Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‪،‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌ‪‬ﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁ‬

‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺴﺎﻝﻡ ﻋﻭﻴﺱ – ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺴﺘﺎﻨﻔﻭﺭﺩ‬

‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﻭ‪‬ﻻﺕ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻤﺜﹼل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺘﺤﻭ‪‬ﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﺒﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺜﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﺄﻋﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻭ‪‬ﻻﺕ ‪‬ﻤﺒﻴ‪‬ﻨﹰﺎ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺒﻨﹼﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﺘﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﹼﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﺘﻭﻓﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺎﺨﺎﺕ ﻓﻌ‪‬ﺎﻝﺔ ﻭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﻌﺯﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺜﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻭﻤﻼﺤﻕ ﺘﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺯﻴﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻘﺎﺏ )ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺴﻜﻨﺭ ﻭﻭﺍﻁﺴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻭﻜﻲ ﻭﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺭﺯﺕ ﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻨﻁﻠﻘﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻥ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺩﻤﺎﻍ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﻨﺴﺒ ‪‬ﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻜﻭﺘﺴﻜﻲ ﻭﺃﻓﻜﺎﺭﻩ ﺤﻭل ﻤﺎ ﺩﻋﺎﻫﺎ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ – ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺸﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻤﻥ )‪ .Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD‬ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺇﻻ ﺒﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺹ ﻤﺘﻤﺭﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻼ(‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺴﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺒﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ )ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺭﺱ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﺎﻝﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺸﺩﻩ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﺘﺤﺩﺍﻩ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ‬

‫‪1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻭﺨﻁﻁﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﻝﺏ ﻝﻐﻭﻱ ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺩﻤﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺸﺩ ﻴﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺤﻠﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺒﺼﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ )ﻤﺜل ﻓﻬﻡ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻨﺹ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ( ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺩﻋﻡ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭل ﻓﻴﻜﻭﺘﺴﻜﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﻻﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻤﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻜﻼﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫أر "رد
"  ل  م "اآء اد"‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺌل ﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻗﺎﻡ ﻫﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ‪ Howard Gardner‬ﺒﺎﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﺠﺫﺭﻴﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻔﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺴﻭﺍﻩ ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻝﻜل ﺍﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺨﺎﺹ ﻭﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻪ ﻭﺤﺩﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ "ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ" )‪ .(Multiple Intelligences‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻏﻴﺭﺕ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ‪ .‬وﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺠﻭﻫﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﻴﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻠﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ‪ .‬ﺒل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻜل ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺒﻤﻌﺯل ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﺎﻥ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬
‫ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺤﺘﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻗﺎﺭﺩﻨﺭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻱ )‪ ،(linguistic/verbal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻲ )‪ ،(math/logical‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺴﻴﻘﻲ )‪ ،(musical‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺠﺴﻤﻲ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻜﻲ )‪ ،(bodily-kinesthetic‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ‬
‫)‪ ،(interpersonal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺸﺨﺼﻲ‪-‬ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ )‪ ،(intra-personal‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺌﻲ )‪،(naturalist‬‬
‫ﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﻲ )‪.(spatial‬‬

‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ "ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬


‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﻭﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼل ﻝﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻀ ﹰ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻝﺩﻯ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻜﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﻝﻨﺎ ﺇﻁﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﺠﺫﺭﻴﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﺭﻨﹰﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫ﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻪ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺀﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺫﺍﺀ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻝﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻻ ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺠﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﻭﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻝﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﺒﻊ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻨﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻘﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ‪ -‬ﻤﻜﻭ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬


‫ﺒﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘ ‪‬ﻡ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﻭﻤﻜﻭ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ‬
‫ل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺔ "ﺒﻠﻭﻡ" ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭﻗﺩ ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻠﻔﺘﺔ ﻝﻠﻨﻅﺭ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻗ ّ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ – ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ( ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺎﻗ ﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻴﻨﺼ ‪‬‬
‫ل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺒﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺤ ّ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ‪:‬‬

