The dotted line are the lines of intersection of the flank surfaces concerned with the tool’s bottom surface which is parallel to the Reference plane π R . Thus according to the definition those two lines represent the Master lines of the flank surfaces. Fig. 4.4 shows the geometrical features of the Master line of the principal flank of a single point cutting tool. From Fig. 4.4,

OD = Ttanα x

OB = Ttanα y

OC = Ttanα o

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OA = Tcotλ

where, T = thickness of the tool shank.

ML of auxiliary flank

M L o f a u x i l i a r y f l a

ML of principal flank

Fig. 4.3 Master lines (ML) of flank surfaces.

Z m γ x α x T π x Z o D' X o Z
Z m
γ x
α x
T
π x
Z o
D'
X
o
Z
Y o
o
T
γ o
α o
λ
Y m
π o
Y o
C'
X o
Y o
α y
O
ML for
X m
Z o
principal
C D
flank
γ y
B
B'
π y
A'
π R
A
T

Fig. 4.4 Master line of principal flank.

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The diagram in Fig. 4.4 is redrawn in simpler form in Fig. 4.5 for conversion of clearance angles. The inclination angle, λ basically represents slope of the rake surface along the principal cutting edge and hence is considered as a rake angle. But λ appears in the analysis of clearance angles also because the principal cutting edge belong to both the rake surface and the principal flank.

Y m Y o X o Master line for principal flank D X m O
Y m
Y o
X
o
Master line for principal flank
D
X
m
O
φ
C
φ
α
M
B
OD = tanα x
OB = tanα y
OC = tanα o
OA = cotλ
]
for
T=unity
A

Fig. 4.5 Use of Master line for conversion of clearance angles.

Conversion of clearance angles from ASA to ORS

Angles,

α o and λ in ORS = f(α x and α y in ASA system)

Following the same way used for converting the rake angles taking suitable

triangles (in Fig. 4.2), the following expressions can be arrived at using Fig. 4.5:

and

cotα

o

=

cotα

x

sinφ

+

cosφ

tanλ = −cotα

x

cotα

+

y

cosφ

y

sinφ

cotα

(4.11)

(4.12)

Combining Equation 4.11 and 4.12 in matrix form

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cot

tan

α

o

λ

=

sin

φ

cos

φ

cos

sin

φ

φ

cot

cot

α

x

α

y

(4.13)

Conversion of clearance angles from ORS to ASA system

α x and α y (in ASA) = f(α o and λ in ORS)

Proceeding in the same way using Fig. 4.5, the following expressions are

derived

and

cotα

x

cotα

y

=

=

cotα

o

cotα

o

sinφ

cosφ

tan λ

+ tan λ

cosφ

sinφ

(4.14)

(4.15)

The relations (4.14) and (4.15) are also possible to be attained from inversions of Equation 4.13 as indicated in case of rake angles.

Minimum clearance, α min or α m

The magnitude and direction of minimum clearance of a single point tool may be evaluated from the line segment OM taken normal to the Master line (Fig.

4.5) as OM = tanα m The values of α m and the orientation angle, φ α (Fig. 4.5) of the principal flank are useful for conveniently grinding the principal flank surface to sharpen the principal cutting edge. Proceeding in the same way and using Fig. 4.5, the following expressions could be developed to evaluate the values of α m and φ α

o

o

From tool geometry specified in ASA system

and

cot

α

m

φ

γ

=

cot

2

α

x

+ cot

2

α

y

cot α m φ γ = cot 2 α x + cot 2 α y =

= tan

1

cot

α

x

cot

α

y

From tool geometry specified in ORS

and

cot

α

x

=

cot

2

α

0