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AK-47 Assault rifle British Army FAMAS FN F2000 FN SCAR German Army Heckler & Koch Heckler & Koch G36 Heckler & Koch HK417 IMI Tavor TAR-21 Israel Defense Forces M1 carbine M16 rifle M4 carbine Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle Picatinny rail SA80 SOPMOD Steyr AUG Suppressor Tactical light 1 16 28 49 56 62 68 88 92 103 107 114 141 159 183 194 198 200 210 212 222 232

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Standard AK-47 Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle

Soviet Union

Service history Inservice Usedby 1949present See Users Production history Designer Designed Manufacturer Numberbuilt Mikhail Kalashnikov 19441947 Izhmash approximately 75 million AK-47 [2] [3] 100 million AK-type rifles See Variants Specifications Weight Length 5.21kg (11.5lb) with empty magazine 870mm (34in) fixed wooden stock 875mm (34.4in) folding stock extended 645mm (25.4in) stock folded 415mm (16.3in) 7.6239mm M43/M67 Gas-operated, rotating bolt 600 rounds/min 715m/s (2346ft/s) 400 metres (440yd) semi-automatic [4] 300 metres (330yd) full automatic


Barrellength Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange

Feedsystem Sights

10, 20 , 30 , 40 or 75 -round detachable box and drum style magazine, also compatible with 40-round box or 75-round drum magazines from the RPK Adjustable iron sights, 100800metre adjustments, 378mm (14.9in) sight radius

AK-47 The AK-47 is a selective-fire, gas-operated 7.6239mm assault rifle, first developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov. It is officially known as Avtomat Kalashnikova ( ). It is also known as a Kalashnikov, an "AK", or in Russian slang, Kalash. Design work on the AK-47 began in the last year of World War II (1945). After the war in 1946, the AK-46 was presented for official military trials. In 1947 the fixed-stock version was introduced into service with select units of the Soviet Army. An early development of the design was the AKS (SSkladnoy or "folding"), which was equipped with an underfolding metal shoulder stock. In 1949, the AK-47 was officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces and used by the majority of the member states of the Warsaw Pact. The original AK-47 was one of the first true "assault rifles" to be manufactured, after the original Sturmgewehr 44.[5] [6] Even after six decades the model and its variants remain the most widely used and popular assault rifles in the world because of their durability, low production cost, and ease of use. It has been manufactured in many countries and has seen service with armed forces as well as revolutionary and terrorist organizations worldwide. The AK-47 was the basis for developing many other types of individual and crew-served firearms. More AK-type rifles have been produced than all other assault rifles combined.[2] Firing the 7.62x39mm cartridge, the AK-47 produces significant wounding effects when the projectile tumbles and fragments in tissue;[7] but it produces relatively minor wounds when the projectile exits the body before beginning to yaw.[8] [9]

Design background
During World War II, the Germans first pioneered the assault rifle concept, based upon research that showed that most firefights happen at close range, within approximately 300meters. The power and range of contemporary rifle cartridges was excessive for most small arms firefights. As a result, armies sought a cartridge and rifle combining submachine gun features (large-capacity magazine, selective-fire) with an intermediate-power cartridge effective to 300meters. To reduce manufacturing costs, the 7.92x57mm Mauser cartridge case was shortened, the result of which was the lighter 7.92x33mm Kurz. The resultant rifle was the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44). An earlier firearm, the Italian Cei-Rigotti combined similar features but suffered poor reliability and ejection mechanism, as well as inferior magazine capacity. Towards the end of the war, the Germans fielded the StG44 against the Soviets; the experience deeply influenced Soviet military doctrine in the post-war years. Mikhail Kalashnikov began his career as a weapon designer while in a hospital after he was shot in the shoulder during the Battle of Bryansk.[10] After tinkering with a sub-machine gun design, he entered a competition for a new weapon that would chamber the 7.62x41mm cartridge developed by Elisarov and Semin in 1943 (the 7.62x41mm cartridge predated the current 7.62x39mm M1943). A particular requirement of the competition was the reliability of the firearm in the muddy, wet, and frozen conditions of the Soviet front line. Kalashnikov designed a carbine, strongly influenced by the American M1 Garand, that lost out to the Simonov design that later became the SKS semi-automatic carbine. At the same time, the Soviet Army was interested in developing a true assault rifle employing a shortened M1943 round. The first such weapon was presented by Sudayev in 1944, but trials found it to be too heavy.[11] A new design competition was held two years later where Kalashnikov and his design team submitted an entry. It was a gas-operated rifle which had a breech-block mechanism similar to his 1944 carbine, and a curved 30-round magazine. Kalashnikov's rifles (codenamed AK-1 and 2) proved to be reliable and the weapon was accepted to second round of competition along with designs by A.A Demetev and F. Bulkin. In late 1946, as the rifles were being tested, one of Kalashnikov's assistants, Aleksandr Zaytsev, suggested a major redesign of AK-1, particularly to improve reliability. At first, Kalashnikov was reluctant, given that their rifle had already fared better than its competitors.

AK-47 Eventually, however, Zaytsev managed to persuade Kalashnikov. The new rifle was produced for a second round of firing tests and field trials. There, Kalashnikov assault rifle model 1947 proved to be simple and reliable under a wide range of conditions with convenient handling characteristics. In 1949 it was therefore adopted by the Soviet Army as '7.62mm Kalashnikov assault rifle (AK)'.[12]

Design concept
The AK-47 is best described as a hybrid of previous rifle technology innovations: the trigger, double locking lugs and unlocking raceway of the M1 Garand/M1 carbine,[13] the safety mechanism of the John Browning designed Remington Model 8 rifle,[14] and the gas system and layout of the Sturmgewehr 44. Kalashnikov's team had access to all of these weapons and had no need to "reinvent the wheel",[15] [16] though he denied that his design was based on the German Sturmgewehr 44 assault rifle.[17] Kalashnikov himself observed: "A lot of [Soviet Army soldiers] ask me how one can become a constructor, and how new weaponry is designed. These are very difficult questions. Each designer seems to have his own paths, his own successes and failures. But one thing is clear: before attempting to create something new, it is vital to have a good appreciation of everything that already exists in this field. I myself have had many experiences confirming this to be so."[18]

Receiver development
There were many difficulties during the initial phase of production. The first production models had stamped sheet metal receivers. Difficulties were encountered in welding the guide and ejector rails, causing high rejection rates.[19] Instead of halting production, a heavy machined receiver was substituted for the sheet metal receiver.[20] This was a more costly process, but the use of machined receivers accelerated production as tooling and labor for the earlier Mosin-Nagant rifle's machined receiver were easily adapted. Partly because of these problems, the Soviets were not able to distribute large numbers of the new rifle to soldiers until 1956. During this time, production of the interim SKS rifle continued.[20]

AKMS on a Type 4B receiver (top), with a Type 2A

Once manufacturing difficulties had been overcome, a redesigned version designated the AKM (M for "modernized" or "upgraded"in Russian: ( [Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy]) was introduced in 1959.[21] This A Type 2 AK-47, the first machined receiver new model used a stamped sheet metal receiver and featured a slanted variation muzzle brake on the end of the barrel to compensate for muzzle rise under recoil. In addition, a hammer retarder was added to prevent the weapon from firing out of battery (without the bolt being fully closed), during rapid or automatic fire.[22] This is also sometimes referred to as a "cyclic rate reducer", or simply "rate reducer", as it also has the effect of reducing the number of rounds fired per minute during automatic fire. It was also roughly one-third lighter than the previous model.[21] Both licensed and unlicensed production of the Kalashnikov weapons abroad were almost exclusively of the AKM variant, partially due to the much easier production of the stamped receiver. This model is the most commonly encountered, having been produced in much greater quantities. All rifles based on the Kalashnikov design are frequently referred to as AK-47s in the West, although this is only correct when applied to rifles based on the original three receiver types.[23] In most former Eastern Bloc countries, the weapon is known simply as the "Kalashnikov" or "AK". The photo above at right illustrates the differences between the Type 2 milled receiver and the Type 4 stamped, including the use of rivets rather than welds on the stamped receiver, as well as the placement of a small dimple above the magazine well for stabilization of the magazine.

AK-47 In 1978, the Soviet Union began replacing their AK-47 and AKM rifles with a newer design, the AK-74. This new rifle and cartridge had only started being exported to eastern European nations when the Soviet Union collapsed, drastically slowing production of this and other weapons of the former Soviet bloc.
Receiver type Type 1A/B Description

Original stamped receiver for AK-47. -1B modified for underfolding stock. A large hole is present on each side to accommodate the hardware for the underfolding stock. (this naming convention continues with all types) Milled from steel forging. "Final" version of the milled receiver, from steel bar stock. The most ubiquitous example of the milled-receiver AK-47. Stamped AKM receiver. Overall, the most-used design in the construction of the AK-series rifles.

Type 2A/B Type 3A/B Type 4A/B

The main advantages of the Kalashnikov rifle are its simple design, fairly compact size and adaptation to mass production. It is inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to clean and maintain. Its ruggedness and reliability are legendary.[24] [25] The AK-47 was initially designed for ease of operation and repair by glove-wearing Soviet soldiers in Arctic conditions. The large gas piston, generous clearances between moving parts, and tapered cartridge case design allow the gun to endure large amounts of foreign matter and fouling without failing to cycle. This reliability comes at the cost of accuracy, as the looser tolerances do not allow for precision and consistency. Reflecting Soviet infantry doctrine of its time, the rifle is meant to be part of massed infantry fire, not long range engagements. The average service life of an AK-47 is 20 to 40 years depending on the conditions to which it has been exposed.[6]

Albanian soldier with an AK47

The notched rear tangent iron sight is adjustable, and is calibrated in hundreds of meters. The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the field. Windage adjustment is done by the armory before issue. The battle setting places the round within +/-33cm from the point of aim out to 350m (380yd). This "point-blank An Afghan National Police instructor using a Type 56-I, a Chinese copy of the AKS range" setting allows the shooter to fire the gun at any close target without adjusting the sights. The field adjustment procedure for AK-47, AKM and AK-74 family requires 4 rounds to be placed in a 15cm group at a distance of 100meters.[26] [27] Longer settings are intended for area suppression. These settings mirror the Mosin-Nagant and SKS rifles which the AK-47 replaced. This eased transition and simplified training. The prototype of the AK-47, the AK-46, had a separate fire selector and safety.[28] These were later combined in the production version to simplify the design. The fire selector acts as a dust cover for the charging handle raceway when placed on safe. This prevents intrusion of dust and other debris into the internal parts. The dust cover on the M16 rifle, in contrast, is not tied to the safety, and has to be manually closed. Soviet army handbooks for AKM and AK-74 do not cover target engagement using the semi-automatic setting, and advise the use of short and long bursts (but still recommend short ones).[26] [27]

AK-47 The bore and chamber, as well as the gas piston and the interior of the gas cylinder, are generally chromium-plated. This plating dramatically increases the life of these parts by resisting corrosion and wear. This is particularly important, as most military-production ammunition (and virtually all ammunition produced by the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Pact nations) during the 20th century contained potassium chlorate in the primers. On firing, this was converted to corrosive and hygroscopic potassium chloride which mandated frequent and thorough cleaning in order to prevent damage. Chrome plating of critical parts is now common on many modern military weapons. The construction of the AK magazine is very robust with reinforced feed lips that contribute to the reliable functioning for which the design is noted. Most Yugoslavian and some East German AK magazines were made with cartridge followers that hold the bolt open when empty; however, most AK magazine followers allow the bolt to close when the magazine is empty.

Operating cycle
To fire, the operator inserts a loaded magazine, moves the selector lever off of safety, pulls back and releases the charging handle, aims, and then pulls the trigger. In this setting, the firearm fires only once (semi-automatic), requiring the trigger to be released and depressed again for the next shot. With the selector in the middle position The gas-operated mechanism of an AK-47 (Chinese version) (full-automatic), the rifle continues to fire, automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is released from the trigger. As each bullet travels through the barrel, a portion of the gases expanding behind it is diverted into the gas tube above the barrel, where it impacts the gas piston. The piston, in turn, is driven backward, pushing the bolt carrier, which causes the bolt to move backwards, ejecting the spent round, and chambering a new round when the recoil spring pushes it back.[29]

Dismantling the rifle involves the operator depressing the magazine catch and removing the magazine. The charging handle is pulled to the rear and the operator inspects the chamber to verify the weapon is unloaded. The operator presses forward on the retainer button at the rear of the receiver cover while simultaneously lifting up on the rear of the cover to remove it. The operator then pushes the spring assembly forward and lifts it from its raceway, withdrawing it out of the bolt carrier and to the rear. The operator must then pull the carrier assembly all the way to the rear, lift it, and then pull it away. The operator removes the bolt by pushing it to the rear of the bolt carrier; rotating the bolt so the camming lug clears the raceway on the underside of the bolt carrier and then pulls it forward and free. When cleaning, the operator will pay special attention to the barrel, bolt face, and gas piston, then oil lightly and reassemble.[29]


The standard AK-47 or AKM fires the 7.62x39mm cartridge with a muzzle velocity of 710 metres per second (2300ft/s). Muzzle energy is 2010 joules (1480ftlbf). Projectile weight is normally 7.8 grams (120gr). The AK-47 and AKM, with the 7.6239mm cartridge, have a maximum effective range of around 400 metres (1300ft).

Kalashnikov variants include: AK-47 194851, 7.62x39mm The very earliest models, with the Type 1 stamped sheet metal receiver, are now very rare. AK-47 1952, 7.62x39mm Has a milled receiver and wooden buttstock and handguard. Barrel and chamber are chrome plated to resist corrosion. Rifle weight is 4.2kg (9.3lb).

1955 AK-47 Type 3

AKSFeatured a downward-folding metal stock similar to that of the German MP40, for use in the restricted space in the BMP infantry combat vehicle, as well as by paratroops. RPK, 7.62x39mm Hand-held machine gun version with longer barrel and bipod. AKM, 7.62x39mm A simplified, lighter version of the AK-47; Type 4 receiver is made from stamped and riveted sheet metal (see schematic above). A slanted muzzle device was added to counter climb in automatic fire. Rifle weight is 3.1kg (6.8lb) due to the lighter receiver. This is the most ubiquitous variant of the AK-47. AKMS, 7.62x39mm Folding-stock version of the AKM intended for airborne troops. Stock may be either sideor under-folding AK-74 series, 5.45x39mm AK-101/AK-102 series AK-103/AK-104 series AK-107/AK-108 series AK-200 series Saiga semi-automatic rifle AK variant for hunting and civilian use. Built on AK receiver with hunting style stock and hand guard in 223/5.56, 7.62x39, 5.45x39, 308WIN Saiga semi-automatic shotgun AK variant for hunting and civilian use. Built on AK receiver with hunting style stock and hand guard in 12-Gauge, 20-Gauge, and .410-Bore. KSK shotgun A new version of AK variant military using shotgun Usually the AKn was introduced in year 1900+n.

Production outside of the Soviet Union/Russia

Military variants only. Includes new designs substantially derived from the Kalashnikov.


Country Albania

Variant(s) Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-1) Albanian Automatic Assault Rifle Model 56 Type-1 [Made in Polian [30] Arsenal] (Straight forward copy of Type 56, which in turn is a clone of the Soviet AKM rifle) Automatiku Shqiptar Tipi 1982 (ASH-82) Albanian Automatic Assault Rifle Type 1982 [Made in Polian Arsenal] (Straight [30] forward copy of AKMS) Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-2) Albanian Light Machine Gun [Made in Polian Arsenal] (Straight forward [30] copy of RPK) Automatiku Shqiptar model 56 (ASH-78 Tip-3) Albanian Automatic Hybrid Rifle Model 56 Type-3 [Made in Polian Arsenal] (Hybrid rifle for multi-purpose roles mainly Marksman rifle with secondary assault rifle and grenade launcher [30] capability) Other unknown variants. several other unnamed & unidentified versions of the AKMS have been produce mainly with short barrels similar to the Soviet AKs-74u mainly for special forces, Tank & Armoured crew also for Helicopter pilots and police. There have also been modifications and fresh production of heavily modified ASh-82 (AKMS) with SOPMOD accessories, [30] mainly for Albania's special forces RENEA & exports.

Bangladesh Bulgaria

Chinese Type 56 AKK (Type 3 AK-47), AKKS (Type 3 with side-folding buttstock) AKKMS (AKMS) AKKN-47 (fittings for NPSU night sights) AK-47M1 (Type 3 with black polymer furniture) AK-47MA1/AR-M1 (same as -M1, but in 5.56mm NATO) AKS-47M1 (AKMS in 5.56x45mm NATO), AKS-47MA1 (same as AKS-47M1, but semi-automatic only) AKS-47S (AK-47M1, short version, with East German folding stock, laser aiming device) AKS-47UF (short version of -M1, Russian folding stock), AR-SF (same as 47UF, but 5.56mm NATO) AKS-93SM6 (similar to 47M1, cannot use grenade launcher) RKKS, AKT-47 (.22 rimfire training rifle)


Chinese Type 56, Soviet AK-47, and AKM

People's Republic Type 56 of China German Democratic Republic Egypt Ethiopia Hungary Iraq MPi-K (AK-47), MPi-KS (AKS), MPi-KM (AKM), MPi-KMS-72 (AKMS), KK-MPi Mod.69 (.22-Lr select-fire trainer);

AK-47, Misr assault rifle (AKM), Maadi. AK-47, AK-103 (manufactured locally at the State-run Gafat Armament Engineering Complex as the Et-97/1 AK-63D/E (AMM/AMMSz), AKM-63, AMD-65, AMD-65M, AMP, NGM 5.56 Tabuk Sniper Rifle, Tabuk Assault Rifle (with fixed or underfolding stock, outright clones of Yugoslavian M70 rifles series), Tabuk Short Assault Rifle Assault Rifle 7.62mm, manufactured by Ordnance Factories Organisation KLS (AK-47), KLF (AKS), KLT (AKMS) IMI Galil RK 62, RK 95 TP M60 [32] [31] )

India Iran Israel Finland Macedonia


Nigeria North Korea


Type 58A (Type 3 AK-47), Type 58B (stamped steel folding stock), Type 68A (AKM-47) Type 68B (AKMS), Type 88 [34] [35] (AKS-74) Reverse engineered by hand and machine in Pakistan's highland areas near the border of Afghanistan; more recently the [36] Pakistan Ordnance Factories started the manufacture of an AK47/AKM clone called PK-10 pmK/kbk AK (name has changed from pmK "pistolet maszynowy Kaasznikowa", Kalashnikov SMG to the kbk AK "karabinek AK", Kalashnikov Carbine in mid 1960s) (AK-47), kbkg wz. 1960, kbk AKM (AKM), kbk AKMS (AKMS), kbk wz. 1988 Tantal based on the 7.62mm kbk AKMS wz. 81, kbs wz. 1996 Beryl PM md. 63 (AKM), PM md. 65 (AKMS), PM md. 90 (AKMS), collectively exported under the umbrella name AIM or AIMS PA md. 86 (AK-74), exported as the AIMS-74 PM md. 90 short barrel (AK-104), PA md. 86 short barrel (AK-105) exported as the AIMR




Serbia South Africa Sudan Vietnam Venezuela Yugoslavia

M92, M21 R4 assault rifle MAZ, [37] based on the Type 56

Chinese Type 56, Soviet AK-47, and AKM License granted, factory under construction [38]

M60, M64 (AK-47 with longer barrel), M64A (grenade launcher), M64B (M64 w/ folding stock), M66, M70, M70A, M70B1, M70AB2, M76, M77,

Certainly more have been produced elsewhere; but the above list represents known producers and is limited to only military variants. An updated AKM design is still produced in Russia.

The basic design of the AK-47 has been used as the basis for other successful rifle designs such as the Finnish Rk 62/76 and Rk 95 Tp, the Israeli Galil, the Indian INSAS and the Yugoslav Zastava M76 and M77/82 rifles. Several bullpup designs have surfaced such as the Chinese Norinco Type 86S, although none have been produced in quantity. Bullpup conversions are also available commercially. Further information: list of weapons influenced by the Kalashnikov design

Type 56 and AKS-47


OJSC IzhMash has repeatedly claimed that the majority of manufacturers produce AK-47s without a proper license from IZH.[39] [40] The Izhevsk Machine Tool Factory acquired a patent in 1999, making manufacture of the newest Kalashnikov rifles, such as AK-100s by anyone other than themselves illegal. However, older variants, such as AK and AKM are public domain due to age of design.

Illicit trade
Throughout the world, the AK and its variants are among the most commonly smuggled small arms sold to governments, rebels, criminals, and civilians alike, with little international oversight. In some countries, prices for AKs are very low; in Somalia, Rwanda, Mozambique, Congo and Ethiopia, prices are between $30 and $125 Cambodian AK-47 with black furniture per weapon, and prices have fallen in the last few decades due to mass counterfeiting. Moiss Nam observed that in a small town in Kenya in 1986, an AK-47 cost fifteen cows but that in 2005, the price was down to four cows indicating that supply was "immense".[41] The weapon has appeared in a number of conflicts including clashes in the Balkans, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somalia.[42] After the Soviet retreat from Afghanistan, the Soviet Army left quantities of weapons including AKs which were subsequently used in the civil war between the Taliban and the Northern Alliance and were also exported to Pakistan. The gun is now also made in Pakistan's semi-autonomous areas (see more at Khyber Pass Copy). It is widely used by tribes in Africa like the Hamer, amongst others. The World Bank estimates that out of the 500million total firearms available worldwide, 100million are of the Kalashnikov family, and 75million of which are AK-47s.[43] Mikhail Kalashnikov addressed the United Nations in 2006 at a conference aimed at solving the problem of illicit weapons, saying that he appreciated the AK-47's role in state-sponsored defense but that counterfeit weapons carrying his name in the hands of "terrorists and thugs" caused him regret.[44]

Cultural influence
"Basically, it's the anti-Western cachet of it ... And you know, one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter, so we all sort of think, oh boy, we've got a little bit of Che Guevara in us. And this accounts for the popularity of the (AK 47) weapon. Plus I think that in the United States it's considered counterculture, which is always something that citizens in this country kind of like ... It's kind of sticking a finger in the eye of the man, if you will." Larry Kahaner, author of AK-47: The Weapon That Changed the Face of War

The Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, as well as Western countries (especially the United States) supplied arms and technical knowledge to numerous countries and rebel forces in a global struggle between the Warsaw Pact nations and their allies against NATO and their allies called the Cold War. While the NATO countries used rifles such as the relatively expensive M14, FN FAL, and H&K G3 battle rifles and M16 assault rifle during this time, the low production and materials costs of the AK-47 meant that the Soviet Union could produce and supply its allies at a very low cost. Because of its low cost, it was also duplicated or used as the basis for many other rifles, such as the Israeli Galil, Chinese Type 56, and Swiss SIG SG 550. As a result, the Cold War saw the mass export of AK-47s by the Soviet Union and the PRC to their allies, such as the Nicaraguan Sandinistas, Viet Cong as well as Middle Eastern, Asian, and African revolutionaries. The United States also purchased the Type 56 from the PRC to give to the mujahideen guerrillas during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[46]


10 The proliferation of this weapon is reflected by more than just numbers. The AK-47 is included in the flag of Mozambique and its coat of arms, an acknowledgment that the country's leaders gained power in large part through the effective use of their AK-47s.[47] It is also found in the coat of arms of Zimbabwe and East Timor, the revolution era coat of arms of Burkina Faso, the flag of Hezbollah, and the logo of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps.
Flag of Mozambique featuring the AK-47.

In parts of the Western world, the AK-47 is associated with their enemies; both Cold War era and present-day. During the 1980s, the Soviet Union became the principal arms dealer to countries embargoed by Western nations, including Middle Eastern nations such as Syria, Libya and Iran, who welcomed Soviet Union backing against Israel. After the fall of the Soviet Union, AK-47s were sold both openly and on the black market to any group with cash, including drug cartels and dictatorial states, and more recently they have been seen in the hands of violent Islamic terrorist groups such as the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Iraq, and FARC, Ejrcito de Liberacin Nacional guerrillas in Colombia. Western movies often portray criminals, gang members and terrorists using AK-47s. For these reasons, in the U.S. and Western Europe the AK-47 is stereotypically regarded as the weapon of choice of insurgents, gangsters and terrorists. Conversely, throughout the developing world, the AK-47 can be positively attributed with revolutionaries or "freedom fighters" against foreign occupation, imperialism, or colonialism.[45]

A U.S. Army M.P. inspects a Soviet AK-47 recovered in Vietnam, 1968.

In Mexico, the AK-47 is known as "Cuerno de Chivo" (literally "Ram's Horn") and is one of the weapons of choice of Mexican drug cartels. It is sometimes mentioned in Mexican folk music lyrics.[48] In 2006, Colombian musician and peace activist Csar Lpez devised the escopetarra, an AK converted into a guitar. One sold for US$17,000 in a fundraiser held to benefit the victims of anti-personnel mines, while another was exhibited at the United Nations' Conference on Disarmament.[49]

Kalashnikov Museum
The Kalashnikov Museum (also called the AK-47 museum) opened on November 4, 2004, in Izhevsk, a city in the Ural Mountains of Russia. The museum chronicles the biography of General Kalashnikov, as well as documents the invention of the AK-47. The museum complex of small arms of M. T. Kalashnikov, a series of halls and multimedia exhibitions is devoted to the evolution of the AK-47 assault rifle and attracts 10,000 monthly visitors. The museum serves as Russia's monument to this world-renowned infantry weapon.[50] Nadezhda Vechtomova, the museum director stated in an interview that the purpose of the museum is to honor the ingenuity of the inventor and the hard work of the employees and to "separate the weapon as a weapon of murder from the people who are producing it and to tell its history in our country."



Afghanistan[51] Albania[52] Algeria[52] Angola[52] Armenia[52] Bangladesh[52] Benin[52] Botswana[52] Bulgaria[52] Bulgarian modification manufactured by Arsenal J.S.Co as the AR-M1 in 7.62x39mm, 5.45x39mm, & 5.56x45mm[53] [54] Cambodia[52] Cape Verde[52] Central African Republic[52] Chad[52] Chile[55] Comoros[52] Congo-Brazzaville[52] Cuba[52] Democratic Republic of the Congo[52] Egypt[52] Namibia[52] East Germany[56] Equatorial Guinea[52] Ethiopia: AK-47 variant.[52] Gabon[52] Georgia:[52] Used by the Georgian Armed Forces for over 15 years. Replaced by the M4 carbine in 2008.[57] Greece: EKAM counter-terrorist unit of the Hellenic Police.[58] [59] Guinea[52] Guinea-Bissau[52] Guyana[52] Hungary[52] India: In use by Force One.[60] Iran[52] Iraq[51] [52] Israel[52] :Captured from Arab armies over the course of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Laos[52] Lesotho[52] Liberia[52] Libya[52] / Anti-Gaddafi forces Macedonia[61] Madagascar[52] Mali[52] Malta: Type 56 variant.[52] Morocco[52]
Ethiopian soldier aiming with an AKM

AK-47 Mongolia[52] Mozambique[52] North Korea: Type 56 and Type 58 variants were used.[52] Pakistan: Type 56 variant is used by the Special Service Group of the Pakistan Army.[62] People's Republic of China: Type 56 variant was used.[63] Peru[52] Philippines: Used by the Santiago City PNP.[64] Poland[56] Qatar[52] Romania[52] Sao Tome and Principe[52] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic[65] Seychelles[52] Sierra Leone[52] Somalia[52] Soviet Union: Adopted by the Soviet Union in 1951.[63] Sri Lanka: Type 56 variant.[52] Sudan[52] Syria[52] Tanzania[52] Togo[52] Turkey[52] Vietnam: Type 56 variant was used extensively by the Viet Cong.[63] Yemen[52] Yugoslavia[56] Zambia[52] Zimbabwe[52]


[1] Table data are for AK-47 with Type 2/3 receiver [2] Worldbank.org (http:/ / www-wds. worldbank. org/ servlet/ WDSContentServer/ WDSP/ IB/ 2007/ 04/ 13/ 000016406_20070413145045/ Rendered/ PDF/ wps4202. pdf) [3] "AK-47 Inventor Doesn't Lose Sleep Over Havoc Wrought With His Invention" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,288456,00. html). Foxnews.com. 2007-07-06. . Retrieved 2010-04-03. [4] Bidwell, Shelford. The Encyclopedia of land warfare in the 20th century, p. 199. Spring Books, 1977. [5] Poyer, Joe. The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations. North Cape Publications. 2004. [6] "Weaponomics: The Economics of Small Arms" (http:/ / www. csae. ox. ac. uk/ workingpapers/ pdfs/ 2006-13text. pdf). . [7] Bellamy RF, Zajtchuk R. The physics and biophysics of wound ballistics. In: Zajtchuk R, ed. Textbook of Military Medicine, PartI: Warfare, Weaponry, and the Casualty, Vol. 5, Conventional Warfare: Ballistic, Blast, and Burn Injuries. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, United States of America (1990) pp. 146155 [8] U.S. Military Small Arms Ammunition Failures and Solutions, GK Roberts, NDIA Dallas, Texas, 21 May 2008, DTIC.mil (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2008Intl/ Roberts. pdf) [9] Wounding Effects of the AK-47 Rifle Used by Patrick Purdy in the Stockton, California, Schoolyard Shooting of January 17, 1989, Fackler, Martin L. M.D.; Malinowski, John A. B.S.; Hoxie, Stephen W. B.S.; Jason, Alexander B.A., American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, September 1990 [10] "AK-47 Inventor Doesn't Lose Sleep Over Havoc Wrought With His Invention" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,288456,00. html). Foxnews.com. 2007-07-06. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [11] Bolotin, D.N, "Soviet Small-Arms and Ammunition", pp 68. [12] Bolotin, pp 6971. [13] J.F.S. (July 1983). "IMI Galil" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080323110816/ http:/ / www. ak-47. net/ ak47/ galil. html). Soldier of Fortune (AK-47.net). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ak-47. net/ ak47/ galil. html) on March 23, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-19.

[14] "Firearm Model History Remington Model 8" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080615193132/ http:/ / www. remington. com/ library/ history/ firearm_models/ centerfire/ model_8. asp). Remington.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. remington. com/ library/ history/ firearm_models/ centerfire/ model_8. asp) on June 15, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [15] "AK-47 Inventor Says Conscience Is Clear, Mikhail Kalashnikov Blames Politicians For Millions Of Deaths Involving His Assault Rifle" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2007/ 07/ 06/ world/ main3025193. shtml?source=RSSattr=World_3025193). CBS News. July 6, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [16] Edward Clinton Ezell (1986-03). The AK47 story: evolution of the Kalashnikov weapons (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=cUKbQAAACAAJ). ISBN978-0-8117-0916-3. . [17] Val Shilin; Charlie Cutshaw. "Mikhail Kalashnikov" (http:/ / www. powercustom. com/ AKPages/ MikhailKalashnikov. htm). Power Custom. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [18] Bolotin, pp 64. [19] Poyer, 8 [20] Poyer, 9 [21] Ezell, 36 [22] Poyer, 11 [23] Poyer, 2 [24] "An AK for Every Market by James Dunnigan April 23, 2003" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070325171640/ http:/ / www. strategypage. com/ dls/ articles/ 20030423. asp). Web.archive.org. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. strategypage. com/ dls/ articles/ 20030423. asp) on 2007-03-25. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [25] Rivas, Oswaldo (2007-06-14). "Soldiers from special force unit "COE" take part in a military training exercise at the military base, near Managua" (http:/ / blogs. reuters. com/ oddly-enough/ 2007/ 06/ 14/ mimes-fighting-to-be-heard/ ). Reuters. . Retrieved 2008-12-09. [26] "Handbook for firearms use and maintenance: Kalashnikov 7.62mm modernized assault rifle (AKM and AKMS). USSR Ministry of Defence, revised, 1983. In Russian; e-book" (http:/ / talks. guns. ru/ forummessage/ 18/ 502015. html). . [27] "Manual: Kalashnikov 5.45mm modernized assault rifle (AK-74, AKS-74, AK-74N, AKS-74N) and Kalashnikov 5.45 light machine gun (RPK-74, RPKS-74, RPK-74N, RPKS-74N). USSR Ministry of Defence, revised, 1982. In Russian; e-book" (http:/ / talks. guns. ru/ forummessage/ 18/ 502015. html). . [28] Maxim Popenker; Anthony G. Williams (2005-03-28). Assault Rifle (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=TNwgAAAACAAJ). Crowood Press. ISBN978-1-86126-700-9. . [29] Department of the Army. Operators Manual for AK-47 Assault Rifle. 203d Military Intelligence Battalion [30] http:/ / i50. photobucket. com/ albums/ f301/ kagemushamu/ Page1-1/ SmallArms01-001. jpg [31] Advertisement flyer for manufacturing capabilities of the GAEC Gafat Armament Engineering Complex. (http:/ / ethiopiabook. com/ galleryimg/ l/ print-advert-371. jpg) Retrieved on October 8, 2010. [32] "Assault Rifle 7,62mm page on the Indian Ordnance Factory Board website. (http:/ / ofbindia. nic. in/ products/ data/ weapons/ wsc/ 21. htm) [33] Nigeria to mass-produce Nigerian version of AK-47 rifles. (http:/ / english. peopledaily. com. cn/ 200610/ 02/ eng20061002_308128. html) Retrieved on October 5, 2008. [34] US Department of Defense, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, PPSH 1943 SUBMACHINEGUN (TYPE-50 CHINA/MODEL-49 DPRK), p. A-79. [35] US Department of Defense, North Korea Country Handbook 1997, Appendix A: Equipment Recognition, TYPE-68 (AKM) ASSAULT RIFLE, p. A-77. [36] Russia confronts Pakistan, China over copied weapons. (http:/ / www. upiasia. com/ Security/ 2009/ 11/ 16/ russia_confronts_pakistan_china_over_copied_weapons/ 5776/ ) Retrieved on October 16, 2010. [37] "MAZ" (http:/ / mic. sd/ images/ products/ wepons/ en/ MAZbn. html). Military Industry Corporation. . Retrieved 2009-02-08. [38] Martin Sieff (August 15, 2007). "Defense Focus: Venezuela's Kalashnikovs" (http:/ / www. upi. com/ International_Security/ Industry/ Analysis/ 2007/ 08/ 15/ defense_focus_venezuelas_kalashnikovs/ 1273/ ). UPI.com. . Retrieved 2008-10-19. [39] " " (http:/ / www. lenta. ru/ news/ 2006/ 06/ 13/ rifles/ ). Lenta.ru. . Retrieved 2006-07-19. [40] "'' " (http:/ / lenta. ru/ news/ 2006/ 04/ 15/ fake). Lenta.ru. . Retrieved 2006-07-19. [41] "Carnegie Council. ''ILLICIT: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy''. Moiss Nam, Joanne J. Myers. November 9, 2005" (http:/ / www. cceia. org/ resources/ transcripts/ 5279. html). Cceia.org. 2005-11-09. . Retrieved 2009-06-26. [42] "The AK-47: The World's Favourite Killing Machine". ControlArms Briefing Note. Internet, available from Controlarms.org (http:/ / www. controlarms. org/ en/ documents and files/ reports/ english-reports/ the-ak-47-the-worlds-favourite-weapon/ at_download/ file). Retrieved 2008-11-02. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/ 20080813072407/ http:/ / www. controlarms. org/ en/ documents and files/ reports/ english-reports/ the-ak-47-the-worlds-favourite-weapon/ at_download/ file) August 13, 2008 at the Wayback Machine [43] "Worldbank. Post-Conflict Transitions Working Paper No. 10. ''Weaponomics: The Global Market for Assault Rifles''. Phillip Killicoat, Economics, Oxford University. April 2007" (http:/ / www-wds. worldbank. org/ servlet/ WDSContentServer/ WDSP/ IB/ 2007/ 04/ 13/ 000016406_20070413145045/ Rendered/ PDF/ wps4202. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-03.


[44] "United Nations. ''United Nations Conference to Review Progress Made in the Implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects.'' New York, 26 June 7 July 2006" (http:/ / www. un. org/ events/ smallarms2006/ pdf/ rc. 6-e. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-03. [45] AK-47: The Weapon Changed the Face of War (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=6539945) by Andrea Seabrook, NPR Weekend Edition Sunday, November 26, 2006 [46] "Chinese Type-56 Assault Rifle" 5th Battalion Royal Australian Regiment Association website (http:/ / www. 5rar. asn. au/ weapons/ type_56. htm) [47] Michael R. Gordon, "Burst of Pride for a Staccato Executioner: AK-47" The New York Times, March 13, 1997. [48] Muessig, Ben. "Narcocorridos: The Songs of Mexico's Drug War" (http:/ / www. aolnews. com/ 2010/ 08/ 10/ narcocorridos-the-songs-of-mexicos-drug-war/ ). AolNews. . Retrieved 9 August 2011. [49] Latorre, Hctor (2006-01-24). "Escopetarras: disparando msica" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ hi/ spanish/ misc/ newsid_4644000/ 4644028. stm). BBC World. . Retrieved 2007-01-31. [50] Chivers, C.J. http:/ / travel. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 02/ 18/ travel/ 18heads. html The New York Times 2007-02-18 [51] Kahaner, Larry (2006-11-26). "Weapon Of Mass Destruction" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 11/ 24/ AR2006112400788. html). Washingtonpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-03. [52] Janes; Leland S. Ness (2009-12). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=A5ngPgAACAAJ). Jane's Information Group. ISBN978-0-7106-2869-5. . [53] 5.56mm AR-M1 & AR-M1F (http:/ / www. arsenal-bg. com/ defense_police/ 5. 56_arsenal_assault_rifle_ar-m1_ar-m1f. htm) [54] 7.62mm AR-M1 & AR-M1F (http:/ / www. arsenal-bg. com/ defense_police/ 7,62ar-m1-m1f. htm) [55] Terry J. Gander (1995-05). Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995-96 (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=qSL8AAAACAAJ). ISBN978-0-7106-1241-0. . [56] Modern Firearms AK-47 AKM (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as01-e. htm). World.guns.ru (2011-01-24). Retrieved on 2011-03-14. [57] "Georgian Army Bids Farewell to Soviet Guns" (http:/ / www. mod. gov. ge/ files/ ijwtsgknrxgeo. pdf). Today Defence (7). January 2008. . [58] Milosevic, Milan (2005). "Trojanski Konj za Teroriste" (http:/ / www. kalibar. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=74) (in Serbian). Kalibar. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5rzTsOf8X) from the original on 2010-08-14. . Retrieved 2009-04-04. [59] "Greece Ministry of Public Order Press Office: Special Anti-Terrorist Unit" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5rOg1WIHo). http:/ / astynomia. gr Official Website of the Hellenic Police. July 2004. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. astynomia. gr/ images/ stories/ DOCS/ Attachment11480_ENHMEROTIKO_EKAM_ENGL. pdf) on 2010-07-21. . Retrieved 2009-09-27. [60] "Maha's elite counter terror unit Force One becomes operational" (http:/ / www. business-standard. com/ india/ news/ maha\s-elite-counter-terror-unit-force-one-becomes-operational/ 377563/ ). Business Standard. . Retrieved 2010-07-05. [61] Macedonian military police, US National Guard conduct joint manoeuvres (http:/ / www. setimes. com/ cocoon/ setimes/ xhtml/ en_GB/ features/ setimes/ features/ 2006/ 10/ 12/ feature-03). SETimes.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-14. [62] Pakistan Military Consortium (http:/ / www. pakdef. info/ pakmilitary/ army/ regiments/ ssg. html). www.PakDef.info (1989-05-29). Retrieved on 2011-03-14. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5yoL5lFaR) 19 May 2011 at WebCite [63] D. M. O. Miller (2001-08-31). Illustrated directory of twentieth century guns (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=GgpRPgAACAAJ). ISBN978-1-84065-245-1. . [64] "Santiago city forms SWAT team to combat crime" (http:/ / www. pia. gov. ph/ ?m=12& sec=reader& rp=1& fi=p060902. htm& no=3& date=09/ 02/ 2006). Philippine Information Agency. 2006-09-02. . Retrieved 2010-02-01. [65] Western Sahara In the unforgiving deserts of south west Algeria, Nick Ryan meets the nomads fighting a 25 year battle. (http:/ / www. nickryan. net/ articles/ sahara. html)


Valerii N. Shilin; Charlie Cutshaw (2000-03-01). Legends and reality of the AK: a behind-the-scenes look at the history, design, and impact of the Kalashnikov family of weapons (http://books.google.com/ ?id=U3kIAAAACAAJ). Paladin Press. ISBN978-1-58160-069-8. Ezell, Edward Clinton (1986-03). The AK-47 Story: Evolution of the Kalashnikov Weapons. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. ISBN978-0-8117-0916-3. Before his death, Ezell was the curator of military history at the Smithsonian Museum Ezell, Edward Clinton; R. Blake Stevens (2001-12-01). Kalashnikov: The Arms and the Man. Cobourg, ON: Collector Grade Publications. ISBN978-0-88935-267-4. {{cite book| author = managing editor, Claire Folkard.| title = [[Guinness Book of Records| date = 2004-08| publisher = Guinness World Records| location = London| isbn = 978-1-892051-22-6 }} Michael Hodges (2007-01). Ak47: The Story of the People's Gun (http://books.google.com/ ?id=j82yAAAACAAJ). Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN978-0-340-92104-3.

AK-47 Larry Kahaner (2007). AK-47: the weapon that changed the face of war (http://books.google.com/ ?id=oBAhAQAAIAAJ). John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN978-0-471-72641-8. Mikhail Timofeevich Kalashnikov; Elena Joly (2006). The gun that changed the world (http://books.google. com/?id=CY2HlLDiaNwC). Polity Press. ISBN978-0-7456-3691-7. Poyer, Joe (2004-08). The AK-47 and AK-74 Kalashnikov Rifles and Their Variations (Paperback). Tustin, CA: North Cape Publications. ISBN978-1-882391-33-2. Edward Clinton Ezell; with research assistance of Thomas M. Pegg.; Thomas M. Pegg, Walter Harold Black Smith (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Barnes & Nobles. ISBN978-0-88029-601-4. John Walter (1999-09-04). Kalashnikov: machine pistols, assault rifles, and machine-guns, 1945 to the present (http://books.google.com/?id=XnybC2qSORAC). Greenhill Books/Lionel Leventhal. ISBN978-1-85367-364-1.


External links
Manufacturer's Official Site (http://www.izhmash.ru/eng/product/akm.shtml) AK Site Kalashnikov Home Page (http://kalashnikov.guns.ru/) US Army Operator's Manual for the AK-47 Assault Rifle Nazarian's Gun's Recognition Guide (MANUAL) AK 47 Manual (.pdf) (http://www.nazarian.no/images/wep/ 284_US_Army_AK47.pdf) The Timeless, Ubiquitous AK-47 (http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,1964810,00.html) slideshow by Time magazine How the AK-47 Rewrote the Rules of Modern Warfare (http://www.wired.com/magazine/2010/11/ff_ak47/ all/1) Three-part article by C. J. Chivers, Wired Magazine, 2010-11-01

AK-47: The Weapon Changed the Face of War (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=6539945) audio report by NPR The AK-47: The Gun That Changed The Battlefield (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story. php?storyId=130493013) audio report by NPR

History of the AK-47 (http://www.emtain.tv/playlist/show/14509) TOP 10 Combat Rifles: AK-47 (http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=KvrG4T2K4sE) by the Discovery Channel AK-47 Documentary: Part 1 (http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=na2_Nw31BBI) & Part 2 (http:// www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=PB1VuBWTyvY) by Al Jazeera English AK-47 Full Auto, U.S. Army in Iraq (http://www.archive.org/details/AkmAk-47TypeFullAutoIraqU.s. Army) from the Internet Archive Tales of the Gun: AK-47 Part 1 (http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=68HSnr69sPw) - 2 (http://www. youtube.com/watch_popup?v=J6c3DLlM9KA) - 3 (http://www.youtube.com/ watch_popup?v=DFLHCenoi0w) - 4 (http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=G-FRXN-kKbs) - 5 (http:// www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=075YUx2ujK4) by The History Channel

Assault rifle


Assault rifle
An assault rifle is a selective fire (selectable between semi-auto and fully automatic) rifle (capable of being fired from the shoulder) that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.[1] [2] [3] [4] Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies. Assault rifles are categorized in between light machine guns, which are intended more for sustained automatic fire in a light support role, and submachine guns, which fire a pistol cartridge rather than a rifle cartridge. Examples of assault rifles include the Kalashnikov family,[5] M16 rifle, SA80, G36, FN F2000, and the Steyr AUG.

The AK-47 was first adopted in 1949 by the Soviet Army. It fires the 7.62x39mm M43 round.


The M16 was first introduced into service in 1964 with the United States Air Force. It fires the high velocity 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge.

The term assault rifle is a translation of the German word Sturmgewehr (literally "storm rifle", as in "to storm a position"). The name was coined by Adolf Hitler[6] to describe the Maschinenpistole 43, subsequently re-named Sturmgewehr 44, the firearm generally considered the first assault rifle that served to popularise the concept and form the basis for today's modern assault rifles. The translation assault rifle gradually became the common term for similar firearms sharing the same technical definition as the StG 44. In a strict definition, a firearm must have at least the following characteristics to be considered an assault rifle:[7] [8] [9] It must be an individual weapon with provision to fire from the shoulder (i.e. a buttstock); It must be capable of selective fire; It must have an intermediate-power cartridge: more power than a pistol but less than a standard rifle or battle rifle; Its ammunition must be supplied from a detachable magazine rather than a feed-belt. And it should at least have a firing range of 300meters (984 feet)

Rifles that meet most of these criteria, but not all, are technically not assault rifles despite frequently being considered as such. For example, semi-automatic-only rifles like the AR-15 (which the M16 rifle is based on) that share designs with assault rifles are not assault rifles, as they are not capable of switching to automatic fire and thus are not selective fire capable. Belt-fed weapons or rifles with fixed magazines are likewise not assault rifles because they do not have detachable box magazines. The term "assault rifle" is often more loosely used for commercial or political reasons to include other types of arms, particularly arms that fall under a strict definition of the battle rifle, or semi-automatic variant of military rifles such as AR-15s. The US Army defines assault rifles as "short, compact, selective-fire weapons that fire a cartridge intermediate in power between submachinegun and rifle cartridges."[10]

Assault rifle


Assault rifles vs. "Assault weapons"

The term assault weapon is a United States political and legal term used to describe a variety of semi-automatic firearms that have certain features generally associated with military assault rifles. The 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban, which expired on September 13, 2004, codified the definition of an assault weapon. It defined the rifle type of assault weapon as a semiautomatic firearm with the ability to accept a detachable magazine containing more than 10 rounds, and two or more of the following: Folding or telescoping stock Primary pistol grip Forward grip Threaded barrel (for a muzzle brake or a suppressor, commonly called a silencer) Barrel shroud

The assault weapons ban did not restrict weapons capable of fully automatic fire, such as assault rifles and machine guns, which have been continuously and heavily regulated since the National Firearms Act of 1934 was passed. Subsequent laws such as the Gun Control Act of 1968 and the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 also affected the importation and civilian ownership of fully automatic firearms, the latter fully prohibiting sales of newly manufactured machine guns to non-law enforcement or SOT (special occupational taxpayer) dealers.