‫‪‬ﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎ ﺍﺼﻁﻼﺡ "ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ"‪ 1‬ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎ ﺒﺎﺼﻁﻼﺡ "ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ" ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﻜﺎﺩ ﻴﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺃﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺩﻓﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻴﺅﺩﻴﺎﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺭﻗﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﻪ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‪ :‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺭﺯﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻭﺴﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﻋﺩﺕ ﻝﺘﻘﻴﺱ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺸﺎﻤل ﻭﻤﻔﺼل ﻴﻠﻘﻰ ﻗﺒﻭل‬
‫ﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻭل ﻫﻭ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ )ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ( ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻜﺘﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺔ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺘﻭ ﹼﻓﺭ ﻤﻠﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻻﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ‪(Summative‬‬

‫‪ 34 5ّ-78 1‬ه‪1‬ا ا‪,-./‬ق *‪" 9-‬ا‪ ";--<=/‬أي ‪ @7-A BCBDE‬ا‪3?/‬ء و*‪" 9-‬ا‪ ";CH<=/‬وه‪ H‬ا‪ M-DN=/‬أو ‪ JKL‬ا‪3?/‬ء ‪.,ً7CHA‬‬

‫‪3‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﻭ ﹼﻓﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺭﺩ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺍ ﺒﻪ )ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻲ ‪(Formative‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺸﺨﻴﺹ ﻤﻭﺍﻁﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻌﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻭ ﹼﻓﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻘﹼﻕ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻭﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺩﻋﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻴﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺌﻤﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻤﺴﺒﻘ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻼﺀﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻌﻴﺸﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺴﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -8‬ﻴﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻝﻁﻼﺒﻪ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﻭﻕ ﺘ ﹼﺘﻀﺢ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻭﺍﻜﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﻪ ﺒﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻤﺜﹼل ﻓﻲ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺎ‬


‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﹸﻭﺍ َ‪‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺴﻪ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﻤﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺸﻜل ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺄل‪ :‬ﻫل ﻨﻘﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻬل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ‪ :‬ﻫل ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺤ ﹼ‬

‫ﺃﺴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ‬


‫ﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩﺍﺜﺔ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺴﺨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻝﻪ ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﺃﺴﺱ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺕ ﺍﺘﹼﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﻤ‪‬ﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ـ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ )ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 2‬ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ل ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬ـ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻝﻬﻡ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜ ﱞ‬
‫‪4‬ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﻭﻝﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ )ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ(‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪5‬ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﻻﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﹼﻠﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻻ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻫﺩﻓﹰﺎ ﻝﺫﺍﺘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬ـ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﻓﹼﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪9‬ـ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺒﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻭﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴ‪‬ﺩ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻲ ﻨﺜﻕ ﺒﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻪ ﻭﻨﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺜﺎﻨﻭﻴﺔ ﻴﺴﺘﺤﺴﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺸﺭﻁﺎ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻨﺠﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻨﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻷﻜﻤل‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻴﻜﺘﻤل ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺕ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻪ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬


‫ﺃ ـ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺼﻔﻪ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺜﻡ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ )ﺃﻱ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ( ﻭﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺃﻻ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻝﺯﻭﻤﻬﺎ ﺃﺸﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺼﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﺒﺂﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺤﺢ ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ ﻝﻺﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻓﻼ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﹰﺎ "ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ" ﻫﻭ‬
‫ﻼ( ﻭﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ )ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ )ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋ ‪‬ﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺘﺩ‪‬ﻋﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻴﺱ ﻤﺎ ُﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻼ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻘﻴﺱ ﺸﻴﺌﺎ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺒﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﻓﻴﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺼﻠﺢ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺼﺎﻝﺤ ﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ‬

‫‪5‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻓﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﻪ ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﻭﺨﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻐﻤﻭﺽ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻴﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻼﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺝ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ ‪ :‬ﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻁﻲ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺫﺍﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﺒﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺜﺒﺘﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺘﻁﺎﺒﻘﺕ ﻗﻴل ﺃﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ )ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻼ( ﻭﻓﻕ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻭل " ﺜﻭﺭﻨﺩﺍﻴﻙ ﻭﻫﺎﺠﻥ" )‪ ،(1986‬ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ﻼ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ )ﺍﻝﺼﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺘﺭ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎﻝﻲ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻗﺘﺔ )ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻫﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﻅ ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬

