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Duration of Diabetes Tests for Diabetic Nephropathy

Urinalysis Urine Microalbumin Urine albumin to Creatinine ratio (ACR) Spot Sample Protein electrophoresis Urine Hemoglobin Hematocrit Serum Creatinine Serum creatinine with GFR Estimation Blood levels of phosphorus, calcium, bicarbonate, PTH, and potassium BUN Serum cholesterol Triglycerides Kidney Ultrasound

Other diagnostic criteria


Hypertension Signs of retinopathy Oedema Vision Numbness / Pain of the lower extremities Constitutional symptoms Foot changes