The changing face of infantry combat
From ancient times, light infantry had fought in dispersed formations, while heavy infantry had fought in tightly packed formations. This continued as the sling and spear were replaced by musket and bayonet. Bright coloured uniforms (German: Blue, Russian: Green; British: Red, French: White) became a standard for unit cohesion in the midst of clouds of black powder smoke. Muskets were inaccurate at distances greater than 50 to 100meters (164 to 328 feet) and were slow to reload, which lead to formation-style war as multiple ranks maximised firepower and guaranteed that at least part of the unit would be ready to fire at all times. Tight formations also aided officers in controlling their men during combat and repelling infantry or cavalry charges. The adaptation of rifled muskets for military use in the mid-19th century increased range and power of guns and made battle from dense formations an extremely bloody affair, as witnessed by the high level of casualties in the American Civil War. Skirmisher tactics were given greater emphasis as gunpowder weapons increased in reliability, accuracy, and rate of fire. Cavalry adapted by dismounting, and using skirmisher tactics with breechloading rifles (which could be reloaded from a prone position, reducing vulnerability to enemy fire). After the American Civil War, further developments such as the adaptation of magazine-fed rifles, rapid-fire machine guns and high explosive shells for the artillery, spelled the end of the dense infantry formation during World War I. What this meant in practice was that infantry units no longer engaged each other at long range in open fields; the high power of relatively unwieldy bolt-action rifles of the day (which had been tripled by the adaptation of smokeless powder, along with a corresponding increase in recoil and report) was no longer suited to the close-range engagement of modern warfare. Military leaders and arms manufacturers thus began grasping for a new type of weapon for this new era.

Assault rifle


1900s1930s: Pre-Sturmgewehr Light automatic rifles

These automatic firearms generally used pre-existing rifle cartridges, with kinetic energies between 19605,000 J (1,4503,700-foot-pounds), velocities of 660900 m/s (1,4452,950ft/s) and bullets of 9 to 13 g (139200 grains). Amerigo Cei-Rigotti developed a rifle with essentially all the characteristics of an assault rifle between 1890 and 1900. It was tested but did not see service. The first in-service precursor of the assault rifle was the Russian Fedorov Avtomat issued for the first time in 1915 and chambered for the Japanese 6.5x50mm Arisaka rifle cartridge.[11] Like the 6.5x52mm Mannlicher-Carcano round used in the Cei-Rigotti, this was a relatively low-powered rifle cartridge already in production. The 1,960J bullet energy of the Arisaka round from the short barrel of the Avtomat was in fact less than the 2,010J bullet energy of the AK-47.[12] The Fedorov Avtomat, though a service rifle, was only used in small numbers. It was however highly favored by Russian and Soviet troops and saw service until World War II. Both these rifles had selective fire capability and weighed under 5 kgs loaded. During World War I the French Chauchat was introduced, a light machine gun and a precursor to the modern assault rifle. It was produced in large numbers (250,000). Like the later assault rifle it was capable of both single and automatic fire, and was loaded with a magazine and also featured a pistol grip. Compared to other light machine guns of the time the Chauchat was fairly light at the weight of 9 kg but it was still too cumbersome for closer quarters and had recoil that was too heavy to control when firing fully automatic due to the use of full powered rifle rounds like original French chambering of the 8 mm Lebel (8x50mmR) or variants produced later for US forces in .30-06 Springfield and other international customers in 7.92 mm and 7.65 mm rifle calibres. Despite some serious flaws it was so important to infantry combat that desperate German troops who had no comparable weapon of their own started using captured Chauchats.[13] While it was chambered for the full-size calibre and therefore did not use an intermediate cartridge, it was an intermediate weapon between submachine guns and heavier machine guns such as the Lewis Gun. The Ribeyrolle 1918 may be the first weapon fitting the definition of an assault rifle (including select fire and portability) to use a purpose-designed intermediate round. The cartridge was based on the .351 Winchester Self-Loading case necked down to accept an 8 mm Ribeyrolle 1918 automatic carbine Lebel bullet. It was first introduced to the Army Technical Service on July 6, 1918. Its official designation was Carabine Mitrailleuse (English: machine carbine; German: Maschinenkarabiner). It was finally rejected in 1921 because it was not accurate enough at distances beyond 400meters. Similar weapons were the Danish Weibel M/1932 and Greek EPK light machine guns chambered in experimental rounds considered similar to what would become the 7.92x33mm Kurz within the following decade. The American M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) copied the Chauchat concept in a more reliable design but was not introduced or used in any significant numbers before the end of the First World War. Later developments added heavier barrels and bipods that made it more like today's light machine gun or squad automatic weapon, though it did help establish the doctrine of use for light selective fire rifles. These versions of the BAR were produced in large numbers, widely adopted, and served well into the 1960s with the U.S. military and other nations. During World War I, submachine guns also entered service, such as the Villar Perosa, the Beretta Model 1918 and the MP18. These weapons shared many elements with assault rifles, but they fired pistol cartridges such as the 9x19 mm Parabellum. The developers of the Thompson submachine gun (also developed during the 1910s) originally intended to use rifle-powered rounds. However, a mechanical system that could handle their power was not available and the .45 ACP cartridge was chosen instead. These firearms are considered part of the submachine gun class, but were an important step in the development of assault rifles.

Assault rifle


1930s: Automatic intermediate weapons

Continuing evolution of the intermediate-calibre automatic rifle was primarily driven by ammunition. Handgun ammunition used by submachine guns was only effective at shorter ranges. Conversely, M1 carbine (U.S.). The later M2 and M3 variants full-sized military rifle calibres were uncomfortable to fire repeatedly, were capable of fully automatic fire. were large and lead to unwieldy and heavy rifles, and were difficult to control during fully automatic or rapid fire because of significant recoil. The cost of design and manufacture of full-size rifles ammunition was also higher. One attempt to combine an intermediate cartridge with an automatic rifle by the Italian arms company Beretta resulted in the MAB 38 (Moschetto Automatico Beretta 1938). The MAB 38 used a Fiocchi 9M38 cartridge, a higher-powered version of the 9x19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge, which could provide longer effective range up to 200 m. In 1942, the United States introduced the M1 carbine, which was an intermediate power weapon chambered for the .30 Carbine cartridge. While select-fire capability was initially planned for the M1 carbine, this was dropped from the initial version. Later in the war, selective fire variants were made (M2 and M3). The weapon had greater range and accuracy than submachine guns, but was not as powerful as full-size automatic rifles such as the M1918 BAR. The longer barrel provided the carbine with a higher muzzle velocity than pistols and submachine guns chambered for the same .30-calibre round. Which coincidentally was a 7.62x33mm round similar in size to the 7.92x33mm Kurz which was the round used in the first German assault rifles. This shows that there was a niche for the intermediate cartridge that would later influence design and the nature of infantry combat Originally the carbine was envisioned as an inexpensive lightweight weapon for issue to rear-echelon and support troops (truckers, tankers, cooks, etc.) in place of the more expensive M1911 pistol or M1 Garand rifle. The M1 series was soon found suitable for close quarter battle engagements, a concept that would be re-applied later. The M1 carbine series would remain in service with the U.S. military primary forces until supplemented and finally replaced by the M16 rifle in the 1960s; it continued to be used in limited roles, particularly by the U.S. Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, and many Training Commands in the various branches of the U.S. armed forces well into the 1980s. The 1930s was also the beginning of the important German Maschinenkarabiner program of arms development that resulted in the prototype Maschinenkarabiner M35 that was however not adopted for service.[14]

1940searly 1950s: Maschinenkarabiner, Sturmgewehr & AK-47

Some of these automatic firearms used pre-existing rounds; others used new intermediate cartridges. Kinetic energy ranged between 1,4002,100 J (1,0331,550-foot-pounds), muzzle velocities of 600800m/s (1,9702,625ft/s) and bullets of 79g (108139 grains). Germany, under the Versailles Treaty, was limited to a professional Sturmgewehr 44 (Germany). Its development army of long service soldiers numbering only 100,000 men and began in earnest with the Maschinenkarabiner forbade tanks or military aircraft. This encouraged an approach that project emphasised high quality, and reduced emphasis on low cost. Infantry tactics became based on teams of General Purpose Machine Guns (GPMG) supporting and supported by a section of infantry. GPMG had high rates of fire to permit small numbers of men to fire at long range to defend a wide front. Enemy soldiers, briefly exposed, would be engaged with a high rate burst of fire to cause casualties before they could take cover. Close range assaults would be conducted by units with submachine guns, for greater mobility, and higher rates of fire. This tactical approach was a refinement of the "Hutier" tactics used by Germany in the last year of WWI. Germany, like other countries, had observed and studied the emerging demand of infantry rifles evolving since World War I, and their factories made a variety of non-standard cartridges, therefore having less incentive to retain

Assault rifle their existing calibres. The 7.92x30 mm (Kurz) cartridge was an example of these experiments; in 1941, it was improved to 7.92x33mm Kurz Infanterie Kurz Patrone ("Infantry Short Cartridge"). In 1942, it was again improved as Maschinenkarabiner Patrone S, and in 1943, Pistolen Patrone 43mE; then, finally, Infanterie Kurz Patrone 43. The similarity in size between the 7.92x33mm German cartridge and the 7.62x33mm developed for the M1 Carbine is a curious coincidence, but was ultimately nothing more than independent yet similar solutions to the same problem. The 7.92x33mm round used the same cartridge case head as the standard 7.92x57mm Mauser and the bullet was made from the same diameter rod. In 1942, Walther presented the Maschinenkarabiner ("automatic carbine," abbr. MKb), named MKb42(W). In the same year, Haenel presented the MKb42(H), designed by Hugo Schmeisser as a result of this program. Rheinmetall-Borsig (some said Krieghoff) presented its FG42 (Fallschirmjger Gewehr 42, sponsored by Hermann Gring) though this was in a different role, and using a heavy 7.92x57mm Mauser cartridge, which was not an intermediate round. Wartime tests in Russia indicated the MKb42(H) performed better than the other two. Schmeisser developed it first as the MP43, then MP43/1, and finally as the MP44/Sturmgewehr 44 (abbreviated StG44, or sometimes Stg 44). It immediately entered large scale production. More than 5,000 units had been produced by February 1944, and 55,000 by the following November. Following the end of the war, Mikhail Kalashnikov developed in 1947 the AK-47, inspired by the concept and layout of the German StG44, but is quite different mechanically. It fired the 7.62x39mm cartridge, which had been developed as model 43 for use in their SKS carbines that were developed by Simonov in 1945 and subsequently adopted as the SKS-45 . The round was similar to the StG44's in that the bullet was an intermediate round of the same calibre as the larger full-size Russian rifle ammunition. Though it further supports claims that Kalashnikov closely followed his German counterpart, Russian historians point out that Hugo Schmeisser arrived to Izhevsk in late 1947, while Kalashnikov had relocated development of his rifle to the same premises only as late as 1948 (the development itself began in 1943). Still, Schmeisser greatly helped Soviet gunsmiths to master the cold stamping technology, which was extensively used in the AK design (this especially relates to the later stamped receiver variant).[15] Mauser had developed several prototype Sturmgewehr 45 assault rifles, first with the Gert 06 (Device 6) using a roller-delayed blowback mechanism originally adapted from the roller-locked recoil operation of the MG42 machine gun but with a fixed barrel and gas system. It was realised that with careful attention to the mechanical ratios, the gas system could be omitted. The resultant weapon, the Gert 06(H) was supposedly slated for adoption by the Wehrmacht as the StG45. The German technicians involved in developing the Sturmgewehr 45 continued their research in France at CEAM. The StG45 mechanism was modified by Ludwig Vorgrimler and Theodor Lffler at the Mulhouse facility between 1946 and 1949. Three versions were made, CEAM Modle 1950, a French StG45 derivative chambered in .30 Carbine, 7.92x33mm Kurz as well as the 7.65x35mm in .30 US Carbine cartridge developed by Cartoucherie de Valence and adopted in 1948. A 7.5x38mm cartridge using a partial aluminium bullet was abandoned in 1947. Engaged in the Indochina war and being the second NATO contributor, France cancelled the adoption of these new weapons. Vorgrimler moved to Spain and began production of CETME Modelo A,B and C precursors of Heckler & Koch's G3 battle rifle and MP5 submachine gun


Assault rifle


Late 1950s1960s: Lighter rifles & smaller bullets

Many of these automatic firearms used intermediate cartridges with much lighter bullets and smaller calibres, but fired at very high velocity; kinetic energy ranged between 13001800J (9601,330-foot-pounds), velocities of 9001050m/s (2,9503,450ft/s), and bullets of 34g (4662 grains). Following the end of World War II, the U.S. Army conducted a number of studies of what happened in the war and how it was actually fought. Several things were learned which applied directly to personal weapon design. Perhaps most important, research found that most The M16 had its trial by fire with the USAF in Vietnam in the early 60s; by 1967 the M16A1 combat casualties caused by small-arms fire took place at short range. became the Army's standard service rifle So the long range and accuracy of the standard rifle was, in a real sense, wasted. Second, the research found that aiming was not a major factor in causing casualties. Instead, the number one predictor of casualties was the total number of bullets fired.[16] Third, psychological studies found that many riflemen (as much as 2/3) never fired their weapons at the enemy. By contrast, those soldiers equipped with rapid-fire weapons (submachine guns and the early assault rifles) were far more likely to actually use their weapons in battle.[17] This combination of factors led to the conclusion that a fairly short-range weapon capable of rapid fire would be the most effective general purpose weapon for infantry. While these studies were being digested, the United States insisted on introducing their own 7.62x51mm full-power cartridge as the standard for NATO armies. It could kill at distances of more than 500meters (though this was increasingly seen as irrelevant). At the time, the British were developing their own 7x43mm (.280 British) intermediate cartridge for their modern EM-2 bullpup assault rifle. Due to political pressure from the Conservative Party, which agreed with the American standardisation campaign, the whole project was shelved at the eve of introduction. In Belgium, the famous arms producer FN Herstal started experimenting with the German 7.92x33mm Kurzpatrone. They built a prototype of a rifle using this cartridge, but the impending NATO standardisation forced them to rebuild it to use American ammo, giving birth to the FN FAL, Switzerland introduced the SIG 510 that still fired Swiss service full-length rifle rounds but also produced the SIG 510-4 that fired the 7.62x51mm NATO round. Bolivia and Chile adopted the SIG 510-4 as their service rifle, Bolivian/Chilean exports were licence produced by the Italian firm Beretta. In conjunction with the 7.62x51mm Cartridge, The United States had developed the M14 rifle, which was largely based on the WWII M1 Garand, the most significant change being the addition of a 20 round detachable box magazine and selective fire capability. While initial tests looked promising, and professional rifleman were able to put on favorable demonstrations, the select-fire capabilities quickly proved unrealistic once the rifle was in the hands of a more average soldier; The 7.62mm NATO cartridge is a full power rifle cartridge and produces too much recoil to control a lightweight rifle in full automatic fire. About the same time the M14 was entering service, Eugene Stoner of ArmaLite was developing a totally new rifle named the AR-10, which was still designed to fire the 7.62mm NATO cartridge. As testing of the Stoner rifle progressed, army ordinance finally decided to look more seriously at the intermediate cartridge concept, and the 5.56x45mm NATO was born. Stoner scaled down his design and renamed the smaller weapon the AR-15, which would ultimately be adopted by the US armed forces as the M16 rifle. The M16A1 version soon followed to rectify issues found during use in the Vietnam War. The M16A2 was a further refinement and upgrade introduced in 1986 meant to use the Belgian-updated 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge with a heavier 62-grain (4.0g) steel-core "penetrator" bullet known as the SS109 or M855. The latest incarnation of the M16 rifle is the M4A1 selective fire carbine. The smaller-calibre military cartridges such as the 5.56x45mm and 5.45x39mm were sometimes considered less lethal than the previous generation of assault rifle rounds, such as the 7.62x39mm, which were large-calibre bullets with reduced propellant or cases. However, the lighter, small-calibre bullets achieved higher velocities, more favourable ballistic properties, and reduced carrying weight.

Assault rifle One aspect of the smaller calibre ammunition that is sometimes hotly debated is its fragmentation behaviour. Stopping capability is the effectiveness of the round in completely stopping the target when it hitseither killing or fully incapacitating. Within a certain range of ballistic conditions, the lighter 5.56 mm and 5.45 mm will, upon striking tissue, first tumble and then fragment. Beyond 100 yards (91m), or when fired from shorter barrels, such bullets can often fail to fragment upon impact because of insufficient velocity. Thus, the result in a target is a rather small .22 calibre bullet hole, instead of a much larger wound channel. Effectiveness depends on what tissues of the enemy body the round destroys. Larger destroyed areas increases the probability that sufficient damage will be done to end enemy resistance. Ultimately, any pointed (spitzer) round will tumble in soft tissue. If the jacket has a cannelure, such as the U.S. 5.56x45mm M193 round, and the bullet is in the proper ballistic state and high enough velocity, the bullet will fragment, inflicting significant blood loss and internal damage, as well as a wound channel profile that is more complex to address medically. If the bullet acts as a solid, and doesn't fragment, full effectiveness occurs only if striking the brain or spinal cord, causing immediate loss of control. There is a distinct, though lesser effectiveness if the heart, large blood vessels, or liver (which last tends to tear) is hit causing fairly quick loss of blood pressure, and consequent unconsciousness. Part of the dispute over small-calibre rounds arises here. Blood loss leads to indirect incapacitation, but often takes longer than direct destruction of tissue. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara presented wounding ability as a reason for adoption of the M16 over the M14 as a question of battlefield efficiency - that it is better to wound an adversary than kill him, as wounded must be tended to by their comrades, taking them out of the fight and demoralising them in the process.[18] Many claim that this theory was wed to the findings of Project SALVO, but nowhere in the SALVO findings was reduced lethality of rifle rounds ever stressed or presented as an argument for adoption of a lighter/smaller calibre round. SALVO concluded that the main factor in inflicting casualties in infantry combat was solely rounds fired - aiming had negligible impact. The theory that enemy soldiers would stop to aid a wounded comrade was questionable. The heavier 7.62mm bullets in use were claimed to hit harder with more mass, would not deflect or destabilise as readily, and more reliably killed what they hit. (Some of the substantiated issues were later addressed in 1982 with the changes made in the M16A2, which used a heavier 62-grain (4.0g) bullet with different ballistic characteristics from its M16A1 predecessor.)


1970s1990s: Development of features and form factors

Many of these automatic firearms used the same rounds as in older eras, but developed new layout designs, materials, and features, like standard telescopic and reflector or "reflex" sights. In the 1980s and 1990s, high velocity, smaller-calibre ammunition was becoming the standard of assault rifle ammunition. Following the trend set by the United States (which went from 7.62x51mm to 5.56x45mm), the Soviet Union developed its own smaller-calibre cartridge: the 5.45x39mm. In 1974, the 5.45x39 AK-74 became the successor to the AK-47/AKM series. Though AK-74s began utilising synthetic materials as opposed to wood, the weapon largely maintained the design of the AK-47. China in the 1980s introduced the 5.8x42mm DBP87 round, to compete with the assault rifle rounds of NATO and Russia.

FAMAS bullpup rifle (France). Adopted in 1978.

QBZ-95 (China), Adopted in 1995.

One notable development in ammunition in the 19701980s was the German Heckler & Koch G11 rifle, which used 4.73 mm caseless ammunition. Because of German reunification and heat-dissipation issues with the caseless ammunition, the rifle never entered full production.

Assault rifle


New developments were rifle designs that utilised modularity, new form factors, sights, electronics, and new materials. A number of bullpup rifles entered service in the late 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Although bullpup design had existed since the 1930s, the United Kingdom's EM-2 was one of the few bullpup assault rifles prior to this time. Examples of the trend include the FAMAS, Steyr AUG, and SA80. All three are bullpup rifles that make heavy use of composites and plastics, the FAMAS and AUG both have ambidextrous controls, and the AUG, and SA80 both added a low-power telescopic sight to the standard service version. The QBZ-95, SAR-21, and the Tavor TAR-21 follow a similar trend as well, with a bullpup configuration and heavy use of composites. The German Heckler & Koch G36, adopted in the late 1990s by Germany and Spain, had integral telescopic and red dot sights and a composite exterior. The G36C, a compact variant, featured a different barrel assembly, a shorter foregrip, and a Picatinny rail in place of the standard sight assembly to accommodate a detachable sight. Through the 1990s, modular accessories for use on rifles, of a variety of types, started to become widespread with the rapidly increasing practice of mounting Picatinny pattern rails on firearms. This was primarily driven by the growing visibility and number of tactical police, counter-terrorist units, SWAT teams, special forces, and other groups that desired the capability to specifically tailor their weapons. Tactical lights, visible lasers, weapon suppressors, infra-red lights, drum magazines, ergonomic accessories (such as vertical foregrips), folding or collapsible stocks, and a plethora of other options appeared. As these options became available to civilians, customisation of weapons other than assault rifles, such as the SKS rifle became common.

The G36 (Germany), was adopted by the German Army in 1997.

The L85A1 bullpup rifle was adopted by the British Army in 1985.

M4 carbine (U.S.).

Intertwined with the growth of the modular accessories was the concept of rifles being modular themselves. While some assault rifles can be modified through the use of attachments (such as the M4 carbine with SOPMOD), other assault rifles like the H&K G36, can have their entire function modified. The G36 can be converted from a standard rifle to a compact carbine for closer engagements or a squad automatic weapon for support, simply by swapping parts. Interchangeable or quick-detachable barrel assemblies of different lengths are emerging for some weapons, with retrofit kits to provide similar capabilities on older types. The AR-15 in particular has an entire industry that has grown to make variations of every component of the rifle. A variety of upper receivers of many types of operation (bolt, direct gas impingement, gas piston, blowback) are manufactured that allow the weapon to fire different ammunition from the standard assault rifle round (from small target rounds such as .22 LR to pistol rounds such as .380 ACP) without permanently changing the rifle.

Assault rifle


21st Century Developments

21st century assault rifles tend to be refinements of innovations made in previous decades. For example Israel's IMI Tavor TAR-21 is a 21st-century assault rifle that continues earlier trends of design: it has a compact bullpup layout, uses the 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge, can be set up for left- or right- handed shooters, exists in several modular variants, is made of lightweight composite materials, and comes standard with a reflex sight. However the 21st century Micro-Tavor, with a Kimber Mepro reflex sight, the standard [19] infantry weapon of the IDF. has come up with new innovations such as improved and new types of ammunition, advanced aiming systems and multi-caliber ability. The United States funded development of a replacement for the M16 rifle, eventually leading to the XM8 rifle, an experimental 21st-century design. Based on the Heckler & Koch G36 it had similar features, but added electronics such as a laser sight, round counter, and integral infra-red and visible lights. The XM8 was a modular design: the rifle could fulfill different roles by changing the parts. Weapons manufacturer Heckler and Koch has also created a redesigned M4 assault rifle. The new weapons, the HK416 (firing 5.56x45 NATO) and the HK417 (firing 7.62x51 NATO), have updated features, but are not completely different weapons platforms. They feature a piston (not direct impingement,) action, Picatinny rails, a drop free magazine release, a bolt that is sealed from the action (reducing dirt, heat and chance of failure) and other additions. Another trend of the 21st century is the combination of sophisticated electronics with modern rifle designs. The US spent millions on the Objective Individual Combat Weapon program, to create a more advanced combat rifle. The XM29 OICW rifle design was finalized in the early first decade of the 21st century- it featured an integrated laser range-finder, thermal vision and night vision capabilities, and an integral smart grenade launcher. The project was canceled in 2004, but the US's experimental XM29 rifle lead to other countries developing similar systems. France's PAPOP program is currently under-way to create a computerized infantry weapon system. South Korea's prototype XK11 Korean New Rifle has a ballistics computer, a laser range-finder, and a digital scope that provides the operator with combat data and is capable of night operation through thermal imaging. The lightweight small arms technology program sets to revolutionize small arms for the 21st century by lightening the weight of individual weapons.

The future
Small arms technology including the assault rifle can be described as a mature technology. However, changes in battlefield realities can be expected to lead to technological changes. As weapons evolve, the delicate balance for assault rifle systems between power, weight, recoil and terminal effects will likely shift once again in an attempt to defeat body armour, to match the range of full-power cartridges, and to penetrate through wind shields and thin-skinned vehicles while still producing good terminal effects. Possible future directions are armour piercing or saboted sub-caliber tungsten darts, more powerful cartridges, application of new composite materials such as carbon fiber or carbon nanotubes, and use of exotic metals such as titanium and scandium. As personal body armour technology improves, for example from the development of Magnetorheological fluid-based smart materials, assault rifle designs will be forced to adapt in order to remain effective. Changes in assault rifle technology may come from maturation of other fields - as camera technology becomes more advanced, cameras may be integrated into rifles. Much research and development has already been put into integration of rifles with advanced electronics.[20]

Assault rifle


The future of the assault rifle may not be entirely in the design of the firearm itself, but rather in the ammunition it fires. Reducing weight and cost being one of the original reasons for the development of the intermediate powered round and subsequently the assault rifle, that goal has been taken to a whole new level with the development of The FN SCAR. caseless ammunition which does away with the weight and cost of shell casings. Limitations of current technology prevent this idea from being successful but the concept is still being researched. Recent progress with the Lightweight Small Arms Technologies program has made the concept of caseless ammunition a step closer to reality.

Legal ownership by civilians

Possession of functional assault rifles by civilians is illegal in most nations, but there are a few notable exceptions, including the following:

Limited civilian ownership of assault rifles is allowed under Prohibited-class licenses, but diminishing due to attrition as no new licenses are currently being issued; current owners have been grandfathered and their firearms must be turned in for destruction upon their death or lapse of license. There is a provision in the law that allows for a parent to will a prohibited weapon to their son or daughter. This child is allowed to keep the weapon in usable condition. Many semi-auto only variants are available under both the Non-Restricted and Restricted categories, while others are classified as Prohibited, depending on the particular firearm.[21]

Czech Republic
The Ministry of the Interior, under the provisions of Act 119/2002, regulates civilian ownership of assault rifles, which are classified in the Czech Republic as Category A (Restricted Firearms and Accessories).[22] In addition to a valid gun licence, the prospective civilian owner must obtain a Category A Exemption from a local police agency and demonstrate the reason for owning an assault rifle, e.g. a legitimate firearms collection. The largest rifled bore available to civilians is .50-calibre.

The Firearms Act of 1998 (amended in 2001) outlawed possession of assault rifles by the general public, although licensed collectors in good standing may be able to obtain permits for older assault rifles from the Gaming and Weapons Administration. Police must verify that the collector is able to store the gun securely to discourage theft.[23] Civilians may purchase semi-automatic versions of assault rifles.

The Netherlands
Assault rifles are considered Class 2 weapons of the Wet Wapens en Munitie (WWM) along with silencers and short-barreled rifles/shotguns as well as any high-capacity magazine. Civilian possession is illegal unless personal authorisation is obtained from the Minister of Justice.

Assault rifle


Civilian gun licenses in Pakistan vary considerably in terms of region and class of firearm. Local police agencies can issue permits for assault rifles that are only legal in the state in which they are issued, although a licence issued by the Prime Minister will allow the rifle in question to be transported anywhere in the country. There are complaints that the licensing process has become too politicised.[24]

Assault rifles may only be owned by licensed collectors and hunters, but cannot be fired in full-automatic mode. Civilians may purchase semi-automatic versions of such firearms.

Canton police agencies may issue special permits for civilians to own assault rifles (typically as licensed collectors), but such weapons may not be fired in full-automatic mode. Civilians may also purchase semi-automatic versions of such firearms.

United States
Civilian ownership of assault rifles or any other full-automatic firearm is tightly regulated by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives under the National Firearms Act of 1934 as amended by Title II of the Gun Control Act of 1968. In addition, the Firearms Owners' Protection Act of 1986 halted the manufacture of assault rifles for the civilian market and currently limits legal civilian ownership to units produced and properly registered with the BATFE before May 1986. Some states have enacted laws against civilian possession of automatic weapons that override NFA clearance; Kansas, on the other hand, repealed its own state law against civilian ownership of assault rifles in July 2008.[25] Civilians may purchase semi-automatic versions of such firearms without requiring NFA clearance, although some states (including California and New Jersey) enforce their own restrictions and/or prohibitions on such weapons. The Federal Assault Weapons Ban expired on September 13, 2004, as part of the law's sunset provision. There have been multiple attempts to renew the ban, but no bill has reached the floor for a vote. Most states allow the purchase of semi-automatic rifles of similar configuration with a government issued ID (driver license) and a phone-in background check. Citizens of most states can purchase such rifles, provided they clear the background check as prescribed by federal law.[26]

[1] NRA-ILA Firearms Glossary. (http:/ / www. nraila. org/ Issues/ FirearmsGlossary/ ) [2] What Is an Assault Rifle? by William Sanders (http:/ / www. sff. net/ people/ sanders/ ar. html) [3] "Assault rifle." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 03 Jul. 2010. (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 39165/ assault-rifle) [4] Modern Firearms: Assault rifles (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as00-e. htm) [5] "Worldbank. Post-Conflict Transitions Working Paper No. 10. ''Weaponomics: The Global Market for Assault Rifles''. Phillip Killicoat, Economics, Oxford University. April 2007" (http:/ / www-wds. worldbank. org/ servlet/ WDSContentServer/ WDSP/ IB/ 2007/ 04/ 13/ 000016406_20070413145045/ Rendered/ PDF/ wps4202. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-03. [6] " Machine Carbine Promoted (http:/ / www. lonesentry. com/ articles/ ttt07/ stg44-assault-rifle. html)," Tactical and Technical Trends, No. 57, April 1945. [7] C. Taylor The fighting rifle A complete study of the rifle in combat, ISBN 0-87947-308-8 [8] F.A. Moyer Special Forces foreign weapons handbook, ISBN 0-87364-009-8 [9] R.J. Scroggie, F.A. Moyer Special Forces combat firing techniques, ISBN 0-87364-010-1 [10] US Army intelligence document FSTC-CW-07-03-70, November 1970 (http:/ / gunfax. com/ aw. htm) [11] Modern Firearms - Fedorov avtomat (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as86-e. htm) [12] " "Federov_Avtomat" (http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Federov_Avtomat). Wikipedia. . Retrieved 2010-10-15. ""the decision was made to convert 6.5mm Fedorov rifles to use the similar Japanese 6.5x50mm Arisaka ammunition (bullet weighting 9.0 grams at an initial velocity of

Assault rifle
660 m/s with a muzzle energy of 1,960 J)."" [13] Toward Combined Arms Warfare: a Survey (http:/ / www. cgsc. edu/ carl/ resources/ csi/ House/ House. asp) [14] Historic Firearm of the Month, February 2000 (http:/ / www. cruffler. com/ historic-february00. html) [15] " ?" ("The mystery behind Kalashnikov rifle unraveled?") Russian Life magazine, 2009-01-12; Link: http:/ / life. ru/ news/ 53051/ [16] Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World (in English). New York: Stackpole Books [17] Marshall, S.L.A. (1966). Men against Fire:The Problem of Combat Command in Future War. New York: Morrow. pp.5060. [18] Edward Clinton Ezell "The Great Rifle Controversy: Search for the Ultimate Infantry Weapon from World War II Through Vietnam and Beyond," ISBN 978-0811707091 [19] ( "http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ News_Channels/ bamahana/ 09/ 043/ 01. htm). Dover.idf.il. Retrieved on 2010-08-31 [20] Advanced Combat Rifles (http:/ / www. orbitalvector. com/ Firearms/ Advanced Combat Rifles/ ADVANCED COMBAT RIFLES. htm) [21] " List of Restricted and Prohibited Firearms (http:/ / www. rcmp-grc. gc. ca/ cfp-pcaf/ fs-fd/ rp-eng. htm)" RCMP [22] http:/ / aplikace. mvcr. cz/ archiv2008/ sbirka/ 2002/ sb052-02. pdf [23] http:/ / www. kaapeli. fi/ ~rauhanl/ pdf/ Artikkelit/ AKIBTBRAP090505. pdf [24] Wonacott, Peter (January 6, 2009). "For Middle-Class Pakistanis, a Gun Is a Must-Have Accessory" (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB123120431026355961. html). The Wall Street Journal. . [25] "Sebelius signs machine gun bill" (http:/ / www. nbcactionnews. com/ content/ news/ kansas/ story. aspx?content_id=94c7bb5a-b5d0-43d1-badf-94b760c4984b). AP. April 22, 2008. . [26] http:/ / thomas. loc. gov/ cgi-bin/ bdquery/ z?d108:H. R. 2038:


Further reading
Crawford, S. (2003). Twenty-First Century Small Arms. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-1503-5 Cutshaw, C. (2006). Tactical Small Arms of the 21st Century. Gun Digest Books. ISBN 0-87349-914-X Halls, Chris. (1974) Guns in Australia, Paul Hamlyn, Sydney. ISBN 0-600-07291-6 Lewis, J. (2004). Assault Weapons: An In-Depth Look at the Hottest Weapons Around. Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87349-658-2 Popenker, M. et al. (2004). Assault Rifle: the Development of the Modern Military Rifle and its Ammunition. Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 1-86126-700-2 Senich, P. (1987). German Assault Rifle: 19351945. Paladin Press. ISBN 0-87364-400-X

External links
Assault Rifles and their Ammunition: History and Prospects (http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/Assault.htm) Infantry Magazine on Assault Rifle Cartridges (http://www.thedonovan.com/archives/gunstuff/12_fa02.pdf) Assault Rifle Database Video and Review (http://www.gunslot.com/guns/assault-rifles) Assault Rifle Profiles (http://discovermilitary.com/category/weapons/assault-rifles/) (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/D320835.pdf) (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4212227.pdf)

British Army


British Army
British Army

Active Country

1707 present
Kingdom of Great Britain (17071800) United Kingdom (1801present)

Allegiance Type Size

HM Queen Elizabeth II Army 110,210 regulars 33,100 territorials 121,800 regular reserves Ministry of Defence Monarch Commanders

Partof Patron

Chief of the General Staff Gen. Sir Peter Wall KCB CBE ADC Gen

The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England and Scotland and was administered by the War Office from London. It has been managed by the Ministry of Defence since 1964. As of mid 2011 the British Army employs 110,210 regulars (which includes the 3,860 Brigade of Gurkhas) and 33,100 territorials for a combined component strength of 143,310 soldiers. In addition there are 121,800 regular reserves of the British Army.[1] [2] The full-time element of the British Army has also been referred to as the Regular Army since the creation of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908. The British Army is deployed in many of the world's war zones as part of both Expeditionary Forces and in United Nations Peacekeeping forces. The British Army is currently deployed in Kosovo, Cyprus, Germany, Afghanistan and many other places. All members of the Army swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as commander-in-chief. However the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires Parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a standing army in peacetime. Parliament therefore annually approves the continued existence of the Army. In contrast to the Royal Navy, Royal Marines and Royal Air Force, the British Army does not include Royal in its title. Many of the Army's constituent Regiments and Corps have been granted the "Royal" prefix and have members of the Royal Family occupying senior positions within some regiments.

British Army The professional head of the British Army is the Chief of the General Staff, currently General Sir Peter Wall KCB CBE ADC Gen.


The British Army came into being with the merger of the Scottish Army and the English Army, following the unification of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, as the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated existing English and Scottish regiments, and was controlled from London.[3] From the time of the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, Great Britain and its successor the United Kingdom has been one of the leading military and economic powers of the world.[4]

Early British Empire

The British Empire expanded in this time to include colonies, protectorates, and Dominions throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Although the Royal Navy is widely regarded as having been vital for the rise of the British Empire, and British dominance of the world, the British Army played an important role in the colonisation of India and other regions.[5] Typical tasks included garrisoning the colonies, capturing strategically important territories, and participating in actions to pacify colonial borders, provide support to allied governments, suppress Britain's rivals, and protect against foreign powers and hostile natives. British troops also helped capture strategically important territories, allowing their empire to expand throughout the globe. The army also involved itself in numerous wars meant to pacify the borders, or to prop-up friendly governments, and thereby keep other, competitive, empires away from the British Empire's borders. Among these actions were the Seven Years' War,[6] the American Revolutionary War,[7] the Napoleonic Wars,[8] the First and Second Opium Wars,[9] the Boxer Rebellion,[10] the New Zealand land wars,[11] the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,[12] the First and Second Boer Wars,[13] the Fenian raids,[14] the Irish War of Independence,[9] its serial interventions into Afghanistan (which were meant to maintain a friendly buffer state between British India and the Russian Empire),[15] and the Crimean War (to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by coming to Turkey's aid).[16]

The Duke of Marlborough was one of the first generals in the British Army, fighting campaigns in the War of the Spanish Succession.

The death of General Wolfe during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham; the campaigns of the French and Indian War resulted in British control of modern Canada.

As had its predecessor, the English Army, the British Army fought Spain, France, and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the Army conquered New France in the Seven Years' War[6] and subsequently suppressed a Native American uprising in Pontiac's War.[17] The British Army suffered defeat in the American War of Independence, losing the Thirteen Colonies but holding on to Canada.[18]

British Army


The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars in which the army served in multiple campaigns across Europe (including continuous deployment in the Peninsular War), the Caribbean, North Africa and later in North America. The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world and at its peak, in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A British Army under the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon's last campaign at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.[19]

The Duke of Wellington's triumph over Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo

The English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the pope in 1171. English republican dictator, Oliver Cromwell's campaign was characterised by its uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns (most notably Drogheda) that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War. The English Army (and subsequently the British Army) stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. It was faced with the prospect of battling Anglo-Irish and Ulster Scots peoples in Ireland, who alongside their other Irish groups had raised their own volunteer army and threatened to emulate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. The British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster (Wolfe Tone's United Irishmen) in the 1798 rebellion.[20] In addition to battling the armies of other European Empires (and of its former colonies, the United States, in the American War of 1812),[21] in the battle for global supremacy, the British Army fought the Chinese in the First and Second Opium Wars,[9] and the Boxer Rebellion,[10] Mori tribes in the first of the New Zealand Wars,[11] Nawab Shiraj-ud-Daula's forces and British East India Company mutineers in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,[13] the Boers in the First and Second Boer Wars,[13] Irish Fenians in Canada during the Fenian raids[14] and Irish separatists in the Anglo-Irish War.[9]

Following William and Mary's accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Mary's father, James II.[22] Following the 1707 union of England and Scotland, and the 1801 creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British foreign policy, on the continent, was to contain expansion by its competitor powers such as France and Spain. The territorial ambitions of the French led to the War of the Spanish Succession[23] and the Napoleonic Wars.[8] Russian activity led to the Crimean War.[16] After 1745 recruits were increasingly drawn from Scotland; by the mid-1760s between one fifth and one third of officers were from Scotland.[24] The vastly increasing demands of imperial expansion, and the inadequacies and inefficiencies of the underfunded, post-Napoleonic Wars British Army, and of the Militia, Yeomanry, and Volunteer Force, led to the Cardwell and Childers Reforms of the late 19th century, which gave the British Army its modern shape, and redefined its regimental system.[25] The Haldane Reforms of 1907, formally created the Territorial Force as the Army's volunteer reserve component.[26]

The Battle of Rorke's Drift in 1879 saw a small British force repel an overwhelming attack by Zulu forces; eleven Victoria Crosses were awarded for the defence.

British Army


World Wars
Great Britain's dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers, notably Germany. The UK was allied with France (by the Entente Cordiale) and Russia, and when the First World War broke out in 1914, the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force to France and Belgium to prevent Germany from occupying these countries.[27] The War would be the most devastating in British military history, with near 800,000 men killed and over 2million wounded. In the early part of the war, the professional force of the BEF was virtually destroyed and, by turns, a volunteer (and then conscripted) force replaced it. Major battles included the Battle of the Somme.[28] Advances in technology saw advent of the tank,[29] with the creation of the Royal Tank Regiment, and advances in aircraft design, with the creation of the Royal Flying Corps, which were to be decisive in future battles.[30] Trench warfare dominated strategy on the Western Front, and the use of chemical and poison gases added to the devastation.[31] The Second World War broke out in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland.[32] British assurances to the Polish led the British Empire to declare war on Germany. Again an Expeditionary Force was sent to France,[32] only to be hastily evacuated as the German forces swept through the Low Countries and across France in 1940.[33] Only the Dunkirk evacuation saved the entire Expeditionary Force from capture.[33] Later, however, the British would have spectacular success defeating the Italians and Germans at the Battle of El Alamein in North Africa,[34] and in the D-Day invasion of Normandy with the help of American, Canadian, Australian and New Zealand forces.[35] Almost half of the Allied soldiers on D-day were British.[36] In the Far East, the British army battled the Japanese in Burma.[37] The Second World War saw the British army develop its Special Air Service, Commando units and the Parachute Regiment.[38]

The Second Battle of El Alamein reversed German ambitions in North Africa, and is often cited as one of the turning points of the Second World War.

British Mark I tank during the First World War. Note the guidance wheels behind the main body which were later scrapped as they were unnecessary. Armoured vehicles of this time still required much infantry and artillery support and still do to a lesser extent today. Photo by Ernest Brooks.

British Army


Postcolonial era
After the end of the Second World War, the British Army was significantly reduced in size, although National Service continued until 1960.[39] This period also saw the process of Decolonisation commence with the end of the British Raj, and the independence of other colonies in Africa and Asia. Accordingly the army's strength was further reduced, in recognition of Britain's reduced role in world affairs, outlined in the 1957 Defence White Paper.[40] This was despite major actions in Korea in 1950[39] and Suez in 1956.[41] A large force of British troops also remained in Germany, facing the threat of Soviet invasion.[42] The British Army of the Rhine was the Germany garrison formation, with the main fighting force being I (BR) Corps. The Cold War saw significant technological advances in warfare and the Army saw more technologically advanced weapons systems come into service.[43]

Soldiers from the Parachute Regiment guard Argentine prisoners of war during the Falklands War.

Despite the decline of the British Empire, the Army was still deployed around the world, fighting colonial wars in Aden,[44] Cyprus,[44] Kenya[44] and Malaya.[45] In 1982 the British Army, alongside the Royal Marines, helped to recapture the Falkland Islands during the Falklands conflict against Argentina.[46] In the three decades following 1969, the Army was heavily deployed in Northern Ireland, to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with republican paramilitary groups, called Operation Banner.[47] The locally-recruited Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, later becoming the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the IRA ceasefires between 1994 and 1996 and since 1997, demilitarisation has taken place as part of the peace process, reducing the military presence from 30,000 to 5,000 troops.[48] On 25 June 2007, the Second Battalion Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment vacated the Army complex at Bessbrook Mill in Armagh. This is part of the 'normalisation' programme in Northern Ireland in response to the IRA's declared end to its activities.[49]

Recent and current conflicts

Gulf War
The ending of the Cold War saw a significant cut in manpower, as outlined in the Options for Change review.[50] Despite this, the Army has been deployed in an increasingly global role, and contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition force that fought Iraq in the Gulf War.[51] British forces were put in control of Kuwait after it was liberated. 47 British Military personnel died during the Gulf War.[52]

Balkans conflicts
The British Army was deployed to Yugoslavia in 1992; initially this force formed part of the United Nations Protection Force.[53] In 1995 command was transferred to IFOR and then to SFOR.[54] Currently troops are under the command of EUFOR. Over 10,000 troops were sent. In 1999 British forces under the command of SFOR were sent to Kosovo during the conflict there. Command was subsequently transferred to KFOR.[55] Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died on operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia.[56]

British Army


In 2001 the United Kingdom, as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom with the United States, invaded Afghanistan to topple the Taliban.[57] The 3rd Division were deployed in Kabul, to assist in the liberation of the troubled capital. The Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade (part of the Royal Navy but including a number of Army units), also swept the mountains.[58] The British Army is today concentrating on fighting Taliban forces and bringing security to Helmand province. Approximately 9,000 British troops (including marines, airmen and British soldiers in Afghanistan. sailors) are currently in Afghanistan, making it the second largest force after the US. Around 500 extra British troops were deployed in 2009, bringing the British Army deployment total up to 9,500 (excluding Special Forces).[59] Between 2001 and June 2011 a total of 362 British military personnel have died on operations mainly in Afghanistan.[60]

Iraq War
In 2003, the United Kingdom was a major contributor to the United States-led invasion of Iraq. There was major disagreement amongst the domestic populace but the House of Commons voted for the conflict, sending a force that would reach 46,000 army personnel to the region.[61] The British Army controlled the southern regions of Iraq and maintained a peace-keeping presence in the city of Basra until their withdrawal on April 30, 2009. 179 British Military personnel have died on operations in Iraq.[62] All of the remaining British troops were fully withdrawn from Iraq after the Iraqi government refused to extend their mandate.[63]

British soldiers in Iraq

Northern Ireland
Although having permanent garrisons there, the British Army was initially deployed in a peacekeeping role codenamed "Operation Banner" in Northern Ireland in the wake of Unionist attacks on Nationalist communities in Derry[64] and Belfast[65] and to prevent further Loyalist attacks on Catholic communities, under Operation Banner between 1969 and 2007 in support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and its successor, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI).[66] There has been a steady reduction in the number of troops deployed in Northern Ireland since the Good Friday Agreement was signed in 1998.[67] In 2005, after the Provisional Irish Republican Army announced an end to its armed conflict in Northern Ireland, the British Army dismantled posts and withdrew many troops, and restored troop levels to that of a peace-time garrison.[68] Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, bringing to an end some 38 years of continuous deployment, making it the longest in the British Army's history.[69] An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated that the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA but had made it impossible for them to win through the use of violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007 maintaining fewer servicemen in a much more benign environment.[69] [70] From 1971 to 1997 a total of 763 British Military personnel were killed during the troubles.[71] The British Armed Forces killed over 300 people.[72] A total of 303 RUC officers were killed in the same time period. In March 2009, two soldiers and a Police Officer were killed in separate dissident republican attacks in Northern Ireland.[73]

British Army


Current deployments
High intensity operations
Country Dates Deployment Details

Afghanistan 2001 About 10,000 British troops have been based in Afghanistan since the US-led invasion there in 2001. Currently, under troops Operation Herrick, the Army maintains troops in Camp Souter, Kabul and a brigade on 6-monthly rotation in the southern province of Helmand, mostly based in Camp Bastion and forward operating bases. In late 2009, the resident brigade is 11 Brigade. This brigade has previously served tours in Afghanistan. In 2009, the then Secretary of State for Defence Bob Ainsworth announced British troop numbers in Afghanistan to increase [74] by 500 to a new high of more than 9,500 by late 2009.