‫ﺩ ـ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤ‪‬ﻤﻴ‪‬ﺯ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺭﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻔﻭﻗﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻀﻌﺎﻑ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺸﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ‪‬ﻤ ‪‬ﻤ‪‬ﻴﺯﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻜل‬
‫ﺴﺅﺍل ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻬل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻤﻌﺘﺩل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻗﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﺎﻍ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻔﺎﻭﺘﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻻﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﺇﺤﺼﺎﺌﻴﺎ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫ﺴﻬﻭﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ )ﻤ‪‬ﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ( ﻭﺩﺭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ)ﻤ‪‬ﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ( ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﺎﻁﺌﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﻭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜل ﺴﺅﺍل‬
‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﻠﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺹ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺴﻬﻭﻝﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ‬


‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺨﻭﺍ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻤل ﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁ ﻭﺴﻭﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﹼﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺸﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﹰﺎ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺘﹾﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠ‪‬ﻪ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﻼﺌﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤ‪‬ﻜﻤ‪‬ﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﹰﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﺠﻠﻭﺱ ﻝﻼﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺨﺎﺼﺔ "ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ"‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺘﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﺦ(‬
‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﻤﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪ -8‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻠﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻨﺸﺎﻁ "ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ" ﺨﻼل ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻬﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻴﺘﻭﺠ‪‬ﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻴ‪‬ﻥ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻻﺴﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺇﺼﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻜﺎﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻡ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ )‪ (norm-referenced‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌﺎ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ‬
‫)‪ (Normal Distribution‬ﻭﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺘﻐﺎﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﻭﺍﺹ )‪ (Heterogeneous‬ﻜﺎﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﺯ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﻠﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻁﻠﻕ ‪Criterion-referenced‬‬

‫ﻭﺠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻁﺎﻋﺘﻨﺎ ﻜﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻝﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﻜﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻫﻤ‪‬ﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻭﻤﻌﻤ‪‬ﻘﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻨﻭﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻔﻴﺩﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ‬

‫‪7‬‬
‫ل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺭﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺘﻬﻡ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻗﻴﺎﻤﻬﻡ ﺒﺎﻻﺠﺎﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺸﻁﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻭل ﻝﻠﺘﻐﻠﹼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻴﺘﻤﺜﹼل ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ؟‬


‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻝﻐﻭﻴﺔ ﺘﺸﺒﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻤﺎﺜل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺸﻤل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻜﻭﺼﻑ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺨﺒﺭ‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﺤﻘﺎﺌﺏ‪ :‬ﻋﺩﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺴﺠﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻋﺭﻭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﺭﺴﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺼﻭﺭ ﻭﺘﺴﺠﻴﻼﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺃﺒﻴﺎﺕ ﺸﻌﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺇﺭﺸﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻜﺎﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻭﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻁﺒﻕ ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﺸﺭﺡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺴﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -8‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﻤﻭﻗﻑ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻜﺤﺠﺯ ﻏﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺩﻕ ﻤﺜﻼ‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻭﺼﻑ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ -10‬ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻨﺹ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻼﻥ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬

‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ‪:‬‬


‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﻤﺘﺤﺩﺙ‪ ،‬ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻑ ﺸﺨﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺨﺒﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺩﺙ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‬


‫ﻼ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺃﺼﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل ﻓﻬﻭ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻴﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻷﺼﻴل‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ‬