Low intensity operations

Country Cyprus Dates 1960 Deployment Two resident infantry battalions, Royal Engineers, 16 Flight Army Air Corps and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos as a part of British Forces Cyprus An infantry company group and an Engineer Squadron Details The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus after the island's independence. The bases serve as forward bases for deployments in the Middle East. British forces are also deployed separately with UN peacekeeping forces on the island. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks [75] at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi. Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party acted as the military presence. After the 1982 war between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was enlarged and bolstered with an RAF base at Mount Pleasant on East [76] Falkland.

Falkland Islands



17041991 One infantry battalion, Joint Provost and British Army garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the Royal Security Unit as a part of British Forces Gibraltar Regiment, which has been on the Army regular establishment since [77] Gibraltar the last British battalion left in 1991. 1920 About 3,200 troops Only a few [78] Since 2007 part of Operation Helvetic which replace Operation Banner. [79]

Northern Ireland Sierra Leone


The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone, a former British colony on Operation Palliser in 1999 to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen, under United Nations resolutions. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leonean [80] [81] government. 24 instructors from the British Army along with 6 American Army personnel will be training Pakistans paramilitary Frontier Corps over a period of [82] 3years 12 officers from the British army and 12 from the French army deployed in a [83] [84] non combat advisory role to the National Transitional Council, 4 Apache AH.1 attack helicopters have been deployed from the army air corps to create a buffer zone around Misrata and may additionally carry snipers and [85] [86] military commanders.


20092012 24 instructors



12 advisors and 4 Apaches

British Army


Permanent overseas postings

Country Belize Dates 1940s Deployment British Army Training and Support Unit Belize and 25 Flight Army Air Corps Details British troops have been based in Belize from the late 1940s until 1994. Belize's neighbour, Guatemala claimed the territory and there were numerous border disputes. At the request of the Belizean government, British troops remained in [87] Belize after independence in 1981 to provide a defence force. Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party acted as the military presence. After the 1982 war between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was [76] enlarged and bolstered with an RAF base at Mount Pleasant on East Falkland. A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei since the Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the request of Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III. The Training Team Brunei (TTB) is the Army's jungle warfare school, while the small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight Army Air Corps provides helicopter support to both the [88] Gurkha battalion and the TTB. A training centre in the Alberta prairie which is provided for the use of British Army and Canadian Forces under agreement with the government of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises here every year, with [89] helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight AAC. British forces remained in Germany after the end of the Second World War. Forces declined considerably after the end of the Cold War, and in October 2010 Prime Minister David Cameron announced large cuts in defence with all UK troops [90] currently in Germany to leave by 2020.

Falkland Islands


An infantry company group and an Engineer Squadron



One battalion from the Royal Gurkha Rifles, British Garrison, Training Team Brunei (TTB) and 7 Flight Army Air Corps



British Army Training Unit Suffield and 29 (BATUS) Flight Army Air Corps


19452020 1st (UK) Armoured Division as part of British Forces Germany



British Army Training Unit Kenya The Army has a training centre in Kenya, under agreement with the Kenyan [91] government. It provides training facilities for three infantry battalions per year

Formation and structure

The structure of the British Army is complex, due to the different origins of its various constituent parts. It is broadly split into the Regular Army (full-time Officers/soldiers and units) and the Territorial Army (Spare-time Officers/soldiers and units). In terms of its military structure, it has two parallel organisations, one administrative and one operational. Administrative Regiments and Corps. These are listed below (in the template to the right), ranging from the Household Cavalry to the Army Physical Training Corps and the Royal Logistic Corps. Uniquely and somewhat confusingly, the Infantry, which is not a corps but a collection of separate regiments, is administered by 'Divisions' of infantry Guards Division, Queen's Division, Scottish Division and so on.[92] Operational The major operational command is HQ Land Forces (following the amalgamation of Land Command and Headquarters Adjutant General).[93] It is split into divisions and subordinate units ranging from regiments to squadrons. Divisions both operational (1 Div. based in Herford in Germany and 3 Div. based in Bulford)[94] and regional divisions (effectively military districts) administrating all military units, both Regular and TA, within a geographical area (2 Div. based in Edinburgh, 4 Div. based in Aldershot and 5 Div. based in Shrewsbury).[95] Brigades, both fighting and in a non fighting regional capacity within HQ LF (for example,, 43 (Wessex) Brigade based in Bulford).

British Army


Structure of units
The standard operational units are structured as follows, although various units have their own structure, conventions, names and sizes:[96]
Type of Unit Contains Personnel Commanded by Division Brigade Battalion / Regiment Company/ Squadron 3 Platoons 100 Maj Platoon / Troop 3 Sections 30 Section Fire Team

23 Brigades 35 Battalions 5 Companies 10,000 Maj-Gen 5,000 Brig 550750 Lt Col

2 Fire Teams 4 Individuals 810 4 LCpl

Capt, Lt or 2nd Lt Cpl

Corps are made up of two or more divisions, but now are rarely deployed as a purely national formation due to the size of the British Army.[96] In place of a Battalion, a task-specific Battlegroup may be formed. A battlegroup is grown around the core of either an armoured regiment or infantry battalion, and has other units added or removed from it as necessary for its purpose. It results in a mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically consisting of between 600 and 700 soldiers under the command of a Lieutenant Colonel.[96] A number of elements of the British Army use alternative terms for battalion, company and platoon. These include the Royal Armoured Corps, Corps of Royal Engineers, Royal Logistic Corps, and the Royal Corps of Signals who use regiment (battalion), squadron (company) and troop (platoon). The Royal Artillery are unique in using the term regiment in place of both corps and battalion, they also replace company with battery and platoon with troop.[96]

The British Army currently has 5 divisions with two (1st Armoured Division and 3rd Infantry Division) being at continual operational readiness for deployment.[97]
Name Headquarters Herford, Germany 1st Armoured Division Craigiehall, near Edinburgh Four regional brigades. 2nd Infantry Division Bulford, Salisbury 3rd Infantry Division Aldershot 4th Infantry Division Shrewsbury 5th Infantry Division Three regional brigades, one air assault brigade and Colchester Garrison. Three regional brigades. Two mechanized brigades, one light brigade and one infantry brigade. Subunits 3 Armoured or Mechanised Brigades.

British Army


Aviation components
The British Army operates alongside the Royal Air Force as part of a Joint Force, but the army also has its own Army Air Corps. Military helicopters of all three services are commanded by Joint Helicopter Command, a joint 2 star headquarters operating under HQ Land Forces.[98]

Special forces
The British Army contributes two of the three special forces formations within the United Kingdom Special Forces Command; the Special Air Service Regiment and the Special Reconnaissance Regiment.[99] The most famous formation is the Special Air Service Regiment. The SAS comprises one regular Regiment and two Territorial Army Regiments.[100] The regular Regiment, 22 SAS, has its headquarters and depot located in Hereford and consists of five squadrons: A, B, D, G and Reserve with a training wing.[101] The two reserve SAS Regiments; 21 SAS and 23 SAS have a more limited role, to provide depth to the UKSF group through the provision of Individual and collective augmentation to the regular component of UKSF and standalone elements up to task group (Regimental) level focused on support and influence (S&I) operations to assist conflict stabilisation.[102]
The SAS Cap Badge.

The Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR) which was formed in 2005, from existing assets, undertakes close reconnaissance and special surveillance tasks.[99] Formed around 1st Battalion the Parachute Regiment, with attached Royal Marines and RAF Regiment assets, the Special Forces Support Group are under the Operational Control of Director Special Forces to provide operational manoeuvre support to the elements of United Kingdom Special Forces.[103]

Overseas Territories military units

Numerous military units were raised historically in British territories, including self-governing and Crown colonies, and protectorates. Few of these have appeared on the Army List, and their relationship to the British Army has been ambiguous. Whereas Dominions, such as Canada and Australia, raised their own armies, the defence of Crown possessions (like the Channel Islands), and colonies (now called Overseas Territories) was, and is, the responsibility of the UK (due to their status as territories of Britain, not British protectorates).

British Army Current Overseas Territories Regiments Bermuda Regiment Gibraltar Regiment Falkland Islands Defence Force


Two Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers.

Bermuda Regiment PNCO Cadre Promotion Parade in No. 3 (Summer) Dress.

Royal Gibraltar Regiment on parade on the occasion of the Queen's birthday parade on June 2007.

Royal Navy and RAF ground units

The other armed services have their own infantry units which are not part of the British Army. The Royal Marines are amphibious light infantry forming part of the Naval Service, and the Royal Air Force has the RAF Regiment used for airfield defence, force protection duties and Forward Air Control.[104]

Infantry The basic infantry weapon of the British Army is the L85A2 assault rifle, sometimes equipped with an L17A2 underbarrel grenade launcher and with several variants such as the L86A2, the Light Support Weapon (LSW) and the L22A2 carbine variant, issued to tank crews. Support fire is provided by the FN Minimi light machine gun and the L7 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG); indirect fire by 51 and 81mm mortars. Sniper rifles used include the L118A17.62mm, the L115A3 and the AW50F, all produced by Accuracy International. Some units use the L82A1.50 calibre Barrett sniper rifle. More recently the L128A1 (Benelli M4) 'combat shotgun' has been adopted, and is intended for close quarters combat in Afghanistan.[105] [106] Armour The British Army's main battle tank is Challenger 2.[107] Other armoured vehicles include Supacat "Jackal" MWMIK and the Iveco "Panther" CLV.[108] The Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle is the primary armoured personnel carrier, although many variants of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (tracked) are used, as well as the Saxon APC and FV430 series now being re-engined and uparmoured and returned to front line service as Bulldog.[109] The British Army commonly uses the Land Rover Wolf and Land Rover Defender.[110] Artillery The Army uses three main artillery systems: the Multi Launch Rocket System (MLRS), AS-90 and L118. The MLRS was first used operationally in Operation Granby and has a range of 70km (43mi).[111] The AS-90 is a 155mm self-propelled gun.[112] The L118 Light Gun is a 105mm towed gun used primarily in support of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 19 Light Brigade and 3 Commando Brigade (Royal Marines).[113] The Rapier

Challenger II main battle tank.

Warrior IFV.

AgustaWestland Apache attack helicopter

British Army


FSC Missile System is the Army's primary battlefield air defence system, widely deployed since the Falklands War[114] and the Starstreak HVM (High Velocity Missile) is a surface-to-air weapon, launched either by a single soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher.[115]

Army Aviation The Army Air Corps (AAC) provide direct aviation support for the Army, although the RAF also assist in this role. The primary attack helicopter is the Westland WAH-64 Apache, a license-built, modified version of the AH-64 Apache that will replace the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role.[116] The Bell 212 is used as a specialist utility and transport helicopter, with a crew of two and a transport capacity of 12 troops.[117] The Westland Gazelle helicopter is a light helicopter, primarily used for battlefield reconnaissance and control of artillery and aircraft.[118] The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for Special Operations Aviation[119] and the Britten-Norman Islander is a light aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and command.[120]

L85A1 Rifle (now replaced by the L85A2).

The Army mainly recruits within the United Kingdom; it normally has a recruitment target of around 12,000 soldiers per year.[121] Low unemployment in Britain has resulted in the Army having difficulty in meeting its target. In the early years of the 21st century there has been a marked increase in the number of recruits from other (mostly Commonwealth) countries. In 2006 overseas recruitment, mostly in Commonwealth countries, generated more than 6,000 soldiers from 54 nations; together with the 3,000 Gurkhas, 10% of the British Army is a foreign national.[122] The Ministry of Defence now caps the number of recruits from Commonwealth countries, although this will not affect the Gurkhas. If the trend continues 10% of the army will be from Commonwealth countries before 2012. The cap is in place as some fear the army's British character is being diluted, and employing too many could make the army seen as employing mercenaries.[123] The minimum recruitment age is 16years (after the end of GCSEs), although soldiers may not serve on operations below 18years; the maximum recruitment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33years. The normal term of engagement is 22years, and, once enlisted, soldiers are not normally permitted to leave until they have served at least 4years.[124] There has been a strong and continuing tradition of recruiting from Ireland including what is now the Republic of Ireland.[125] [126] [127] [128] Over 200,000 Irish soldiers fought in the First World War.[129] [130] More than 60,000 Irishmen from what was then the Irish Free State[131] (now the Republic of Ireland) and 38,000 from Northern Ireland served in the Second World War,[132] all volunteered.

British Army


Oath of allegiance
All soldiers must take an oath of allegiance upon joining the Army, a process known as attestation. Those who believe in God, and wish to swear by Him, use the following words: I (your name), swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me.[133] Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".[134]

Troops of the Grenadier Guards on guard at Buckingham Palace. Various army regiments supply troops to guard the Royal residences.

Training establishments
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS) is the officer training establishment. All officers, regular and reserve, attend RMAS at some point in their training. Royal School of Artillery (RSA) trains the Royal Artillery. Royal School of Military Engineering (RSME) trains the Corps of Royal Engineers as well as personnel from across the Armed Forces and other Government Departments in a variety of general engineering and specialist skills. Army Training Regiments: ATR Bassingbourn ATR Winchester ATC Pirbright Infantry Training Centres: ITC Catterick Infantry Battle School, Brecon Support Weapons School, Warminster Army Foundation College (Harrogate) Regional training centres Welbeck Defence Sixth Form College

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst is the home of British Army officer training

British Army


Flags and ensigns

The British Army does not have its own specific ensign for the whole Army, unlike the Royal Navy, which uses the White Ensign, and the RAF, which uses the Royal Air Force Ensign. Instead, the Army has different flags and ensigns, some for the entire army and many for the different regiments and corps. The official flag of the Army as a whole is the Union Flag, flown in a ratio of 3:5. A non-ceremonial flag also exists, which is used at recruiting events, military events and exhibitions. It also flies from the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall.[135] Whilst at war, the Union Flag is always used, and this flag represents the Army on The Cenotaph at Whitehall, London (the UK's memorial to its war dead).[136] The British Army has throughout its history operated ships, ports and a myriad of boats. Boats, Landing Craft and Ports are still operated by the Army and ensigns exists for vessels commanded by the Army. The Royal Logistic Corps operates a large fleet of vessels from its base at Marchwood near Southampton.[137] The Royal Engineers has had fleets since the introduction of diving in 1838 and was granted an ensign following the foundation of the Royal Engineers Submarine Mining Service in 1871, where it operated sea mine laying ships, before transfer of the trade to the Royal Navy. The Corps maintains a Blue Ensign defaced by the crest of the Board of Ordnance from where the Corps developed, which it flys from its fleet and shore establishments that routinely operate boats.[138] Each Foot Guards and line regiment (excluding The Rifles and Royal Gurkha Rifles (RGR)) also has its own flags, known as Coloursnormally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour. The design of different Regimental Colours. vary but typically the colour has the Regiment's badge in the centre. The RGR carry the Queen's Truncheon in place of Colours.[139]
The non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Sometimes the word Army in gold letters appears below the badge.

Flag Ratio: 3:5. The official flag of the Army.

Ensign for general use by the Royal Logistic Corps

Ensign flown by the Royal Logistic Corps from vessels commanded by commissioned officers

British Army


Ensign of the Corps of Royal Engineers

An Army landing craft of the Royal Logistic Corps

Ranks, specialisms and insignia

NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student Officer

United Kingdom Edit

No Equivalent

Field General Lieutenant Major Brigadier Colonel Lieutenant Major Captain Lieutenant Second General General Colonel Lieutenant Marshal1 Abbreviation FM Gen Lt Gen Maj Gen Brig Col Lt Col Maj Capt Lt 2nd Lt

Officer Cadet

Now an honorary or wartime rank only.

British Army


NATO Code British Army (Edit)





OR-5 No Equivalent



OR-2 OR-1 No Insignia

(Conductor) Warrant Warrant Warrant Staff Sergeant Warrant Officer Officer Officer Sergeant/ Officer Class Class Class Colour Class One One Two Two Sergeant (WO 1) (WO 1) (WO 2) (WO 2)

Corporal/ Lance-Corporal/ Private/ Bombardier Lance-Bombardier Regimental Equivalent

Every regiment and corps has its own distinctive insignia, such as cap badge, beret, tactical recognition flash and stable belt. Throughout the army there are many official specialisms. They do not affect rank, but they do affect pay bands.
Ranger Musician Farrier Driver Tank Transporter Radar Operator Meteorologist Military Engineer Bomb Disposal Telecom Op (Linguist) Operator Special Intelligence Construction Materials Technician Driver Specialist Armoured Engineer Royal Armoured Corps Crewman Army Diver Paratrooper Survey Technician Biomedical Scientist Registered General Nurse Telecom Op (Special) Aircraft Technician Special Air Service Soldier Ammunition Technician

Tommy Atkins and other nicknames

Further information: List of nicknames of British Army regiments A long established nickname for a British soldier has been Tommy Atkins or Tommy for short. The origins are obscure but most probably derive from a specimen army form circulated by the Adjutant-General Sir Harry Calvert to all units in 1815 where the blanks had been filled in with the particulars of a Private Thomas Atkins, No 6 Company, 23rd Regiment of Foot. German soldiers in both World Wars would usually refer to their British opponents as Tommys. Present-day British soldiers are often referred to as Toms or just Tom. The British Army magazine Soldier has a regular cartoon strip, Tom, featuring the everyday life of a British soldier. Outside of the services, soldiers are generally known as squaddies by the British popular press, and the general public.[140]

British Army Another nickname which applies only to soldiers in Scottish regiments is Jock, derived from the fact that in Scotland the common Christian name John is often changed to Jock in the vernacular. Welsh soldiers are occasionally referred to as Taffy or just Taff. This may only apply to those from the Taff-Ely Valley in South Wales, where a large portion of men, left unemployed from the decline of the coal industry in the area, enlisted during WW I and WW II. Alternatively, it is derived from the supposed Welsh pronunciation of Dafydd[141] the vernacular form of Dave or Davey, the patron Saint of Wales being Saint David.[142] Irish soldiers are referred to as Paddy or Mick. Junior officers in the army are sometimes known as Ruperts by the Other ranks. This nickname is believed either to be derived from the children's comic book character Rupert Bear who epitomises traditional public school values or from the preponderance of that particular forename amongst young men from a public school background.[143]


References and notes

[1] Table 2 - Strength of UK Armed Forces1 - full time trained and untrained personnel (http:/ / www. dasa. mod. uk/ applications/ newWeb/ www/ apps/ publications/ pubViewFile. php?content=160. 11& date=2011-07-07& type=html& PublishTime=09:30:00) [2] Table 2.15 Strength of the Reserve Forces1, at 1 April each year (http:/ / www. dasa. mod. uk/ modintranet/ UKDS/ UKDS2010/ c2/ table215. php) [3] The Union of the Parliaments 1707 (http:/ / www. ltscotland. org. uk/ scotlandshistory/ unioncrownsparliaments/ unionofparliaments/ index. asp) Learning and Teaching Scotland, accessed 2 September 2010 [4] Aptheker, Herbert (1960). The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people: an interpretation (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=gSzhKlXUhmIC& source=gbs_navlinks_s). History of the American people. 2. International Publishers Co. p.26. ISBN0717800059. . [5] Mallinson, p. 104 [6] Mallinson, p. 106 [7] Mallinson, p. 129 [8] Mallinson, p. 165 [9] Mallinson, p. 102 [10] Bates Gill (2010). Rising Star: China's New Security Diplomacy (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lXkvEIUmg68C& pg=PA25& dq="nationalist+ Boxers"& hl=en& ei=V6PeTI3FG4K0lQfjyLmVAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q="nationalist Boxers"& f=false). Brookings Institution Press. p.25. ISBN9780815704539. . Retrieved 2010-11-13. [11] "New Zealand Army: Timeline" (http:/ / www. army. mil. nz/ culture-and-history/ nz-army-history/ historical-chronology/ 1827. htm). Army.mil.nz. 2008-12-19. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [12] Mallinson, p. 210 [13] Mallinson, p. 257 [14] "The Fenian Raids" (http:/ / www. doyle. com. au/ fenian_raids. htm). Doyle.com.au. 2001-09-15. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [15] Mallinson, p. 203 [16] Mallinson, p. 195 [17] Pontiacs War (http:/ / www. umbc. edu/ che/ tahlessons/ pdf/ Pontiacs_War(PrinterFriendly). pdf) Baltimore County Public Schools [18] Mallinson, p. 110 [19] Mallinson, p. 177 [20] The 1798 Irish Rebellion (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ history/ british/ empire_seapower/ irish_reb_01. shtml) BBC [21] "Guide to the War of 1812" (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ rr/ program/ bib/ 1812/ ). Loc.gov. 2010-07-30. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [22] Miller, p. 144 [23] Mallinson, p. 50 [24] The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Army (1994) p. 103 [25] London Gazette: no. 24992. p. 3300 (http:/ / www. london-gazette. co. uk/ issues/ 24992/ pages/ 3300). 1 July 1881. Retrieved 2010-12-13. [26] Cassidy, p. 79 [27] Ensor, pp. 525526 [28] Mallinson, p. 310 [29] "Mark I tank" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071014050900/ http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ history/ worldwars/ wwone/ nonflash_tank. shtml). Web.archive.org. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [30] "British Military Aviation in 1914" (http:/ / www. rafmuseum. org. uk/ milestones-of-flight/ british_military/ 1914_3. cfm). Rafmuseum.org.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [31] Saturday, 22 August 2009 Michael Duffy (2009-08-22). "Weapons of War: Poison Gas" (http:/ / www. firstworldwar. com/ weaponry/ gas. htm). Firstworldwar.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [32] Mallinson, p. 335 [33] Mallinson, p. 342

British Army
[34] Taylor (1976), p. 157 [35] "D-Day and the Battle of Normandy" (http:/ / www. ddaymuseum. co. uk/ faq. htm#casualties). Ddaymuseum.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [36] Gilbert, Martin (2005). Churchill and America (http:/ / books. google. de/ books?id=vF7wGAzgwfQC& pg=PA301& dq=normandy+ landings+ british+ american+ 61,715& hl=de& ei=LfmnTbqxAZXU4wbw9pmfCg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=normandy landings british american 61,715& f=false). Simon and Schuster. p.301. ISBN0743291220. . [37] Taylor (1976), p. 210 [38] Mallinson, p. 371 [39] Mallinson, p. 384 [40] Merged regiments and new brigading many famous units to lose separate identity, The Times, 25 July 1957 [41] Mallinson, p. 407 [42] Mallinson, p. 440 [43] Mallinson, p. 442 [44] Mallinson, p. 401 [45] Mallinson, p. 402 [46] "Falklands Surrender Document" (http:/ / www. britains-smallwars. com/ Museum/ Falklands/ falkSurrenderDocument. html). Britains-smallwars.com. 1982-06-14. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [47] Mallinson, p. 411 [48] Army ending its operation in NI (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 6923342. stm) BBC News, 31 July 2007 [49] Troops pull out of Bessbrook (http:/ / www. operationbanner. com/ news. asp?StotyID=60) Operation Banner News, 25 June 2007 [50] Defence (Options for Change) (http:/ / hansard. millbanksystems. com/ commons/ 1990/ jul/ 25/ defence-options-for-change) Hansard, 25 July 1990 [51] 50,000 troops in Gulf illness scare (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2004/ jun/ 11/ iraq. military) The Guardian, 11 June 2004 [52] "Supreme sacrifice: British soldier killed in Iraq was unemployed TA man" (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ SUPREME+ SACRIFICE;+ British+ soldier+ killed+ in+ Iraq+ was+ unemployed+ TA. . . -a0107281788). Thefreelibrary.com. 2003-08-28. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [53] Mallinson, p. 446 [54] Mallinson, p. 447 [55] Mallinson, p. 448 [56] Operations in the Balkans: British Fatalities (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ defenceinternet/ factsheets/ operationsfactsheets/ balkansbritishfatalities. htm) Defence factsheet [57] Mallinson, p. 452 [58] Operations in Afghanistan: Chronology of Events, September 2001 December 2002 (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ FactSheets/ OperationsInAfghanistanChronologyOfEventsSeptember2001December2002. htm) Defence factsheet [59] UK sends 500 more to Afghanistan (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ 8305922. stm) BBC News, 15 October 2009 [60] Operations in Afghanistan: British Fatalities (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ FactSheets/ OperationsFactsheets/ OperationsInAfghanistanBritishFatalities. htm) Defence factsheet [61] Operations in Iraq: Facts and figures (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ FactSheets/ OperationsFactsheets/ OperationsInIraqFactsandFigures. htm) Defence factsheet [62] Operations in Iraq: British Fatalities (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ FactSheets/ OperationsFactsheets/ OperationsInIraqBritishFatalities. htm) Defence factsheet [63] "British Troops Leave Iraq As Mandate Ends" (http:/ / www. rferl. org/ content/ British_Troops_Leave_Iraq_As_Mandate_Ends/ 1789785. html). Rferl.org. 2009-07-31. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKgu40Rs) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-10-22. [64] Bloomfield, K Stormont in Crisis (Belfast 1994) p 114 [65] PRONI: Cabinet conclusions file CAB/4/1460 [66] McKernan, Michael (2005). Northern Ireland in 18972004 Yearbook 2005. Stationery Office. p.17. ISBN978-0-9546284-2-0. [67] Army dismantles NI post (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 859388. stm) BBC News, 31 July 2000 [68] Army To Dismantle Tower Block Post (http:/ / www. skyscrapernews. com/ news. php?ref=391) Skyscrapernews, 2 August 2005 [69] "Operation Banner: An analysis of military operations in Northern Ireland" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080227094451/ http:/ / www. patfinucanecentre. org/ misc/ opbanner. pdf) (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 2006. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. patfinucanecentre. org/ misc/ opbanner. pdf) on February 27, 2008. . Retrieved 2008-03-21. [70] "Army paper says IRA not defeated" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ northern_ireland/ 6276416. stm). BBC News. 2007-07-06. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKgvm8RR) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2008-03-21. [71] Remembrance Day: Where they fell (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-11743727) BBC News, 13 November 2010 [72] "Tabulations (Tables) of Basic Variables" (http:/ / cain. ulst. ac. uk/ sutton/ tables/ index. html). Cain.ulst.ac.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [73] Policeman shot dead in N Ireland (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ 7933990. stm) BBC News, 10 March 2009 [74] "Afghanistan Timeline" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 1162108. stm). BBC News. 2010-02-24. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKgwql96) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-04-01.


British Army
[75] Somme Barracks (Cyprus) (http:/ / hansard. millbanksystems. com/ written_answers/ 2001/ mar/ 26/ somme-barracks-cyprus) Hansard, 26 March 2001 [76] Falklands Forces Have A Vital Role To Play (http:/ / www. falklandnews. com/ public/ story. cfm?get=3878& source=7) Falkland Islands News Network, 3 May 2006 [77] Royal Gibraltar Regiment trains in the UK (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ DefenceNews/ TrainingAndAdventure/ RoyalGibraltarRegimentTrainsInTheUk. htm) Defence News, 13 May 2010 [78] Heyman, p. 101 [79] "Operation Banner" (http:/ / www. armedforces. co. uk/ mod/ listings/ l0018. html). Armedforces.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [80] British troops withdraw from Sierra Leone (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ news/ article-130269/ British-troops-withdraw-Sierra-Leone. html) Daily Mail, 2002 [81] The International Military Assistance Training Team (IMATT (SL)) in Sierra Leone (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ operations-deployments/ overseas-deployments/ 932. aspx) [82] "World | Britain building FC training camp in Pakistan: report" (http:/ / www. dawn. com/ wps/ wcm/ connect/ dawn-content-library/ dawn/ news/ world/ 13+ britain+ building+ fc+ training+ camp+ in+ pakistan+ report-za-02). Dawn.Com. . Retrieved 2010-10-22. [83] "Hypocrisy to Ignore Regime Change Aim of Libya Venture" (http:/ / www. walesonline. co. uk/ news/ wales-news/ 2011/ 04/ 21/ hypocrisy-to-ignore-regime-change-aim-of-libya-venture-91466-28558155/ ). walesonline.co.uk. 21 April 2011. . Retrieved 2011-04-25. [84] "Army Experts to Mentor Libya Rebels" (http:/ / www. google. com/ hostednews/ ukpress/ article/ ALeqM5i6h4tCIN0Vs_Y3joBbbVE_rj5H8Q?docId=N0001121303185960782A). Press Association. 2011-04-19. . Retrieved 2011-04-25. [85] "British and French launch helicopter raids on Libya" (http:/ / www. independent. ie/ world-news/ middle-east/ british-and-french-launch-helicopter-raids-on-libya-2655041. html). Independent.ie. 2011-05-24. . Retrieved 2011-05-31. [86] "Libya: Apache attack helicopters to be deployed within 24 hours" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ worldnews/ africaandindianocean/ libya/ 8540553/ Libya-Apache-attack-helicopters-to-be-deployed-within-24-hours. html). The Telegraph. 2011-05-27. . Retrieved 2011-05-31. [87] Belize (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ operations-deployments/ overseas-deployments/ 924. aspx) Ministry of Defence [88] Brunei (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ operations-deployments/ overseas-deployments/ 922. aspx) Ministry of Defence [89] Canada (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ operations-deployments/ overseas-deployments/ 2558. aspx) Ministry of Defence [90] Defence review: Cameron unveils armed forces cuts (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ uk-politics-11570593), BBC News Retrieved 19/10/2010. [91] The British Peace Support Team (BPST) in Kenya (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ operations-deployments/ overseas-deployments/ 932. aspx) Ministry of Defence [92] Heyman, p.105 [93] HQ Land Forces on the move (http:/ / www. drumbeat. org. uk/ resources/ 133JUN08. PDF) Drumbeat, June 2008 [94] Heyman, p. 92 [95] Heyman, p. 93 [96] "British Army Formation & Structure" (http:/ / www. whodareswins. com/ british-army-formation-structure-setup. html). WhoDaresWins.com. 2011. . Retrieved 15 April 2011. [97] Heyman, pp. 9293 [98] Joint Helicopter Command (http:/ / webarchive. nationalarchives. gov. uk/ + / http:/ / www. mod. uk/ issues/ sdr/ jhc. htm) Strategic Defence Review [99] "Special Reconnaissance Regiment" (http:/ / www. publications. parliament. uk/ pa/ cm200405/ cmhansrd/ vo050405/ wmstext/ 50405m01. htm#50405m01. html_sbhd5). Parliament of the United Kingdom. . Retrieved 26-March-2010. [100] "UK Defence Statistics 2009" (http:/ / www. dasa. mod. uk/ modintranet/ UKDS/ UKDS2009/ c4/ table404. html). Defence Analytical Services Agency. . Retrieved 26 March 2010. [101] Fremont-Barnes, p. 62 [102] "Special Air Service (Reserve) (SAS(R))" (http:/ / www2. army. mod. uk/ uksf/ special_forces_soldier_reserve_/ sas/ index. htm). MoD. . Retrieved 2008-06-06. "The role of SAS (R) is to provide depth to the UKSF group through the provision of: Individual and collective augmentation to the regular component of UKSF. Standalone elements up to task group (Regimental) level focused on Support and Influence (S&I) operations to assist conflict stabilisation" [103] "Special Forces Support Group" (http:/ / www. publications. parliament. uk/ pa/ cm200506/ cmhansrd/ vo060420/ wmstext/ 60420m01. htm). Parliament of the United Kingdom. . Retrieved 26-March-2010. [104] "RAF Regiment" (http:/ / www. raf. mod. uk/ rafregiment/ ). Raf.mod.uk. 2010-09-23. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [105] "Combat Shotgun British Army Website" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 17927. aspx). Army.mod.uk. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKgzKZWI) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-10-22. [106] "British Armys new combat shotgun" (http:/ / www. thefirearmblog. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 10/ british-armys-new-combat-shotgun/ ). The Firearm Blog. 2009-04-10. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKgzjJBU) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-10-22. [107] Challenger 2 (http:/ / www. baesystems. com/ ProductsServices/ l_and_a_ls_challenger. html) BA Systems [108] "Multi-role Light Vehicle" (http:/ / www. defense-update. com/ products/ m/ MLV. htm). Defense-update.com. 2006-07-26. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [109] "FV 432" (http:/ / www. sloppyjalopy. com/ fv432. htm). Sloppyjalopy.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [110] "Land Rover Defender" (http:/ / www. landrover. com/ gb/ en/ lr/ defender/ ). Landrover.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-28.


British Army
[111] GMLRS (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ artillery-air-defence/ 1512. aspx) British Army [112] "AS-90" (http:/ / www. armedforces. co. uk/ army/ listings/ l0046. html). Armedforces.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [113] 105 mm Light Gun (http:/ / www. baesystems. com/ ProductsServices/ l_and_a_ls_105mm_light_gun. html) BAe Systems [114] "Rapier missile" (http:/ / www. armedforces-int. com/ projects/ rapier_missile. html). Armedforces-int.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [115] Starstreak II sighted (http:/ / www. janes. com/ events/ exhibitions/ dsei2007/ sections/ daily/ day1/ starstreak-ii-sighted. shtml) Janes [116] "Apache" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ aircraft/ 1531. aspx). Army.mod.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [117] "Bell Huey" (http:/ / www. vectorsite. net/ avhuey. html). Vectorsite.net. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [118] Gazelle (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ aircraft/ 1533. aspx) British Army [119] Tim Ripley (10 December 2008). "UK Army Air Corps received Dauphins". Janes Defence Weekly, Vol. 45, Issue 50: 10. [120] "Islander" (http:/ / www. britten-norman. com/ products/ bn2b/ ). Britten-norman.com. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [121] Army recruitment increases by 9% (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 5261834. stm) BBC News, 18 August 2006 [122] Britain's child army (http:/ / www. newstatesman. com/ politics/ 2007/ 02/ british-army-recruitment-iraq) New Statesman, 5 February 2007 [123] Norton-Taylor, Richard (2008-04-05). "Commonwealth recruitment caps & current commonwealth troop levels." (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2008/ apr/ 05/ military. defence). London: Guardian Newspaper. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKh00P9q) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-04-01. [124] "Recruitment Age for Army Raised" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 6236345. stm). BBC News. 2007-01-06. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKh1JTZ7) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2007-01-12. [125] Sharrock, David (September 10, 2008). "Irish recruits sign up for British Army in cross-border revolution" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ uk/ article4724617. ece). London: The Times. . "Army recruitment in Northern Ireland has just revealed that 16 per cent of all those enlisting since April were from south of the border. That figure is up from 10.5 per cent last year which was in itself more than double for 2006." [126] Buchanan, Michael (27 November 2008). "Irish swell ranks of UK military" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 7749793. stm). BBC. . "Between 2005 and 2006, just 3% of recruits entering the military through its recruitment centres in Northern Ireland came from the Republic.


The figure so far this year is 14%, and officers believe it will rise further."
[127] "British army sees more Irish recruits" (http:/ / www. belfasttelegraph. co. uk/ news/ local-national/ uk/ british-army-sees-more-irish-recruits-15022631. html). Belfast Telegraph. 6 December 2010. . "There has been a seven-fold increase in Irish recruits to the British armed forces since the recession began. Figures obtained by Fine Gael TD Brian Hayes revealed 10 people with addresses in the Republic of Ireland joined the British military between 2007 and 2008. From 2009 to 2010 this number rose to 85." [128] Holmes, Richard (2002). Redcoat: The British soldier in the Age of Horse and Musket. HarperCollins.. pp.48,5557,5965,1778. ISBN0-00-653152. [129] "Ireland and the First World War: the Historical Context." (http:/ / www. qub. ac. uk/ sites/ irishhistorylive/ IrishHistoryResources/ ArticlesandLectures/ IrelandandtheFirstWorldWar/ ). School of History and Anthropology. . [130] "Remembering Irish soldiers in World War I" (http:/ / www. historytimes. com/ fresh-perspectives-in-history/ british-and-irish-history/ 486-remembering-irish-soldiers-in-world-war-i). History Times. . "Eager to place themselves in the best possible light after the war was over six months at the most was a common reckoning Irish Unionist and Nationalist politicians called on their followers to do their duty for their respective causes and enlist. Estimates suggest that up to 200,000 Irishmen of all persuasions eventually fought in the British army between 1914 and 1918. Perhaps as many as 49,000 died" [131] Watson, Philip (2004-03-19). "Ian's death brought people together" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ culture/ 3614016/ Ians-death-brought-people-together. html). The Daily Telegraph (London). . "Ian Malone's decision also had a long historical precedent. Almost 150,000 Irish soldiers fought in the First World War; 49,000 died. More than 60,000 Irishmen more than from loyal Ulster also saw action in the Second World War; like their compatriots in the Great War, all were volunteers. As one of 400 or more men from the republic then serving in the British Army, some of them stationed in Northern Ireland, Ian Malone was part of a familiar Irish story of economic emigration he was seeking work abroad when there was little at home. And never having left the country, he was no doubt seeking travel and adventure, too." [132] The Oxford companion to Irish history, Sean J. Connolly, p. 505 [133] "British Army Oath of Allegiance" (http:/ / www. whodareswins. com/ british-army-oath-of-allegiance. html#selfless). . Retrieved 2010-11-29. [134] "Values and Standards of the British Army" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ documents/ general/ v_s_of_the_british_army. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [135] "British Army (non-ceremonial)" (http:/ / www. britishflags. net/ British Army. html). britishflags.net. Archived (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5uKh1taVz) from the original on 2010-11-18. . Retrieved 2010-10-22. [136] "Whitehall Cenotaph" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kwQhSm7w). Webcitation.org. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [137] "17 Port & Maritime Regiment RLC" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ rlc/ regiments/ 17957. aspx). Army.mod.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [138] "Royal Engineers Ensign" (http:/ / www. fotw. net/ flags/ gb^rets. html). Fotw.net. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [139] "The Queen's Truncheon" (http:/ / www. thegurkhamuseum. co. uk/ Research/ History_And_Facts/ The_Queens_Truncheon/ 27). Thegurkhamuseum.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-28. [140] Songs for squaddies: the war musical Lads in Their Hundreds (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ stage/ 2010/ may/ 19/ war-musical-lads-in-their-hundreds) The Guardian, 19 May 2010 [141] The Concise Oxford Dictionary ISBN 978-0-19-861131-8

British Army
[142] Collins English Dictionary ISBN 0-00-716334-7 [143] Beevor, Anthony, Inside the British Army, ISBN 0-00-71134658


Cassidy, Robert M (2006). Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN0275989909. Ensor, (Sir) Robert (1936). England: 18701914. (The Oxford History of England, Volume XIV) (Revised, 1980 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN0-19-821705-6. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2009). Who Dares Wins The SAS and the Iranian Embassy Siege 1980. Osprey Publishing. ISBN1846033950. Heyman, Charles (2009). The Armed Forces of the United Kingdom 20102011. Pen & Sword. ISBN9781848840843. Mallinson, Allan (2009). The Making of the British Army. Bantam Press. ISBN9780593051085. Miller, John (2000). James II. Yale University Press. ISBN978-0300087284. Taylor, AJP (1976). The Second World War an illustrated history. Penguin books. ISBN0140041354.

Further Reading
Holmes, Richard (2011). Soldiers: Army Lives and Loyalties from Redcoats to Dusty Warriors. HarperCollins.

External links
British Army Website (http://www.army.mod.uk/) British Army Reserve Support (http://www.sabre.mod.uk/) British Army Sports, Museums & Associations Website (http://www2.armynet.mod.uk/) UK Defence Statistics 2008 (http://www.dasa.mod.uk/UKDS2008/ukds.htm) British Army/Navy/RAF Website (http://www.britisharmedforces.org/) British Army Friends Reunited (http://www.forcesreunited.org.uk/) "Discussion of British Soldier Letters From Rev. War" (Article) (http://www.facebakersfield.com/?p=5973/) Extensive information about the British Army, Royal Navy and the RAF (http://www.armedforces.co.uk) British Army Quick Facts (http://discovermilitary.com/worlds-military/british-military/) Find Army Friends Army Reunions (http://www.forcesreunited.org.uk)




FAMAS F1 Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle


Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1978present See Users

1982 Lebanon War [1] ChadianLibyan conflict [2] Gulf War Bosnian War Afghanistan war Production history


Designer Designed Manufacturer Unitcost Produced Numberbuilt Variants

Paul Tellie


19671971 Nexter F1: 1500 G2: 3000 19752000 F1: 400 000 F1 G1 G2 FAMAS Export FAMAS Civil FAMAS Commando Specifications

Weight Length

3.61kg (7.96lb) (FAMAS F1) 3.8kg (8.4lb) (FAMAS G2) 757mm (29.8in) / 965mm (38.0in) with bayonet


Barrellength F1, G2: 488mm (19.2in) G2 Commando:405mm (15.9in) G2 SMG:320mm (12.6in) G2 Sniper 620mm (24.4in) 5.56x45mm NATO Lever-delayed blowback 9001000 rounds/min (F1) 10001100 rounds/min (G2) 960m/s (3100ft/s) (F1) 925m/s (3030ft/s) (G2) 300 m (F1) 450 m (G2) 3200 metres 25-round box magazine (F1) 30-round box magazine (STANAG system) (G2) Rear aperture fitted with tritium night inserts, front post

Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Maximumrange Feedsystem Sights

The FAMAS (French: Fusil d'Assaut de la Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-tienne or "Assault rifle of the Saint-tienne weapon factory") is a bullpup-styled assault rifle designed and manufactured in France by MAS located in Saint-tienne, which is now a member of the French government-owned Nexter group. It is the service rifle of the French military.

The first French bullpup rifles were developed between 1946 and 1950 at the AME (Atelier Mcanique de Mulhouse) and MAS, testing rounds such as .30 US Carbine, 7.92x33mm Kurz, 7.65x38mm (Made by Cartoucherie de Valence) and some other intermediate calibers. Since France was engaged in the First Indochina War at the time, and was also the second-largest contributor to NATO, the budgets for new types of weapons were reduced and priority was given to the modernisation and production of existing service weapons. Nevertheless, approximately forty different prototypes were developed between 1952 and 1962, most of which were designed for the 7.62x51mm NATO round notably the FA-MAS Type 62 (the bayonet of which is used on the FAMAS). However the round was not found to be suitable for any bullpup designs, and consequently, none were adopted, and the ideas were set aside.[4] [5] [6] [7] MAS then began to manufacture under licence the H&K G3 and the H&K 33 in the 1960s and studies were reactivated to produce a weapon using the new .223/5.56mm round. But the idea to develop and use German weapons was out of question for many members of the French high command. General Marcel Bigeard, against the idea to use German weapons, visited the Manufacture d'Armes de Saint-tienne and asked the engineers to present him the different prototypes developed. He then chose, amongst different prototypes, what would become the FAMAS. The FAMAS project began in 1967 under the direction of Paul Tellie and the first prototype was completed in 1971, with French military evaluation of the rifle beginning in 1972.[3] When production problems delayed the general issue of the new rifles, and with the 1978 Battle of Kolwezi showing the immediate need for a more modern weapon, the French Army began searching for a temporary rifle to fill this need until the FAMAS came into full production. The H&K 33 was considered, and a batch of 1200 examples were tested by Infantry, Airborne, Marines, Mechanised and Foreign troops, but it was ultimately turned down in favour of the SIG SG 540, built under licence by Manurhin, until enough FAMAS rifles were produced to begin general issue. The French military finally accepted the rifle in 1978 as the standard French combat weapon.

FAMAS After adoption, the FAMAS F1 replaced the aging MAS 49/56 rifle and MAT-49 submachine gun, and approximately 400,000 FAMAS F1 assault rifles were produced, with production now complete. The F1 had many problems and was not completely reliable. For instance, the plastic pieces broke easily and the weapon jammed on occasions because of the poor disposable magazine concept. The first magazines were supposed to be disposables, but the budget of the French army never allowed it. The F1 was followed by the G1 that included several minor improvements such as redesigned grips, Magwell compatible with STANAG & FAMAS magazine and an enlarged trigger guard, but it remained conceptual and was never actually produced.


Soldier of the 2e REP with a FAMAS during the Gulf War.

French soldiers from the 27th Alpine Rangers Battalion and French Task Force Tiger patrol the valleys of Kapisa province, Afghanistan.

The FAMAS G2 was developed circa 1994 to bring the rifle more in compliance with NATO standards by having tighter rifling and accepting standard NATO magazines, but also included several other upgrades taken from the G1 model, such as the enlarged trigger guard and improved hand guards made of fiber glass, rather than plastics like on the F1. The French Navy purchased the FAMAS G2 in 1995, and began distributing it to the Fusiliers Marins and Commandos Marine, but the French Army has held off large scale purchase of the G2 to date, and the FAMAS F1 still remains the primary service rifle of the French Army and French Foreign Legion.

Photograph of a FAMAS-G2 with bayonet

F1 (top) compared to G2 (bottom). The G2 features - a larger trigger guard - a STANAG magazine - a hand guard on the receiver under the muzzle - a 1/9 rifling, instead of the 1/12 rifling of the F1



MAS .223
During the late 1980s, Century Arms imported a very small number of semi-automatic FAMAS' into the United States. However due to poor sales, production and importation ceased and the existing number are not only extremely rare but cost in the range of $8,000 with no spare parts available on the market.