‫‪8‬‬
‫ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺨﻼل ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻨﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻤﻜﻭ‪‬ﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‬
‫ﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﺜﹼل ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺤﺙ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﺒ ‪‬ﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﻭ‪‬ﻨﺎﺕ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺘﹼﻔﺎﻕ ﺸﺒﻪ ﻜﺎﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫ل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﻤل ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻁﻕ ﻜﺎﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﻻل ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻜﺤ ّ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻨﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﻭﺒﺨﺎﺼ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈ ‪‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﹰﺎ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔ ﹰﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ ﺘﻨﺩﺭﺝ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬
‫"ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩ‪‬ﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺨﺼﺼﻴ‪‬ﺔ" ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻝﻤﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻀﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻭﻝﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻱ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍل ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﻭﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﻤﻴﺯﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﻤﺘﻼﻜﻪ ﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﺘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﺒﻊ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻜﻥ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺩل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻜﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﺇﻜﺴﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﺫﻝﻙ ﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ‬
‫ﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﺘﺩﺨل ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻭﺘﻘﻴﻴﻤﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺠﺯﺀﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﺭ ﻭ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻨﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻘﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺇﺩﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻜﻬﺩﻑ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻴﺔ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺸﻙ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﻬﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﹼﻤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤ ‪‬ﺩ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻭ‪‬ﺓ‪ .‬ﻝﻜﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻜﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻴﺸﻴﺭ ﺃﻝﻰ ﺍﻤﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻻﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻨﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻁﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻬﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ – ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺏ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺩﻱ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺩ‪‬ﻡ ﻭ ‪‬ﻴﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻁﺭﺡ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻵﺭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺢ ﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻭﺇﺘﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬

‫‪9‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺯﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺭﻭﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ‬
‫ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻭ ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻋﻘﻠﻪ ﻝﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺕ ﻤﺭﺘﻔﻊ ‪ ،Think Aloud‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻭﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺇﻤﺘﻼﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻝﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﹼﺭﻫﺎ ﻝﻺﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل‪ .‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺘﻲ ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻭﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺘﺒﻨﹼﻲ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل ﻭﺍﺴﺎﻝﻴﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﺄﺤﺎﻭل ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺘﻭﺼﻴﻔﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩ‪‬ﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺘﻭﻓﹼﺭﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻝﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺠﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬
‫ﺩﻭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﻝﻤﺨﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺘﻰ ﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﻴﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺄﻤﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﻜﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺫﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻤﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻝﺯﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﺝ ﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻻ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻓﻌﺎ ﹰ‬

‫ﺘﻌﺎﺭﻴﻑ ﻝﻠﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل ﻫﻭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ُﻴﻔ ‪‬ﻌل ﻤﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜ ﹰﺎ ﻭﺒﺎﺤﺜﹰﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺘﺠﹰﺎ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﹰﺎ‬

‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻪ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﻤﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺭﻭﻜﻔﻴﻠﺩ )‪ (2005‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل "‪ ...‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻠﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻕ ﻜﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻑ‪ .‬ﺇ ﹼﻨﻪ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻴﺭﻓﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩ ﻝﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﻭﻤﺤﻴﻁﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻭﻋﻴﻪ ﻝﻁﻤﻭﺤﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻪ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﺍ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺍﻝﻔﻬﻡ‪ . "...‬ﻭﻗﺎل ﻜﻭﻝﺩﻭل )‪ ...(2001‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﻴﻌﻠﻡ ﻜﻴﻔﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺸﺨﺎﺹ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل ﻴﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺸﺭﺍﻜﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻡ‪".‬‬
‫ﺒﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻌ ‪‬ﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬
‫ﻼ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻓﻌ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﺠﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺎﻝﺏ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ‬


‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ [‪ ,‬ﻝﻬﺎ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻓﻀل‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺜﺒﺕ ﺠﺩﻭﺍﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺭﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻹﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺴﻁﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺤل ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬
‫ﻱ‪ ،‬ﻴﻨﻁﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺤﻴﻭ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ ﺍﻻﻝﻘﺎﺌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺩﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻴﺭﻜﹼﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ ﻝﺘﻭﺠﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻬﻡ ﻭﺘﻴﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺒﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻤﺜﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻲ ﻝﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺴ ‪‬ﻴﺩ ‪‬ﺭﺱ ﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﹼﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﻼﺩ‬