FAMAS Infanterie
The FAMAS Infanterie is an improvement of the FAMAS F1, obtained by retrofiting an accessory rail onto the top of the handguard. This allows mounting combat optics, most notably reflex sights or the 4x magnification SCROME J4 scope.

Design details
Soldier of the 2e REI using FAMAS Infanterie

The FAMAS assault rifle is a bullpup configuration, with the ammunition feed behind the trigger. The receiver housing is made of a special steel alloy, and the rifle furniture is made of fiberglass. The rifle uses a lever-delayed blowback action, an action used on the AA-52 machine gun derived from the prototypes built during Army Technical Department tests having taken place between the First and Second World Wars.

A schematic of the lever-delayed blowback mechanism used in the FAMAS assault rifle.

Fire mode is controlled by a selector within the trigger guard, with three settings: safe (central position), single shot (to the right), and automatic fire (to the left). Automatic fire can be in three-shot bursts (rafale) or fully automatic; this is determined by another selector, located under the housing and behind the magazine. The FAMAS G2 weighs 3.8kg (8.38lb). The G1 and G2 have a large, grip-length trigger-guard like a Steyr AUG to allow easy access to the trigger when wearing gloves. Both F1 and G2 models of the FAMAS feature a bipod attached to the upper hand-guard. The FAMAS-G2 and some F1 sport a "polyvalent hand-guard" which features a standard NATO accessory rail, allowing a variety of sights to be mounted, notably red dot sights and night vision units.



The FAMAS features two alidades for aiming rifle grenades with several modes: direct fire at 75 or 100 metres, in anti-vehicle role indirect fire, in anti-personnel role: with the FAMAS inclined by 45, allowing fire from 120 to 340 metres with the FAMAS inclined by 74, allowing fire from 60 to 170 metres In indirect fire mode the grenade support(more exactly named "grenade enforcement ring" in French) is moved forwards or backwards on the barrel which has markings (12/13?). This changes the position of the grenade on the barrel and automatically the volume of the chamber in which the gas expands to push the grenade forward. Each position of the grenade support has a number which is multiplied by a certain fixed number depending on the alidade position, 45 or 75; this will accurately indicate the firing distance of the grenade.
Alidade for direct fire of the APAV 40 grenade

The FAMAS F1 and G1, the original variants, were designed to use French-made 25-round magazines with 5.56x45mm cartridges. Due to the 1/12 rifling of the F1 barrel and its blowback action, ammunition must be a steel-case, French-made SS109 cartridge; using standard brass-case 5.56x45mm NATO causes overpressure and can cause malfunction.[8] The barrel of the G2 uses a 1/9 rifling, which enables it to use the SS109 or the M193 interchangeably. During training with blank ammunition, a plug is added to the muzzle of the FAMAS. This plug is necessary for automatic or semi-automatic operation, which it allows by blocking part of the gas.
FAMAS rifle, upgraded with an Aimpoint red dot sight, equipped with the blank-firing muzzle attachment and laser training hardware.

The FAMAS can use a variety of rifle grenades up to 500grammes. Notable examples are the antipersonal APAV40 and the antitank AC58. It can also fire some hand grenades designed for this alternative purpose, notably the F2 grenade that includes a bullet trap. The FAMAS can accommodate an external grenade launcher as an add-on module under the hand guard; the US M203 grenade launcher is sometimes used.



Rubber buttpadRemovable stockCheek rest. Can be reversed for right or left-handed shooter.Mobile assembly and ejection portPinsBipodHandguardCharging HandleGrenade launcher sightGrenade supportMuzzle brake/22 mm grenade22 mm rifle grenade launcherBarrelFire control selector: Safety, single shot, automaticTriggerMagazine releaseMagazineSerial number(right): 3-round burst or full automatic selector (left): Sling ring

The FAMAS first saw service in Chad during Operation Manta and again in desert operations in Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm and in other various peacekeeping missions. Officially, operational conditions proved the weapon to be reliable and trustworthy under combat conditions. The FAMAS is affectionately known as le Clairon ("the Bugle") because of its shape by French-speaking troops. An improved version of the FAMAS G2 is integrated in the Flin system. Senegal and the United Arab Emirates received a small number of FAMAS G2 Flin FAMAS F1 rifles from France,[9] though it was unknown when they received them. Djibouti uses this weapon in its military as the standard infantry weapon. The Philippines also received a limited number and is used by the Philippine National Police Special Action Force.[10]

Djibouti[11] France: Used by the French Armed Forces since 1979, with over 700,000 rifles purchased.[2] Also used by several law enforcement agencies such as the Gendarmerie Nationale.[2]

Gabon[9] Indonesia: Komando Pasukan Katak (KOPASKA) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.[12] Lebanon[11] Senegal[9] United Arab Emirates[1]



Sources and references

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Bishop, Chris. Guns in Combat. Chartwell Books, Inc (1998). ISBN 0-7858-0844-2. Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X. "Modern Firearms FAMAS" (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as21-e. htm). World.guns.ru. 24 January 2011. . Retrieved 30 May 2011. http:/ / talks. guns. ru/ forums/ icons/ forum_pictures/ 004217/ 4217682. jpg Name *. "French MAS Type 1955" (http:/ / www. forgottenweapons. com/ lorem-ipsum/ rifles/ french-mas-type-1955). Forgotten Weapons. . Retrieved 30 May 2011. [6] Name *. "French MAS Type 62" (http:/ / www. forgottenweapons. com/ lorem-ipsum/ rifles/ french-mas-type-62). Forgotten Weapons. . Retrieved 30 May 2011. [7] "FA-MAS Type 62" (http:/ / www. securityarms. com/ 20010315/ galleryfiles/ 3000/ 3005. htm). Securityarms.com. . Retrieved 30 May 2011. [8] L'arme rencontre de srieuses difficults avec les munitions du fusil Famas (http:/ / secretdefense. blogs. liberation. fr/ defense/ 2009/ 09/ larme-a-de-srieuses-difficults-avec-les-munitions-du-fusil-famas. html) [9] Kemp, Ian (AprilMay 2007). "Assault rifles in a 5.56 mm evolution: the fielding of new designs and the upgrade of existing weapons will ensure that 5.56 mm remains the predominant assault rifle calibre" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb3031/ is_2_31/ ai_n29342987/ pg_5/ ?tag=content;col1). Armada International. . Retrieved 16 April 2009. [10] "Famas F-1" (http:/ / www. riflesnguns. com/ node/ 649). Rifles n Guns. 2 January 2007. . Retrieved 10 December 2008. [11] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (27 January 2009). ISBN 978-0710628695. [12] "Kopassus & Kopaska Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (http:/ / www. hrvatski-vojnik. hr/ hrvatski-vojnik/ 1612007/ ind. asp) (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. . Retrieved 12 June 2010.

External links
Official Nexter FAMAS page (http://www.nexter-group.fr/index.php?option=com_content&task=category& sectionid=32&id=54&Itemid=82) FELIN article, with FAMAS pictured as part of FELIN system (http://www.defense-update.com/products/f/ felin.htm) Modern Firearms (http://world.guns.ru/assault/as21-e.htm) REMTEK (http://www.remtek.com/arms/famas/index.htm) FAMAS with 50 round magazine (http://img39.imageshack.us/img39/8265/4227587.jpg)

Nazarian's Gun's Recognition Guide (MANUAL) FAMAS .223 Manual (.pdf) (http://www.nazarian.no/ images/wep/461_MAS_223_en_manual.pdf)

FN F2000


FN F2000
FN F2000

The F2000 S as delivered to the Slovenian Army Type Placeoforigin Bullpup assault rifle

Service history Usedby Wars See Users

2011 Libyan Civil War Operation Astute War in Afghanistan Production history

Designed Manufacturer Produced Variants

19952001 FN Herstal 2001present See Variants:

F2000 F2000 Tactical FS2000 Specifications


3.6 kg (7.93 lb) (F2000) [2] 3.39 kg (7.47 lb) (F2000 Tactical) [3] 3.65 kg (8.04 lb) (FS2000) [4] 3.44 kg (7.58 lb) (FS2000 Tactical) 688 mm (27.08 in) (F2000) [2] 688 mm (27.08 in) (F2000 Tactical) [3] 744 mm (29.29 in) (FS2000) [4] 744 mm (29.29 in) (FS2000 Tactical) 400 mm (15.75 in) (F2000) [5] 400 mm (15.75 in) (F2000 Tactical) [3] 443 mm (17.44 in) (FS2000) [3] 443 mm (17.44 in) (FS2000 Tactical)
[3] [5] [1]





81.3 mm (3.2 in)

FN F2000

Height Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Feedsystem

259.1 mm (10.2 in) 5.56x45mm NATO

[5] [5]

Gas-operated, rotating bolt 850 rounds/min 900m/s (2953ft/s) 500 m (1,640 ft)

Detachable box magazines; capacities:

10 rounds (restricted) [5] 30 rounds (standard STANAG)



1.6x magnified telescopic sight, notch back-up sight

The FN F2000 is a 5.56x45mm NATO bullpup assault rifle, designed by FN Herstal in Belgium.[5] The F2000 made its debut in March 2001 at the IDEX defense exhibition held in Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates.

Design details
The F2000 is a modular weapon system; its principal component is a compact 5.56x45mm NATO-caliber assault rifle configured in a bullpup layout. The F2000 is a selective fire weapon operating from a closed bolt. The rifle consists of two main assemblies: the barreled receiver group and the frame, coupled together by means of an axis pin located above the trigger guard. The barrel group has an integral MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail used to mount optical sights. The frame or lower receiver contains the trigger group, the bolt and bolt carrier assembly, return mechanism and magazine well. A removable handguard is installed in front of the trigger which completes and encloses the trigger guard.

The F2000 is a gas operated, fully automatic and ambidextrous bullpup rifle. Both the safety system and trigger mechanism were adopted from the P90 submachine gun; the selector toggle is a rotating disc located below the trigger. The fire selector doubles as the weapons manual safety and secures the firearm against accidental discharge (the selector/safety disc has 3 settings: "S"safe, "1"semi-automatic mode, "A"fully automatic fire). The "safe" setting disables the trigger. The hammers, group pins, and springs are steel while all other components are nylon injection molding. The shell of the rifle is made of composite materials. The F2000 is fed from standard NATO box magazines (STANAG 4179) with a 30-round cartridge capacity using 5.56x45mm ammunition. The magazine catch/release button is installed symmetrically in the pistol grip, in front of the magazine; the magazine catch is operated by an oversized actuator used when wearing NBC gloves. The F2000 is not configured from the factory to have a drop-free magazine system due to the friction from the removable dust gaskets. The magazine needs to be pulled out manually. The rifle does not have a hold-open device; the bolt does not stay back after the last round is fired. The cocking handle is placed on the left side of the receiver, just above the handguard, and can be operated by left-handed shooters. There are no access points for the possible ingress of dirt or debris; the cocking handle slot is sealed. The weapons primary sight is a telescopic sight with a fixed 1.6x magnification (the reticle also enables use in low-light conditions) contained in a plastic housing above the receiver (mounted on the MIL-STD-1913 rail), the secondary sight is a non-adjustable fixed notch and front blade, molded into the optical sight housing cover. The sight cover and sight module can be quickly removed to reveal the Picatinny rail.

FN F2000 The rifles chromed hammer-forged steel barrel is stated to retain accuracy after 20,000 normal (non-sustained) rounds. The barrel also features a flash suppressor with an angled cut at the tip which directs the muzzle blast upward, compensating for muzzle rise. The F2000 has an optional bayonet lug mounted near the muzzle, and an adjustable gas regulator with two settings: "normal" for standard ammunition meeting NATO specifications, and "adverse"used to send an increased volume of gas into the system to ensure proper functioning when fouled or when using low pressure ammunition.


Operating mechanism
This selective fire weapon is a gas-operated design utilizing a short-stroke piston system driven by propellant gases diverted into the gas cylinder through a port in the barrel; it fires from a closed bolt position. The weapon is locked with a rotating bolt which features 7 radial locking lugs, a spring-powered extractor and ejector. The chamber, bolt, and ejector mechanism can be accessed by flipping up a hinged inspection cover in the receiver, behind the optical sight housing. The F2000 uses a unique ejection system, ejecting spent cartridge casings forward and to the right side of the weaponthrough a tube running alongside the barrel. This method of ejection provides for fully ambidextrous operation; the rifle can be used without any modification by both right and left-handed shooters. This ejection pattern was achieved by using a swiveling polymer tray, which intercepts the empty casing from the bolt face immediately after disengaging from The F2000- standard configuration the extractor. As the empty casing is extracted it is held while the rocker assembly tilts to lift it above and clear of the feed path as the next round is stripped from the magazine by the bolt head. The casing is fed into the tray located in a cavity in the receiver wall, which then pivots the cartridge case and directs it into a chute (above the barrel); the case is discarded from the tilting tray by being impacted by a pin on the moving bolt carrier upon its forward return. Only when the ejection tube contains more than five cases is the first of them ejected forward through a port just behind and to the right of the muzzle. This system is patent protected (patent number 5675924 dated 14 October 1997 by Ren Predazzer[6] and patent 6389725 from February 25, 2000, author Charles Denuit).[7] The ambidexterity provided by forward ejection is its most obvious benefit, and removes many of the tactical and user difficulties (such as lack of ambidexterity, and gas and debris released in close proximity to the shooters face) that bullpup designs usually create.

Grenade launcher
One of the modules developed for the F2000 system is a proprietary lightweight 40mm under-slung GL1 grenade launcher (empty weight1kg) that uses standard low-velocity 40x46mm grenades.[8] The launcher is a single-shot breech-loaded pump-action weapon with a barrel that slides forward for loading and unloading (like the M203 grenade launcher), locked by axial rotation of the barrel. The grenade launcher's trigger is installed directly under the F2000's trigger so that it can be manipulated without removing the shooting hand from the rifles pistol grip. The double-action trigger lets the operator "try again" if the grenade's percussion type primer doesn't ignite. The breech release button is found on the left side of the launcher body, like on the M203. The grenade launcher comes with a basic flip-up ladder sight, but it was intended to be used with a specially designed optoelectronic fire control system designated FCS, developed in cooperation with the Finnish company Noptel. The aiming module is installed in place of the standard optical sight and becomes the weapons primary sight when mounted, but its main purpose is to accurately determine and indicate the range of a grenade target. The module is powered by a 9 V battery pack, installed in the stock, behind the magazine well. The power pack is also intended to

FN F2000 power any other tactical accessories or systems that could be introduced. The FCS integrates a low-power laser rangefinder (precise to within 1 m), a day-time aiming channel with an electronically projected reticle, a measured range display reading and a diode elevation adjustment indicator. The fire control system calculates a firing solution manifested by the barrels angle of elevation using target range information from the laser rangefinder (the rangefinder is activated by pushing a button on the pistol grip, below the trigger), corrected manually by the shooter through a push-button interface (add/subtract buttons) on the FCS top cover to take account for head or tail winds that could affect the desired range. The F2000 FCS also contains software with the ballistic properties of up to six types of 40mm grenades and can be reprogrammed to take advantage of future munition improvements. Batteries for the FCS are located in the bottom of the buttstock. After obtaining a range measurement, the distance to the target is displayed on a liquid crystal screen and the elevation diode flashes red. Once a correct elevation has been achieved by tilting the rifle, the diode changes color to green indicating the weapon is ready to fire. A further three signaling diodes have been installed on the top of the FCS unit, enabling accurate firing from the hip. The fire control computer makes firing regular grenades accurately much easier, though it cannot launch smart grenades. The FCS is under continuous development and newer versions differ somewhat from the original concept. A 3-shot grenade launcher is also being developed for the weapon (in 40mm). The rifle can also be adapted for police operations by using under-slung modules with a 12-gauge 5-shot shotgun or a .68-caliber less-lethal FN 303 pneumatic launcher. A module with a 20mm grenade launcher is also planned (using 20x28mm ammunition from the OICW program) with an integrated FCS unit.


F2000 Tactical
The F2000 Tactical railed variant is similar to the standard model, but it lacks the optical sight, and comes instead with an extended top receiver MIL-STD-1913 rail with flip-up iron sights[9] allowing for picatinny rail accessories to be fitted.

The FS2000 is a civilian-legal, semi-automatic version of the F2000 that first became available in June 2006. The FS2000 Tactical model The F2000 Tactical. is equipped with an extended barrel with a permanently attached flash suppressor and a 1:7 in right hand twist rifling rate; the bayonet lug was not included on the FS2000 rifles. The lower hand guard can be removed in the same manner as the F2000 to accept the same variety of accessories. It comes with a Picatinny rail optic rail along with backup iron sights. The rear flip-up National Match-sized aperture is adjustable for windage, while the removable front sight is adjustable for elevation.[10] A small number of the early models featured a stepped barrel contour as well as a demilled bayonet lug.[10] Measurements on the stepped barrel's rifling were as long as the non-stepped barrel, revealing that the stepped barrel is not simply a shorter F2000 military barrel with an extended flash hider.[10] A variant of the FS2000, called the FS2000 Standard, is equipped with the factory F2000 1.6x magnification optic and sight cover.[11] It does not contain the grenade launcher computer.

FN F2000


F2000 S
A version of the F2000 Tactical modified for the Slovenian Army. It Incorporates an elevated upper Picatinny rail that also doubles as a carrying handle.

Belgium: Used by the Special Forces Group of the Belgian Armed Forces Land Component.[12] [13] Chile: Special forces.[14] Croatia: The Croatian Army tested the rifle in 2006. As of 2008, the 1st Airborne Company of the Special Operations Battalion is the only army unit equipped with this weapon. According to unofficial estimates, 100 rifles have been purchased.[15] India: Used by the Special Protection Group.[16] Libya: Purchased 367 F2000 rifles along with other assorted lethal and non-lethal weapon systems from FN Herstal in 2008, and deliveries commenced in 2009.[17] In the 2011 Libyan Civil War, Libyan rebel forces captured a number of these weapons from forces loyal to the Gaddafi regime.[18] Pakistan: Special forces.[14] Peru: Special forces.[14] Poland: In limited use by the GROM special forces group.[19]
[20] Members of the Pakistani Air Force on exercise with F2000 rifles.

Saudi Arabia: The Saudi Arabian National Guard purchased 55,000 rifles in 2005.[21] [22]

Slovenian soldiers with F2000 S rifles.

Slovenia: In June 2006, the ministry of defence of the Republic of Slovenia signed a contract with FN Herstal involving the acquisition of 6,500 F2000 rifles as the new standard service rifle for the Slovenian Army (Slovenska vojska) along with the 40mm GL1 grenade launcher.[23] [24] This is arguably the first confirmed large-scale adoption for this rifle by a European and NATO member country. The Slovenian army will ultimately purchase 14,000 rifles.[25]

[1] "FN F2000 Rifles - F2000" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ model. asp?fid=FNF013& gid=FNG007& mid=FNM0037). FNH USA. 2010. . Retrieved July 18, 2010. [2] "FN F2000 Rifles - F2000 Tactical" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ model. asp?fid=FNF013& gid=FNG007& mid=FNM0038). FNH USA. 2010. . Retrieved July 18, 2010. [3] "FN FS2000 Carbines - FS2000" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ model. asp?fid=FNF011& gid=FNG006& mid=FNM0138). FNH USA. 2010. . Retrieved July 18, 2010. [4] "FN FS2000 Carbines - FS2000 Tactical" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ model. asp?fid=FNF011& gid=FNG006& mid=FNM0030). FNH USA. 2010. . Retrieved July 18, 2010. [5] "FN F2000 Rifles" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ family. asp?fid=FNF013& gid=FNG007). FNH USA. 2010. . Retrieved July 18, 2010. [6] Predazzer, Rene. "Ejection device for firearm" (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=ZMEmAAAAEBAJ& dq=5675924). Google Patent Search. Google. . [7] Denuit, Charles. "Fire arm with forward ejection or ejection brought to the fore-part of the fire arm" (http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=00kJAAAAEBAJ& dq=6389725). Google Patent Search. Google. . [8] GL1 40mm LV (http:/ / www. fnherstal. com/ index. php?id=271& backPID=265& productID=89& pid_product=297& pidList=265& categorySelector=7& detail=), FNHerstal.com [9] "Official FNH USA FN F2000 Tactical" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ model. asp?fid=FNF013& gid=FNG007& mid=FNM0038). Fabrique Nationale USA. . Retrieved 2010-03-30.

FN F2000
[10] "The FN FS 2000 is the civilian-legal, semi-automatic version of the F2000 that first became available in June 2006 manufactured by Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (FN Herstal)" (http:/ / www. gunslot. com/ guns/ fn-fs2000). Guns Lot. . Retrieved 2010-03-30. [11] Michael O. Humphries. "FNH USA FS2000 Standard" (http:/ / americanrifleman. org/ ArticlePage. aspx?id=1637& cid=4). American Rifleman. . Retrieved 2010-03-30. [12] "Special Forces: Tout Sauf des Rambo" (http:/ / www. lalibre. be/ actu/ belgique/ article/ 276594/ l-histoire. html). La Libre Belgique. March 25, 2006. . Retrieved 2010-02-06. [13] http:/ / www. mil. be/ armycomp/ subject/ index. asp?LAN=nl& FILE=& ID=1680& MENU=2193& PAGE=1 [14] Belgian bullpup: FN Herstal FS2000: its appearance is wild, its engineering impressive. And you can have a semi-auto version, if you can find one! (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ Belgian+ bullpup:+ FN+ Herstal+ FS2000:+ its+ appearance+ is+ wild,+ its. . . -a0203540050) [15] abec, Kreimir (2008-09-14). "Specijalci nee fantomsku puku" (http:/ / www. jutarnji. hr/ vijesti/ clanak/ art-2008,9,14,,133234. jl) (in Croatian). Jutarnji list. . Retrieved 2008-09-14. [16] "If looks could kill: India Today - Latest Breaking News from India, World, Business, Cricket, Sports, Bollywood" (http:/ / indiatoday. intoday. in/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& & issueid=68& id=13607& sectionid=3& Itemid=1& page=in& latn=2). Indiatoday.intoday.in. 2008-08-22. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [17] http:/ / www. expatica. com/ be/ news/ belgian-news/ belgium-probes-arms-sales-to-kadhafi-regime_131541. html [18] http:/ / www. theatlantic. com/ infocus/ 2011/ 06/ diy-weapons-of-the-libyan-rebels/ 100086/ [19] Wilk (REMOV), Remigiusz. "Nowe gromy GROM" (http:/ / www. altair. com. pl/ cz-art-1660). . [20] "GROM Utility and Equipment" (http:/ / grom. mil. pl/ uzbrojenie_pliki/ UZBROJENIE. HTM). . Retrieved 2009-08-02. [21] Kemp, Ian (2009). "A New 5.56mm Generation or a Changing of the Guard?" (http:/ / www. asianmilitaryreview. com/ upload/ 200906161450071. pdf). Asian Military Review. . Retrieved 2010-04-18. [22] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2006" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-15. html). . Retrieved 2009-05-23. [23] "FN Herstal Awarded Major Contract for F2000 Assault Rifles" (http:/ / www. army-technology. com/ contractors/ machine_guns/ fnherstal/ press4. html). Army Technology. 2006-06-21. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [24] "Podcevni bombomet 40 mm LG1" (http:/ / www. slovenskavojska. si/ oborozitev-in-oprema/ lahka-pehotna-in-podporna-oborozitev/ podcevni-bombomet-40mm-lg1/ ). Slovenskavojska.si. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [25] "Avtomatska puka 5,56mm FN F 2000 S" (http:/ / www. slovenskavojska. si/ oborozitev-in-oprema/ lahka-pehotna-in-podporna-oborozitev/ avtomatska-puska-556mm-fn-f-2000-s/ ). Slovenskavojska.si. . Retrieved 2009-11-17.


External links
Official website (http://www.fnherstal.com/index.php?id=184&backPID=182&productID=12& pid_product=232&pidList=182&categorySelector=1&detail=&cHash=51abcaaf25) Official website (http://www.fnhusa.com/le/products/firearms/family.asp?fid=FNF013&gid=FNG007) FNH USA FN FS2000 Owner's Manual (http://www.fnhusa1.com/manuals/OM_FS2000_0608.pdf) FN FS2000 Standard (American Rifleman article) (http://americanrifleman.org/ArticlePage.aspx?id=1637& cid=4) FN Herstal Fire Control System (http://www.fnherstal.com/index.php?id=272&backPID=266& productID=107&pid_product=298&pidList=266&categorySelector=8&detail=) Video FN FS2000 Product Video (Civilian Standard Model - Semi-auto) (http://www.fnhusa.com/le/flash/prodvid. asp?FS2000.f4v) FN FS2000 Tactical Product Video (Civilian Tactical Model - Semi-auto) (http://www.fnhusa.com/le/flash/ prodvid.asp?FS2000tactical.f4v)



FN SCAR (Mk 16/17 Mod 0)

The standard length 3rd Generation SCAR-L (top) and SCAR-H (bottom). Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle (SCAR-L) Battle rifle (SCAR-H)
Belgium United States

Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 2009-present See Users Afghanistan War

Production history Manufacturer Variants FNH USA

SCAR-L (Mk 16 Mod 0) SCAR-H (Mk 17 Mod 0) Specifications


3.04kg (6.7lb) (SCAR-L Short) 3.29kg (7.3lb) (SCAR-L Standard) 3.49kg (7.7lb) (SCAR-L Long) 3.58kg (7.9lb) (SCAR-H Short & Standard) 3.72kg (8.2lb) (SCAR-H Long)


254mm (10.0in) (SCAR-L Short) 368mm (14.5in) (SCAR-L Standard) 457mm (18.0in) (SCAR-L Long) 330mm (13in) (SCAR-H Short) 400mm (16in) (SCAR-H Standard) 500mm (20in) (SCAR-H Long)


5.5645mm NATO (SCAR-L) [2] 7.6251mm NATO, 7.6239mm M43 (SCAR-H)

Action Rateoffire

Gas-operated, rotating bolt 625 rounds/min





SCAR-L: 2870ft/s (870m/s) (M855) SCAR-L: 2630ft/s (800m/s) (Mk 262) SCAR-H: 2342ft/s (714m/s) (M80)

Effectiverange Feedsystem Sights

SCAR-L: 300 metres (330yd) (Short), 500 metres (550yd) (Standard), 600 metres (660yd) (Long) SCAR-H: 300 metres (330yd) (Short), 600 metres (660yd) (Standard), 800 metres (870yd) (Long)

SCAR-L: STANAG box magazine SCAR-H: 20-round box magazine

Iron or various optics

The Special Operations Forces (SOF) Combat Assault Rifle,[4] [5] or SCAR, is a modular rifle made by FN Herstal (FNH) for the United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) to satisfy the requirements of the SCAR competition.[6] This family of rifles consist of two main types. The SCAR-L, for light, is chambered in the 5.5645mm NATO cartridge and the SCAR-H, for heavy, fires 7.6251mm NATO. Both are available in Long Barrel and Close Quarters Combat variants. The FN SCAR systems completed low rate initial production testing in June 2007.[7] After some delays, the first rifles began being issued to operational units in April 2009, and a battalion of the US 75th Ranger Regiment was the first large unit deployed into combat with 600 of the rifles in 2009.[8] The US Special Operations Command has currently cancelled their purchase of the Mk 16 SCAR-L and are planning to remove the rifle from their inventory by the year 2013. However, they plan to purchase 5.56 mm conversion kits for the Mk 17, supplanting the loss of the Mk 16. [9]

The SCAR is manufactured in two main versions; Light (SCAR-L, Mk 16 Mod 0) and Heavy (SCAR-H, Mk 17 Mod 0). The L version fires 5.5645mm NATO using improved STANAG (M16) magazines. The H fires the more powerful 7.6251mm NATO from a newly designed 20-round magazine. Different length barrels will be available for close quarters battle and for longer-range engagements. The initial solicitation indicated that the SCAR-H would also be chambered for the 7.6239mm M43 Kalashnikov cartridge and 6.843mm Remington SPC cartridge. However, FN is not currently offering other calibers.

SCAR-L equipped U.S. Army Rangers on the infield of the Lowes Motor Speedway

The Mk 20 Sniper Support Rifle is based on the 7.62mm Mk 17 rifle. It includes a longer receiver, a beefed up barrel extension and barrel profile to reduce whip and improve accuracy and an enhanced modular trigger that can be configured for single-stage or two-stage operation together with a non folding precision stock.[10] The Mk 16 Mod 0 was intended to replace the M4A1, the Mk 18 CQBR and the Mk 12 SPR currently in SOCOM service, before SOCOM decided to cancel the order for the Mk 16 Mod 0 (see below). The Mk 17 Mod 0 will replace the M14 and Mk 11 sniper rifles. The SCAR features an integral, uninterrupted Picatinny rail on the top of the aluminum receiver, two removable side rails and a bottom one that can mount any MIL-STD-1913 compliant accessories. It has a polymer lower receiver with an M16 compatible pistol grip, flared magazine well, and raised area around magazine and bolt release buttons. The front sight flips down for unobstructed use of optics and accessories. The rifle uses a 'tappet' type of closed gas system much like the M1 Carbine while the bolt carrier otherwise resembles the Stoner 63 or Heckler & Koch G36. The SCAR is built at the FN Manufacturing LLC, plant in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. Fabrique Nationale introduced a semi-automatic version of the SCAR modular rifle system, the 16S (Light) and 17S (Heavy),

FN SCAR at the end of 2008.[11] [12] This version of the SCAR is designed for the law enforcement and commercial markets, and is manufactured in Herstal, Belgium and imported by FNH USA, Fredricksburg, Virginia, United States. FNH USA slightly modifies the rifle (supplying a U.S. made magazine and machining a pin in the magazine well) to be in compliance with U.S. Code before selling them.


In July 2007, the US Army announced a limited competition between the M4 Carbine, FN SCAR, HK416, and the previously-shelved HK XM8. Ten examples of each of the four competitors were involved. During the testing, 60,000 rounds apiece were fired from each of the carbines in an "extreme dust environment". The purpose of the shootoff was for assessing future needs, not to select a replacement for the M4.[13]

An early prototype of the SCAR-L.

During the test, the SCAR suffered 226 stoppages. Since a percentage of each weapons' stoppages were caused by magazine failures, the FN SCAR, XM8 and HK 416 performed statistically similarly.[14] The FN SCAR ranked second to the XM8 with 127 stoppages, but with fewer stoppages compared to the M4 with 882 stoppages and the HK 416 with 233. This test was based on two previous systems assessments that were conducted using the M4 Carbine and M16 rifle at Aberdeen in 2006 and the summer of 2007 before the third limited competition in the fall of 2007. The 2006 test focused only on the M4 and M16. The Summer 2007 test had only the M4, but increased lubrication. Results from the second test resulted in a total of 307 stoppages for the M4 after lubrication was increased, but did not explain why the M4 suffered 882 stoppages with that same level of lubrication in the third test.[15] [16] The SCAR was one of the weapons displayed to U.S. Army officials during an invitation-only Industry Day on November 13, 2008. The goal of the Industry Day was to review current carbine technology for any situation prior to writing formal requirements for a future replacement for the M4 Carbine.[17] [18]

On May 4, 2010, a press release on FNH USA's official website announced the SCAR Acquisition Decision Memorandum was finalized on April 14, 2010. This is an approval for the entire weapons family of the Mk16 SCAR Light, Mk17 SCAR Heavy and the Enhanced Grenade Launcher Module.[19] In late October 2010 SOCOM approved full-rate production of the Mk 20 sniper variant of the SCAR, with fielding expected to begin in mid-May 2011.[10]

Enhanced Grenade Launching Module

Introduced in 2004 as an addition, the Enhanced Grenade Launching Module[20] (EGLM), officially referred to as the FN40GL, or Mk 13 Mod 0, is a 40mm grenade launcher based on the 'GL1' designed for the F2000. The FN40GL is marketed in both an L and H model, for fitting the appropriate SCAR variant.[21] The EGLM system features a The FN40GL, or Mk 13 Mod 0 double action trigger and a swing out chamber. These offer two advantages over the M203 system, the first being that the launcher does not need to be re-cocked if the grenade does not fire, and the latter being that longer grenades can be used.



IAR variant
In 2008, a variant of the FN SCARthe Heat Adaptive Modular Rifle (HAMR)was one of four finalist rifles for the Infantry Automatic Rifle (IAR) competition. The IAR is a United States Marine Corps requirement for a lightweight automatic rifle for squad automatic rifle use.[22] The FN entrant is different from existing SCAR versions in that it combines closed bolt operation (fires from bolt forward/chambered cartridge) with open bolt operation (fires from bolt to the rear, no chambered cartridge), switching automatically from closed to open bolt as the weapon's barrel heats up during firing. There have been previous firearms with mixed open/closed bolt operation, but the automatic temperature-based operating mode switch is an innovation. The IAR competition was expected to result in Marine Corps procurement of up to 6,500 automatic rifles over five years,[23] but eventually the SCAR variant was passed over in favor of the Heckler and Koch HK416 rifle,[24] later designated as the M27.[25]

On January 23, 2004, US SOCOM issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for solicitation USZA22-04-R-0001. The following amounts were projected for procurement:[26]
Item/Configuration Engineering Test Units Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) Production

SCAR-L (Order Halted) Standard CQC Sniper Variant (SV) SCAR-H (Order Active) Standard CQC Sniper Variant (SV) Standard (7.6251mm) 1 0 0 0 68 10 10 68 14,931 6,990 11,990 2,932 12 6 1 250 80 10 83,738 27,914 11,989

Possible MK-16 Cancellation/MK-17 Preference

On June 25, 2010 SOCOM announced that it was canceling the acquisition of the MK-16 citing limited funds and a lack of enough of a performance difference in another 5.56mm rifle to justify the purchase. Remaining funds would be expended for the MK-17 7.6251 mm version and the MK-20 sniper variant.[27] "FNH USA believes the issue is not whether the SCAR, and specifically the [originally contracted] MK 16 variant, is the superior weapon system available today ... it has already been proven to be just that, ... recently passing Milestone C and determined to be operationally effective / operationally suitable (OE/OS) for fielding. The issue is whether or not the requirement for a 5.56mm replacement outweighs the numerous other requirements competing for the customers limited budget. That is a question that will only be determined by the customer." [28] FN Herstal though has stated that the 5.56mm variant will be retained by SOCOM, and that "The choice between the 5.56 and the 7.62 caliber will be left to the discretion of each constitutive component of USSOCOM's Joint Command (e.g. SEALs, Rangers, Army Special Forces, MARSOC, AFSOC) depending on their specific missions on today's battlefield." [29] As of August 19, 2010 word from US Special Operations Command has not changed. SOCOM has decided to procure the 7.62mm MK-17 rifle, the 40mm MK-13 grenade launcher and the 7.62mm MK-20 Sniper Support rifle variants of the Special Operations Forces Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR) manufactured by FN. The command will not purchase the 5.56mm MK-16. At this point the individual service component commands within SOCOM (Army Special Operations Command, Naval Special Warfare Command, Air Force Special Operations Command, and Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command) may or may not still buy the 5.56mm MK-16 SCAR for some

FN SCAR or all of their respective subordinate units even with overall US Special Operations Command opting not to.[30]


Peru: The Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales (GRUFE) of the Peruvian Armed Forces purchased the SCAR-H variant in 2009.[31] United States: U.S. Armed Forces.[32]

[1] "DH.be - Une arme ligeoise en Afghanistan" (http:/ / www. dhnet. be/ infos/ belgique/ article/ 322568/ une-arme-liegeoise-en-afghanistan. html). Dhnet.be. 2010-08-23. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [2] (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ usa/ fn-mk16-mk17-scar-e. html) FN SCAR at Modern Firearms. Retrieved on March 02, 2011. [3] "FN SCAR. The Next Generation of Assault Rifles" (http:/ / fnhusa1. com/ PDF/ FN_MIL_SCAR. pdf). FNH USA. . Retrieved 2010-06-24. [4] "Internet Archive Wayback Machine" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060701110329/ http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ contents/ News/ PDFs/ 3-2-06_FN_SCAR_2. pdf). Web.archive.org. 2006-07-01. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [5] FN HERSTAL ANNOUNCES SCAR AS OPERATIONALLY SUITABLE, OPERATIONALLY EFFECTIVE APPROVED FOR COMBAT USE (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ mil/ press/ detail. asp?id=59), May 12, 2009, accessed Sept 4, 2009 [6] Humphries, Michael. FN's SCAR: A Cut Above (http:/ / www. americanrifleman. org/ ArticlePage. aspx?id=1552& cid=0), American Rifleman, July 2009. [7] Defense Tech: Meet the SCAR (http:/ / www. defensetech. org/ archives/ 003597. html) [8] 75th Rangers will take SCAR to War (http:/ / armytimes. com/ news/ 2009/ 05/ army_scar_051109w/ ), Matthew Cox, Army Times, May 12, 2009 [9] http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2011SOFIC/ Wed1015Rms24_25Carley. pdf [10] Wasseby, Daniel (2010). "SCAR Variant approved for full-rate production". Janes Defence Weekly (Janes) 47 (51): 11. [11] Civilian-Legal FN SCAR 16S Delivered at End of 2008, All Gone (http:/ / www. thetacticalwire. com/ release. html?releaseID=139975) [12] FNHUSA.com SCAR Semi-auto (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ products/ firearms/ family. asp?fid=FNF054& gid=FNG006) [13] Army Agrees to M4 Sand Test Shoot-Off (http:/ / www. military. com/ NewsContent/ 0,13319,143790,00. html?ESRC=army-a. nl) [14] "Newer carbines outperform M4 in dust test - Army News | News from Afghanistan & Iraq" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ army_carbine_dusttest_071217/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [15] Defense Tech: ...And Here's the Rest of the M4 Story (http:/ / www. defensetech. org/ archives/ 003909. html) [16] Newer carbines outperform M4 in dust test - Army News, opinions, editorials, news from Iraq, photos, reports - Army Times (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ army_carbine_dusttest_071217/ ) [17] "Army considers options in replacing the M4 - Army News | News from Afghanistan & Iraq" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2008/ 11/ army_carbineday_112308w/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [18] "Military Photos: military images, military pictures, Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines" (http:/ / www. militarytimes. com/ multimedia/ photo/ replacing_the_m4/ ). Military Times. 2007-02-16. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [19] "Press Release Detail" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ le/ press/ detail. asp?id=82). Fnh Usa. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [20] "Fnh Usa" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ mil/ scar. asp). Fnh Usa. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [21] FNHerstal.com Grenade Launchers (http:/ / www. fnherstal. com/ index. php?id=265) [22] FN Herstal Announces FN IAR Award (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ mil/ press/ detail. asp?id=49), accessed February 5, 2009 [23] United States Navy press release regarding Contract #3928 (http:/ / www. defenselink. mil/ contracts/ contract. aspx?contractid=3928) [24] Lamothe, Dan (December 14, 2009). "Frontrunner chosen in IAR contest". Marine Corps Times. p.20. [25] Lamothe, Dan (July 2, 2010). "Conway eyes additional testing for auto-rifle" (http:/ / www. marinecorpstimes. com/ news/ 2010/ 07/ marine_IAR_070110w/ ). Marine Corps Times. . Retrieved 2 July 2010. [26] https:/ / www. fbo. gov/ index?print_preview=1& s=opportunity& mode=form& id=9e05cae00c1961f9c8950ba229b919b3& tab=core& tabmode=list [27] "Spec Ops Command Cancels New Rifle" (http:/ / www. military. com/ news/ article/ spec-ops-command-cancels-new-rifle. html). Military.com. 2010-06-25. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [28] "FNH USA Stands Behind the SCAR Rifle Program" (http:/ / www. ammoland. com/ 2010/ 07/ 01/ fnh-usa-stands-behind-the-scar-rifle-program/ ). Ammoland.com. 2010-07-01. . Retrieved 2011-09-19. [29] FN 5.56 SCAR Retained in USSOCOM's Inventory (http:/ / www. fnherstal. com/ index. php?id=640) [30] SCAR Mk-16 Reverb (To Buy or Not To Buy) (http:/ / kitup. military. com/ 2010/ 07/ scar-mk-16-reverb-to-buy-or-not-to-buy. html#ixzz0x5qYqoEb) [31] Taibo, Javier. "As fue SITDEF 2009" (http:/ / www. defensa. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=912:asi-fue-sitdef-2009& catid=113:asi-fue-sitdef-2009& Itemid=288) (in Spanish). Defensa. . Retrieved February 9, 2010.

[32] "Press Release Detail" (http:/ / www. fnhusa. com/ mil/ press/ detail. asp?id=59). Fnh Usa. 2009-05-12. . Retrieved 2011-09-19.


Bibliography Douglas, Dave (March 2010). "The FNH SCAR". GUNS Magazine (Publishers' Development Corporation) 56, no. 3 (652): 4045. ISSN7359567512. Online Lowe, Christian (July 29, 2008). "Operators Test New Commando Rifle" (http://www.military.com/news/ article/operators-test-new-commando-rifle.html?ESRC=dod.nl). Military.com. Retrieved 15 April 2010.

External links
Official FN assault rifles page (http://www.fnherstal.com/index.php?id=182) Official FNH USA FN SCAR military page (http://www.fnhusa.com/mil/products/firearms/group. asp?gid=FNG020&cid=FNC01) Official FNH USA FN SCAR commercial page (http://www.fnhusa.com/le/products/firearms/group. asp?gid=FNG007&cid=FNC01) FN SCAR 16S / 17S owner's manual (http://fnhusa1.com/manuals/2010_SCAR_16S-17S_OM.pdf) FN SCAR promotional article (http://fnhusa1.com/PDF/FN_MIL_SCAR.pdf) Video FNH USA SCAR 16S Promotional Video (http://www.fnhusa.com/le/flash/prodvid.asp?2010SCAR16S720. f4v)

German Army


German Army
German Army Deutsches Heer

Logo of the German Army Active Country Role Size Motto Colors Anniversaries Engagements 1955present Federal Republic of Germany Land force 76,500 professionals and conscripts

To protect, help, moderate, and fight Schtzen, helfen, vermitteln, kmpfen Blue, Grey and White November 12, 1955 United Nations Operations in Somalia Aftermath of the Balkan Wars 1995-1999 Kosovo War War in Afghanistan Badge of Honour of the Bundeswehr Military Proficiency Badge Badge of Marksmanship Service Medal Flood Service Medal Commanders


Current commander Notable commanders

Lieutenant General Werner Freers General Ulrich de Maizire General Ernst Ferber, COMAFCENT 19731975 Lieutenant General Jrg Schnbohm, later Undersecretary of Defense

The German Army (German: Deutsches Heer, Heer pronounced [he]( listen)) is the land component of the armed forces of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following the disbanding of the Wehrmacht after World War II, it was re-established in 1955 as the Bundesheer, part of the newly-formed West German Bundeswehr along with the Navy and the Air Force. In the aftermath of the German reunification of 1990, the National People's Army of the former German Democratic Republic was integrated into the (West) German Army.

German Army


Since Germany first became a modern unified state in 1871, previous names of German unified ground forces have included: 18711919 Kaiserlich Deutsches Heer or Imperial German Army, part of Imperial Forces (Reichsheer was also used) 19211935 Reichsheer or National[2] Army, part of the Reichswehr 19351945 Heer or Army, part of the Wehrmacht 19561990 Landstreitkrfte, ground forces of East German Nationale Volksarmee
A German infantryman stands at the ready covering his comrade with the Bundeswehr's standard G36 assault rifle during a practice exercise in 2004 while being observed by American soldiers.

1955present Deutsches Heer or German Army, part of the Bundeswehr

After the reform movement of the Prussian Army following a series of disastrous defeats at the hands of her enemies in the 18th century, internal analysis of the lessons learned had informed Prussian civilian and military leadership that, while individual soldiers were first rate, command structures, staff organisation and generalship was a hit-and-miss affair, more dependent on the martial skills of the King and the individual members of the German nobility who dominated the military profession. Too often, military talent was brought together only after the Nation faced a crisis. There was little effective organizational work in between wars. The rise of the German General Staff, an institution that sought to institutionalize military excellence, brought the German Army back from years of atrophy and the humiliation of Napoleon's capture of Berlin. With membership in the officer corps extended to all qualified German-speaking men via national examinations, the improved education of the military schools, and selection from the top 1% graduates of the Kriegsakademie, a new class of top-notch leaders arose, and the German Army was set on a course for near-total dominance in Europe. Following the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo the Prussian Kingdom had years of military successes in the 19th and 20th centuries. Every able bodied man between the ages of 17 and 45 was liable for military service. There were 4 classes of service - Active (Aktiv), Reserve, Landwehr and Landsturm. The Landwehr and Landsturm were only called up at times of war. The basic unit of the army at this time was the Regiment. Regiments were typically raised and supported by a specific city or region. Each regiment was then stationed near its home city. The Reserve regiment was often made up of past members of the local regiment. The Landwehr and Landsturm units were also organized the same way. An individual could spend all 22 years of military service surrounded by friends and family. While this system created close ties within regiments, it also meant that the entire population of young men from a city or region could be wiped out in one battle.

German Army


World War I 19141918

The German Army that fought in World War I was not a truly single, unified army. Before unification, each monarchy (for example, the Great Dukedoms of Hesse and Baden) had its own army. The unification of Germany in January 1871 and the formation of the German Empire brought most of them under the command of the Prussian army, which became the nucleus of the Armies of the German Empire (Deutsches Reichsheer), though each continued to wear its own uniforms and insignias. Furthermore, the four German kingdoms that existed after the Napoleonic era - Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony and Wrttemberg - kept their own armies until the end of WWI. The peacetime commander-in-chief of each army was its king. After the declaration of war, the emperor (Kaiser) became the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces. In 1914 the German army fielded 50 active divisions and 48 in reserve. By 1918, the number of divisions had risen to a total of 251.

German infantry (wearing characteristic, early-war pickelhaube helmets with cloth covers) during the 1914 Battle of the Marne.

Reichswehr 19181935
Following the end of World War I and the collapse of the German Empire, most of the German Army (Heer) was demobilized or simply dissolved. Many former soldiers drifted into small paramilitary groups known as Free Corps (Freikorps). The Free Corps were generally groups of 100 men or fewer that protected a neighbourhood or town. On 6 March 1919 an army known as the Provisional German Defence Force (Vorlufige Reichswehr) was formed with about 400,000 men, many drawn from the Free Corps. On 30 September that same year, the Transitional Army (bergangsheer) was created from the Defence Force and the Free Corps. Finally, on 1 January 1921 the 100,000 man Army of the Weimar Republic (Reichswehr) was formed with seven Infantry Divisions and three Cavalry Divisions. It was troops from the Army of the Weimar Republic who crushed Adolf Hitler's Munich Beer Hall Putsch in November 1923.

Heer 19351945
Under the Treaty of Versailles, the Reichswehr was only allowed 100,000 men split between the Army and the Navy. Following the 1932 German elections the Nazi Party came to power and began to abrogate the treaty. The Army was made part of the Wehrmacht in May 1935 with the passing of the "Law for the Reconstruction of the National Defence Forces". The Wehrmacht included not just the Army and Navy but also a third branch known as the Luftwaffe. Initially, the Army was expanded to 21 divisional-sized units and smaller German infantry in Luxembourg, December 1944 formations. Between 1935 and 1945 this force grew to consist of hundreds of divisions and thousands of smaller supporting units. Between 1939 and 1945 close to 16 million served in the Army. Over 3 million were killed and over 4.1 million were wounded. Of the 7,361 men awarded the initial grade of the highest German combat honor of World War II, the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, 4,777 were from the Army, making up 65% of the total awarded. The Allies dissolved the German Army on 20 August 1946.

German Army


Cold War and the 1990s

Just one year after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany and its increasing links with the West under the policy-making of Konrad Adenauer, the Consultative Assembly of Europe began to consider the formation of a European Defence Community with German participation on 11 August 1950. Formerly high-ranking German Wehrmacht soldiers outlined in the Himmeroder memorandum for the first time an outline of a new "German contingent in an international force for the defense of Western Europe." For the German land forces the memorandum saw prior to 1952 the formation of a 250,000 strong army. The German soldiers during exercise in 1960 military saw the need for the formation of twelve Panzer divisions and six corps staffs with accompanying Corps troops, as only armored divisions could muster a fighting force to throw back the numerically far superior forces of the Warsaw Pact.[3] On 26 October 1950 Theodor Blank was appointed "officer of the Federal Chancellor for the Strengthening of Allied Troops questions". This Defence Ministry forerunner was known somewhat euphemistically as the Blank Office (Amt Blank), but explicitly used to prepare for the rearmament of West Germany (Wiederbewaffnung).[4] By March 1954 the Blank Office had laid plans for the new German army. Plans foresaw the formation of six infantry, four armoured, and two mechanised infantry divisions, as a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe in the framework of a European Defence Community.[3] Following a decision of the London Nine Power Conference of 28 September to 3 October 1954, Germany's entry into NATO with effect from 9 May 1955 was accepted as a replacement for the failed European Defence Community plan. Only after accession to NATO in 1955 was the Blank Office was converted to the Defence Ministry after the Bundestag on 8 February 1952 had approved a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe. Also necessary for the creation of a Defence Ministry was the amendment of the Basic Law, since 26 February 1954, with the insertion of an article regarding defence of the sovereignty of the federal government.[5] Theodor Blank became the first Defence Minister. The army formed the nucleus of the V Branch of the Department of Defence. Subdivisions included were VA Leadership and Training, VB Organisation and VC Logistics. The actual history of the army began in 1955. The first soldiers of the army began their service on 12 November 1955 in Andernach.[6] In April 1957, the first conscripts were called up. The army saw itself explicitly not succeeding the defeated Wehrmacht, but as following the Prussian military reforms and military resistance against National Socialism, such as the Wehrmacht group which attempted to stage a coup by assassinating Hitler on 20 July 1944. Nevertheless, the officer corps was made up especially of Wehrmacht officers for lack of alternatives for a long time. The first Chief of the Army was the former General der Panzertruppe Hans Rottiger, who had been involved in the drafting of the Himmeroder memorandum. Three corps were formed from 1957 - the I Corps, II Corps, and the III Corps. After 1990, the Heer absorbed the army of socialist East Germany, a part of the Nationale Volksarmee. The former East German forces were initially commanded by the Bunderwehr Command East under command of Lieutenant General Jrg Schnbohm and disbanded on 30 June 1991.[7] In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps at Potsdam in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1996, an airborne brigade was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkrfte.

German Army The 2001 onwards restructuring of the German Army saw it move to a seven division structure 5 mechanized (each with two mechanized brigades), 1 special forces, and one airmobile. In 2003, three Corps still existed, each including various combat formations and a maintenance brigade. I. German/Dutch Corps, a joint German-Netherlands organization, used to control in peacetime the 1st Panzer and 7th Panzer Divisions as well as Dutch formations. The 1st Panzer would have reported to the corps in wartime while the 7th would be posted to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. II Corps was German in peacetime but would have exchanged a division with the V U.S. Corps in time of war (the 5th Panzer). 5th Panzer Division disbanded as of 30 June 2001. In peacetime it also commanded the 10th Panzer Division, which was allocated to Eurocorps and which parents the German half of the Franco-German Brigade. The 1st Mountain Division at Munich was also under this headquarters. The IV Corps was headquartered at Potsdam in eastern Germany and controlled two Panzer-Grenadier Divisions, the 13th and 14th. The 14th Panzer-Grenadier Division also took control of units in Western Germany re-subordinated from the 6th Division when it lost its command function. It would have made up the German contribution to the Multinational Corps Northeast in time of war. IV Corps also used to have under its command the Military District Command I, the 1st Air Mechanised Brigade, and the Berlin Command (de:Standortkommando Berlin).


Current army
All corps have now been disbanded or transferred to a multinational level such as Multinational Corps North East. IV. Corps was reorganized and became an overseas deployment command like the British Permanent Joint Headquarters.

A total of 76,000 soldiers are currently on active service in the German Army.[1] Of these, approximately are 15,000 - 20,000 are conscripts.

Current structure of the German Army

The German Army is commanded by the Chief of Staff, Army (Inspekteur des Heeres) based at the Federal Ministry of Defence in Berlin and Bonn. The major commands are the German Army Office in Cologne and the German Army Forces Command in Koblenz. In 2002 a number of army units and their personnel were transferred to the newly-formed Joint Support Service (Streitkrftebasis) and Joint Medical Service branches.[8]

Structure of the German Army (click to enlarge)

German Army Chief of Staff, German Army Lieutenant General Werner Freers Army Staff at the Federal Ministry of Defence German Army Office The German Army Office in Cologne (Heeresamt) is the superior authority for all supporting elements of the Army, such as schools and education centres. It is commanded by a Major General, currently MajGen Joachim Clau. NBC Defence and Self-Protection School in Sonthofen Military Police and Headquarters Services School in Sonthofen Artillery School in Idar-Oberstein Three Officer Candidate Battalions in Idar-Oberstein, Munster and Hammelburg Special Operations Training Centre (formerly International Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol School) in Pfullendorf Army Warfighting Simulation Centre in Wildflecken Army Combat Training Centre in Letzlingen Army Aviation School in Bckeburg Training Centre Munster for Army Air Defence Armour Reconnaissance Mountain and Winter Combat School in Mittenwald Infantry School in Hammelburg Airborne Operations and Air Transport School in Altenstadt Army Officers' Academy in Dresden with Army Tactics Centre Army NCO Academies (three at different locations) Engineer School and Army School of Structural Engineering in Ingolstadt (formerly in Munich) Army Maintenance School and Army School of Engineering in Aachen


German Army Forces Command

Teilstreitkrfte or TSK (Branches) Heer Luftwaffe Marine Organisationsbereiche (Organisational areas) Sanittsdienst Streitkrftebasis

German Army


The German Army Forces Command in Koblenz (Heeresfhrungskommando) exercises command and control over all combat units. It is commanded by a Lieutenant General. These units include two armour divisions, two mechanized infantry divisions, the Division for Specialized Operations and the Airmobile Division. Depending on their size and role, brigades can be commanded either by a Brigadier General alike or a Colonel. Unlike other European armies such of neighbouring Netherlands and France, regiments are not a common form of organization and are thus rare in the German army. Battalions are most likely directly subordinate to brigades or to divisions as divisional troops.

German Army soldiers from Paratrooper Battalion 261 on board an armoured personnel carrier in Somalia in 1993

Division Intervention Forces/ 1st Armoured Division (Hannover) Divisional troops 9th Armoured Brigade 21st Armoured Brigade "Lipperland"
German ISAF soldiers involved in combat in Northern Afghanistan in 2009

10th Armoured Division (Sigmaringen) Divisional troops 12th Armoured Brigade "Oberpfalz" 23rd Mountain Infantry Brigade "Bayern"

13th Mechanized Infantry Division (Leipzig) Divisional troops 37th Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Freistaat Sachsen" 41st Mechanized Infantry Brigade "Vorpommern"

Special Operations Division (Regensburg) Divisional troops Special Forces Command (brigade-equivalent) 26th Airborne Brigade "Saarland" 31st Airborne Brigade "Oldenburg"

Airmobile Operations Division (Veitshchheim) Divisional troops

German Army Airmobile Brigade 1 Army Combat Support Brigade


Eurocorps (Straburg) Command Support Brigade German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

1 (German/Netherlands) Corps (Mnster) German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

A German Army soldier demonstrates the equipment of the IdZ program.

Multinational Corps North East (Stettin) 610th Signal Battalion German elements

Franco-German Brigade Mllheim

Army Central Dump Herongen

Army Central Dump Pirmasens

Central Mobilisation Base in Brck

German Army


The German Army has eleven different branches of troops, designated as Truppengattungen. Each Truppengattung is responsible for training and readiness of its units and disposes of its own schools and centres of excellence for doing so. Optically this distinction can be made by the branch colour, called Waffenfarbe which is displayed by a cord attached to the rank insignia, and the colour of their beret with a specific badge attached to it. Beret Colour (Army only and Security Units of Navy and Air Force)

Helicopter of the German Army Aviation Corps in Northern Iraq in 1991

Black: Armoured Corps, Reconnaissance Corps Green: Mechanized Infantry and Rifles Corps Dark Red: Aviation Corps, Airborne Corps, Special Forces, formations assigned to airborne division Light Red: Combat Support Corps and Military Police Dark Blue: Medical Corps Navy Blue: Multinational Units, Officer Cadet Battalions, Navy and Air Force Security Units Bright Blue: Troops with United Nations Missions Grey mountain cap (Bergmtze): Mountain Troops Gebirgsjger Waffenfarbe (Army and army support branch only)

Military Police/ Signal/ Army Air Defence/ Army Air Corps

NBC/ Artillery/ Army Reconnaissance

Infantry as Airborne, Mountain Infantry, Light Infantry (Rifles), Mechanized Infantry/ Armoured Troops/ Engineers

Army Bands/ Supplies, Maintenance and Transportation Troops/ Medical Corps

Bright Red:General ranks (only "Kragenspiegel", not "Litze"), Crimson: General Staff

Rank structure
The rank structure of the German army is adjusted to the rank structure of the NATO. Unlike its predecessors, the modern German Army does not use the rank of Colonel General. The highest rank for an army officer is Lieutenant General, as the rank of Full General is reserved for the Armed Forces chief of staff or officers serving as NATO officers. Officer cadets do not pass through all enlisted ranks, but are directly promoted to Lieutenant after 36 months of service. Equivalent US Army ranks are shown below according to "STANAG 2116 NSA MC LO (EDITION 6) NATO


Officers of the German Army General (General) Gen Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) GenLt/GL Major General (Generalmajor) GenMaj/GM Brigadier General (Brigadegeneral) BrigGen/BG Colonel (Oberst) Oberst/O Lieutenant Colonel (Oberstleutnant) Oberstlt/OTL OF-4







Officers of the German Army Major Staff Captain Captain 1st (Major) (Stabshauptmann) (Hauptmann) Lieutenant Maj/M StHptm/SH Hptm/H (Oberleutnant) OLt /OL OF-3 OF-2 OF-2 OF-1 2nd Lieutenant (Leutnant) Lt/L OF-1

Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army Sergeant Major (Oberstabsfeldwebel) OStFw/OSF First Sergeant (Stabsfeldwebel) StFw/SF Master Sergeant (officer cadet) (Oberfhnrich) OFhnr/OFR Master Sergeant (Hauptfeldwebel) HptFw/HF OR-7 Sergeant 1st Class (Oberfeldwebel) OFw/OF





German Army


Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army Staff Sergeant (officer cadet) (Fhnrich) Fhnr/FR OR-6 Staff Sergeant (Feldwebel) Fw/F OR-6 Sergeant (Stabsunteroffizier) StUffz/SU Corporal (officer cadet) (Fahnenjunker) Fhj/FJ OR-5 Corporal (Unteroffizier) Uffz/U



Enlisted Ranks of the German Army Specialist (Oberstabsgefreiter) OStGefr/OSG Specialist Lance (Stabsgefreiter) Corporal StGefr/SG (Hauptgefreiter) HptGefr/HG OR-4 OR-3 Private 1st Class (NCO cadet) (Obergefreiter UA) OGefr/OG OR-3 Private 1st Class (Obergefreiter) OGefr/OG OR-3


Enlisted Ranks of the German Army Private 1st Class (officer cadet) (Gefreiter OA) Gefr/G OR-2 Private 1st Class (Sergeant cadet) (Gefreiter FA) Gefr/G Private 1st Class (NCO cadet) (Gefreiter UA) Gefr/G OR-2 Private 1st Class (Gefreiter) Gefr/G OR-2 Private (Soldat) S



German Army


Standard light weapons
Heckler & Koch G365.56mm x 45 assault rifle (Version G36K and G36C for several branches including Special Forces) Heckler & Koch MG45.56mm light machine gun MG37.62mm x 51 machine gun G87.62mm x 51 automatic rifle, only used by special forces HK21E7.62mm x 51 machine gun, only used by special forces M3M-12.7mm x 99 heavy machine gun, used on armored vehicles and CH-53 helicopters Heckler & Koch MP74.6mm x 30 submachine gun, replacing the MP2 MP29 x 19 mm submachine gun Heckler & Koch MP59 x 19 mm submachine gun, used by various units like the Feldjger and special forces Heckler & Koch P89 x 19mm pistol Remington 870 - shotgun, used in small numbers by special forces and the military police (Feldjger) G227.62mm x 66.5B sniper rifle G24sniper rifle, only used by special forces G82sniper rifle HK MSG37.62mm x 51 designated marksman rifle Dynamit Nobel Panzerfaust 3anti-tank rocket launcher Raytheon Fliegerfaust 2 (FIM-92 Stinger)infrared homing surface-to-air missile MILANanti-tank guided missile system Granatpistole 40mmgrenade launcher HK GMGgrenade autocannon AG36grenade launcher KM2000172mm tant style blade standard combat knife

Gewehr G36 with AG36 grenade launcher

KM2000 & P8 pistol


Panzerfaust 3





German Army



Granatpistole 40mm

A German Army door gunner mans an M3M on board a CH-53 helicopter.

Reconnaissance systems
Fennek (wheeled armoured reconnaissance vehicle), replacing the Sphpanzer Luchs Luna X 2000 (reconnaissance drone system) KZO (reconnaissance drone system) Aladin (reconnaissance drone system) Camcopter S-100 (VTOL reconnaissance drone system, procurement planned)[9] MIKADO (mini reconnaissance drone system) Fancopter (mini reconnaissance drone system) RASIT (radar system), being phased out BR (ground surveillance radar system, based on Dingo 2)

Luna X 2000 UAV

EMT Aladin UAV





German Army


Combat vehicles
Leopard 2 (Main Battle Tank) A4, being phased out A5 A6 Marder 1 A3/A5 (infantry fighting vehicle) Spz Puma (infantry fighting vehicle), replaces the Marder in the Mechanized Infantry, being delivered Wiesel 1/2 (armoured weapons carrier) as a reconnaissance vehicle for the airborne troops with autocannon 20mm with TOW anti-tank guided missile with mortar 120mm as a radar vehicle for the light air defence system (LeFlaSys) as a command vehicle for the LeFlaSys as an engineer reconnaissance vehicle with Stinger equipped for the LeFlaSys as a medical vehicle for the airborne troops M113 A2 (multirole armoured vehicle) being phased out (594) GTK Boxer (multirole armoured fighting vehicle) to replace M113 and TPz Fuchs (planned) IAI Harop (unmanned combat aerial vehicle), loitering munition in combination with Rheinmetall KZO, ordered Dingo 1/2 (armoured wheeled vehicle) Eagle IV (armoured wheeled vehicle) LAPV Enok (light armoured patrol vehicle) Grizzly (armoured wheeled vehicle) AGF Serval (reconnaissance and combat vehicle) DURO III (armoured wheeled vehicle) YAK (armoured wheeled vehicle), based on DURO III Mungo ESK (armoured transport vehicle) TPz Fuchs (multirole armoured vehicle) BV 206 S (tracked armoured transport vehicle)
GTK Boxer Leopard 2A6

Puma (IFV) demonstrator for mobility-VS2 with weight simulators

German Army


BV 206 S

PzH 2000

Mungo ESK


AGF Serval

Marder (IFV)

TPz Fuchs

Wiesel AWC


Eagle IV


M270 MLRS (227mm multiple rocket launcher) PzH 2000 (155mm self-propelled howitzer) Wiesel 2 lePzMrs, advanced mortar system ABRA (artillery radar system), being phased out Mortar TAMPELLA (120mm) Mortar "R" (120mm) COBRA (counter artillery radar system) ATMAS (artillery weather measure system) SMA (artillery sound measure system)

Wiesel 2 lePzMrs (Lightweight Armoured Mortar of Advanced Mortar System)

German Army


Air defence systems

Flugabwehrkanonenpanzer Gepard 1 A2 (self-propelled anti air gun), will be formally phased out in late 2010 and then replaced by SysFla in the upcoming years. LeFlaSys (light anti-aircraft missile system), based on Wiesel 2 MANTIS (stationary counter rocket, artillery, and mortar system for base protection), to be delivered in 2011 SysFla (system air defence mobile and stationary platforms using the LFK NG and MANTIS), under development LR (radar system), being phased out

A Gepard of the German Army

Engineer equipment
Dachs (tracked engineer tank) Bffel (tracked salvage tank) Biber (bridge layer) Panzerschnellbrcke 2 (bridge layer), replacing the Biber Skorpion (mine layer) Keiler (mine breaker) M3 Amphibious Rig (amphibious vehicle) Motorboot 3 (motorboat) Medium Girder Bridge (bridge system) Faltfestbrcke (solid bridge system) Faltschwimmbrcke (swimming bridge system) Pontoon bridge Faltstraensystem (mobile roadway system)
Wiesel 2 in the Ozelot anti-air version of LeFlaSys

Aircraft inventory
The German Army operates more than 320 helicopters. Nearly all were built in Germany while nearly 40% are indigenous designs. 80 Eurocopter Tiger and 80 NH90 helicopters have been ordered.

Eurocopter Tiger of the German Army

German Army


Bo 105s of the German Army in a hangar

German NH90

EC 135 of the German Army

Heavy tractor trailer Elefant whilst loading a Leopard 2A4

German Army



MAN HX/SX Series Mobility Elite Series HX: High Mobility Truck SX: Extreme Mobility Truck since 2010

CH-53G Stallion at RIAT 2010




Versions Attack Helicopter

[10] Notes In service

Eurocopter Tiger


Attack helicopter Transport/Utility Helicopter


80 (planned), entered service

UH-1 Iroquois Blkow Bo 105 Eurocopter EC 135 NHI NH90 Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion

Germany Utility helicopter


82 104 15 3

Being withdrawn; built by Dornier

Germany Utility/attack helicopter 105P Europe Europe Utility helicopter Transport helicopter EC135 NH90 TTH

80 (planned) 110 built by VFW

Germany Transport helicopter

CH-53G/CH-53GS 101

German Army


Logistic equipment
SLT 50-3 Elefant (heavy tractor trailer, tank transporter) Berge- und Kranfahrzeug, BKF 30.40 (salvage vehicle)

Non-combat vehicles
Mercedes-Benz 250 GD "Wolf" KTM LC4 Military 27 PS, motorcycle ATV Yamaha Kodiak 400, Quad LKW 2t mil gl, 4x4 (Unimog) LKW 5t mil gl, 4x4 LKW 5t mil, 4x4 LKW 7t mil gl, 6x6 LKW 7t mil, 6x6 LKW 10t mil gl, 8x8 LKW 15t mil gl, 8x8 LKW 15t mil gl MULTI, 8x8

Volkswagen T platform (T3/T4) Snowmobile Ski-Doo

[1] http:/ / www. bundeswehr. de/ portal/ a/ bwde/ !ut/ p/ c4/ DcmxDYAwDATAWVgg7unYAugc8kSWI4OMIesTXXm002D8SeWQy7jRStshc-4p94L0hENCnXEGUvXXSuMKG8FwBd26TD9uIZiT/ [2] Reich is commonly translated as "empire," but this can be misleading; its actual connotation is closer to "realm", as in Frankreich, France, "realm of the Franks", or sterreich, Austria, "eastern realm". [3] For a discussion on German defence planning in the context of the EDC, see Abenheim, Reforging the Iron Cross, Chap. 5 (Zilian, p.41) [4] See Frederick Zilian Jr., 'From Confrontation to Cooperation: The Takeover of the National People's (East German) Army by the Bundeswehr,' Praeger, Westport, Conn., 1999, ISBN 0-275-96546-5, p.40-41, for a discussion of this period [5] Zilian, p.41 [6] http:/ / www. zeit. de/ 2005/ 23/ 50_Jahre_BuWe [7] See Jorg Schonbohm, 'Two Armies and One Fatherland', Berghahn Books, Providence & Oxford, 1996 [8] "Die Streitkrftebasis" (http:/ / www. streitkraeftebasis. de/ portal/ PA_1_0_P3/ PortalFiles/ 02DB040000000001/ W26J8MPU002INFODE/ InfomappeSKB. pdf?yw_repository=youatweb/ ) (PDF). . Retrieved 2008-02-26. [9] Marineforum.info (http:/ / www. marineforum. info/ HEFT_5-2009/ Camcopter/ camcopter. html) [10] Aviation Week & Space Technology 2009, . (2009): n. pag. Web. 13 September 2009. Aviationweek.com (http:/ / www. aviationweek. com/ aw/ sourcebook/ content. jsp?channelName=pro& story=xml/ sourcebook_xml/ 2009/ 01/ 26/ AW_01_26_2009_p0240-112924-59. xml& headline=World Military Aircraft Inventory - Germany)

Further reading
Hubatscheck, Gerhard (2006), 50 Jahre Heer. Der Soldat und seine Ausrstung, Sulzvach: Report-Verlag, ISBN978-3-932385-21-6 Wheeler-Bennet, Sir John (2005), The Nemesis of Power: German Army in Politics, 1918-1945 (2nd ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company, ISBN978-1-4039-1812-3

External links
Official Homepage of the German Army (Heer) (http://www.deutschesheer.de/portal/a/heer) in German

German Army


Historical links
German Armed Forces 1918-1945 (http://www.feldgrau.com/) German Army pre 1914 (http://users.hunterlink.net.au/~maampo/militaer/milindex.html) German Army 1914-1918 (http://www.worldwar1.com/sfgarmy.htm) German Army Organization 1914 (http://www.tulipacademy.org/gew/ddhob/) German Infantry Photographs from World War II (http://www.ww2incolor.com/gallery/germans) - Colour photographs of German infantry during World War II Gebirgsjaeger (http://www.gebirgsjager.de/) - German Mountain Troops Axis History (http://www.axishistory.com/) - Axis History site including German troops.

Heckler & Koch


Heckler & Koch

Heckler & Koch GmbH (HK)

Type Industry Founded

GmbH, Private Defense 1949

Headquarters Oberndorf am Neckar, Germany Key people Products Employees Website Edmund Heckler, Theodor Koch, Alex Seidel, founders Firearms, weapons 600 (2011) heckler-koch.de [1]

Heckler & Koch GmbH (HK) (German pronunciation: [hklntkx][2] ) is a German defense manufacturing company that produces various small arms. Some of their products include the SA80, MP5 submachine gun, G3 automatic rifle, the G36 assault rifle, the HK 416, the MP7 personal defense weapon, the USP series of handguns, and the high-precision PSG1 sniper rifle. All firearms made by HK are named by a prefix and the official designation, with suffixes used for variants. HK has a history of innovation in firearms, such as the use of polymers in weapon designs and the use of an integral rail for flashlights on handguns. HK also developed modern polygonal rifling, noted for its high accuracy, increased muzzle velocity and barrel life. Not all of its technologically ambitious designs have translated into commercially successful products (for instance, the advanced but now abandoned G11 assault rifle, which fired caseless high-velocity ammunition). HK produces a whole range of small arms, from pistols to grenade launchers and machine guns. In its extensive product range, HK has used most of the operating systems for small arms: blowback operation, short-recoil, roller-delayed blowback, gas-delayed blowback, and gas operation.

HK was founded by engineers Edmund Heckler, Theodor Koch, and Alex Seidel in 1949[3] from the remnants of the Mauser company; the company was registered in 1950.[3] Initially the company manufactured machine tools, sewing machine parts,[3] gauges and other precision parts, but this changed in 1956 when the company proposed the G3 automatic rifle for the Bundeswehr (German Federal Army).[3] Since then HK has designed and manufactured more than one hundred different types of firearms and devices for the world's military and law enforcement organizations. In 1991, in the wake of the cancellation of the G41 and G11 rifles, HK was bought by British Aerospace's Royal Ordnance division.[3] During that period of ownership they were contracted to carry out the modification programme to the SA80 series of rifles for the British Army, needed to address a number of reliability issues. Also, H&K developed the lightweight carbon fiberreinforced G36 polymer assault rifle, the current (2008) service rifle of the Bundeswehr[3] and numerous other military and police forces. In 2002 the renamed BAE Systems resold HK to a group of private investors, who created the German group holding company (HK Beteiligungs-GmbH).[3]

Heckler & Koch The company is located in Oberndorf in the state of Baden-Wrttemberg, but also has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom, France and the United States. The company motto is "Keine Kompromisse!" (No Compromises!).[3] HK provides firearms for many military and paramilitary units, like the Special Air Service, U.S. Navy SEALs, Delta Force, FBI HRT, the German KSK and GSG 9 and many other counter-terrorist and hostage rescue teams.[4] [5] [6] HK was contracted by the U.S. Army to produce the kinetic energy subsystem[7] (see: kinetic projectiles or kinetic energy penetrator) of the Objective Individual Combat Weapon, a planned replacement for the M16/M203 grenade launcher combination. The OICW was designed to fire 5.56mm bullets and 25mm grenades. The kinetic energy component was also developed separately as the XM8, though both the OICW and XM8 are now indefinitely suspended. HK is also contracted to refurbish the SA80 range of weapons for the British Army, mainly because at the time the contract was put out to tender HK was part of BAE Systems.[8] Recently, HK developed a modified version of the United States issued M4, called the HK416.[9] HK replaced the direct impingement system used by the Stoner design on the original M16 platform with a short-stroke piston operating system. At this date, there is no indication that the rifle will be adopted by the United States Armed Forces. However, the elite Delta Force and other special operations units have fielded the HK416 in combat,[10] and Oklahoma Senator Tom Coburn has called for a "free and open competition" to determine whether the army should buy the HK416 or continue to purchase more M4 carbines.[11] Incoming Secretary of the Army Pete Geren agreed in July 2007 to hold a "dust chamber" test, pitting the M4 against HK's HK416 and XM8, as well as the rival Fabrique Nationale's SOF Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR) design. Coburn had threatened to stop Gerens Senate confirmation if he did not agree to the test.[12] The XM8 and SCAR had the fewest failures in the test, closely followed by the HK416, while the M4 had by far the most.[13] The Norwegian Army has recently chosen the HK416 to be its new standard issue rifle.[14] HK sells its pistols in the United States to both the civilian and law enforcement markets. The company has locations in Virginia, New Hampshire, and Georgia. In 2004, HK was awarded a major handgun contract for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, worth a potential $26.2 million for up to 65,000 pistols.[15] This contract ranks as the single largest handgun procurement contract in US law enforcement history.[16] Many HK civilian rifles that were briefly sold in the United States now have a high value on the secondary market. The UK headquarters of HK are based within the Easter Park Industrial Estate on Lenton Lane, Nottingham. NSAF Ltd, Unit 3, Easter Park, Lenton Lane, Nottingham NG7 2PX "For issue to government org's, only."


HK has been accused of shipping small arms to conflict regions such as Bosnia[17] and Nepal,[18] and has licensed its weapons for production by governments with poor human rights records such as Sudan, Thailand and Burma (Myanmar).[19] It has been argued that the company effectively evaded EU export restrictions when these licensees sold HK weapons to conflict zones including Indonesia,[20] Sri Lanka[21] and Sierra Leone.[18] British comedian Mark Thomas demonstrated the ease with which legal loopholes allow the evasion of arms embargoes by arranging a shipment of HK submachine guns made under license in Pakistan to Mugabes regime in Zimbabwe.[22] According to the Wednesday edition of the Stuttgarter Nachrichten papers (31.8.11), as well as the state broadcaster ARD, pictures proved the rifles carried the company's trademark. Eye witnesses said a huge stockpile of the guns fell into rebel hands during the attack on Qaddafi's compound in Tripoli last week. But it remains unclear exactly how many or who exported them to Libya.[23]

Heckler & Koch


HK abbreviations
Format: Abbreviation = German Text ("English Text") A = Ausfhrung ("version")[24] G = Gewehr ("rifle")[25] K = Either Kurz ("short") for pistols and submachine guns or Karabiner ("Carbine") for rifles and assault rifles.[26] AG = Either stands for Anbau-Gert ("attached device") or Anbaugranatwerfer ("attached grenade launcher") GMG = Granatmaschinengewehr ("grenade machine gun")[27] GMW = Granatmaschinenwerfer (automatic grenade launcher)[28] MG = Maschinengewehr ("machine gun") [27] MP = Maschinenpistole ("submachine gun" or "machine pistol")[29] PSG = Przisionsschtzengewehr ("precision sharp shooter rifle")[30] PSP = Polizei-Selbstlade-Pistole ("police self-loading pistol")[31] SD = Schalldmpfer ("sound dampener", "suppressor");[32] In the case of the MP5 having an integral suppressor, in the case of the USP, an extended threaded barrel for attaching a suppressor. SG = Scharfschtzengewehr ("sharpshooters rifle") [33] SL = Selbstlader ("Autoloader") [34] UMP = Universale Maschinenpistole ("universal machine pistol")[35] UCP = Universal Combat Pistol USC = Universal Self-loading Carbine USP = Universale Selbstladepistole ("universal self-loading pistol")[36] ZF = Zielfernrohr ("telescopic sight")[37]

[1] http:/ / www. heckler-koch. de/ [2] HKPro - How do you correctly pronounce "Koch?" (http:/ / www. hkpro. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=138:how-do-you-correctly-pronounce-qkochq& catid=4:special-topics& Itemid=5) [3] www.heckler-koch.de (http:/ / www. heckler-koch. de/ ) [4] "UnOfficial SAS Website" (http:/ / www. sasspecialairservice. com/ sas-assault-rifles-guns. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-28. [5] "Unofficial US Navy Seals Website" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080104090407/ http:/ / www. geocities. com/ sealteams/ seal_index. html). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. geocities. com/ sealteams/ seal_index. html) on 2008-01-04. . Retrieved 2008-08-28. [6] "US Special Forces Unofficial website" (http:/ / www. armchairgeneral. com/ forums/ archive/ index. php?t-29416. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-28. [7] "The Gun Source - HK" (http:/ / www. thegunsource. com/ Heckler-Koch. aspx). . Retrieved 2008-08-30. [8] "British Army Website information page on the SA80 A2 rifle" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1458. aspx). . Retrieved 2008-08-28. [9] "Modern Firearms" (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as75-e. htm). . Retrieved 2008-08-30. [10] Cox, Matthew (March 1, 2007). "Better than M4, but you can't have one" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 02/ atCarbine070219/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2007-03-15. [11] Lowe, Christian (April 30, 2007). "Senator Tells Army to Reconsider M4" (http:/ / www. military. com/ NewsContent/ 0,13319,133962,00. html). Military.com. . Retrieved 2007-06-16. [12] "M4 to face new rifles in dust-chamber test" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 07/ army_rifle_070715/ ). . [13] "Defence Technology Website" (http:/ / www. defensetech. org/ archives/ 003908. html). . Retrieved 2008-08-30. [14] Bentzrd, Sveinung Berg (April 13, 2007). "Arvtageren til AG-3" (http:/ / www. Aftenposten. no/ nyheter/ iriks/ article1733557. ece). Aftenposten.no. . Retrieved 2007-06-16. [15] "Industry arms Homeland Security" (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m3197/ is_11_49/ ai_n7579143). Shooting Industry. 2004. . Retrieved 2008-08-30. [16] "HK Australia website" (http:/ / www. hksystems. com. au/ news. htm). . Retrieved 2008-08-30. [17] Abel, Peter, Manufacturing Trends: Globalising the Source in Lumpe, Lora (ed.) (2000), Running Guns: The Global Black Market in Small Arms, London: Zed Books. [18] A Catalogue of Failures: G8 Arms Exports and Human Rights Violations (2003-05-19) (http:/ / www. amnesty. org/ en/ library/ info/ IOR30/ 003/ 2003), Amnesty International.

Heckler & Koch

[19] Out of Control The loopholes in UK controls on the arms trade (1998-12) (http:/ / www. oxfam. org. uk/ what_we_do/ issues/ conflict_disasters/ downloads/ control. rtf), Oxfam GB. [20] Wright, Steve (2001-01), A Legal Trade In Death (http:/ / mondediplo. com/ 2001/ 01/ 02arms1), Le Monde Diplomatique. [21] Undermining Global Security: the European Unions arms exports (2004-02-01) (http:/ / web. amnesty. org/ library/ index/ engact300032004), Amnesty International. [22] Thomas, Mark (2006), As Used On The Famous Nelson Mandela (http:/ / www. rbooks. co. uk/ product. aspx?id=0091909228), London: Ebury Press [23] The Local, Germany's Online English News (http:/ / www. thelocal. de/ national/ 20110831-37283. html) [24] HKPro - definition of 'A' designation (http:/ / www. hkpro. com/ HK33. htm) [25] Translation : gewehr (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Gewehr) [26] Translation : karabiner (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Karabiner) [27] Translation : maschinengewehr (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=maschinengewehr) [28] Translation : werfer (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=werfer) [29] Translation : maschinenpistole (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=maschinenpistole) [30] Translation : przisions-schtzen-gewehr (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Przisions-Schtzen-Gewehr) [31] Translation: P7 Pistol Wikipedia entry [32] Translation : schalldmpfer (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Schalldmpfer) [33] Translation : schtzen-Gewehr (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Schtzen) [34] Translation : Selbstlader (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Selbstlader) [35] Translation : universal-maschinenpistole (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=universal-maschinenpistole) [36] Translation : universal-selbstladepistole (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Universal-Selbstladepistole) [37] Translation : Zielfernrohr (http:/ / www. dict. cc/ ?s=Zielfernrohr)


External links
Official website (international) (http://www.heckler-koch.de/) Official website (U.S.) (http://www.hkd-usa.com/) 2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure (http://photos.imageevent.com/smglee/cltactical/HK Military LE Catalog.pdf) HK Pro (http://www.hkpro.com/), fan page HK information on Remtek (http://www.remtek.com/arms/hk/index.htm) Heckler & Koch Webshop (http://www.hkwebshop.com/)

Heckler & Koch G36


Heckler & Koch G36

H&K G36 (Gewehr36)

A G36 of the Bundeswehr. Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle


Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1997present 20+ countries (see users)

Kosovo War Afghan War, Iraq War, War in South Ossetia (2008), Operation Banner (PSNI) (Northern Ireland The Troubles), Libyan Civil War Production history

Designed Manufacturer Produced Variants

19901995 Heckler & Koch 1996present See Variants Specifications


G36: 3.63kg (8.00lb) G36V: 3.33kg (7.3lb) G36K: 3.30kg (7.3lb) G36KV: 3.0kg (6.6lb) G36C: 2.82kg (6.2lb) MG36: 3.83kg (8.4lb) MG36E: 3.50kg (7.7lb) G36, G36V, MG36, MG36E: 999mm (39.3in) stock extracted / 758mm (29.8in) stock folded G36K, G36KV: 860mm (33.9in) stock extended / 615mm (24.2in) stock folded G36C: 720mm (28.3in) stock extended / 500mm (19.7in) stock folded G36, G36V, MG36, MG36E: 480mm (18.9in) G36K, G36KV: 318mm (12.5in) G36C: 228mm (9.0in) 64mm (2.5in) G36, G36K, MG36: 320mm (12.6in) G36V, G36KV, MG36E: 285mm (11.2in) G36C: 278mm (10.9in) 5.56x45mm NATO Gas-operated, rotating bolt



Width Height

Cartridge Action

Heckler & Koch G36

750 rounds/min cyclic G36, G36V, MG36, MG36E: 920m/s (3018ft/s) G36K, G36KV: 850m/s (2788.7ft/s) 800 metres (870yd), 200600 m sight adjustment 30-round detachable box magazine or 100-round C-Mag drum magazine Reflex sight with 1x magnification, telescopic sight with 3x magnification (export version has a 1.5x magnified sight) and back-up fixed notch sight

Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Feedsystem Sights

The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.5645mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch (H&K) in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle.[1] It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3.[2] The G36 is gas-operated and feeds from a 30-round detachable box magazine or 100-round C-Mag drum magazine.[1]

Work on a successor for the venerable G3 rifle had been ongoing in Germany since the second half of the 1970s. These efforts resulted in the innovative 4.73mm G11 assault rifle (developed jointly by a group of companies led by H&K), that used caseless ammunition (designed by the Dynamit Nobel company). It had been predicted that this weapon would eventually replace the G3, therefore further development of H&K's series of firearms chambered for the 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge had been halted. Heckler & Koch had no incentive to pursue a new 5.56mm weapon system, content with the export-oriented HK33 and G41 rifles. However, the G11 program came to an abrupt end when the Bundeswehr canceled its procurement due to defense budget cuts after the unification of East and West Germany and H&K was acquired in 1991 by British Aerospace's Royal Ordnance division (known today as BAE Systems). Increasing interest in Germany for a modern service rifle chambered for the NATO-standard 5.56mm cartridge led H&K to offer the German armed forces the G41 rifle, which, too, was rejected. Design work was then initiated from the ground up on a modern 5.56mm assault rifle designated "Project 50" or HK50.[2] The prototype was then trialed, where it was rated higher than the rival Austrian Steyr AUG system.[2]

The HK50 rifle was selected for service and an initial order was placed for 33,000 rifles under the Bundeswehr designation Gewehr G36. The order also involved an option for a further 17,000 rifles. Deliveries were first made to the Bundeswehr's NATO Quick Reaction Force during the third quarter of 1997. In July 1998, it was announced that the G36 had been selected as the standard rifle for the Spanish Armed Forces, replacing the 5.56mm CETME Model L and LC rifles.[3] Deliveries first took place at the end of 1999. These rifles are manufactured in Spain under license by General Dynamics Santa Brbara Sistemas at the FACOR (Fbrica de Armas de la Corua) facility, in A Corua, Galicia. In addition, the rifle has been licensed for local production in Saudi Arabia.[4]

Heckler & Koch G36


Design details

German Bundeswehr land force soldiers deployed with G36s

A German infantryman stands at the ready with his G36 during a practice exercise with US troops

The G36 is a selective fire 5.56mm assault rifle, firing from a closed rotary bolt. The G36 has a conventional layout and a modular component design. Common to all variants of the G36 family are: the receiver and buttstock assembly, bolt carrier group with bolt and the return mechanism and guide rod. The receiver contains the barrel, carry handle with integrated sights, trigger group with pistol grip, handguard and magazine socket. The G36 employs a free-floating barrel (the barrel does not contact the handguard). The barrel is fastened to the receiver with a special nut, which can be removed with a wrench. The barrel is produced using a cold hammer forging process and features a chrome-lined bore with 6 right-hand grooves and a 1 in 178mm (1:7 in) rifling twist rate. The barrel assembly consists of the gas block, a collar with a bayonet lug that is also used to launch rifle grenades and a slotted flash suppressor. The weapon can be stripped and re-assembled without tools through a system of cross-pins similar to that used on earlier HK designs. For cleaning purposes, the G36 disassembles into the following groups: receiver housing, return mechanism, bolt carrier group and trigger group.

Fire selector The fire and safety selector is ambidextrous and has controls on both sides of the receiver; the selector settings are described with letters: S safe ("Sicher"), E semi-automatic fire ("Einzelfeuer") and F continuous fire ("Feuersto").[2] The weapon safety disables the trigger when engaged. HK also offers several other trigger options, including the so-called Navy trigger group, with settings analogous to the standard trigger, but the selector positions have been illustrated with pictograms. A semi-automatic only trigger unit (lacks the F setting) is also available. An integrated, manual safety mechanism prevents accidental firing (this is an improved trigger group from the G3 rifle).

Heckler & Koch G36 Magazine The G36 feeds from proprietary 30-round curved magazines very similar to those of the Swiss SIG 550 with cartridges loaded in a staggered pattern. The magazines are molded from a high-strength translucent polymer and can be clipped together using built-in coupling studs into 2 or 3-magazine packs allowing up to five magazines to be carried side-by-side on the rifle ready for rapid magazine changes; Jungle style. The magazines are not compatible with NATO-standard STANAG magazines, as introduced in the M16. However, the G36 can be used with Beta C-Mag drum magazines (produced by Beta Company) that have a 100-round cartridge capacity and are intended to be used primarily with the MG36 light support weapon.


SIG 550 receiver and magazine: note the similarity to the G36 magazine.

Stock The MG36 variant is equipped with a side-folding skeletonized stock and a detachable folding bipod, which folds into recesses in the handguard. The G36 can be fired with the stock collapsed.[2] The underside of the butt-stock has holes into which assembly pins can be placed during weapon cleaning and maintenance.

A standard German Bundeswehr G36 with bipod and a Beta C-Mag drum magazine

Material The G36 employs a large number of lightweight, corrosion-resistant synthetic materials in its design; the receiver housing, stock, trigger group (including the fire control selector and firing mechanism parts), magazine well, handguard and carry handle are all made of a carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide. The receiver has an integrated steel barrel trunnion (with locking recesses) and the reciprocating parts move on steel rails molded into the receiver (this feature was issued a US patent, number 5513461, authored by Helmut Weldle).


Dual combat sighting system ZF 3x4 as used on German G36A1 assault rifles

Optical sight reticle pattern (click for description)

The standard German Army versions of the G36 are equipped with a ZF 3x4 dual optical sight that combines a 3x magnified telescopic sight (with the main reticule designed for firing at 200 m and bullet drop compensation

Heckler & Koch G36 markings for: 200, 400, 600 and 800 m crosshairs and a range-finding scale) and an unmagnified reflex sight (calibrated for firing at 200 m) mounted on top of the telescopic sight.[2] The reflex sight is illuminated by ambient light during the day and uses battery powered illumination for use at night. Electric illumination is activated automatically by a built in photo sensor and can be manually activated to boost the brightness of the reticle in daytime low contrast situations.[5] The export versions have a single telescopic sight with a 1.5x magnification and an aiming reticule fixed at 300 m. All rifles are adapted to use the Hensoldt NSA 80 third-generation night sight, which clamps into the G36 carry handle adapter in front of the optical sight housing and mates with the rifle's standard optical sight.[6] The sighting bridge also functions as a carrying handle and features auxiliary open sights molded on top of the handle that consist of a forward blade and rear notch, but these can only be used with the reflex sight removed, as in the G36V. The optical sight system is produced by Hensoldt AG (a subsidiary of Carl Zeiss AG).


Operating mechanism
The G36 is a gas-operated weapon that uses burnt powder gases from the barrel, bled through a vent near the muzzle which transmits the gas thrust to the bolt carrier, providing automation to the moving assembly; it fires from a closed bolt position. The weapon uses a self-regulating spring-buffered short-stroke gas piston system (the rifle has no gas valve).[2] The rotary bolt features 7 radial locking lugs and its rotation is controlled by a cam pin guided inside a camming guide cut-out in the bolt carrier. The bolt also houses a spring-loaded casing extractor and an ejector.

U.S. Army soldiers crosstrain with G36s in Kosovo

The bolt is automatically locked to the rear when the last round is expended, but the bolt catch can be deactivated. The bolt catch button is located at the forward end of the trigger guard. The spring-loaded folding cocking handle extends forward in line with the barrel of the rifle (it is located on top of the receiver, under the carry handle). It can be swung to either side of the receiver, depending on whether the user is right or left-handed and is locked when pressed inward. When locked at a perpendicular angle to the receiver, the handle can be used as a forward assist to force the bolt into battery, or to extract a stuck cartridge casing (the cocking handle's design is protected in the US by patent number 5821445, by Manfred Guhring).[7] [8]

Albanian soldier with G36 as part of EUFOR Althea in BiH

Spent cartridge casings are ejected through a port located on the right side of the receiver. A brass deflector keeps cases from striking left-handed operators in the face. There is no ejection port cover as the bolt closes the ejection port to particulates when it is forward. The weapon features a hammer-type striking mechanism.

Heckler & Koch G36


The rifle can be fitted with a 40 mm AG36 (AG Anbau-Granatwerfer) under-barrel grenade launcher, which is a breech-loaded break-action weapon with a side-tilting barrel. Standard equipment supplied with the G36 includes: spare magazines, a cleaning and maintenance kit, sling, speed-loading device and an AK-74 blade bayonet (many of which are left over in Germany from stocks of the former National People's Army).

G36V (V Variante "variant"): Previously known as the G36E (E Export), it is the export version of the standard G36. The G36V has all of the characteristics of the standard rifle with the exception of the sight setup and bayonet mount. It is fitted with a x1.5 or x3 sight and lacks the integrated reflex sight; the bayonet mount is a standard NATO type. This version was produced for Spain and Latvia. MG36 (MG Maschinengewehr "machine gun"): Light machine gun version of the G36 equipped with a heavy barrel for increased heat and cook-off resistance.[2] The MG36 and MG36E are no longer offered by H&K. G36K (K kurz "short"): carbine variant with a shorter barrel (fitted with an open-type flash suppressor) and a shorter forend, which includes a bottom rail that can be used to attach tactical accessories, such as a UTL flashlight from the USP pistol. The carbine's barrel lacks the ability to launch rifle grenades and it will not support a bayonet. The weapon retained the ability to be used with the AG36 grenade launcher. G36Ks in service with German special forces are issued with a 100-round C-Mag drum. There are two variants of the G36K. The first and most commonly known has x3 scope/carry handle attached to the top, while the second is the one with the iron sights and rail (no scope included).