‫‪11‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﻝﻘﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺴﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺒﺎﺨﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺦ‪ ،.‬ﻭﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ﺨﻤﺱ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻝﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ‬
‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺴﻠﻭﻜﻪ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺴﻴﻁﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺅﺍل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪ :‬ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ )ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﹼﻤﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁ‪ .‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﹼﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻭل ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﺤﻭﺍﺭﻱ ﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﺩﻱ ﺍﺴﺘﺜﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬
‫)ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ( ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻝﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﺴﺘﻌﻴﻨﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ )ﻤﻠﺨﹼﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﻋﻨﺎﻭﻴﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ(‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻻﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ )ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺦ‪ ،(.‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺒﻼﺕ )ﻤﻭﺍﻗﻑ ﺘﻤﺜﻴﻠﻴﺔ( ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻴﺢ ﻝﻬﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﺌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﻠﻪ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎل ﺘﻭﻓﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻜﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺘﺩﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻭﺽ ﻭﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺭﻴﺭ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺘﻜ ‪‬ﻭﻥ ﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﻭﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻘﻨﻌﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻻ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺠﺫﺭﻱ ﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺸﻬﺩﺕ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﺘﺤﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻝﻤﺠﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺠﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴل‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺸﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﻤﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﻊ ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻠﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬
‫ﻼ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﻤﻨﺎ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻭﻻﺕ ﺠﻭﻫﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﻭﺃﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﻝﺠﻌﻠﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻤﻕ ﺘﻔﺎﻋ ﹰ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺭﺽ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻁﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻺﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ ﻤ‪‬ﺸﻴﺭﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻹﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻗﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻥ‬

‫‪12‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺘﺤﺎﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﻅ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻴﻌﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﻁﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﺒﺩل ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻜﺱ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺄﻤل ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻝﺔ ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻻﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺒﺫﻝﻨﺎ ﺠﻬﺩﹰﺍ ﻝﺘﺄﻁﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﺵ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻥ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻁﻘﻴﻥ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺸﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﺼﺎﺤﺒﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﻡ ﺘﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﺩﻕ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﻁﺭﻗﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﺒل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺠﺏ ﺍﺘﺒﺎﻋﻬﺎ ﻝﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻤﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﻴﺩ )‪ (2002‬ﺍﻝﺫﻜﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺠﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪13‬‬
،1 .‫ ﻁ‬،‫ ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺜﺭﻭﺕ‬.‫( ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻠﻡ‬2004) ‫ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻴﻡ‬،‫ﺠﺎﺒﺭ‬
.‫ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻥ‬،‫ﻋﻤﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬

Becker, H. J. (1992). A model for improving the performance of integrated learning


systems: Mixed individualized/group/whole class lessons, cooperative learning, and
organizing time for teacher-led remediation of small groups. Educational
Technology, 32(9), 6-15.

Bonwell, C., & Eison, J. (1999). Active learning: Creating excitement in the
classroom, (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1). Washington, DC: George
Washington University. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 049).

Browne, M. N. & Freeman, K. (2000). Distinguishing Features of Critical Thinking


Classrooms. Teaching in Higher Education, 5(3), 301-09.

Brookfield, Stephen (2005). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco:


Jossey-Bass.

Burbach, M.E., Matkin, G.S., & Fritz, S.M. (2004). Teaching critical thinking in an
introductory leadershipcourse utilizing active learning strategies: A confirmatory study.
College Student Journal, 38(3), 482-493.

Caldwell, S. (2001). E-Based professional development for effective teaching and


leadership. http://cnx.org.content.

King, A. (1995). Inquiring Minds Really Do Want to Know: Using Questioning to Teach
Critical Thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22(1), 13-17.

Gardner , H. (2000) . Project Zero : Nelson Goodmans Legancy in Q


Arts Education . Journal of Aesthetics & Art Criticism . Vol.58,, 3 (21-46).

Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind : the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York :
Basic Books, 1983.

King, A. (1995). Inquiring Minds Really Do Want to Know: Using Questioning to Teach
Critical Thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22(1), 13-17.

Thorndike, R. L., and E. P. Hagan. 1986. Measurement and evaluation in psychology and
education, 4th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

14
Vygotsky, Lev S. (1986). Thought and language. Newly revised and edited by Alex
Kozulin. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Wolfe , P. (2001). Brain . Research and Education : Fad or Q,


http://www.patwolfe.comfoundation.com

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻕ‬

‫ ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬:1 ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ‬