A G36KV as delivered to the Latvian Army. It is configured with a telescopic stock and a Picatinny sight rail

G36KV (formerly G36KE): export version of carbine variant, G36K with sights like G36V. G36C (C Compact, commonly mistaken for as Commando, which was trademarked by Colt Firearms for the CAR-15): This subcarbine model is a further development of the G36K. It has a shorter barrel than the G36K, and a four-prong open-type flash hider. The extremely short barrel forced designers to move the gas block closer to the muzzle end and reduce the length of the gas piston operating rod. The handguard and stock were also shortened and the fixed carry handle (with optics) was replaced with a carrying handle with an integrated MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail. The dual optical sight found on the standard G36 and G36K models was replaced with a set of rail-mounted detachable iron sights that consist of a semi-shrouded front post and a flip-up rear sight with two apertures of different diameter. The short handguard has four accessory attachment points, one of which could be used for a vertical grip.

Heckler & Koch G36


G36A2: This is an ordnance designation allocated to an upgraded variant of the G36 used by the German Army. The G36A2 is equipped with a quick-detachable Zeiss RSA reflex red dot sight[9] mounted on a Picatinny rail that replaces the original red dot sight of the dual combat sighting system. The G36A2 upgrade kit also consists of the shorter G36C stock (Designed for better handling with use of body armor and webbing gear), new handguard with three Picatinny rails and a handgrip with an integrated switch for operating an Oerlikon Contraves LLM01 laser light module.[10]

Sporting models

G36A2 with a Zeiss RSA reflex sight and an AG36 grenade launcher on display as part of Germany's IdZ modernization program

Based on the G36, Heckler & Koch also created the semi-automatic SL8 rifle and the straight-pull, bolt-action R8, which are offered to the civilian sport shooting markets. The SL8 is substantially different from the G36, it has a modified receiver and a thumbhole stock with a cheek rest, which is integral with the trigger group. The SL8 has a heavy profile, extended, 510mm (20.1in) barrel that does not have a flash hider or bayonet lug. The rifle uses a 10-round single-stack magazine and an extended top rail used to mount a wide variety of Picatinny-standard optics. Mounted to the rail are a set of iron sights with a hooded foresight and adjustable flip rear aperture. The SL8 can also mount the G36 carry handle and integrated sight assembly, after removing the mechanical iron sights. The SL8 has an unloaded weight of 4.3kg, overall length 9801030mm and a trigger rated at 20 N.

Country Organization name Model Quantity Date Reference

Australian Federal Police Operational Response Group Antwerp local police special squad BBT (Bijzondere Bijstandsteam) Brazilian Federal Police Victoria Police Department Croatian police special units Croatian Armed Forces contingents in international operations

G36C _ G36K G36C G36 _ _ G36C

_ _ _ ~100 100 200 _ _

_ _ _ 2004 2004 2007 _ _ _

[11] [12]





Canada Croatia

[15] [16] [17]


Finnish Border Guard Finnish Police



Standard service rifle of the Bundeswehr

G36A1 G36A2 G36K G36C _




Heckler & Koch G36

Special Forces Brigade of the Georgian Armed Forces Special Duties Unit of the Hong Kong Police Force Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group of the Indonesian Army Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy _ G36K/C/E/A G36KV G36C _ _ 2001 _ _



Hong Kong




_ G36C G36V G36KV G36C3


_ _ 2010 2006 2008

[29] [31]

Jordan Kosovo Latvia Lebanon

Jordanian special forces Kosovo Security Force Latvian Army Lebanese Armed Forces, Internal Security Forces Unclear (unit based in Tripoli; special forces/Khamis Brigade?), no official [29] [30] sale Tripoli Brigade (looted from Bab al-Azizia [29] arms store) Lithuanian Armed Forces. Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL) Maritime Counter-Terrorism Forces of the Royal Malaysian Navy Pasukan Gerakan Khas Counter-Revolutionary Warfare of the Royal Malaysia Police

_ 375 _ 250

[24] [25] [26] [27] [28]

Libyan Jamahiriya Libya (Anti-Gaddafi forces)






G36E 2011 G36KA4 G36KV1 G36KE G36C G36C _ _ _ 2010

[29] [33]





Various Mexican law enforcement agencies use the G36, namely the Mexican Federal Police and many state and city police forces. The Mexican army was originally set to license produce the G-36 back in 2002 but the Mexican government ultimately decided that they wanted a locally designed, more cost effective alternative to the G36 for the army. Thus the licensing project was scrapped before any technology or equipment could be transferred, and the FX-05 project was undertaken in its stead. Military of Montenegro Norwegian Navy Kystjegerkommandoen Armed Forces of the Philippines Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego special forces of the Polish Army

G36 Family


Montenegro Norway Philippines Poland

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _

_ _ _ _

[37] [26] [38] [39]

Heckler & Koch G36

Portuguese Marines Grupo de Operaes Especiais (GOE) of the Polcia de Segurana Pblica _ _ G36C G36E, G36KE _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


[26] [40]

Serbia Spain

Special Brigade of the Serbian Army Spanish Army Spanish Navy Unidad de Operaciones Especiales special group of Spanish Navy and Spanish Marines Ejrcito del Aire (Spanish Air Force)

[41] [26] [42] [43]

_ G36C G36K G36C G36K G36K G36C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

[44] [45] [46] [47] [48]


National Task Force Special Operation Group

United Kingdom

Metropolitan Police Service Civil Nuclear Constabulary of the Ministry of Defence Police Special Air Service of the British Army


United States

United States Capitol Police Baltimore City Police Department

[50] [51]


Lithuanian and Latvian soldiers

A Latvian soldier with the G36V/AG36 combination.

A Spanish NavySpanish naval boarding team member with a G36E

Spanish special forces (Unidad de Operaciones EspecialesUOE) operatives on exercise

[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as14-e. htm Woniak, Ryszard. Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej - tom 2 G-. Bellona. 2001. pp17-21. "Spanish Army" (http:/ / www. ejercito. mde. es/ ingles/ armamento/ fusil. html). Ejercito.mde.es. 2001-12-01. . Retrieved 2010-02-22. "Arms manufacturer investigates how Gadhafi got German rifles" (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,,15364132,00. html). Deutsche Welle. 04/09/2011. . [5] Visierung, optical sight (http:/ / www. rk-gammertingen. de/ Waffen/ G36detvisier. html) [6] Zeiss NSA 80 night sight module datasheet (http:/ / www. zeiss. com/ C1257088004A3F3C/ EmbedTitelIntern/ Nightvisionmodules/ $File/ Nightvision_modules. pdf) [7] http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=knkWAAAAEBAJ& dq=Manfred+ Guhring

Heckler & Koch G36


[8] US 5821445 (http:/ / v3. espacenet. com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US5821445), Guhring, Manfred, "Loading lever assembly for hand-operated firearms", issued 1996-10-13 [9] Zeiss RSA-S Reflex Sight (http:/ / www. zeiss. com/ C1257088004A21CA/ Contents-Frame/ 521382359A5D46B9C12570BC002C5996) [10] Heckler & Koch subsystem leader IdZ (http:/ / www. heckler-koch. de/ HKWebNews/ byItemID/ / / 19/ / 3/ 14) [11] 'G36C Firearms' sold to the Australian Federal Police by HK Systems Australia (https:/ / www. tenders. gov. au/ ?event=public. cn. view& cnUUID=5167C895-9D62-5238-52616E7F121E90AE) [12] http:/ / www. responseaustralia. net/ issues/ Issue08. pdf [13] Bijzonder Bijstandsteam (Dutch) (http:/ / www. arrestatieteam. nl/ eenhedenbuitenland/ bbt. php) [14] Folha de So Paulo (http:/ / www1. folha. uol. com. br/ folha/ galeria/ imagemdodia/ p_20070623_11. shtml). Retrieved June 23rd, 2007 [15] (http:/ / www. globaltvbc. com/ world/ Photos+ Greater+ Victoria+ Emergency+ Response+ Team/ 3563625/ story. html). Retrieved July 30th, 2011 [16] abec, Kreimir (November 13, 2006). "Heckler & Koch: Tvornica od koje Hrvatska vojska i policija kupuju puke i bacae" (http:/ / www. jutarnji. hr/ j2/ panorama/ clanak/ art-2006,11,13,heckler_koch,50218. jl) (in Croatian). Jutarnji list. . Retrieved 2008-11-27. [17] "MORH preuzeo jurine puke G36" (http:/ / www. nacional. hr/ clanak/ 32921/ morh-preuzeo-jurisne-puske-g36) (in Croatian). Nacional. March 29, 2007. . Retrieved 2009-12-20. [18] Jussi Orell (2009-10-08). "Kymmeni aselupia peruttu kouluampumisten jlkeen - Kotimaa - Turun Sanomat" (http:/ / www. ts. fi/ online/ kotimaa/ 79590. html). Ts.fi. . Retrieved 2010-02-22. [19] Gewehr G 36. (http:/ / www. streitkraeftebasis. de/ portal/ a/ streitkraeftebasis/ kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLNwyON3Y0cgRJmsV7x5sEW-pHghimppYQMbACQwOQKExtUEqqvq9Hfm6qvrd-gH5BbmhEuaOjIgDK8ZeR/ delta/ base64xml/ L2dJQSEvUUt3QS80SVVFLzZfMVNfM0E5Mg!!?yw_contentURL=/ 01DB040000000001/ W26A9DZN077INFODE/ content. jsp) Bundeswehr. [20] Weisswange, Jan-Phillip (2009). ASSIK. Der Arbeitsstab Schutzaufgaben der Bundespolizei. In: Strategie & Technik. Jg. 52, Nr. 5, Mai 2009. ISSN 1860-5311, S. 7374. [21] DW staff (August 17, 2008). "Georgians Illegally Armed With German Weapons, Report Says" (http:/ / www. dw-world. de/ dw/ article/ 0,,3571263,00. html?maca=en-kalenderblatt_topthema_englisch-347-rdf). DW-World.de. Deutsche Welle. . Retrieved January 23, 2010. [22] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=s0hOtZnha7g [23] "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (http:/ / www. hrvatski-vojnik. hr/ hrvatski-vojnik/ 1612007/ ind. asp) (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. . Retrieved 2010-06-12. [24] Shea, Dan (Spring 2009). "SOFEX 2008". Small Arms Defense Journal, p. 29. [25] http:/ / www. gazetaexpress. com/ web/ images/ pdf/ pdf021110. pdf [26] Assault rifles in a 5.56 mm evolution: the fielding of new designs and the upgrade of existing weapons will ensure that 5.56 mm remains the predominant assault rifle calibre. (http:/ / www. thefreelibrary. com/ Assault+ rifles+ in+ a+ 5. 56+ mm+ evolution:+ the+ fielding+ of+ new+ designs. . . -a0162920783) [27] http:/ / www. mod. gov. lv/ upload/ nbsfakti. anglu. gala. pdf [28] "Lebanese Official Gazette (issues 2008)". Lebanese Official Gazette. Lebanese Government. [29] http:/ / www. n-tv. de/ politik/ Rebellen-nutzen-G36-Sturmgewehre-article4180371. html [30] http:/ / www. n-tv. de/ politik/ Heckler-Koch-schickt-Ermittler-article4213886. html [31] http:/ / www. n-tv. de/ politik/ Regierung-sieht-keine-Fehler-article4191501. html [32] http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=1BtKiDvpf8M [33] http:/ / blogs. aljazeera. net/ sites/ default/ files/ imagecache/ BlogsMainImage/ 680_77. jpg [34] http:/ / kariuomene. kam. lt/ lt/ ginkluote_ir_karine_technika/ automatiniai_sautuvai/ automatinis_sautuvas_g-36. html [35] Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces" (http:/ / www. tactical-life. com/ online/ special-weapons/ malaysian-special-forces). Special Weapons. . Retrieved 2010-12-30. [36] "DOCUMENTAR MEDIANTE FECHAS, EL INICIO DEL PROYECTO DE LA SEDENA PARA FABRICAR EN MXICO EL FUSIL HK G-36V, LOS RAZONAMIENTOS Y JUSTIFICACIONES TCNICAS Y MILITARES PARA LLEVAR A CABO DICHO PROYECTO" (http:/ / www. sedena. gob. mx/ leytrans/ petic/ 2006/ diciembre/ 15122006a. html) (in Spanish). 2006-12-15. . Retrieved 2009-05-23. [37] Ministar odbrane Boro Vuini odrao godinju konferenciju za novinare (http:/ / www. gov. me/ odbrana/ index. php?akcija=vijesti& id=167468) [38] "Rice Not Guns - German Arms in the Philippines" (http:/ / www. bits. de/ public/ articles/ kw_nl/ kleinwaffen-nl04-08eng. htm). Bits.de. . Retrieved 2010-02-22. [39] Meter, Sebastian. "GROM Utility and Equipment" (http:/ / grom. mil. pl/ uzbrojenie_pliki/ UZBROJENIE. HTM) (in Polish). Gdansk House Publishing. . Retrieved 2009-08-02. [40] Curado, Miguel (June 2, 2006). "GOE Reage com Tiros para o ar" (http:/ / www. cmjornal. xl. pt/ noticia. aspx?channelid=00000091-0000-0000-0000-000000000091& contentid=00203711-3333-3333-3333-000000203711) (in Portuguese). Correio da Manh. . Retrieved 2009-08-29. [41] http:/ / www. kalibar. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=108& editionId=34& articleId=135 [42] http:/ / www. navy. mil/ view_single. asp?id=13987 [43] http:/ / www. defenseimagery. mil/ imagery. html#a=search& s=UOE& p=6& guid=409b51db6daaba97e14d93c514e09d3f67a73dee

Heckler & Koch G36

[44] "Fusil de Asaulto 5.56 mm" (http:/ / www. mde. es/ dgam/ principalesprogramasaym. htm#T6). Prinicipales Programas de Armamento. Direccin General de Armamento y Material. . [45] (http:/ / sydsvenskan-img. se/ archive/ 00352/ PPP_2844_352403a. jpg). Retrieved August 11th, 2011 [46] (http:/ / imageshack. us/ photo/ my-images/ 231/ swedsfej6. jpg/ ). Retrieved August 11th, 2011 [47] Gardham, Duncan (April 15, 2010). "Military-style guns for police to fight terrorists on the streets" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ terrorism-in-the-uk/ 7594871/ Military-style-guns-for-police-to-fight-terrorists-on-the-streets. html). London: telegraph.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-04-19. [48] http:/ / www. cnc. police. uk/ [49] Smith, Michael (2002-07-26). "Army trials of new SA-80 rifle 'were fudged'" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ uknews/ 1402602/ Army-trials-of-new-SA-80-rifle-were-fudged. html). The Daily Telegraph (London). . [50] "Plane Flies Over Capitol Airspace, Police Evacuate Buildings: Homeland Defense & Terror News at" (http:/ / officer. com/ article/ article. jsp?siteSection=8& id=23567). Officer.com. . Retrieved 2010-02-22. [51] "Baltimore Police Department" (http:/ / articleleader. info/ baltimore-police-department/ ). articleleader.info. . Retrieved 2010-07-17.


Bibliography (Polish) Woniak, Ryszard (2001). "p 17-21". Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej - tom 2 G-. Warsaw, Poland: Bellona. ISBN83-11-09310-5.

External links
Heckler & Koch - official site (http://www.heckler-koch.de/HKWebText/detailProd/1928/85/4/19)

Bundeswehr fact sheet (German)[[Category:Articles with German language external links (http://www. streitkraeftebasis.de/portal/a/streitkraeftebasis/kcxml/ 04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKL9443CbEESUGYpvqR6GLBlgixoJRUfW99X4_83FT9AP2C3NCIckdHRQCGZqmM delta/base64xml/L2dJQSEvUUt3QS80SVVFLzZfS181NTY!?yw_contentURL=/01DB040000000001/ W26A9DZN077INFODE/content.jsp)]] Bundeswehr manual ZDv 3/12 regarding small arms usage (German)[[Category:Articles with German language external links (http://stevespages.com/pdf/german_zdv312_schiessen_mit_handwaffen.pdf)]] 2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure (http://photos.imageevent.com/smglee/cltactical/HK Military LE Catalog.pdf) G36 in parts (http://www.bimbel.de/artikel/artikel-23.html) Modern Firearms (http://world.guns.ru/assault/as14-e.htm) REMTEK (http://www.remtek.com/arms/hk/mil/g36/g36.htm) Official HK instruction video part 1 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65TyTZlpPlk) Official HK instruction video part 2 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxd7JmFEj-U&feature=related) Official HK instruction video part 3 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nQq87YWP8s&feature=related) RUAG Ammotech factsheet on German Army DM11 5.56x45mm ammunition (http://www.ruag.com/ruag/ binary?media=151960&open=true)

Heckler & Koch HK417


Heckler & Koch HK417

Heckler & Koch HK417

HK417, 20" and 16" barrel versions, 2008 Shot Show Type Placeoforigin Battle rifle

Service history Usedby See Users Production history Designer Manufacturer Variants Heckler & Koch Heckler & Koch Assaulter (12" barrel - standard) Recce (16" barrel - standard and accurized) Sniper (20" barrel - accurized) Specifications Weight 3.87 kg [8.5 lbs] (12 inch barrel), 4.05 kg [8.9 lbs] (16 inch barrel), 4.23kg [9.3lbs] (20 inch barrel) 805 / 885 mm (12" barrel, stock collapsed/extended), 905 / 985 mm (16" barrel, stock collapsed/extended), 1005 / 1085 mm (20" barrel, stock collapsed/extended) 305 mm (12 in) standard 406 mm (16 in) standard 406 mm (16 in) accurized 508 mm (20 in) accurized 7.62x51mm NATO Gas-operated, rotating bolt 600 rounds/min



Cartridge Action Rateoffire

Muzzlevelocity 709 m/s (12 in) 750 m/s (16 in) 789 m/s (20 in) Feedsystem Sights 10 or 20 round detachable box magazine Optional 50 round drum magazine accessory diopter/rotary or optics

Heckler & Koch HK417


The HK417 is a battle rifle designed and manufactured in Germany by Heckler & Koch. It is a gas-operated, selective fire rifle with a rotating bolt and is essentially an enlarged HK416. Chambered for the 7.62x51mm NATO round, it is intended for use as a designated marksman rifle, and in other roles where the greater penetrative power and range of the 7.62mm round are required. It has been adopted for service by a number of armed forces, special forces, and police organizations.

Design Details
The HK417 is similar in internal design to the HK416, but the receiver and working parts are enlarged to suit the larger 7.62mm round. The bolt is a 7-lug rotating type, which sits in a bolt carrier and operates in a forged alloy receiver resembling those of the Stoner-designed AR-10, AR-15 and M16 series weapons. Like the HK416, the HK417 is a gas-operated, with a short-stroke piston design similar to those found in the HK416, G36 and ArmaLite AR-18. The short-stroke piston is claimed to be more reliable than the original direct impingement operation of the AR-10 and AR-15 designs because, unlike these weapons, it does not vent propellant gases directly into the receiver, which deposits carbon fouling onto the bolt mechanism and is thought to induce malfunctions.[1] The early prototype HK417 used 20-round magazines from the H&K G3 rifle family, which did not feature a bolt hold-open device. Later prototypes, however, switched to a polymer magazine with bolt hold-open. The magazine resembles an enlarged version of the G36 series transparent magazine, except without the pins for holding more than one magazine together. In addition, a well proven 50-round, low profile drum magazine developed by HK for the HK21E machine gun can be fitted to the HK417 for use in support and sustained fire applications.

The HK417 is designed more for use as a "designated marksman" rifle than an assault rifle, with its increased cost, accuracy, penetrative power and effective range weighed against decreased rate of fire and magazine capacity (although fully automatic fire is selectable). The HK417 is currently only available to government and military organizations.

The HK417 is currently available with three different barrel lengths (all in 7.62x51mm NATO): HK417 12" 'Assaulter' Model - 12" standard barrel HK417 16" 'Recce' or 'Recon' Model - 16" standard and accurized barrels HK417 20" 'Sniper' Model - 20" accurized barrel Accurized barrels provide 1 MOA accuracy (with match grade ammunition). The barrels are able to be changed in under two minutes with simple tools. All HK417 barrels are cold hammer forged and chrome-lined and utilize a conventional lands and grooves bore profile with a 279.4mm (1 in 11 in) twist rate. They are designed to function reliably with bullet weights ranging from less than 9.3 to 11.34 g (147 to 175 grains) and are threaded for flash hiders, muzzle compensators, and for sound suppressor attachment.[2]

Related development
The HK416 is a smaller version of the HK417 chambered for the 5.56x45mm NATO round. The HK416 is designed for military and law enforcement use. A civilian variant of the HK416 was announced in 2007 known as the MR556. Civilian variants of the HK416 and HK417 were announced in 2007, named MR223 and MR308.[3] Both are semi-automatic rifles with several 'sporterized' features. At the 2009 SHOT Show, these two firearms were introduced to the American civilian market renamed respectively MR556 and MR762.[4]

Heckler & Koch HK417


Albania: The RENEA special forces have recently purchased a number of HK417s, in use as designated marksman with Schmidt & Bender rifle scope.[5] Australia: 16-inch variant with 6x ACOG; acquired by the ADF[6] as an interim marksman solution for use in Afghanistan, with permanent fielding expected in future.[7] Ireland: In use with Army Ranger Wing snipers.[8] Malaysia: In used by the Pasukan Khas Laut sniper teams of the Royal Malaysian Navy[9] Netherlands: The Korps Commandotroepen has the HK417 in limited use by the observers or spotters of their sniper teams.[10] [11] Norway: The Norwegian Army has recently bought a number of the HK417[12] and will mainly use it as a marksman rifle.[13] Poland: Used by Policja.[14] Portugal: Used by UPF and Army Comandos [15] [16] Serbia: Used by Special Brigade.[17] United Kingdom: Reportedly used by the Special Air Service regiment of the British Army.[18]

[1] "Newer carbines outperform M4 in dust test" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ army_carbine_dusttest_071217/ ). Army Times. 2007-12-17. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [2] "2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure" (http:/ / photos. imageevent. com/ smglee/ cltactical/ HK Military LE Catalog. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [3] "The MR223 German Civilian Version of the HK416" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080731101617/ http:/ / www. hkpro. com/ mr223. htm). HK PRO. Archived from HK the original (http:/ / www. hkpro. com/ mr223. htm) on July 31, 2008. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [4] HK MR-556 and MR-762 rifles for the American market (http:/ / www. hkpro. com/ documents/ HK-MR-RIFLES-011409. pdf) [5] "hk in albania" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=pomD16sAV5s). YouTube. 2007-12-26. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [6] "Contract Notice View - CN352591" (https:/ / www. tenders. gov. au/ ?event=public. cn. view& CNUUID=E1B9BB57-E979-C225-B2FB849A9AE9904A). AusTender. Australian Government. December 14, 2010. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [7] Juchniewicz, Nathan (July 21, 2011). "New weapon to go the distance" (http:/ / digital. realviewtechnologies. com/ ?xml=defencenews_army. xml& iid=50400). Army News (Australia). . Retrieved 4 August 2011. [8] Tactical Weapons, May 2010 Issue. Guns of the Elite: Multi-Mission Warriors, page 92. [9] Abas, Marhalim (2010-04-23). "DSA 2010 Part III" (http:/ / www. malaysiandefence. com/ ?m=20100423). Malaysian Defence. . Retrieved 2011-08-01. [10] "SF Operator is a special profession" (http:/ / www. dutchdefencepress. com/ ?p=70) (in Dutch). Dutch Defence Press. June 6, 2009. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [11] "KCT sniper teams are using the Heckler & Koch 417" (http:/ / www. dutchdefencepress. com/ ?p=4564) (in Dutch). Dutch Defence Press. 20 Aril 2011. . Retrieved 2011-06-13. [12] Offisersbladet nr. 3, May 2007: Heckler & Koch 416: Vrt nye hndvpen [13] Kapten Trond Sets. "Sniper Course" (http:/ / www. mil. no/ hv/ start/ article. jhtml?articleID=140199) (in Norwegian). Defense Net. Norwegian Defense. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [14] "Police Headquarters Official Gazette No. 13" (http:/ / bip. kgp. policja. gov. pl/ download. php?s=18& id=18217) (in Polish) (pdf). September 25, 2009. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [15] http:/ / 3. bp. blogspot. com/ -xuY7nLB5H9M/ ThTkriYWnrI/ AAAAAAAARL0/ TsJhMH-RO0g/ s1600/ EX_DRA%257E1. JPG} [16] http:/ / www. operacional. pt/ hk-417-calibre-762x51mm-nato/ [17] "Police Headquarters Official Gazette No. 13" (http:/ / bip. kgp. policja. gov. pl/ download. php?s=18& id=18217) (in Polish) (pdf). September 25, 2009. . Retrieved 2011-01-30. [18] Harding, Thomas (June 26, 2009). "SAS parachuted in to Baghdad" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ newstopics/ onthefrontline/ 5651453/ SAS-parachuted-in-to-Baghdad. html). The Telegraph. . Retrieved 2011-01-30.

Heckler & Koch HK417


External links
2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure (http://photos.imageevent.com/smglee/cltactical/HK Military LE Catalog.pdf) Official page (http://www.heckler-koch.de/HKWebText/detailProd/1928/345/4/19) HKPRO page on HK417 (http://www.hkpro.com/hk417.htm) Heckler & Koch HK417 assault rifle at the Modern Firearms & Ammunition site (http://world.guns.ru/assault/ as89-e.htm)

IMI Tavor TAR-21


IMI Tavor TAR-21


TAR-21 Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle


Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 2001present See Users Operation Defensive Shield, Operation Summer Rains, Second Lebanon War, Operation Hot Winter, Gaza War, Colombian armed conflict, South Ossetia War, Cambodian-Thai stand-off Production history Designer Designed Manufacturer Variants Israel Military Industries (IMI) 19912001 Israel Weapon Industries (IWI) See Variants Specifications Weight 3.27kg (7.21lb) (TAR-21) [1] 3.18kg (7.0lb) (CTAR-21) 3.67kg (8.1lb) (STAR-21) [1] 2.95kg (6.5lb) (MTAR-21) 3.19kg (7.0lb) (TC-21) 720mm (28.3in) (TAR-21, STAR-21) [1] 640mm (25.2in) (CTAR-21) [1] 590mm (23.2in) (MTAR-21) 670mm (26.4in) (TC-21) 460mm (18.1in) (TAR-21, STAR-21) [1] 380mm (15.0in) (CTAR-21) [1] 330mm (13.0in) (MTAR-21) 410mm (16.1in) (TC-21)
[1] [1] [1]





5.56x45mm NATO [1] 9x19mm Para (Optional on MTAR-21) 5.56x30mm MINSAS (Optional on Zittara)[2] Gas-operated, rotating bolt 750-900 rounds/min
[1] [1]

Action Rateoffire

IMI Tavor TAR-21

910m/s (2986ft/s) (TAR-21, STAR-21) 890m/s (2919.9ft/s) (CTAR-21) 870m/s (2854.3ft/s) (MTAR-21) 885m/s (2903.5ft/s) (TC-21) 550m (estimated as the M16 rifle by the ammo and the barrel) Various STANAG magazines ITL MARS with integrated laser and IR pointer, Trijicon ACOG (STAR-21), EOTech holographic sight, others available


Effectiverange Feedsystem Sights

The TAR-21 (or simply Tavor) is an Israeli bullpup assault rifle chambered for 5.56x45mm NATO ammunition with a selective fire system, selecting between semi-automatic mode, burst mode, and full automatic fire mode. It is named after Mount Tavor, while "TAR-21" stands for "Tavor Assault Rifle - 21st Century". It is the standard issued weapon of the Givati Brigade (since August 2006) and Golani Brigade (since August 2008). The MTAR-21 (Micro Tavor) was recently selected as the future assault rifle of the Israeli Defense Forces, and within the next few years it will become the standard Israeli infantry weapon. The Nahal Brigade began receiving it in March 2011.

The TAR-21 uses a bullpup design, as seen with the French FAMAS, the British SA80, Austrian Steyr AUG, and the Chinese Norinco QBZ-95. Bullpup rifles are configured in a layout in which the bolt carrier group is placed behind the pistol grip; this shortens the overall length but does not sacrifice barrel length. The TAR-21 provides carbine length, but rifle muzzle velocity. The bullpup design is also used to minimize the silhouette of soldiers and to maximize effectiveness in turning corners in urban warfare. The TAR-21 has ejection ports on both sides of the rifle so it can easily be reconfigured for right or left-handed shooters. However, this process requires partial disassembly, so it can not be quickly reconfigured while the rifle is in use. The TAR-21 design was created by Zalmen Shebs, with the express purpose of creating a weapon more suited to urban combat than the M16/M4 carbine. It is based on advanced ergonomics and composite materials in order to produce a more comfortable and reliable rifle. The TAR-21 is waterproof and lightweight. The weapon has a built in laser and MARS red dot sight; one of the main advantages of having a built in system is that the weapon does not have to be zeroed after each use, but the TAR-21 can also be mounted with an array of different scopes such as EOTech holographic weapon sights, night vision systems and other electronic devices. The TAR-21 accepts standard STANAG magazines. It can also be mounted with the M203 grenade launcher. Its ambidextrous fire mode selector above the pistol grip has a semi-automatic mode, burst mode, and a fully automatic mode.

The Tavor assault rifle comes in different variations:[3] TAR-21 - standard version intended for multirole infantry. GTAR-21 - standard version with notched barrel, to accept an M203 40mm under-barrel grenade launcher. CTAR-21 - compact short barrel version intended for commandos and special forces. STAR-21 - designated marksman version with folding under-barrel bipod and Trijicon ACOG 4x magnification sight. MTAR-21 - see below. Zittara - Indian locally produced version of the MTAR-21 Micro Tavor modified to use the local 5.56x30mm MINSAS cartridge.

IMI Tavor TAR-21


Micro Tavor
The Micro Tavor (MTAR-21), also designated X-95 and sometimes called Tavor-2, is a stand-alone extremely compact weapon specifically designed for special forces units, as well as military personnel who are normally not issued long assault rifles. With the use of a relatively simple conversion kit, the MTAR-21 can be converted from a 5.56mm assault rifle to a Micro-Tavor with a Kimber Mepro reflex sight at IDF 9mm submachine gun loaded with 20, 25, and 32-round exhibition 2011. magazines. A suppressor can also be added to the weapon, it is part of the 9mm conversion kit. An integrated grenade launcher is currently being developed for the Micro Tavor. In November 2009, the Micro Tavor was selected as the future standard infantry weapon of the IDF.[4]

The semi-automatic Tavor Carbine (TC-21) has been conceived for civilian customers, and as a police patrol carbine for those countries, or law enforcement agencies, where full-automatic firearms are issued only to SWAT-like units. A semi-automatic Tavor carbine was first seen at the 2002 SHOT Show, when agreements were announced between IMI and the Barrett Firearms Company to manufacture the Tavor in both its military and civilian variants in the United States.[5] This was probably done in order to allow Israel to procure the Tavor using United States military aid money, since, according to American military assistance agreements, said funds must be spent to purchase US-manufactured equipments. The agreement between IMI and Barrett was never finalized, and the semi-automatic Tavor carbine as shown at the 2002 SHOT Show was never manufactured, although that specific design has recently resurfaced. The current Tavor Carbine, made in Israel by IWI, has been designed with slightly shortened barrel, otherwise being identical to the standard TAR-21 assault rifle. As of 2008, it is available for civilian customers to purchase in Canada.[6] The Canadian civilian version comes standard with the Mepro reflex sight and a slightly longer barrel to meet the Canadian requirement for non-restricted semi-automatic centerfire rifles to have a barrel length of at least 470 millimetres. There was a report by Charles Daly President Micheal Kassnar that plans were being made to import, or at least partially build, the Tavor in the United States, which was released through the Charles Daly forums.[7] However, since that time Charles Daly has gone out of business and the prospect of the sale of a semi-automatic version of the Tavor for the American civilian market is currently in question.

Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan purchased a number of TAR-21 for the special operations forces of the Azerbaijani Army in August 2008.[8] Brazil: Taurus, the local firearms manufacturer, produces the Tavor rifles under license for the national market and offers this weapon to the Brazilian Army.[9]

IMI Tavor TAR-21 Operators

IMI Tavor TAR-21 Colombia: The Colombian Army operates the TAR-21 for their special forces, in the army, marines and in the colombian national police.[10] Ethiopia: Ethiopian Prime Minister bodyguards were seen with the TAR-21.[11] [12] Georgia: Since 2001, the Georgian Army has entered into a $65 million supply agreement for approximately 7,000 TAR-21 rifles (including different variants and grenade launchers). Uses all TAR-21 variants.[13] The rifle was first revealed to the public during a military parade in 2005 with a Special Forces Battalion named Gulua Group carrying it. Further arrangements like a Tar-21 production facility in Georgia was dropped from Israeli side. Guatemala: Guatemala's police force or PNC (Policia Nacional Civil) operates the TAR-21 for routine tasks, and some special operations.[14] India: In late 2002, India signed an Rs. 880 million (about $17.7 million) deal with Israel Military Industries for 3,070 Tavor assault rifles to be issued to India's special forces personnel,[15] where its ergonomics, reliability in heat and sand, and fast-point/fast-shoot design might give them an edge at Tavor used by Para commandos of the Indian close-quarters and employment from inside vehicles. By 2005, IMI Army had supplied 350400 Tavors to India's northern Special Frontier Force (SFF). These were subsequently declared to be "operationally unsatisfactory". The required changes have since been made, and tests in Israel during 2006 went well, clearing the contracted consignment for delivery. The Tavor has now entered operational service even as India gears up for a larger competition that could feature a 9mm MTAR-21 version.[16] Known as the Zittara in Indian service,[17] the new Tavors have a modified single-piece stock and new sights, as well as Turkish-made MKEK T-40 40mm under-barrel grenade launchers.[16] 5,500 have been recently inducted and more rifles are being ordered.[18] The Indian Navy's elite marine commandos are also preparing to adopt the assault rifles. A consignment of over 500 TAR-21 Tavor assault rifles and another 30 Galil sniper rifles worth over Rs.15 crore ($3.3 million) and Rs.2 crore respectively was delivered to the MARCOS (marine commandos) in December 2010.[19] .CRPF has ordered 12000 micro tavor rifles also known as X- 95 and it received the first shipment of the rifles in early 2011.


Guatemalan Navy special forces with marksman variant.

Philippines Small quantities in use by special units of the Philippine Marines.[20] Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) also has 120 units of CTAR,[21] while Philippine National Police - Special Boat Unit was also issued with Tavors.[22] Portugal: Small quantities of the TAR-21 are in use by field and intervention units of the Polcia Judiciria, like hostage negotiation teams and investigators who usually work alongside other dedicated law enforcement intervention unitsthe Special Operations Group (GOE) and the National Republican Guard's Special Operations Company (COE); these weapons were initially intended to equip a new unit under the command of the Polcia Judiciria resembling the GOE. The TAR-21 also participated in the competition for the new service rifle for the three branches of the Portuguese Armed Forces and the Police Special Operations Group (GOE)a bid that also included the local production of the TAR-21 in Portugal. However, the TAR-21 was excluded from the shortlist. The competition has meanwhile been annulled, after the other contenders and both political and defense critics accused the competition of favoring the Heckler & Koch G36.[23] [24] Thailand: The Royal Thai Army purchased 15,000 TAR-21 rifles. The second batch of 15,037 was ordered on September 9, 2008.[25] An additional 13,868 Tavor assault rifles for US$27.77 million (964.99 million baht)

IMI Tavor TAR-21 are to be purchased through three payments.[26] However, the source from Royal Thai Army stated that they have approved the third batch of 13,868 Tavor assault rifles on 15 September 2009 and the fourth batch of 13,868 Tavor assault rifles on 22 September 2009 with the accumlated number of 58,206 Tavor TAR-21 rifles. The reason for the continuing purchases of IMI Tavor TAR-21 rifles is due to the fact that Royal Thai Army want to retire those 106,205 M16A1 rifles in the ordinances.[27] Ukraine: Yuriy Lutsenko, head of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, announced on October 1, 2008 that Israel Weapon Industries and the Ukrainian research and production company RPC Fort will jointly manufacture the Tavor TAR-21 assault rifle, that will enter service with special Ukrainian military and police special units.[28]


After initial testing within Israel Defense Forces' infantry training units, the TAR-21 was distributed to members of the training company of the Tzabar Battalion from the Givati Brigade who were drafted in August 2001. They received their rifles in November 2001 during basic training. Initial results have been favorable - the TAR-21 was found to be significantly more accurate and reliable (as well as more comfortable) than the M4 carbine during extensive field testing - but the battle proven and widely issued M16 rifle and its variants will remain in service for some time to come; their unit purchase price is about one third that of the TAR-21. Originally there were some problems with fine sand getting into the Tavor's chamber, but reportedly, numerous adjustments were made and the problem has been corrected. Tavor CTAR-21 rifles saw combat service in Operation Cast Lead, used by Givati Brigade and Golani Brigade, and the soldiers reported the Tavor rifles functioned flawlessly.[30]
A model TAR-21 rifle hung next to the hip of

The rifle is in use by Givati Brigade and Golani Brigade, as well as by an IDF soldier. some special forces units of the Israel Defense Forces. The Nahal Brigade is currently in the process of switching to the Tavor, as part of a long term process in the IDF that seeks to equip all ground forces with the weapon.[31] Members of the unisex Caracal Battalion started receiving the rifle during the 2009 draft. It was the first time that female soldiers in the IDF were issued the Tavor. The switch was not expected to be too complicated, because the soldiers went through the basic and advanced training phases in the Givati Brigade training base, where they are already experienced with the use of the Tavor. According to Commander of the 512th Brigade, Colonel Amir Avivi, it was thought at first to introduce the Tavor rifle as soon as the advanced training phase of the March 2009 draft. However, it was eventually decided that the right thing to do will be to give a soldier one weapon from his conscription until his discharge. Therefore it was decided to begin the distribution from the August draft.[32] In November 2009, it was announced that the Micro Tavor (MTAR-21), as opposed to the TAR-21, would become the standard infantry weapon of the IDF by 2011, with the addition of an integrated grenade-launcher.[4]

IMI Tavor TAR-21


[1] Modern Firearms - Tavor TAR-21 assault rifle (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as30-e. htm). World.guns.ru. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [2] http:/ / www. aviationweek. com/ aw/ blogs/ defense/ index. jsp?plckController=Blog& plckScript=blogScript& plckElementId=blogDest& plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost& plckPostId=Blog:27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post:4621a197-0ebf-4271-bf60-41e647ef975f [3] "Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): TAVOR TAR-21 5.56 mm" (http:/ / www. israel-weapon. com/ default. asp?catid={BE33B6E6-080B-45B8-AD85-C4E1E40D0422}). Israel-weapon.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-31. [4] ( "http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ News_Channels/ bamahana/ 09/ 043/ 01. htm). Dover.idf.il. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [5] http:/ / www. gunblasTCom/ SHOT_2002_2. htm SHOT Show 2002 Day 2 report [6] "IWI Tavor civilian semi-automatic carbine" (http:/ / www. canadaammo. com/ product. php?productid=12& cat=0& page=1). Canadaammo.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-31. [7] The Charles Daly Forums (http:/ / www. charlesdalyforum. com/ showthread. php?t=2169). Charlesdalyforum.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [8] Shahin Abbasov (2009-08-16). "Azerbaijan Mum about Israeli Spy Plane, Satellite Projects" (http:/ / www. eurasianet. org/ departments/ insightb/ articles/ eav081709a. shtml). EurasiaNet.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-26. [9] A Taurus e o Tavor (http:/ / www. defesabrasil. com/ laad2009/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=71:a-taurus-e-o-tavor& catid=39:noticias& Itemid=78). Defesabrasil.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [10] IMI Tavor (http:/ / unffmm. com/ Galerias_AR/ Galerias/ v/ GN/ album_011/ album/ ). Unffmm.com. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [11] (http:/ / ethiopiaforums. com/ what-kind-of-gun-meles-zenawi-bodyguards-carry) [12] (http:/ / www. ethiomedia. com/ absolute/ 3247. html) [13] "Armament of the Georgian Army" (http:/ / geoarmy. ge. ge/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=9& Itemid=9& lang=en). Georgian Army. . Retrieved 2010-08-24. [14] "Agentes todava no saben utilizar fusiles comprados por el Gobierno" (http:/ / www. elperiodico. com. gt/ es/ 20071113/ actualidad/ 45643/ ). Elperiodico.com.gt. . Retrieved 2010-08-31. [15] "One FIR, Govt blacklists 7 firms, hits artillery upgrade" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ one-fir-govt-blacklists-7-firms-hits-artillery-upgrade/ 472107/ 2). The Indian Express. 2009-06-05. p. 2. . Retrieved 2009-06-09. [16] Tavor-21 Rifle Headed Into Service With Indian Special Forces (http:/ / www. defenseindustrydaily. com/ tavor21-rifle-headed-into-service-with-indian-special-forces-03080/ ). Defenseindustrydaily.com (2007-02-28). Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [17] Ordnance Factory Board (http:/ / ofbindia. gov. in/ products/ data/ weapons/ wsc/ 25. htm). Ofbindia.gov.in. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [18] The Times Of India. http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ india/ To-give-irregulars-punch-forces-go-shopping-for-hi-tech-weapons/ articleshow/ 7270446. cms. [19] http:/ / www. bharat-rakshak. com/ NEWS/ newsrf. php?newsid=14166 [20] Ben-David, Alon (September 23, 2009). "In the Line of Fire: Infantry Weapons". Jane's Defence Weekly (ISSN: 02653818). [21] Philstar Online PDEA acquires 120 new assault rifles (http:/ / www. philstar. com/ Article. aspx?articleId=639184& publicationSubCategoryId=200) [22] Timawa.net Tavor @ PNP Special Boat Unit (http:/ / www. timawa. net/ forum/ index. php?topic=23228. 0) [23] Substituio da G-3: Governo recorreu para o Supremo (http:/ / diariodigital. sapo. pt/ news. asp?section_id=12& id_news=246129), Dirio Digital (Portuguese) [24] Militares vo continuar a utilizar as velhas 'G3' (http:/ / dn. sapo. pt/ 2007/ 04/ 10/ nacional/ militares_continuar_a_utilizar_velha. html), Dirio de Notcias (Portuguese) [25] DefenseNews.com (http:/ / www. defensenews. com/ story. php?i=3722292& c=ASI& s=LAN) Thailand Plans $191.3M Arms Purchase [26] Cabinet nod for Israeli rifles (http:/ / www. bangkokposTCom/ breakingnews/ 154451/ cabinet-nod-for-buying-israeli-rifles) [27] "" (http:/ / ninetenthai. igetweb. com/ index. php?mo=3& art=485660). . . Retrieved 5 May 2011. [28] Tavory dla Ukrainy (http:/ / www. altair. com. pl/ start-1862). Altair. Retrieved on 2010-08-31. [29] http:/ / videonews. com. ua/ videos/ comments/ 655> [30] :( http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ News_Channels/ bamahana/ 09/ 13/ 1304. htm), IDF Spokesperson, in Hebrew (In English the title reads: "Due to its performance during the operation: there are no further improvements required in the Tavor") [31] IDF website - "Nahal Brigade Receives New Israeli Made Tavor" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ NR/ exeres/ E11447EB-C780-4F86-9EB6-A3DBB553C3C4. htm) [32] Female soldiers will be using the Tavor for the first time - IDF Spokesperson Website (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ News/ today/ 09/ 07/ 2601. htm) July 26, 2009

IMI Tavor TAR-21


External links
Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): TAVOR TAR-21 5.56 mm (http://www.israel-weapon.com/default. asp?catid={BE33B6E6-080B-45B8-AD85-C4E1E40D0422}) Israel Weapon Industries (I.W.I.): Micro TAVOR MTAR-21 5.56 mm / 9 X 19 mm (http://www.israel-weapon. com/default.asp?catid={184BBB3C-DBA5-445D-A83A-C73E6A6D53B4}) Tavor (http://www.israeli-weapons.com/weapons/small_arms/tavor/Tavor.html) Israeli Weapons: The TAR-21 Tavor assault rifle Tavor-2 (http://www.defense-update.com/news/62302tavor2.htm) : Tavor-2 Advanced Assault rifle and Micro-Tavor (http://www.defense-update.com/products/m/micro-tavor.htm) Modern Firearms (http://world.guns.ru/assault/as30-e.htm) Arms World (http://www.enemyforces.com/firearms/tavor.htm) Israel's Infantry 2000 program (http://www.defense-update.com/products/i/inf-200.htm) Multi-Purpose munitions for the Tavor (http://www.defense-update.com/products/r/refaim.htm) Tavor Program Update (http://www.defense-update.com/directory/tavor.htm) TAR-21 Indian made version (Zittara) manufactured by IOF (http://ofbindia.gov.in/products/data/weapons/ wsc/25.htm)

Israel Defense Forces


Israel Defense Forces

Military of Israel

Israel Defense Forces flag and logo Founded Service branches 1948 Israeli Army Israeli Air Force Israeli Navy Leadership Defense Minister Rav Aluf (ret.) Ehud Barak

Chief of General Staff Rav Aluf Benny Gantz Manpower Militaryage Conscription Available for military service Fit for military service Reaching military age annually Active personnel Reserve personnel 18 18 1,499,186males, age1749 (2000 est.), 1,462,063females, age1749 (2000 est.) 1,226,903males, age1749 (2000 est.), 1,192,319females, age1749 (2000 est.) 50,348 males (2000 est.), 47,996females (2000 est.) 187,000 565,000
[1] [1]

(ranked 34th)

Expenditures Budget Percent of GDP $16 billion (Israeli defence budget 2011) 6.9% (2011)
[3] [2]


Israel Defense Forces

Domestic suppliers Israel Aerospace Industries Israel Military Industries Israel Weapon Industries Elbit Systems Elisra Elta Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Soltam Systems Plasan Automotive Industries Hatehof Israel Shipyards SimiGon BUL Transmark Aeronautics Defense Systems Israel Ordnance Corps Meprolight
[4] United States [5] Germany [6] United Kingdom [7] France [8] Italy [9] South Korea [7] Spain [9] Czech Republic [7] Slovakia [7] Canada [7] Slovenia [7] Bosnia and Herzegovina [7] Austria [7] Australia [7] Romania [7] Hungary [7] Serbia [7] India [7] Colombia [7] Brazil

Foreign suppliers

Related articles History War of Independence (19481949) Retribution operations (1950s1960s) Sinai War (1956) War over Water (19641967) Six-Day War (1967) War of Attrition (19671970) Yom Kippur War (1973) Litani (1978) First Lebanon War (1982) South Lebanon conflict (19822000) First Intifada (19871993) Second Intifada (20002005) Second Lebanon War (2006) Gaza War (20082009) Other

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: Tzva Hahagana LeYisra'el, lit. "Defensive Army for Israel"; Arabic: ) , commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal ()", are the

Israel Defense Forces military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel; Rav Aluf Benny Gantz has served as Chief of Staff since 2011. An order of Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on May 26, 1948, officially set up the Israel Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah, incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi. The IDF served as Israel's armed forces in all the country's major military operationsincluding the 1948 War of Independence, 19511956 Retribution operations, 1956 Sinai War, 19641967 War over Water, 1967 Six-Day War, 19671970 War of Attrition, 1973 Yom Kippur War, 1976 Operation Entebbe, 1978 Operation Litani, 1982 Lebanon War, 19822000 South Lebanon conflict, 19871993 First Intifada, 20002005 Second Intifada, 2002 Operation Defensive Shield, 2006 Lebanon War, 20082009 Gaza War and others. While originally the IDF operated on three frontsagainst Lebanon and Syria in the north, Jordan and Iraq in the east, and Egypt in the southafter the 1979 EgyptianIsraeli Peace Treaty, it has concentrated its activities in southern Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories, including the First and the Second Intifada. The Israel Defense Forces differs from most armed forces in the world in many ways. Differences include the conscription of women and its structure, which emphasizes close relations between the army, navy and air force. Since its founding, the IDF has been specifically designed to match Israel's unique security situation. The IDF is one of Israeli society's most prominent institutions, influencing the country's economy, culture and political scene. In 1965, the Israel Defense Forces was awarded the Israel Prize for its contribution to education.[10] The IDF uses several technologies developed in Israel, many of them made specifically to match the IDF's needs, such as the Merkava main battle tank, high tech weapons systems, the Iron Dome, Trophy countermeasure, and the Galil and Tavor assault rifles. The Uzi submachine gun was invented in Israel and used by the IDF until December 2003, ending a service that began in 1954. Following 1967, the IDF has had close military relations with the United States,[11] including development cooperation, such as on the F-15I jet, THEL laser defense system, and the Arrow missile defense system.


The IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv, starting with the Second Aliyah (1904 to 1914). The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, and was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War I the forerunners of the Haganah/IDF were the Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion, both of which were part of the British Army. After the Arab riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv's leadership saw the need to create a nationwide underground defense organization, and the Haganah was founded in June of the same year. The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 19361939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main unitsthe Field Corps, Guard Corps and the Palmach. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade.

The Ink Flag, a symbol of the IDF's victory in the 1948 ArabIsraeli War

Israel Defense Forces


The IDF was founded following the establishment of the State of Israel, after Defense Minister and Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion issued an order on May 26, 1948. The order called for the establishment of the Israel Defense Forces, and the abolishment of all other Jewish armed forces. Although Ben-Gurion had no legal authority to issue such an order, the order was made legal by the cabinet on May 31.[12]
Israel Independence Day military parade in 1956

The two other Jewish underground organizations, Irgun and Lehi, agreed to join the IDF if they would be able to form independent units and agreed not to make independent arms purchases. This was the background for the dispute which led to the Altalena Affair, when following a confrontation regarding the weapons it brought resulted in a battle between Irgun members and the newly created IDF. It ended when the ship was shelled. Following the affair, all independent Irgun and Lehi units were either disbanded or merged into the IDF. The Palmach, a strong lobby within the Haganah, also joined the IDF with provisions, and Ben Gurion responded by disbanding its staff in 1949, after which many senior Palmach officers retired, notably its first commander, Yitzhak Sadeh. The new army organized itself during the 1948 ArabIsraeli War when neighbouring Arab states fought Israel. Twelve infantry and armored brigades formed: Golani, Carmeli, Alexandroni, Kiryati, Givati, Etzioni, the 7th and 8th armored brigades, Oded, Harel, Yiftach and Negev.[13] After the war, some of the brigades were converted to reserve units, and others were disbanded. Directorates and corps were created from corps and services in the Haganah, and this basic structure in the IDF still exists today.
Israeli special forces preparing for an operation

Immediately after the 1948 war, the Israel Defense Forces shifted to low intensity conflict against Arab Palestinian guerrillas. In the 1956 Suez Crisis, the IDF's first test of strength after 1949, the new army proved itself by capturing the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, which was later returned. In the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel conquered the Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and Golan Heights from the surrounding Arab states, changing the balance of power in the region as well as the role of the IDF. In the following years leading up to the Yom Kippur War, the IDF fought a war of attrition against Egypt in the Sinai and a border war against the PLO in Jordan, culminating in the Battle of Karameh.

Israeli "Netzah Yehuda" recon company in full combat gear prepare for a night raid in the West Bank

The surprise of the Yom Kippur War and its aftermath completely changed the IDF's procedures and approach to warfare. Organizational changes were made and more time was dedicated to training for conventional warfare. However, in the following years the army's role slowly shifted again to low-intensity conflict, urban warfare and counter-terrorism. It was involved in the Lebanese Civil War, initiating Operation Litani and later the 1982 Lebanon War, where the IDF ousted Palestinian guerilla organizations from Lebanon. Palestinian militancy has been the main focus of the IDF ever since, especially during the First and Second Intifadas, Operation Defensive Shield and the Gaza War, causing the IDF to change many of its values and publish

Israel Defense Forces the IDF Spirit. The Shia organization Hezbollah has also been a growing threat, against which the IDF fought an asymmetric conflict since 1982 until 2000, as well as a full-scale war in 2006.


The Israeli cabinet ratified the name "Israel Defense Forces" (Hebrew: ) , Tzva HaHagana LeYisra'el, literally "army for the defense of Israel," on May 26, 1948. The other main contender was Tzva Yisra'el (Hebrew: ) . The name was chosen because it conveyed the idea that the army's role was defense, and because it incorporated the name Haganah, upon which the new army was based.[14] Among the primary opponents of the name were Minister Haim-Moshe Shapira and the Hatzohar party, both in favor of Tzva Yisra'el.[14]

All branches of the IDF answer to a single General Staff. The Chief of the General Staff is the only serving officer having the rank of Lieutenant General (Rav Aluf). He reports directly to the Defense Minister and indirectly to the Prime Minister of Israel and the cabinet. Chiefs of Staff are formally appointed by the cabinet, based on the Defense Minister's recommendation, for three years, but the government can vote to extend their service to four (and in rare occasions even five) years. The current chief of staff is Benny Gantz. He replaced Gabi Ashkenazi in 2011.

The IDF includes the following bodies (those whose respective heads are members of the General Staff are in bold):

Structure of the Israel Defense Forces. (click to enlarge)

Israel Defense Forces

119 Branches
General Staff Planning Directorate Operations Directorate IDF Spokesperson Intelligence Directorate Intelligence Corps Military Censor Manpower Directorate Military Police Corps Education and Youth Corps Adjutant Corps General Corps Military Rabbinate Women's Affairs advisor Chief Reserve Officer Computer Service Directorate C4I Corps Technological and Logistics Directorate Ordnance Corps Logistics Corps Medical Corps

Regional commands
Northern Command Central Command Southern Command Home Front Command

Israel Defense Forces


Ground Arm Infantry and Paratrooper Corps Golani Brigade Givati Brigade Paratroopers Brigade Kfir Brigade Nahal Brigade Bislamach Brigade Armor Corps 7th Sa'ar Armored Brigade 188th Barak Armored Brigade 401st Ikvot HaBarzel Armored Brigade 460th Sons of Light Armored Brigade Combat Engineering Corps Artillery Corps Field Intelligence Corps

Air and Space Arm Air Force Air Defense Network

Sea Arm Sea Corps

Other bodies
Military: Military Academies Tactical Command College Command and Staff College National Security College Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories Military Advocate General Military Court of Appeals Financial Advisor to the Chief of Staff Military Secretary to the Prime Minister

Civilian: Director-general of the Ministry of Defense Defense Establishment Comptroller Unit Administration for the Development of Weapons and the Technological Industry

Related bodies
The following bodies work closely with the IDF, but do not (or only partially) belong to its formal structure. Security forces
Intelligence Community

Israel Military Industries (IMI) Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Elbit Systems Elisra Group Soltam Plasan

Shabak Mossad National Security Council Israeli police Border Police Prison Service Knesset Guard

Israel Defense Forces


Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Ranks Unlike most world armies, the IDF uses the same rank names in all corps, including the air force and navy. All enlisted ranks, as well as some of the officer and NCO ranks, may be given as a result of time spent in service, and not for accomplishment or merit. For ground forces' officers, rank insignia were brass on a red background; for the air force, silver on a blue background; and for the navy, the standard gold worn on the sleeve. Officer insignia were worn on epaulets on top of both shoulders. Insignia distinctive to each service were worn on the cap (see fig. 15).

Soldiers of the Combat Engineering Corps being awarded with Grey berets.

Enlisted grades wore rank insignia on the sleeve, halfway between the shoulder and the elbow. For the army and air force, the insignia were white with blue interwoven threads backed with the appropriate corps color. Navy personnel wore gold-colored rank insignia sewn on navy blue material.

Soldiers returning to Israel after the Second Lebanon War

From the formation of the IDF until the late 1980s, sergeant major was a particularly important warrant officer rank, in line with usage in other armies. However, in the 1980s and 1990s the proliferating ranks of sergeant major became devalued, and now all professional NCO ranks are a variation on sergeant major (rav samal) with the exception of rav nagad. All translations here are the official translations of the IDF's website.[15] Conscripts (Hogrim) (Conscript ranks may be gained purely on time served) Private (Turai) Corporal (Rav Turai) Sergeant (Samal) First Sergeant (Samal Rishon) Warrant Officers (Nagadim) (All volunteers) Sergeant First Class (Rav Samal) Master Sergeant (Rav Samal Rishon)
Israeli soldier coming back from the Second Lebanon war

Israel Defense Forces Sergeant Major (Rav Samal Mitkadem) Warrant Officer (Rav Samal Bakhir) Master Warrant Officer (Rav Nagad Mishneh) Chief Warrant Officer (Rav Nagad)


Academic officers (Ktzinim Akadema'im) Professional Academic Officer (Katzin Miktzo'i Akadema'i) Senior Academic Officer (Katzin Akadema'i Bakhir) Officer (Ktzinim) Second Lieutenant (Segen Mishneh) Lieutenant (Segen) Captain (Seren) Major (Rav Seren) Lieutenant Colonel (Sgan Aluf) Colonel (Aluf Mishneh) Brigadier General (Tat Aluf) Major General(Aluf) Lieutenant General(Rav Aluf)

Uniforms The Israel Defense Forces has several types of uniforms: Service dress (aleph) the everyday uniform, worn by enlisted soldiers. Field dress (bet) worn into combat, training, work on base. Officers / Ceremonial dress worn by officers, or during special events/ceremonies. Dress uniform and Mess dress worn only abroad. There are several dress uniforms depending on the season and the branch. The service uniform for all ground forces personnel is olive green; navy and air force uniforms are beige (tan). The uniforms consist of a shirt, trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and shoes or boots. The navy IDF uniform colours has an all white dress uniform. Green fatigues are the same for winter and summer and heavy winter gear is issued as needed. Women's dress parallels the men's but may substitute a skirt for the trousers. Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army and air force personnel also had berets, usually worn in lieu of the service cap. The color of the air force beret was blue-gray; it is black for armored corps, mechanized infantry, and artillery personnel; olive drab for infantry; red for paratroopers; grey for combat engineers; and purple for the Givati Brigade and brown for the Golani Brigade. For all other army personnel, except combat units, the beret for men was green and for women, black. Women in the navy wore a black beret with gold insignia. Males in the navy once wore a blue/black beret but replaced it with the US Navy's sailor hat.

IDF women soldiers

Israel Defense Forces Some corps or units have small variations in their uniforms for instance, military policemen wear a white belt and police hat. Similarly, while most IDF soldiers are issued black leather boots, some units issue reddish-brown leather boots for historical reasons - the paratroopers, combat medics, Nahal and Kfir brigades, as well as some SF units (Sayeret Matkal, Oketz, Duvdevan, Maglan, Counter-Terror School). Women are also issued sandals. Insignia IDF soldiers have three types of insignia (other than rank insignia) which identify their corps, specific unit, and position. A pin attached to the beret identifies a soldier's corps. Soldiers serving in staffs above corps level are often identified by the General Corps pin, despite not officially belonging to it, or the pin of a related corps. New recruits undergoing basic training (tironut) do not have a pin. Beret colors are also often indicative of the soldier's corps, although most non-combat corps do not have their own beret, and sometimes wear the color of the corps to which the post they're stationed in belongs. Individual units are identified by a shoulder tag attached to the left shoulder strap. Most units in the IDF have their own tags, although those that do not, generally use tags identical to their command's tag (corps, directorate, or regional command). While one cannot always identify the position/job of a soldier, two optional factors help make this identification: an aiguillette attached to the left shoulder strap and shirt pocket, and a pin indicating the soldier's work type (usually given by a professional course). Other pins may indicate the corps or additional courses taken. Finally, an optional battle pin indicates a war that a soldier has fought in.


Israeli soldier in dress uniforms (Madey Aleph)

Military service routes
The military service is held in three different tracks: Regular service ( ) - mandatory military service which is held according to the Israeli security service law. Permanent Service ( ) - military service which is held as part of a contractual agreement between the IDF and the permanent position holder. Reserve service ( ) - a military service in which citizens are called for active duty of at most a month every year, for training activities and ongoing defense activities and especially for the purpose of increasing the military forces in case of a war. Sometimes the IDF would also hold pre-military courses ( or )"for soon to be regular service soldiers.

Lieutenant Asael Lubotzky, an IDF field commander during Second Lebanon War, prays with Tefilin.

The Israeli Manpower Directorate ( ) at the Israeli General Staff is the body which coordinates and assembles activities related to the control over human resources and its placement.

Israel Defense Forces Regular service National military service is mandatory for all Israeli citizens over the age of 18, although Arab (but not Druze) citizens are exempted if they so please, and other exceptions may be made on religious, physical or psychological grounds (see Profile 21). Men serve three years in the IDF, while women serve two. The IDF women who volunteer for several combat positions often serve for three years, due to the longer period of training. Women in other positions, such as programmers, who also require lengthy training time, may also serve three years. Women in most combat positions are also required to serve in the reserve for several years after they leave regular service.


IDF Nahal Brigade soldiers on their regular service

Some distinguished recruits are selected to be trained in order to eventually become members of special forces units. Every brigade in the IDF has its own special force branch. Permanent service Permanent service is designed for soldiers who choose to continue serving in the army after their regular service, for a short or long period, and in many cases making the military their career. Permanent service usually begins immediately after the mandatory Regular service period, but there are also soldiers who get released from military at the end of the mandatory Regular service period and who get recruited back to the military as Permanent service soldiers in a later period. Permanent service is based on a contractual agreement between the IDF and the permanent position holder. The service contract defines how long the soldier's service would be, and towards the end of the contract period a discussion may rise on the extension of the soldier's service duration. Many times, regular service soldiers are required to commit to a permanent service after the mandatory Regular service period, in exchange for assigning them in military positions which require a long training period. In exchange for the Permanent service, the Permanent service soldiers receive full wages, and when serving for a long period as a permanent service soldier, they are also entitled for a pension from the army. This right is given to the Permanent service soldiers in a relatively early stage of their life in comparison to the rest of the Israeli retirees. Reserve service After personnel complete their regular service, the IDF may call up men for: reserve service of up to one month annually, until the age of 4345 (reservists may volunteer after this age) active duty immediately in times of crisis In most cases, the reserve duty is carried out in the same unit for years, in many cases the same unit as the active service and by the same people. Many soldiers who have served together in active service continue to meet in reserve duty for years after their discharge, causing reserve duty to become a strong male bonding experience in Israeli society.

Officers in reserve duty before parachuting exercise

Although still available for call-up in times of crisis, most Israeli men, and virtually all women, do not actually perform reserve service in any given year. Units do not always call up all of their reservists every year, and a variety of exemptions are available if called for regular reserve service. Virtually no exemptions exist for reservists called up

Israel Defense Forces in a time of crisis, but experience has shown that in such cases (most recently, the 2006 Lebanon War) exemptions are rarely requested or exercised; units generally achieve recruitment rates above those considered fully manned. Legislation (set to take effect by 13 March 2008) has proposed reform in the reserve service, lowering the maximum service age to 40, designating it as a purely emergency force, as well as many other changes to the structure (although the Defence Minister can suspend any portion of it at any time for security reasons). The age threshold for many reservists whose positions are not listed, though, will be fixed at 49.


Non-IDF service
Other than the National Service (Sherut Leumi), IDF conscripts may serve in bodies other than the IDF in a number of ways. The combat option is Israel Border Police (Magav - the exact translation from Hebrew means "border guard") service, part of the Israel Police. Some soldiers complete their IDF combat training and later undergo additional counter terror and Border Police training. These are assigned to Border Police units. The Border Police units fight side by side with the regular IDF combat units though to a lower capacity. They are also responsible for security in heavy urban areas such as Jerusalem and security and crime fighting in rural areas. Non-combat services include the Mandatory Police Service (Shaham) program, where youth serve in the Israeli Police, Israel Prison Service, or other wings of the Israeli Security Forces instead of the regular army service.

Magavnik in the Old City

Israel is the only nation to conscript women and assign some of them to infantry combatant service which places them directly in the line of enemy fire.[16] The 2000 Equality amendment to the Military Service law states that "The right of women to serve in any role in the IDF is equal to the right of men."[17]

Minorities in the IDF

Non-Jewish minorities tended to serve in one of several special units: full combat capacity the Minorities Unit, also known as Unit 300; the Druze Reconnaissance Unit; and the Trackers Unit, which comprised mostly Bedouins. In 1982 the IDF general staff decided to integrate the armed forces by opening up other units to minorities, while placing some Jewish conscripts in the Minorities Unit. Until 1988 the intelligence corps and the air force remained closed to minorities.
The unisex Caracal Battalion, which serves in a

Druze and Circassians

Israel, being a Jewish state, has a majority of Jewish soldiers. Druze and Circassian men are subject to mandatory conscription to the IDF just like Israeli Jews.[18] Originally, they served in the framework of a special unit called "The Minorities' Unit", which still exists today, in the form of the independent Herev ("Sword") battalion. However, since the 1980s Druze soldiers have increasingly protested this practice, which they considered a means of segregating them and denying them access to elite units (like sayeret units). The army has increasingly admitted Druze soldiers to regular combat units and promoted them to higher ranks from which they had been previously excluded. In recent years, several Druze officers have reached ranks as high as Major General and many have received commendations for distinguished service. It is important to note that, proportionally to their numbers, the

Israel Defense Forces Druze people achieve much higherdocumentedlevels in the Israeli army than other soldiers. Nevertheless, some Druze still charge that discrimination continues, such as exclusion from the Air Force, although the official low security classification for Druze has been abolished for some time. The first Druze aircraft navigator completed his training course in 2005; his identity is protected as are those of all air force pilots. After the battle of Ramat Yohanan during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, approximately 1,000 Syrian Druze soldiers and officers deserted and joined Israel. Since the late 1970s the Druze Initiative Committee, centered at the village of Beit Jan and linked to the Israeli Communist Party, has campaigned to abolish Druze conscription. Military service is a tradition among some of the Druze population, with most opposition in Druze communities of the Golan Heights; 83 percent of Druze boys serve in the army, according to the IDF's statistics.[19] According to the Israeli army, 369 Druze soldiers have been killed in combat operations since 1948.[20]


Bedouins and Israeli Arabs

By law, all Israeli citizens are subject to conscription. The Defense Minister has complete discretion to grant exemption to individual citizens or classes of citizens. A long-standing policy dating to Israel's early years extends an exemption to all other Israeli minorities (most notably Israeli Arabs). However, there is a long-standing government policy of encouraging Bedouins to volunteer and of offering them various inducements, and in some impoverished Bedouin communities a military career seems one of the few means of (relative) social mobility available. Also, Muslims and Christians are accepted as volunteers, even at an age greater than 18.[21] From among non-Bedouin Arab citizens, the number of volunteers for military servicesome Christian Arabs and even a few Muslim Arabsis minute, and the government makes no special effort to increase it. Six Israeli Arabs have received orders of distinction as a result of their military service; of them the most famous is a Bedouin officer, Lieutenant Colonel Abd el-Majid Hidr (also known as Amos Yarkoni), who received the Order of Distinction. Recently, a Bedouin officer was promoted to the rank of Colonel. Until the second term of Yitzhak Rabin as Prime Minister (19921995), social benefits given to families in which at least one member (including a grandfather, uncle or cousin) had served at some time in the armed forces were significantly higher than to "non-military" families, which was considered a means of blatant discrimination between Jews and Arabs. Rabin had led the abolition of the measure, in the teeth of strong opposition from the Right. At present, the only official advantage from military service is the attaining of security clearance and serving in some types of government positions (in most cases, security-related), as well as some indirect benefits. In practice, however, a large number of Israeli employers placing "wanted" ads include the requirement "after military service" even when the job is in no way security-related, which is considered as a euphemism for "no Arab/Haredim need apply". The test of former military service is also frequently applied in admittance to various newly founded communities, effectively barring Arabs from living there. Also, the Israeli national airline El Al hires only pilots who had served in the Air Force, which in practice excludes Arabs from the job. On the other hand, non-Arab Israelis argue that the mandatory three-year (two years for women) military service puts them at a disadvantage, as they effectively lose three years of their life through their service in the IDF, while the Arab Israelis can start right into their jobs after school, or study at a university. In fact, the most frequently heard argument whenever the subject of the discrimination of Arabs comes upwhether on the Knesset floor, in the media or among ordinary citizensis that the Arabs' "non fulfillment of military duty" justifies their exclusion from some or all the benefits of citizenship. The late former general Rafael Eitan, when he went into politics in the 1980s, proposed that the right to vote be linked to military service. The idea occasionally crops up again among right-wing
Bedouin soldiers in 1949

Israel Defense Forces groups and parties. According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Israel and the occupied territories, "Israeli Arabs were not required to perform mandatory military service and, in practice, only a small percentage of Israeli Arabs served in the military. Those who did not serve in the army had less access than other citizens to social and economic benefits for which military service was a prerequisite or an advantage, such as housing, new-household subsidies, and employment, especially government or security-related industrial employment. Regarding the latter, for security reasons, Israeli Arabs generally were restricted from working in companies with defense contracts or in security-related fields." Rather than perform army service, Israeli Arab youths have the option to volunteer to national service and receive benefits similar to those received by discharged soldiers. The volunteers are generally allocated to Arab populations, where they assist with social and community matters. As of 2010 there are 1,473 Arabs volunteering for national service. According to sources in the national service administration, Arab leaders are counseling youths to refrain from performing services to the state. According to a National Service official, "For years the Arab leadership has demanded, justifiably, benefits for Arab youths similar to those received by discharged soldiers. Now, when this opportunity is available, it is precisely these leaders who reject the state's call to come and do the service, and receive these benefits".[22] Although Arabs are not obligated to serve in IDF, any Arab can volunteer. A Muslim Arab woman is currently serving as a medic with unit 669.[23] Cpl. Elinor Joseph from Haifa has become a first Arab combat soldier for IDF. Elinor says:


...there was a Katyusha [rocket] that fell near my house and also hurt Arabs. If someone would tell me that serving in the IDF means killing [24] Arabs, I remind them that Arabs also kill Arabs.

Hisham Abu Varia is the first Israeli Arab Muslim Officer in the IDF and is currently a Second Lieutenant.[25]

Ethiopian Jews
The IDF carried out extended missions in Ethiopia and neighboring states, whose purpose was to protect Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) and to help their immigration to Israel.[26] The IDF adopted policies and special activities for absorption and integration of Ethiopian immigrant soldiers, which resulted in great positive impact on the achievements and integration of those soldiers in the army as well as Israeli society in general.[27] [28] Statistical research showed that the Ethiopian soldiers are esteemed as excellent soldiers and many aspire to be recruited to combat units.[29]

An Ethiopian-Jewish soldier

Israel Defense Forces


Men in the Haredi community may choose to defer service while enrolled in yeshivot (see Tal committee), a practice that has given rise to tension between the Israeli religious and secular communities. While options exist for Haredim to serve in the IDF in an atmosphere conducive to their religious convictions, most Haredim do not choose to serve in the IDF. The Haredi public has the option of serving in the 97th "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion. This unit is a standard IDF infantry battalion focused on the Jenin IDF soldiers of the religious 97th region. To allow Haredi soldiers to serve, the Netzah Yehuda bases follow the "Netzah Yehuda" Infantry Battalion. highest standards of Jewish dietary laws and the only women permitted on these bases are wives of soldiers and officers. Additionally, some Haredim serve in the IDF via the Hesder system of a 5 year program which includes 2 years of religious studies, 1 years of military service and 1 years of religious studies during which the soldiers can be recalled to active duty immediately. They are permitted to join the other units of the IDF as well.

LGBT people
Further information: Sexual orientation and military service#Israel Israel is one of 24 nations that allow openly gay individuals to serve in the military. Since the early 1990s, sexual identity presents no formal barrier in terms of soldiers' military specialization or eligibility for promotion.[30] Up until the 1980s, the IDF tended to discharge soldiers who were openly gay. In 1983, the IDF permitted homosexuals to serve, but banned them from intelligence and top-secret positions. A decade later, Professor Uzi Even,[31] an IDF reserves officer and chairman of Tel Aviv Universitys Chemistry Department revealed that his rank had been revoked and that he had been barred from researching sensitive topics in military intelligence, solely because of his sexual identity. His testimony to the Knesset in 1993 raised a political storm, forcing the IDF to remove such restrictions against gays.[30] The chief of staff's policy states that it is strictly forbidden to harm or hurt anyone's dignity or feeling based on their gender or sexual orientation in any way, including signs, slogans, pictures, poems, lectures, any means of guidance, propaganda, publishing, voicing, and utterance. Moreover, gays in the IDF have additional rights, such as the right to take a shower alone if they want to. According to a University of California, Santa Barbara study,[31] a brigadier general stated that Israelis show a "great tolerance" for gay soldiers. Consul David Saranga at the Israeli Consulate in New York, who was interviewed by the St. Petersburg Times, said, It's a non-issue. You can be a very good officer, a creative one, a brave one, and be gay at the same time.[30]

Overseas volunteers
Non-immigrating foreign volunteers typically serve with the IDF in one of three ways: The Mahal program targets young non-Israeli Jews (men younger than 24 and women younger than 21). The program consists typically of 14.5-18 months of IDF service, including a lengthy training for those in combat units or (for 18 months) one month of non-combat training and additional two months of learning Hebrew after enlisting, if necessary. Volunteering for longer service is possible. There are two additional subcategories of Mahal, both geared solely for religious men: Mahal Nahal Haredi (16 months), and Mahal Hesder, which combines yeshiva study of 6.5 months with IDF service of 14.5 months, for a total of 21 months. Similar IDF programs exist for Israeli overseas residents. Sar-El, an organisation subordinate to the Israeli Logistics Corps, provides a volunteer program for non-Israeli citizens who are 17 years or older (or 15 if accompanied by a parent). The program is also aimed at Israeli citizens, aged 30 years or older, living abroad who did not serve in the Israeli Army and who now wish to finalize

Israel Defense Forces their status with the military. The program usually consists of three weeks of volunteer service on different rear army bases, doing non-combative work. Garin Tzabar offers a program mainly for Israelis who emigrated with their parents to the United States at a young age. Although a basic knowledge of the Hebrew language is not mandatory, it is helpful. Of all the programs listed, only Garin Tzabar requires full-length service in the IDF. The program is set up in stages: first the participants go through five seminars in their country of origin, then have an absorption period in Israel at a kibbutz. Each delegation is adopted by a kibbutz in Israel and has living quarters designated for it. The delegation shares responsibilities in the kibbutz when on military leave. Participants start the program three months before being enlisted in the army at the beginning of August. Marva is short-term basic training for two months.


The IDF mission is to "defend the existence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of the state of Israel. To protect the inhabitants of Israel and to combat all forms of terrorism which threaten the daily life."[32]

Main doctrine
The main doctrine consists of the following principles:[33] Basic points Israel cannot afford to lose a single war Defensive on the strategic level, no territorial ambitions Desire to avoid war by political means and a credible deterrent posture Preventing escalation Determine the outcome of war quickly and decisively Combating terrorism Very low casualty ratio

Prepare for defense A small standing army with an early warning capability, regular air force and navy An efficient reserve mobilization and transportation system Move to counterattack Multi-arm coordination Transferring the battle to enemy territory quickly Quick attainment of war objectives

Israel Defense Forces


Code of conduct
In 1992, the IDF drafted a Code of Conduct that combines international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical codethe IDF Spirit (Hebrew: ", Ru'ah Tzahal).[34] Stated values of the IDF The document defines three core values for all IDF soldiers to follow, as well as ten secondary values (the first being most important, and the others appearing sorted in Hebrew alphabetical order):[34] Core values Defense of the State, its Citizens and its Residents "The IDF's goal is to defend the existence of the State of Israel, its independence and the security of the citizens and residents of the state." Love of the Homeland and Loyalty to the Country "At the core of service in the IDF stand the love of the homeland and the commitment and devotion to the State of Israel-a democratic state that serves as a national home for the Jewish People-its citizens and residents." Human Dignity "The IDF and its soldiers are obligated to protect human dignity. Every human being is of value regardless of his or her origin, religion, nationality, gender, status or position." Other values Tenacity of Purpose in Performing Missions and Drive to Victory "The IDF servicemen and women will fight and conduct themselves with courage in the face of all dangers and obstacles; They will persevere in their missions resolutely and thoughtfully even to the point of endangering their lives." Responsibility "The IDF servicemen or women will see themselves as active participants in the defense of the state, its citizens and residents. They will carry out their duties at all times with initiative, involvement and diligence with common sense and within the framework of their authority, while prepared to bear responsibility for their conduct." Credibility "The IDF servicemen and women shall present things objectively, completely and precisely, in planning, performing and reporting. They will act in such a manner that their peers and commanders can rely upon them in performing their tasks." Personal Example "The IDF servicemen and women will comport Israeli female solder themselves as required of them, and will demand of themselves as they demand of others, out of recognition of their ability and responsibility within the military and without to serve as a deserving role model." Human Life "The IDF servicemen and women will act in a judicious and safe manner in all they do, out of recognition of the supreme value of human life. During combat they will endanger themselves and their comrades only to the extent required to carry out their mission." Purity of Arms "The soldier shall make use of his weaponry and power only for the fulfillment of the mission and solely to the extent required; he will maintain his humanity even in combat. The soldier shall not employ his weaponry and power in order to harm non-combatants or prisoners of war, and shall do all he can to avoid harming their lives, body, honor and property." Professionalism "The IDF servicemen and women will acquire the professional knowledge and skills required to perform their tasks, and will implement them while striving continuously to perfect their personal and collective achievements." Discipline "The IDF servicemen and women will strive to the best of their ability to fully and successfully complete all that is required of them according to orders and their spirit. IDF soldiers will be meticulous in giving

Israel Defense Forces only lawful orders, and shall refrain from obeying blatantly illegal orders." Comradeship "The IDF servicemen and women will act out of fraternity and devotion to their comrades, and will always go to their assistance when they need their help or depend on them, despite any danger or difficulty, even to the point of risking their lives." Sense of Mission "The IDF soldiers view their service in the IDF as a mission; They will be ready to give their all in order to defend the state, its citizens and residents. This is due to the fact that they are representatives of the IDF who act on the basis and in the framework of the authority given to them in accordance with IDF orders." Military ethics of fighting terror In 2005, Asa Kasher and Amos Yadlin co-authored a noticed article published in the Journal of Military Ethics under the title : "Military Ethics of Fighting Terror: An Israeli Perspective". The article was meant as an "extension of the classical Just War Theory", and as a "[needed] third model" or missing paradigm besides which of "classical war (army) and law enforcement (police).", resulting in a "doctrine () on the background of the IDF fight against acts and activities of terror performed by Palestinian individuals and organizations."[35] In this article, Kasher and Yadlin came to the conclusion that targeted assassination of terrorists were justifiable, even at the cost of hitting nearby civilians. In a 2009 interview to Haaretz, Asa Kasher later confirmed, pointing to the fact that in an area in which the IDF does not have effective security control (e.g. Gaza, vs. Est-Jerusalem), soldiers' lives protection takes priority over avoiding injury to enemy civilians.[36] Some, along with Avishai Margalit and Michael Walzer, have recused this argument, advancing that such position was "contrary to centuries of theorizing about the morality of war as well as international humanitarian law"[37] , since drawing "a sharp line between combatants and noncombatants" would be "the only morally relevant distinction that all those involved in a war can agree on."[38] The article was intended to (then Chief of Staff) Moshe Ya'alon, to serve as a basis for a new "code of conduct". Although Moshe Ya'alon did endorse the article's views, and is reported to have presented it numerous times before military forums, it was never actually turned into a biding IDF document or an actual "code", neither by Ya'alon nor its successors. However, the document have since reportedly been adapted to serve as educational material, designed to emphasizes the right behavior in low intensity warfare against terrorists, where soldiers must operate within a civilian population.[39]


Two Israeli soldiers on a street in Hebron

An Israeli soldier buys from Palestinians selling drinks at an Israeli check point

As of today "The Spirit of the IDF" (cf. supra) is still considered the only biding moral code that formally applies to the IDF troops. In 2009, Amos Yadlin (then head of Military Intelligence) suggested that the article he co-authored with Asa Kasher be ratified as a formal binding code, arguing that "the current code ['The Spirit of the IDF'] does not sufficiently address one of the army's most pressing challenges: asymmetric warfare against terrorist organizations that operate amid a civilian population".[40]

IDF soldiers rescued an eighty year old Lebanese woman, after she got tangled in the security fence on the norther border, on the Lebanese side.

Israel Defense Forces The 11 key points highlighted in the article and educational material mentioned above : 1. Military action can be taken only against military targets. 2. The use of force must be proportional. 3. Soldiers may only use weaponry they were issued by the IDF. 4. Anyone who surrenders cannot be attacked. 5. Only those who are properly trained can interrogate prisoners. 6. Soldiers must accord dignity and respect to the Palestinian population and those arrested. 7. Soldiers must give appropriate medical care, when conditions allow, to themselves and to enemies. 8. Pillaging is absolutely and totally illegal. 9. Soldiers must show proper respect for religious and cultural sites and artifacts. 10. Soldiers must protect international aid workers, including their property and vehicles. 11. Soldiers must report all violations of this code.


During 195066, Israel spent an average of 9% of its GDP on defense. Defense expenditures increased dramatically after both the 1967 and 1973 wars. They reached a high of about 24% of GDP in the 1980s, but have since come back down to about 9%,[41] about $15 billion, following the signing of peace agreements with Jordan and Egypt. In 2008, Israel spent $16.2 billion on its armed forces, making it the country with the biggest ratio of defense spending to GDP and as a percentage of the budget of all developed countries.($2,300 per person).[42] [43] On 30 September 2009 Defense Minister Ehud Barak, Finance Minister Yuval Steinitz and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu endorsed an additional NIS 1.5 billion for the defense budget to help Israel address problems regarding Iran. The budget changes came two months after Israel had approved its current two-year budget. The defense budget in 2009 stands at NIS 48.6 billion and NIS 53.2 billion for 2010 the highest amount in Israel's history. The figure constitutes 6.3% of expected gross domestic product and 15.1% of the overall budget, even before the planned NIS 1.5 billion addition.[43]
The IDF Achzarit armored personnel carrier

Israel Defense Forces


Weapons and equipment

Military technology
The IDF possesses top-of-the-line weapons and computer systems used and recognized worldwide. Some gear comes from the US (with some equipment modified for IDF use) such as the M4A1 assault rifle, the SR-25 7.62mm semi-automatic sniper rifle, the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon, and the AH-64D Apache and AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters. Israel also has developed its own independent weapons industry, which has developed weapons and vehicles such as the Merkava battle tank series, the Kfir fighter aircraft, and various small arms such as the Galil and Tavor assault rifles, and the Uzi submachine gun. Israel has also installed a variant of the Samson RCWS, a remote controlled weapons platform, which can include machine guns, grenade launchers, and anti-tank missiles on a remotely operated turret, in pillboxes along the Israeli Gaza Strip barrier intended to prevent Palestinian militants from entering its territory.[44] [45] The IDF also has several large internal research and development departments, and it purchases many technologies produced by the Israeli security industries including IAI, IMI, Elbit Systems, Rafael, and dozens of smaller firms. Many of these developments have been battle-tested in Israel's numerous military engagements, making the relationship mutually beneficial, the IDF getting tailor-made solutions and the industries a very high repute. In response to the price overruns on the US Littoral Combat Ship program, Israel is considering producing their own warships, which would take a decade[46] and depend on diverting US financing to the project.[47]

The Israeli Air Force F-15I Ra'am

An Israeli Navy Sa'ar 5-class corvette

Main developments
Israel's military technology is most famous for its firearms, armored fighting vehicles (tanks, tank-converted armored personnel carriers (APCs), armoured bulldozers, etc.), unmanned aerial vehicles, and Merkava Mark 4 with Trophy active protection rocketry (missiles and rockets). Israel also has manufactured aircraft system including the Kfir (reserve), IAI Lavi (canceled), and the IAI Phalcon Airborne early warning System, and naval systems (patrol and missile ships). Much of the IDF's electronic systems (intelligence, communication, command and control, navigation etc.) are Israeli-developed, including many systems installed on foreign platforms (esp. aircraft, tanks and submarines), as are many of its precision-guided munitions. Israel is the only country in the world with an operational anti-ballistic missile defense system on the national level the Arrow system, jointly funded and produced by Israel and the United States. Israel has also worked with the US on development of a tactical high energy laser system against medium range rockets (called Nautilus or THEL). Israel has the independent capability of launching reconnaissance satellites into orbit, a capability shared with Russia, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, South Korea, Italy, Germany, the People's Republic of China, India, Japan, Brazil and Ukraine. Israeli security industries developed both the satellites (Ofeq) and the

Israel Defense Forces launchers (Shavit). Israel is known to have developed nuclear weapons.[48] Israel does not officially acknowledge its nuclear weapons program. From 2006 Israel deployed the Wolf Armoured Vehicle APC for use in urban warfare and to protect VIPs.


Merkava Mark 4 tank

Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boat

Hermes 900 UAV

Tavor assault rifle

Spike ATGM

Arrow anti-ballistic missile

Wolf Armoured Vehicle

Guardium UGV

M109 self-propelled howitzer

IDF Caterpillar D9 Armored bulldozer

Soltam M-71 Howitzer

Saraph helicopter

Foreign military relations

United States
In 1983, the United States and Israel established a Joint Political Military Group, which convenes twice a year. Both the U.S. and Israel participate in joint military planning and combined exercises, and have collaborated on military research and weapons development. Additionally the U.S. military maintains two classified, pre-positioned War Reserve Stocks in Israel valued at $493 million.[49] Israel has the official distinction of being an American Major non-NATO ally. As a result of this, the US and Israel share the vast majority of their security and military technology.

Israeli soldiers training alongside the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit on the USS Kearsarge

Since 1976, Israel had been the largest annual recipient of U.S. foreign assistance. In 2009, Israel received $2.55 billion in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants from the Department of Defense.[50] All but 26% of this military aid is for the purchase of military hardware from American companies only.[50]

Israel Defense Forces The United States has an anti-missile system base in the Negev region of Southern Israel, which is manned by 120 US Army personnel.


Further information: IndiaIsrael relations India and Israel enjoy strong military and strategic ties.[51] Some analysts have dubbed the alliance between India and Israel as the new "axis in the war on terror",[52] while Israeli authorities consider Indian citizens to be the most pro-Israel people in the world.[53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] Apart from being Israel's second-largest economic partner in Asia,[59] India is also the largest customer of Israeli arms in the world.[60] In 2006, annual military sales between India and Israel stood at US$900 million.[61] Israeli defense firms had the largest exhibition Sailors of the Israeli Navy at the 2009 Aero India show, during which Israel offered several [62] state-of-the art weapons to India. The first major military deal between the two countries was the sale of Israeli EL/M-2075 AEW radars to the Indian Air Force in 2004.[63] In March 2009, India and Israel signed a US$1.4 billion deal under which Israel would sell India an advanced air-defense system.[64] India and Israel have also embarked on extensive space cooperation. In 2008, India's ISRO launched Israel's most technologically advanced spy satellite TecSAR.[65] In 2009, India reportedly developed a high-tech spy satellite RISAT-2 with significant assistance from Israel.[66] The satellite was successfully launched by India in April 2009.[67] Many analysts saw the 2008 Mumbai attacks as an attack on the growing India-Israel partnership.[68] In the past, India and Israel have held numerous joint anti-terror training exercises[69] and it was also reported that in the wake of the Mumbai attacks, Israel was helping India launch anti-terror raids inside Pakistani territory.

Further information: GermanyIsrael relations Germany developed the Dolphin submarine and supplied it to Israel. The military co-operation has been discreet but mutually profitable: Israeli intelligence, for example, sent captured Warsaw Pact armour to West Germany to be analysed. The results aided the German development of an anti-tank system.[70] The Israeli Merkava MK IV tank uses a German V12 engine produced under license, and its IMI 120 mm gun.[71] In 2008, the website DefenseNews revealed that Germany and Israel had been jointly developing a nuclear warning system, dubbed Operation Bluebird.[72] [73]
A German-made Dolphin class submarine

United Kingdom
Further information: Israel United Kingdom relations The United Kingdom has supplied equipment and spare parts for Sa'ar 4.5-class missile boats and F-4 Phantom fighter-bombers, components for small-caliber artillery ammunition and air-to-surface missiles, and engines for Elbit Hermes 450 Unmanned aerial vehicles. British arms sales to Israel mainly consist of light weaponry, and ammunition and components for helicopters, tanks, armored personnel carriers, and combat aircraft.[74]

Israel Defense Forces


Further information: People's Republic of China Israel relations Israel is the second-largest foreign supplier of arms to the People's Republic of China, only after the Russian Federation. China has purchased a wide array of military hardware from Israel, including Unmanned aerial vehicles and communications satellites. China has become an extensive market for Israel's military industries and arms manufacturers, and trade with Israel has allowed it to obtain "dual-use" technology which the United States and European Union were reluctant to provide.[75] In 2010 Yair Golan, head of IDF Home Front Command visited China to strengthen military ties.[76]

Further information: IsraelTurkey relations Israel has provided extensive military assistance to Turkey. Israel sold Turkey IAI Heron Unmanned aerial vehicles, and modernized Turkey's F-4 Phantom and Northrop F-5 aircraft at the cost of $900 million. Turkey's main battle tank is the Israeli-made Sabra tank, of which Turkey has 170. Israel later upgraded them for $500 million. Israel has also supplied Turkey with Israeli-made missiles, and the two nations have engaged in naval cooperation. Turkey allowed Israeli pilots to practice long-range flying over mountainous terrain in Turkey's Konya firing range, while Israel trains Turkish pilots at Israel's computerized firing range at Nevatim Airbase.[77] [78] Until 2009, the Turkish military was one of Israel's largest defense costumers. Israel defense companies have sold unmanned aerial vehicles and long-range targeting pods.[79] However, relations have been strained in recent times. In the last two years, the Turkish military has declined to participate in the annual joint naval exercise with Israel and the United States. The exercise, known as "Reliant Mermaid" was started in 1998 and included the Israeli, Turkish and American navies.[80] The objective of the exercise is to practice search-and-rescue operations and to familiarize each navy with international partners who also operate in the Mediterranean Sea.[81]

Other countries
Israel has also sold or received supplies of military equipment from the Czech Republic, France, Spain, Slovakia, South Africa, Canada, Australia, Slovenia, Romania, Hungary, Belgium, Austria, Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia[7] and Colombia.[82]

References and footnotes

[1] "The Institute for National Security Studies", chapter Israel, 2010, (http:/ / www. inss. org. il/ upload/ (FILE)1284986151. pdf) September 20, 2010. [2] Defense budget gets additional NIS 260M (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-4054947,00. html) ynetnews, Zvi Lavi Published: 04.11.11, 14:27 [3] David Esel. "Analyzing numbers: The cost of Israeli defense is elusive (page 52)" (http:/ / gb. zinio. com/ reader. jsp?issue=416150696). AviationWeek/dti. . [4] Chossudovsky, Michel. "Unusually Large U.S. Weapons Shipment to Israel: Are the US and Israel Planning a Broader Middle East War?" (http:/ / www. globalresearch. ca/ index. php?context=va& aid=11743). Globalresearch.ca. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [5] Plushnick-Masti, Ramit (2006-08-25). "Israel Buys 2 Nuclear-Capable Submarines" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2006/ 08/ 24/ AR2006082401050. html). Washingtonpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [6] "British MPs slam weapons exports to Israel" (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3869789,00. html). ynetnews. 30 March 2010. . [7] "Arms embargo vital as Gaza civilian toll mounts" (http:/ / www. amnesty. org/ en/ news-and-updates/ news/ arms-embargo-vital-gaza-civilian-toll-mounts-20090115). Amnesty.org. 2009-01-15. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [8] Leigh Phillips. "Arms exports to Israel from EU worth 200m" (http:/ / euobserver. com/ 9/ 27359). Euobserver.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [9] "Foreign Arms Supplies To Israel/Gaza Fueling Conflict" (http:/ / www. amnestyusa. org/ document. php?id=ENGMDE150122009#1. 0. 9. Arms supplies to Israel ). Amnestyusa.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-01.