15
‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻝﻨﺸﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‪:‬‬
‫• ﺍﻝﻌﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﻜﺭﻱ‬
‫• ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺠﻤل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺘﻌﺎﺒﻴﺭ‬
‫• ﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺠﻤل ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ "ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻁ"‬
‫• ﺇﺸﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ‬
‫• ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻤﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺩﻻل‬
‫• ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‬
‫ﻼ‪ :‬ﺃﺒﻴﺽ – ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‬
‫• ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﻏﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﺯﻴﺔ )ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﺘﻨﻔﹼﺱ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺩﺍﺀ( ﻭﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻘﻀﺎﺌﺩ ﻤﺜل "ﺃﻤ‪‬ﻲ" ﻭ"ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ" ﻭ"ﻗﺎﺭﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻨﺠﺎﻥ"‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻡ ﺒﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ ﻁﻼﺒﻪ ﺒﺸﺭﺡ ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﺯﻱ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﻤﻌﻴ‪‬ﻥ‬
‫• ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩﻓﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﻀﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫• ﺘﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﺌﻠﺔ )ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ(‬
‫• ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤل ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬
‫• ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺃﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺎﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬
‫• ﺘﺨﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻕ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻻﺌل ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ‬
‫• ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﺯﻭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬


‫• ﻨﻘﺎﺸﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪ ،‬ﻗﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺨﺒﺭ‪ ،‬ﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺦ‪.‬‬
‫• ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻲ‬
‫• ﻝﻌﺏ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺭ ﻭﻤﺤﺎﻜﺎﺓ‬

‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻫﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ‬

‫• " ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻭ‪‬ﺭ" ﺒﺩل " ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺭﻯ ﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺼﻭ‪‬ﺭ"‬

‫‪16‬‬
‫• "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﺘﻭﻗﻊ – ﺘﺘﻨﺒﺊ ﺴﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ" ﺒﺩل "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺴﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻵﻥ"‬
‫• "ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺸﻴﺭ‪ "...‬ﺒﺩل "ﻜﻴﻑ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻥ ﻨﻔﺴ‪‬ﺭ‪"...‬‬
‫ل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ"‬
‫"ﺒﺩل ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺤﻠل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ" ﺒﺩل "ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺤ ّ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ :2‬ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﺤﺠﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻠﹼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ‪(5 4 3 2 1‬‬
‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ )ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺴﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻁﻰ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻪ )ﻤﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﻤﺴﺔ(‬
‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ) ﺘﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺍﺀ(‬
‫ﻴﻌﻭﺩ ﻜل ﻁﺎﻝﺏ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻡ( ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﻜل "ﺨﺒﻴﺭ"‬
‫ﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻤﺭ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺇﺸﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻋﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺼﺢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺸﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺯﻭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻀﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ )ﻤﺸﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﻴﺴ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،‬ﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ(‬

‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ ‪ :3‬ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﻲ )ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ(‬


‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻋﺼﻑ ﻓﻜﺭﻱ )ﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺘﻨﺸﻴﻁﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫‪.1‬‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل؟‬ ‫‪.3‬‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ؟‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺃﺸﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻝﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﹼﺎﻡ‪ :‬ﻤﻠﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﻠﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﻠﻭﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺦ‪.‬‬

‫‪17‬‬
‫ُﺘﻭﺯ‪‬ﻉ ﻻﺌﺤﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻠﻜﺔ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺸﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻠﻁﻨﺔ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺒﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻤﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﺒﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﻋﻤل ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺼﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺒﻼﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺭﻴﻥ – ﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﻓﺩﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺸﻤﺎل ﺃﻓﺭﻴﻘﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻴل‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻤ‪‬ﺎﺀ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬
‫ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﻗﺎﻝﻴﻡ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺸﻔﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﺎ؟‬
‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻠﻌﺏ ﺩﻭﺭ "ﺩﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﻌﻴ‪‬ﻨﺔ" ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻁﺭﺡ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻼ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ "ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭ‪‬ﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺔ" ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩ‪‬ﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﻫﻲ‪ ،....‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﻤﺔ‪ ،...‬ﺍﻝﺦ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺸﻔﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺸﻔﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻭل ﻋﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬

‫ﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ‪ -‬ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‪:‬‬


‫ﻴ‪‬ﻘﺴ‪‬ﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﺹ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻓﻘﺭﺍﺕ – ﺠﻤل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﻴﺔ – ﺘﺴﻠﺴﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪18‬‬