Israel Defense Forces

[10] "Israel Prize recipients in 1965 (in Hebrew)" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5wE6Ihijv). Israel Prize Official Site. Archived from the original (http:/ / cms. education. gov. il/ EducationCMS/ Units/ PrasIsrael/ Tashkag/ Tashlab_Tashkag_Rikuz. htm?DictionaryKey=Tashka) on 3 February 2011 by WebCite. . [11] Mahler, Gregory S. (1990). Israel After Begin. SUNY Press. p.45. ISBN079140367X. [12] Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). ed. Shoshana Shiftel. ed. An Army is Born (Vol. 1). Israel Ministry of Defense. pp.104106. ISBN965-05-0695-0.


[13] Pa'il, Meir (1982). "The Infantry Brigades". In Yehuda Schiff. IDF in Its Corps: Army and Security Encyclopedia. Volume 11. Revivim Publishing. p.15. (Hebrew) [14] Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). ed. Shoshana Shiftel. ed. An Army is Born (Vol. 1). Israel Ministry of Defense. pp.113116. ISBN965-05-0695-0.

[15] "IDF Ranks" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ about/ insignia/ ranks. htm). IDF. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [16] Bar Ben-Ari (August 1, 2007). "A Woman of Valor" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ News/ Up_Close/ 2007/ 08/ 0101. htm). Israel Defense Forces. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [17] "Integration of women in the IDF". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 8 March 2009. [18] "IDF human resources site" (http:/ / www. aka. idf. il/ brothers/ skira/ default. asp?catId=57478& docId). IDF. . Retrieved 2010-06-10.

[19] Larry Derfner (January 15, 2009). "Covenant of blood" (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Home/ Article. aspx?id=129391). The Jerusalem Post. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [20] http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ News_Channels/ Personal/ 10/ 10/ 1102. htm ? [21] "IDF Human Resources site" (http:/ / www. aka. idf. il/ brothers/ skira/ default. asp?catId=57479& docId=). . Retrieved 2010-06-10.

[22] Rise in Arab National Service volunteers (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3974580,00. html), by Aviel Magnezi. YNet, 10.25.10, 14:47 [23] "First female Arab soldier joins elite unit 669 ", online (http:/ / www. ynet. co. il/ english/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3527584,00. html):

"Muslim soldier serving as medic on IAFs special airborne search and rescue unit is candidate to become airborne medic"
[24] "Cpl. Elinor Joseph, first female Arab combat soldier in IDF: "proud to serve" ", "I treated all the people at the checkpoints in the same manner, because we are all human. For this reason, no one reacted to me in a negative manner, and to tell the truth, that surprised me. Elinors presence also helped change peoples perceptions, "People knew I was there and that I wouldnt hold my tongue if need be, so they had a constant reminder to treat the Palestinians well. But really, their treatment was always full of respect." [25] Pevzner, Yana (13 October 2010). "The lone Arab Soldier" (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3968706,00. html). Ynet. . Retrieved 27 October 2010. [26] The Jewish state: the struggle for Israel's soul. Yoram Hazony. 2001. Page 54 [27] The Beta Israel in Ethiopia and Israel: studies on Ethiopian Jews By Tudor Parfitt, Emanuela Trevisan Semi. p.170 [28] Israel social science research, Volumes 10-11. Hubert H. Humphrey Center for Social Ecology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 1995. p.70 [29] Becoming Ethiopian Israelis: An appraisal of the adjustment of the Ethiopian Jewish community to Israeli society. Ami Steinberger, Pepperdine University. 2006. p.24 [30] Eichner, Itamar (February 8, 2007). "Follow Israel's example on gays in the military, US study says" (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3362505,00. html). Ynetnews. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [31] "Homosexuality and the Israel Defense Forces: Did Lifting the Gay Ban Undermine Military Performance?" (http:/ / www. filmforum. org/ films/ yossi/ israelstudyafs. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [32] "IDF desk Doctrine, Mission" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ about/ doctrine/ default. htm). Dover.idf.il. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [33] "IDF desk Main Doctrine" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ about/ doctrine/ main_doctrine. htm). Dover.idf.il. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [34] "Ethics The IDF Spirit" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ about/ doctrine/ ethics. htm). IDF Spokesperson's Unit. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [35] Military Ethics of Fighting Terror: An Israeli Perspective Journal of Military Ethics, Volume 4, Number 1, April 2005, pp. 3-32 (Abstract) http:/ / www. tandfonline. com/ doi/ abs/ 10. 1080/ 15027570510014642 [36] "The philosopher who gave the IDF moral justification in Gaza", Haaretz 06/02/09 http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ print-edition/ news/ the-philosopher-who-gave-the-idf-moral-justification-in-gaza-1. 269527 [37] Khalidi,The Most Moral Army in the World?, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol 39, no. 3 (Spring 2010), p. 6 http:/ / www. palestine-studies. org/ journals. aspx?id=10705& jid=1& href=fulltext [38] Margalit and Walzer, Israel: Civilians & Combatants, New York Review of Books, May 2009 http:/ / www. nybooks. com/ articles/ archives/ 2009/ may/ 14/ israel-civilians-combatants/ [39] Guinora, Teaching Morality in Armed Conflict: The Israel Defense Forces Model, Jewish Virtual Library, 2006: http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ Society_& _Culture/ IDFmorals. html [40] Harel, MI: IDF needs new ethics code for war on terror, Haaretz, 09/30/09 http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ print-edition/ news/ mi-idf-needs-new-ethics-code-for-war-on-terror-1. 6991

Israel Defense Forces

[41] Seitz, Charmaine. "Israel's Defense Budget: The Business Side of War" (http:/ / www. thejerusalemfund. org/ ht/ d/ ContentDetails/ i/ 2122). The Jerusalem Fund. . Retrieved 2008-05-30. [42] "Military spending-Arming up" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ daily/ chartgallery/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=13808801& fsrc=rss). The Economist. 2009-06-08. . Retrieved 2009-06-11. [43] Moti Bassok (September 30, 2009). "Defense budget to grow, education spending to shrink" (http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ print-edition/ business/ defense-budget-to-grow-education-spending-to-shrink-1. 6974). Haaretz.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [44] "Weaponized Sentry-Tech Towers Protecting Hot Borders" (http:/ / www. aviationweek. com/ aw/ blogs/ defense/ index. jsp?plckController=Blog& plckScript=blogscript& plckElementId=blogDest& plckBlogPage=BlogViewPost& plckPostId=Blog:27ec4a53-dcc8-42d0-bd3a-01329aef79a7Post:344244b3-3fee-4dfc-be03-992bf38a6f19). Aviationweek.com. 2008-12-04. . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [45] Palestine Chronicle (July 13, 2010). "Israel's New 'Video Game' Executions" (http:/ / www. eurasiareview. com/ 201007134943/ israels-new-video-game-executions. html). Eurasia Review. . Retrieved 2010-08-08. [46] Yaakov Katz (July 1, 2009). "Israel Navy mulls building larger-scale missile ships locally" (http:/ / www. trcb. com/ news/ israel/ general/ israel-navy-mulls-building-larger-scale-missile-ships-locally-12305. htm). The Jerusalem Post. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [47] Yehudah Lev Kay (June 29, 2009). "Navy Drops US Warship for Made-in-Israel Option" (http:/ / www. israelnationalnews. com/ News/ News. aspx/ 132104). IsraelNationalNews.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [48] "Nuclear Weapons - Israel" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ nuke/ guide/ israel/ nuke/ ). Federation of American Scientists. . Retrieved 2010-09-22. [49] "31st Munitions Squadron (31st MUNS)" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ wmd/ agency/ / 31muns. htm). GlobalSecurity.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [50] Sharp, Jeremy M. (2009-12-04). "CRS report for Congress: U.S. foreign aid to Israel" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ sgp/ crs/ mideast/ RL33222. pdf) (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. . Retrieved 2010-06-08. [51] Riedel, Bruce (March 21, 2008). "Israel & India: New Allies" (http:/ / www. brookings. edu/ opinions/ 2008/ 0321_india_riedel. aspx). Brookings.edu. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [52] Dr. Ninan Koshy (June 10, 2003). "US plays matchmaker to India, Israel" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ South_Asia/ EF10Df03. html). Asia Times Online. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [53] "ynet article" (http:/ / www. ynet. co. il/ english/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3696887,00. html). ynet article. 1995-06-20. . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [54] netwmd article (http:/ / netwmd. com/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ 22/ 3955). [55] Daniel Pipes. "daniel pipes article" (http:/ / www. danielpipes. org/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ india-the-most-pro-israel-country). daniel pipes article. . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [56] 140suffolk (2009-04-21). "digg article" (http:/ / digg. com/ world_news/ India_the_Most_Pro_Israel_Country). digg article. . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [57] "A Little Piece of New Delhi in Haifa" (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ NR/ exeres/ D9D64F57-94C0-44F3-AE59-6A9C3E2E49BA. htm). Dover.idf.il. . Retrieved 2010-10-01. [58] India and Israel Forge a Solid Strategic Alliance (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061107084915/ http:/ / www. jinsa. org/ articles/ articles. html/ function/ view/ categoryid/ 1948/ documentid/ 1971/ history/ 3,2360,1947,1948,1971) by Martin Sherman,The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs [59] "India-Israel Economic and Commercial Relations" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070103015020/ http:/ / www. ficci. com/ international/ countries/ israel/ israel-commercialrelations. htm). Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ficci. com/ international/ countries/ israel/ israel-commercialrelations. htm) on 2007-01-03. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [60] "Israel largest defence supplier to India: report" (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2009/ 02/ 16/ stories/ 2009021658931100. htm). Hindu.com. 2009-02-16. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [61] "Israel arms sales to India top USD 900 million a year" (http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-3310835,00. html). Yedioth Internet. 10.04.06. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [62] "Israeli Exhibit Among Largest at Show" (http:/ / www. defensenews. com/ osd_story. php?i=3944502). Defensenews.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [63] "India, Israel ink the Phalcon deal" (http:/ / in. rediff. com/ news/ 2004/ mar/ 05phal. htm). In.rediff.com. 2004-03-05. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [64] By: PTI Date: 2009-03-27 Place: Jerusalem (2009-03-27). "India, Israel sign $1.4 bn deal on air defence system" (http:/ / www. mid-day. com/ news/ 2009/ mar/ 270309-India-Israel-sign-deal-on-air-defence-system. htm). Mid-day.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [65] Koshy, Ninan. "India and Israel Eye Iran" (http:/ / www. fpif. org/ fpiftxt/ 4959). Fpif.org. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [66] "India to launch Israel-backed satellite" (http:/ / edition. cnn. com/ 2009/ WORLD/ asiapcf/ 03/ 21/ india. satellite/ index. html?iref=mpstoryview). Edition.cnn.com. 2009-03-21. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [67] IANS (April 20, 2009). "Spy satellite RISAT takes off from Sriharikota" (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ ISRO-launches-spy-satellite-RISAT-2/ articleshow/ 4422951. cms). The Times of India. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [68] Spiegel, Peter (2009-02-01). "Some see Mumbai terrorism as an attack on IndiaIsrael ties" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ news/ nationworld/ world/ la-fg-india-israel1-2009feb01,0,4924558. story). Latimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-06-01. [69] "India, Israel likely to hold joint anti-terror training exercises" (http:/ / www. indianexpress. com/ news/ india-israel-likely-to-hold-joint-antiterror-training-exercises/ 360288/ ). Indianexpress.com. 2008-09-12. . Retrieved 2010-06-01.


Israel Defense Forces

[70] Roger Boyes (March 17, 2008). "Israel welcomes new Germany to a celebration of its 60th birthday" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ middle_east/ article3564572. ece). London: Times Online. . Retrieved 2010-06-09. [71] http:/ / articles. janes. com/ articles/ Janes-Armour-and-Artillery-Upgrades/ Israel-Military-Industries-120-mm-smoothbore-tank-gun-MG251-Israel. html [72] Defense News Staff (November 3, 2008). "Israel Seeks Missile-Sensing UAV" (http:/ / www. defensenews. com/ story. php?i=3800042). Defense News (DefenseNews.com). . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [73] Lappin, Yaakov (November 17, 2008). "Israel, Germany develop nuclear warning system" (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Home/ Article. aspx?id=120776). The Jerusalem Post. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [74] "Report: Britain places embargo on arms sales to Israel" (http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ print-edition/ news/ report-britain-places-embargo-on-arms-sales-to-israel-1. 47870). Haaretz.com. April 13, 2002. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [75] Sudha Ramachandran (December 21, 2004). "US up in arms over Sino-Israel ties" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ Middle_East/ FL21Ak01. html). Asia Times Online. . Retrieved 2010-06-10. [76] Katz, Yaakov (2010-06-22). "IDF strengthening ties with Chinese military" (http:/ / www. jpost. com/ International/ Article. aspx?id=179117). Jpost.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-04. [77] Nechmani, 1988, p. 24. [78] Pipes, 1997, p. 34. [79] http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Defense/ Article. aspx?id=235160 Despite strained ties, IDF attache welcomed in Turkey [80] http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ ops/ reliant-mermaid. htm Reliant Mermaid [81] http:/ / www. jpost. com/ Defense/ Article. aspx?id=232401 Turkey absent again from naval drills with Israel, US [82] Head of Defense Ministry Meets with Colombian President (http:/ / dover. idf. il/ IDF/ English/ News/ today/ 10/ 10/ 2503. htm), IDF Spokesperson's Unit 25-10-2010


Further reading
Rosenthal, Donna (2003). The Israelis. Free Press. ISBN0-7432-7035-5. Ostfeld, Zehava (1994). Shiftel, Shoshana. ed. An Army is Born. Israel Ministry of Defense. ISBN965-05-0695-0.

Gelber, Yoav (1986). Nucleus for a Standing Army. Yad Ben Tzvi. (Hebrew) Yehuda Shif, ed (1982). IDF in Its Corps: Army and Security Encyclopedia (18 volumes). Revivim Publishing.

Ron Tira, ed (2009). The Nature of War: Conflicting Paradigms and Israeli Military Effectiveness. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN978-1-84519-378-2. Country Briefing: Israel, Jane's Defence Weekly, 19 June 1996

External links
IDF Official Website (http://www.idf.il/894-en/IDFGDover.aspx) IDF Official Blog - news and updates from the field (http://idfspokesperson.com/) IDF Code of Conduct (http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief3-8.htm) Moshe Yaalon, The IDF and the Israeli Spirit (http://www.adelsoninstitute.org.il/FullArticleViewer. aspx?id=119&member=a) The IDF Spirit the ethical code of the IDF (http://dover.idf.il/IDF/English/about/doctrine/ethics.htm) Palestinian violence and terror attacks since September 2000 (http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/TerrorismObstacle to Peace/Palestinian terror since 2000/Palestinian violence and terrorism since September) A list of civilians and soldiers who died during Palestinian terror attacks since September 2000 (http://www. mfa.gov.il/MFA/Terrorism- Obstacle to Peace/Memorial/2000/In Memory of the Victims of Palestinian Violence a) CNN.com Special Victims of Terror (http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2002/terror.victims/) isayeret.com (http://www.isayeret.com/) The Israeli Special Forces Database Israeli Weapons (http://www.israeli-weapons.com)

Jerusalem volunteer Border Guard (http://www.israelborderguardvolunteers.com/) Tsahal-Miniature (http://www.tsahal-miniature.com/)

Israel Defense Forces Israeli Armed Forces at Flags of the World (http://www.fotw.net/flags/il^.html) IDF photos (http://plasmastik.livejournal.com/tag/++ ) GlobalSecurity.org entry (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/israel/idf.htm) Israel's War History (http://www.972films.com/israels-war-history/) Israel Military Forum (http://www.israelmilitary.net/) UNwatch, Goldstone Gaza Report: Col. Richard Kemp Testifies at U.N. Emergency Session (http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=NX6vyT8RzMo)


M1 carbine


M1 carbine
Carbine, Caliber .30, M1

M1 Carbine Type Placeoforigin Carbine/Assault rifle (M2 and M3)

United States

Service history Inservice Usedby Wars July 19421973 (U.S.) See Users World War II Hukbalahap Rebellion Malayan Emergency Suez Crisis Korean War Cuban Revolution First Indochina War Vietnam War Cambodian Civil War Production history Designer Frederick L. Humeston William C. Roemer David Marshall Williams 19381941 Military contractors Commercial copies $45 (WW2) September 1941August 1945; commercial 1945-present Over 6.5 million M1A1, M1A3, M2, M2A2, M3 Specifications Weight Length Barrellength Cartridge Action Rateoffire 5.2lb (2.4kg) empty 35.6in (900mm) 18in (460mm) .30 Carbine Gas-operated, rotating bolt Semi-automatic (M1/A1) 850900 rounds/min (M2/M3)

Designed Manufacturer Unitcost Produced Numberbuilt Variants

Muzzlevelocity 1990ft/s (607m/s)

M1 carbine

Feedsystem Sights 15 or 30-round detachable box magazine Aperture L-type flip or adjustable rear sights, barleycorn-type front sight

The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1) is a lightweight, easy to use semi-automatic carbine that became a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War, and was produced in several variants. It was widely used by U.S. and foreign military, paramilitary and police forces, and has also been a popular civilian firearm. In selective fire versions capable of fully automatic fire, the carbine is designated the M2 carbine. The M3 carbine was an M2 with an active infrared scope system. Unlike conventional carbines, which are generally a version of a parent rifle with a shorter barrel (like the earlier .30-40 U.S. Krag rifle and carbine and the later M16A2 rifle and M4 carbine), the M1 carbine has only one part in common with the M1 rifle (a short buttplate screw) and fires a different cartridge.

Development history
Limitations of weapons in the U.S. arsenal
Prior to World War II, Army Ordnance received reports from various branches (infantry, armor, artillery, supply) that the full-size M1 Garand rifle was unsuitable as issued for an increasing number of soldiers with specialized training (mortar crews, machine gun crews, radiomen, tankers, artillerymen, forward observers, signals troops, engineers, headquarters staff etc.) who did not use the service rifle as a primary arm. During prewar and early war field exercises, it was noticed that these troops, when issued the rifle, often found their M1 Garand and M1 Carbine individual weapon too heavy and cumbersome. In addition to impeding the soldier's mobility, a slung rifle would frequently catch on brush, bang the helmet, or tilt it over the eyes. Many soldiers found the rifle slid off the shoulder unless slung diagonally across the back, where it prevented the wearing of standard field packs and haversacks. Alternate weapons such as the M1911 pistol and M1917 revolver, while undeniably convenient, were often insufficiently accurate or powerful, while the Thompson submachine gun, though reliable, was heavy and limited in both practical accuracy and penetration at typical combat ranges.[1] Additionally, Germany's use of glider-borne and paratroop forces to infiltrate and attack strategic points behind the front lines generated a request for a compact, selective-fire infantry small arm to equip support units and line-of-communications troops who might find themselves engaged in combat without prior warning.[2] [1] U.S. Army Ordnance decided that a selective-fire carbine would adequately fulfill all of these requirements, but specified that the new arm should add no more than five pounds to the existing equipment load.[3] The requirement for the new firearm called for a compact, lightweight defensive weapon with an effective range of 300 yards, with greater range, firepower, and accuracy than the pistol, while weighing half as much as the Thompson submachine gun or M1 rifle. Parachutists were added to the list of intended users after Ordnance received a request for a lighter and more compact infantry arm for airborne forces, and a folding-stock (M1A1) version of the carbine was introduced in May 1942 to meet this requirement. The first M1 carbines were delivered in mid-1942, with initial priority given to troops in the European Theater of Operations.[1]

M1 carbine


Designing the M1 carbine

In 1938, the Chief of Infantry requested the Ordnance Department develop a "light rifle" or carbine, though the formal requirement for the weapon type was not approved until 1940. This led to a competition in 1941 by major U.S. firearm companies and designers. The prototypes for the US M1 carbine were chambered for a new cartridge, the .30 Carbine, a smaller and lighter .30 caliber (7.62mm) round very different from the .30-06 in both design and performance. The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in muzzle energy (ME) and muzzle velocity (MV). Essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loading cartridge, the .30 Carbine had a round-nose 110gr (7.1g) bullet. From the M1 Carbine's 18in (460mm) barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately 1970ft/s (600m/s). Winchester at first did not submit a design, as it was occupied in developing the .30-06 Winchester M2 Military Rifle. The rifle originated as a design by Jonathan "Ed" Browning, brother of the famous firearm designer John Browning. A couple of months after Ed Browning's death in May 1939, Winchester hired ex-convict David M. "Carbine" Williams, a convicted murderer and former bootlegger who had begun work on a short-stroke gas piston design while serving a prison sentence. This story was the loose basis of the 1952 movie Carbine Williams starring James Stewart. Winchester hoped Williams would be able to complete various designs left unfinished by Ed Browning. Williams incorporated his short-stroke piston in the existing design. After the Marine Corps semi-automatic rifle trials in 1940, Browning's rear-locking tilting bolt design proved unreliable in sandy conditions. As a result, the rifle was redesigned to incorporate a Garand-style rotating bolt and operating rod, retaining Williams' short-stroke piston. By May 1941, the M2 rifle prototype had been shaved from about 9.5lb (4.3kg) to a mere 7.5lb (3.4kg).

From prototype to completion

Winchester contacted the Ordnance Department to examine their rifle design. Ordnance believed the design could be scaled down to a carbine which would weigh 4.5 to 4.75lb (2.02.2 kg). In response, Major Ren Studler demanded a carbine prototype as soon as possible. The first model was developed at Winchester in 13 days by William C. Roemer, Fred Humeston and three other Winchester engineers under supervision of Edwin Pugsley, essentially Williams' last version of the .30-06 M2 scaled down to the .30 SL cartridge.[4] This patchwork prototype was cobbled together using the trigger housing and lockwork of a Winchester M1905 rifle and a modified Garand operating rod. The prototype was an immediate hit with Army observers.[5] After the initial Army testing in August 1941, the Winchester design team set out to develop a more refined version. Williams participated in the finishing of this test prototype. The second prototype competed successfully against other carbine candidates in September 1941, and Winchester was notified of their victory the very next month. Standardization as the M1 Carbine was approved on October 22, 1941. Contrary to popular myth, Williams had little to do with the carbine's development, with the exception of his short-stroke gas piston design. As a matter of fact, Williams went about creating his own design apart from the other Winchester staff, which was not ready for testing until 81mm mortar crew in action at Camp Carson, December 1941, two months after the Winchester M1 Carbine had Colorado, April 24, 1943. The soldier on the left been adopted and type-classified. The supervisor of the carbine project has a slung M1 Carbine. at Winchester, Edwin Pugsley, conceded that Williams' final design was "an advance on the one that was accepted", but noted that Williams' decision to go it alone was a distinct impediment to the project,[4] and none of William's additional design features were incorporated into later M1 production. Further, in a memo in response to a possible lawsuit by Williams, in 1951 Winchester noted his patent for the short-stroke piston had been improperly granted as a previous patent covering the same principle of operation

M1 carbine was overlooked at the patent office.[4] The first M1 carbines were delivered in mid-1942, with initial priority given to troops in the European Theater of Operations.[1]


Combat use
World War II
The M1 carbine with its reduced-power .30 cartridge was not originally intended to serve as a primary weapon for combat infantrymen, nor was it comparable to more powerful assault rifles developed late in the war. Nevertheless, the carbine was soon widely issued to infantry officers, American paratroopers,[6] NCOs, ammunition bearers, forward artillery observers, and other frontline troops.[7] Its reputation in front-line combat was mixed. The M1 carbine gained generally high praise for its small size, light weight and firepower, especially by those troops who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon.[8] [9] However, negative reports began to surface with airborne operations in Sicily in 1943,[10] and increased during the fall and winter of 1944.[11] In the Pacific theater, soldiers and guerrilla forces operating in heavy M1 Carbine at First Iwo Jima Flag Raising jungle with only occasional enemy contact praised the carbine for its small size, light weight, and firepower.[12] Other soldiers and marines engaged in frequent daily firefights (particularly those serving in the Philippines) found the weapon to have insufficient stopping power and penetration.[13] [14] Reports of the carbine's failure to stop enemy soldiers, sometimes after multiple hits, appeared in individual after-action reports, postwar evaluations, and service histories of both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps.[13] [15] Aware of these shortcomings, the U.S. Army, its Pacific Command Ordnance staff, and the Aberdeen small arms facility continued to work on shortened versions of the Garand throughout the war, though none was ever officially adopted. While the .30 Carbine cartridge used in the M1 Carbine could not penetrate small trees and light cover as well as the standard U.S. .30-06 rifle cartridge, it was markedly superior to the .45-caliber Reising and Thompson submachineguns in both accuracy and penetration,[1] while its lighter .30 cartridge allowed soldiers to carry more ammunition. Lt. Col. John George, a small arms expert and intelligence officer serving in Burma with Merrill's Marauders, reported that .30 carbine bullets would easily penetrate the front and back of steel helmets, as well as the body armor used by Japanese forces of the era.[16] [17] The carbine's exclusive use of non-corrosive primered ammunition was found to be a godsend by troops and ordnance personnel serving in the Pacific, where barrel corrosion was a significant issue with the corrosive primers used in .30-06 caliber weapons.[13] However, in the ETO some soldiers reported misfires attributed to moisture ingress of the non-corrosive primer compound.[18] Select-fire and infrared sight versions Initially, the M1 Carbine was intended to have a select-fire capability, but in order to speed development of the final design, a decision was made to omit this feature. On 26 October 1944, in response to increased use of automatic fire weapons on the battlefield, the select-fire M2 carbine was adopted, along with a new 30-round magazine. The M2 had a fully automatic rate-of-fire of about 850-900 rounds-per-minute. Although actual M2 production began late in the war (April 1945), US Ordnance issued conversion part kits to allow field conversion of semi-auto M1 carbines to

M1 carbine the selective-fire M2 configuration. These converted M1/M2 select-fire carbines saw limited combat service in Europe, primarily during the final Allied advance into Germany. In the Pacific, both converted and original M2 carbines saw limited use in the last days of the fighting in the Philippines.[19] The M3 carbine (a selective-fire M2 with the M1 infrared night sight or sniperscope) was first used in combat by Army units during the invasion of Okinawa. For the first time, U.S. soldiers had a weapon that allowed them to visually detect Japanese infiltrating into American lines at night, even during pitch blackness. A team of two or three soldiers was used to operate the weapon and provide support.[20] At night, the scope would be used to detect Japanese patrols and assault units moving forward. At that point, the operator would fire a burst of automatic fire at the greenish images of enemy soldiers.[20] The M3 with the M1 sight had an effective range of about 70 yards (limited by the visual capabilities of the sight).[21] Fog and rain further reduced the weapon's effective range.[20] [21] It is estimated that fully 30% of Japanese casualties inflicted by rifle and carbine fire during the Okinawan campaign were caused by the M3 carbine and its M1 sniperscope.[20]


Korean War
The M1, M2, and M3 carbine all saw service during the Korean War, although the M2 armed the majority of U.S. Army and Marine units deployed there.[22] In Korea, all versions of the carbine soon acquired a widespread reputation among both soldiers and marines for jamming in extreme cold weather conditions,[23] [24] [25] eventually traced to inadequate recoil impulse and weak return springs.[26] [27] A 1951 official U.S. Army evaluation of scores of individual after-action combat reports for all small arms usage in Korea by the Eighth Army M1 carbine in action during Korean War. Note: from 1 November 1950 to 1 March 1951 documented the weapon's 30-round magazine, stock pouch for two 15-round Magazine and grenade launcher. cold-weather shortcomings, as well as noting complaints from individual soldiers that the carbine bullet failed to stop heavily clothed[28] [29] [30] [31] or gear-laden[32] [33] [34] North Korean and Chinese (PLA) troops at close range after multiple hits.[24] [26] [35] Soldiers reported that their "reaction to the weapons family was almost universally to the point that what they have is good and adequate to the tactical need...The one exception was the carbine. One company in the 38th Infantry Regiment expressed its satisfaction with this weapon; but it was alone in the Eighth Army. In all other units, bad experience in battle had made troops shy of this weapon."[36] Marines of the 1st Marine Division also reported instances of carbine bullets failing to stop enemy soldiers, and some units issued standing orders for carbine users to aim for the head.[37] [38] Ironically, PLA infantry forces who had been issued captured U.S. small arms disliked the carbine for the same reason.[39] The M3 carbine with an improved M2 (later, M3) infrared sniperscope also returned to combat, and was used principally during the static stages of the conflict against night infiltrators. The M3 with the improved M3 night sight had an effective range of approximately 125 yards.[21]

M1 carbine


The M1 and M2 carbines were again issued to U.S. forces during the Vietnam War, particularly with United States Air Force Security Police and United States Army Special Forces. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 and by M16A1 in the early to mid-1960s and were generally out of service by the late 1960s. Although they were used in limited numbers by U.S. troops and security personnel until the fall of Saigon in 1975. At least 793,994 M1 and M2 carbines were given to the South Vietnamese and were widely used throughout the Vietnam War.[40] A number were captured during the war by Vietcong.[41]

ARVN soldiers with M1 carbines and U.S. Special Forces with M16s

The M1/M2/M3 carbines were the most heavily produced family of U.S. military weapons for several decades. They were used by every branch of the U.S. Armed Forces and are one of the most recognised firearms in the world.

Design and operation

The M1 carbine's bolt mechanism is similar to the M1 rifle, though the carbine has a different gas system and trigger mechanism design. The gas system is a lightweight tappet-and-slide gas system. Initially fed from a 15 round magazine, a 30 round magazine was introduced for the M2. The very first carbines, those made before mid-1943, were originally equipped with a "V-cut" extractor for removal of the fired round from the chamber. The "V-cut" design was found to be flawed and unreliable. In the field "V-cut" extractors were reground to a straight configuration, which enhanced reliability, until factory production was able to supply the better design.

A U.S. anti-tank crew in combat in the Netherlands, November 4, 1944. The soldier on the far right is holding an M1 Carbine

The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in both muzzle energy (ME) and muzzle velocity (MV). It is essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loading cartridge.[42] The .30 Carbine had a round-nose 110gr (7.1g) bullet, in contrast to the spitzer bullet designs found in most full-power rifle cartridges of the day. From the M1 carbine's 18in (460mm) barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately 1970ft/s (600m/s), a velocity between that of contemporary submachine guns (approximately 900 to 1,600ft/s (300500 m/s)) and full-power rifles and light machine guns (approximately 2,400 to 2,800ft/s (700900 m/s)). At the M1 carbine's maximum effective combat range of 300 yards (270m), its bullet has about the same energy as pistol rounds like the 8mm Nambu do at the muzzle. Bullet drop is significant past 200 yards (180m).[42] One characteristic of .30 Carbine ammunition is that from the beginning of production, non-corrosive primers were specified. This was the first major use of this type of primer in a military firearm. Because the rifle had a closed gas system, not normally disassembled, corrosive primers would have led to a rapid deterioration of the gas system.[43] The use of non-corrosive primers was a novelty in service ammunition at this time.[44] Some misfires were reported in early lots of .30 Carbine ammunition, attributed to moisture ingress of the non-corrosive primer compound.[18] Categorizing the M1 carbine series has been the subject of much debate. The M1 is sufficiently accurate at short ranges. At 100 yards (91m), it can deliver groups of between 3 and 5 minutes of angle, sufficient for its intended

M1 carbine purpose as a close-range defensive weapon. Its muzzle energy and range are beyond those of any submachine gun of the period, though its bullet is much lighter in weight and smaller in diameter than that of .45 caliber weapons, and much less powerful than those of other service rifles of the period. The M1 and later M2 carbines were never designed to be assault rifles, such as the later German StG44 and Russian AK-47, and the .30 Carbine cartridge gives up significant muzzle velocity (roughly 350ft/s (110m/s)) to both. Additionally, the bullets used in the cartridges of the AK-47 and StG44 are spitzer designs, and suffer less energy loss and trajectory drop at distances beyond 100 yards. Most authorities list the effective combat range of the M1 carbine at around 200 yards, compared to 250-300 yards (230270 m) for the AK-47 and StG44.


Perhaps the most common accessory used on the M1 Carbine was a magazine pouch that was mounted to the right side of the stock and held two spare 15-round magazines. At first, these were standard belt pouches that were modified by the troops in the field to fit on the M1 Carbine's stock. However, the military soon recognized the value of these stock pouches and made them a standard-issue item. After the introduction of the 30-round magazine, it was common for the troops to tape two 30-round magazines together. This led the military to introduce the "Jungle Clip", which was a metal clamp that would hold two magazines together without the need of tape. A folding stock version of the Carbine was also developed after a request was made for a compact and light infantry arm for airborne troops. The M1 carbine was used with the M8 grenade launcher, which was fired with the M6 cartridge to launch 22 mm rifle grenades. It also A United States Marine equipped with an M1 accepts the M4 bayonet, which was based on the M3 knife. The M4 Carbine in the Battle of Iwo Jima, February 1945. bayonet formed the basis for the later M6 and M7 bayonet-knives. The An M8 grenade launcher can be seen attached to carbine was modified from its original design to incorporate a bayonet, the muzzle of the weapon due to requests from the field. Very few carbines with bayonet lugs reached the front lines before the end of World War II. This modification was made to nearly all carbines during arsenal rebuild following World War II. By the time the Korean War began, the bayonet-equipped M1 was standard issue. It is now rare to find a non bayonet lug-equipped original M1 carbine. As carbines were reconditioned at arsenals, parts such as the magazine catch, rear sight, barrel band with bayonet lug, and stock were upgraded with the current standard issue parts, usually parts as redesigned for the M2 carbine. During World War II, the T23 (M3) flash hider was designed to reduce the muzzle flash from the carbine, but was not introduced into service until the advent of the M3 carbine.[45] With the exception of T23 hiders mounted on M3 Carbines, few if any T23 flash hider attachments saw service during World War II, though unit armorers occasionally hand-built improvised compensator/flash hiders of their own design.[19] [45]

A total of over 6.5 million M1 carbines of various models were manufactured, making it the most produced small arm for the American military during World War II (compared with about 6 million M1 rifles and under 2 million Thompson submachine guns). Despite being designed by Winchester, the great majority of these were made by other companies (see list of Military contractors below). The largest producer was the Inland division of General Motors, but many others were made by contractors as diverse as IBM, the Underwood Typewriter Company, and the Rock-Ola jukebox company. Few contractors made all the parts for carbines bearing their name: some makers bought parts from other major contractors or sub-contracted minor parts to companies like Marlin Firearms or

M1 carbine Auto-Ordnance. Parts by all makers were required to be interchangeable. Irwin-Pedersen models were the fewest produced, at a little over 4,000. Many carbines were refurbished at several arsenals after the war, with many parts interchanged from original maker carbines. True untouched war production carbines, therefore, are the most desirable for collectors.[46] The M1 carbine was also one of the most cost effective weapons used by the United States Military during World War II. At the beginning of World War II the average production cost for an M1 carbine was approximately $45, about half the cost of an M1 Garand at approximately $85 and about a fifth of the cost of a Thompson submachine gun at approximately $225. The .30 Carbine ammunition was also far cheaper to produce than the standard .30-06 ammunition; used less resources, was smaller, lighter, faster and easier to make. These were major factors in the United States Military decision to adopt the M1 carbine, especially when considering the vast numbers of weapons and ammunition manufactured and transported by the United States during World War II.


Foreign usage
During World War II, the British SAS used the M1 and M1A1 carbines after 1943. The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply .30 caliber weapons from US stocks in the weapons containers dropped to Resistance groups sponsored by an SOE, or later also Office of Strategic Services (OSS), organizer, on the assumption the groups so supplied would be operating in areas within the operational boundaries of U.S. forces committed to Operation Overlord. They were found to be suited to the kind of operation the two British, two French, and one Belgian Regiment carried out. It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep. Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unit sponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.. The Carbine continued to be utilized as late as the Malayan Emergency, by the Police Field Force[47] of the Royal Malaysian Police, along with other units of the British Army,[48] [49] were issued the M2 Carbine for both jungle patrols and outpost defense. The Royal Ulster Constabulary also used the M1 carbine.[50] Small numbers of captured M1 carbines were used by German forces in World War II, particularly after D-Day.[51] The German designation for captured carbines was Selbstladekarabiner 455(a). The "(a)" came from the country name in German; in this case, Amerika. It was also used by German police and border guard in Bavaria after World War II and into the 1950s. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped "Bundesgrenzschutz". Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels.

Ethiopian soldiers deployed with U.S.-made weapons somewhere in Korea, 1953. Note the M1 Carbine with two 30-round magazines taped together "Jungle style".

Female South Vietnamese Popular Force members on patrol with M1 carbines.

A variant was produced shortly after World War II by the Japanese manufacturer Howa Machinery, under U.S. supervision. These were issued to all branches of the Japan Self-Defense Forces, and large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.

M1 carbine The M1 carbine was also used by the Israeli Palmach-based special forces in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. And, because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they continued to be used Israeli Defence Forces after the creation of Israel. The Israeli police still uses the M1 carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and Mash'az volunteers. The M1 carbine was also used by the French Paratroopers and Legionnaires during the Indo-China War and Algerian War.[52] The M1 and M2 carbines were widely used by military, police and security forces during the many guerrilla and civil wars throughout Latin America until the 1990s when they were mostly replaced by more modern designs. In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a police battalion named BOPE (Batalho de Operaes Policiais Especiais, or "Special Police Operations Battalion") still uses the M1 carbine. The government of the Philippines still issues M1 carbines to the infantrymen of the Philippine Army's 2nd Infantry Division assigned in Luzon Island (some units are issued just M14 Automatic Rifles and M1 Carbines) and the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit (CAFGU) and Civilian Volunteer Organizations (CVO)spread throughout the Philippines. Certain provincial police units of the Philippine National Police (PNP) still use government-issue M1 carbines as well as some operating units of the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI). In many provinces of the Philippines, M1 carbines are still highly valued as a light small arm. Elements of the New People's Army and Islamic Secessionist movement value the carbine as a lightweight weapon and preferred choice for mountain and ambush operations. The M1 carbine has become one of the most recognized firearms in Philippine society, with the Marikina City-based company ARMSCOR Philippines still continuing to manufacture .30 caliber ammunition for the Philippine market. After World War II, the M1 and M2 carbines were widely exported to U.S. allies and client states (1,015,568 to South Korea, 793,994 to South Vietnam, 269,644 to France, etc.),[40] they were used as a frontline weapon well into the Vietnam War era, and they continue to be used by military, police and security forces around the world to this day.


The unit data provided below refers to original U.S. Ordnance contract carbines the United States provided these countries. Many countries sold, traded, destroyed, and/or donated these carbines to other countries and/or private gun brokers.[40] Allies of World War II (1940s) Algeria: (Captured in large numbers from French military personnel during the Algerian Independence War)[52] Angola: 12,215 units[40] Argentina: 12,621 units[40] Austria: 39,005 units[40] [53] (1950s70s, Austrian Army and Police) Bavaria: 14,647 units[54] (1945early 1950s, Border Guard) Brazil: (present, BOPE) Bolivia: 13,438 units[40] Burma: 28,792 units[40] Cambodia: 115,568 units[40] (Khmer Republic) [55] (19671975) Canada: 230 units[40] Chile: 2,877 units[40] China: 361 units[40] Colombia: 7,037 units[40] Costa Rica: 6,000 units[40] Cuba: 118 units[40]

M1 carbine Ecuador: 576 units[40] El Salvador: 156 units[40] Ethiopia: 16,417 units[40] [56] France: 269,644 units[40] (19541962, Algerian War) French Indochina: 35,429 units[40] Germany: 34,192 units[40] (German Border Guard, some Police forces and German Army paratroopers (1950s-1960s) Greece: 38,264 units[40] (Hellenic (Greek) Air Force until mid 90s) Guatemala: 6063 units[40] [57] Honduras: 5,581 units[40] Iran: 10,000 units[40] Ireland:[58] (1969-1980s, Used by the Provisional IRA during the early years of their campaign. Over 50 of which were smuggled by Harrison Network.) Israel: 10,000 units[40] (19451957, Israel Defence Forces; 1970spresent, Israel Police; 1974present, Civil Guard) Italy: 146,863 units[40] (Carabinieri, as of 1992) Japan: 3,974 units[40] (National Police Reserve)(19501989)


Jordan: 1912 units[40] Laos: 74,587 units[40] Lebanon: 900 units[40] Liberia: 80 units[40] [59] Libya: 106 units[40] Mexico: 48,946 units[40] (police departments and security forces) Morocco: 945 units[40] Netherlands: 84,523 units[40] (1940s-70s, Army and Police) Nicaragua: 121 units[40] Nigeria: 100 units[40] Norway: 98,267 units[40] (Norwegian Army 1951-70, with some Norwegian police units until the 1990s) Pakistan: 45 units[40] Panama: 917 units[40] Peru: 821 units[40] Philippines: 8,831 units[40] (Post-World War II) South Korea: 1,015,558 units[40] (1950s-Present, Reserve Force) South Vietnam: 793,994 units[40] (1960s70s) Suriname: (?-Present, Army) Taiwan: 115,948 units[40] (Republic of China) (1950s-present) Thailand: 73,012 units[40] Locally known as the .87. Tunisia: 771 units[40] Turkey: 450 units[40] (Used by Troops in South Korea) United Kingdom: 200,766 units[40] (Limited use by the British military from 1943 to the 1960s and by the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland until the 1980s) United States: 6,110,730 units[40] (1940s60s/70s, Armed Forces and 1940s-present, various law enforcement agencies) Uruguay: 32,346 units[40] USSR: 7 units[40] Vietnam: (Largely captured and/or inherited from now-defunct Army of the Republic of Vietnam)[40] [60]

M1 carbine


The standard issue versions of the carbine officially listed and supported were the M1, M1A1, M2 and M3.[61]

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A1

Folding stock, 15-round magazine Paratrooper model About 150,000 produced
M1A1 Carbine. Paratrooper model with folding buttstock.

Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors. Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock. Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals. An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today.

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A2

Proposed variant with improved sight adjustable for windage and elevation Produced only as 'overstamped' model (an arsenal-refurbished M1 with new rear sight and other late M1 improvements)

Carbine, Cal .30, M1A3

Pantograph stock, 15-round magazine Type standardized to replace the M1A1 but may not have been issued. Pantograph stock was more rigid than the M1A1's folding stock and folded flush under the fore end.

Carbine, Cal .30, M2

Early 1945 Selective fire (capable of fully automatic fire) 30-round magazine About 600,000 produced Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature. Fully automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 (an improved, selective-fire version of the M1), introduced in 1944. The M2 had a revised wood stock and featured the late M1 improvements to rear sight, a bayonet lug, and other minor changes. Although some carbines were marked at the factory as M2, the only significant difference between an M1 and M2 carbine is the fire control group. The military issued field conversion kits (T17 and T18) to convert an M1 to an M2. Legally a carbine marked M2 is always a machine gun for national firearms registry purposes. Other changes developed for the M2 were a 30 round magazine with three catch nibs (as opposed to two on the fifteen round magazine); and a magazine catch with a third retaining surface. These M2 parts including the heavier M2 stock were standardized for arsenal rebuild of M1 and M1A1 carbines. A modified round bolt replaced the original flat top bolt to save machining steps in manufacture. Many sources erroneously refer to this round bolt as an 'M2 bolt' but it was developed as a standard part for new manufacture M1 and later M2 carbines and as a replacement part, with priority given to use on M1A1 and M2 carbines.[62] The slightly heavier round bolt did moderate the cyclic rate of the M2 on full automatic.[63]

M1 carbine


Carbine, Cal. 30, M2A2

Arsenal-refurbished (overstamped M2) model

Carbine, Cal .30, M3

M2 with mounting (T3 mount) for an early active (infrared) night vision sight. About 3,000 produced. Three versions of night sight (M1, M2, M3) The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine fitted with a mount designed to accept an infrared sight for use at night. It was initially used with the M1 sniperscope, an active infrared sight, and saw action in 1945 with the Army during the invasion of Okinawa. Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniperscope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T120, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean War, the M3 carbine was used with the M3 sniperscope.

Original Korean War era USMC M3 Sniperscope

The M2 sniperscope extended the effective nighttime range of the M3 carbine to 100 yards. In the later stages of the Korean War, an improved version of the M3 carbine, with a revised mount, a forward pistol grip, and a new M3 sniperscope design was used in the latter stages of Korea and briefly in Vietnam. The M3 sniperscope had a large active infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope body itself, allowing use in the prone position. The revised M3/M3 had an effective range of around 125 yards.[21] Eventually, the M3 carbine and its M3 sniperscope would be superseded by passive-design night vision scopes with extended visible ranges; the improved scopes in turn required the use of rifle-caliber weapons with flatter trajectories and increased hit probability.

Ingram SAM-1
The Ingram SAM rifles are M1 carbine derivatives ranging in calibers from 5.56x45mm NATO, 7.62x39mm and 7.62x51mm NATO.

Military contractors
Inland Division, General Motors (production: 2,632,097), sole producer of the M1A1 Carbine. Receiver marked "INLAND DIV." Winchester Repeating Arms (production: 828,059) Receiver marked "WINCHESTER"[64] Irwin-Pedersen (operated by Saginaw Steering Gear and production included with Saginaw total) Saginaw Steering Gear Division General Motors (production: 517,213 ) Receivers marked "SAGINAW S.G." (370,490) and "IRWIN-PEDERSEN" (146,723 ) Underwood Elliot Fisher (production: 545,616) Receiver marked "UNDERWOOD" National Postal Meter (production: 413,017) Receiver marked "NATIONAL POSTAL METER" Quality Hardware Manufacturing Corp. (production: 359,666) Receiver marked "QUALITY H.M.C." International Business Machines (production: 346,500) Receiver marked "I.B.M. CORP." Standard Products (production: 247,100) Receiver marked "STD. PRO." Rock-Ola Manufacturing Corporation (production: 228,500) Receiver Marked "ROCK-OLA" [65] Commercial Controls Corporation (production: 239) Receiver marked "COMMERCIAL CONTROLS"

M1 carbine


Commercial copies
Several companies manufactured copies of the M1 Carbine after World War II, which varied in quality. Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals. These copies were marketed to the general public and police agencies but were not made for or used by the U.S. military. In 1963, firearms designer Melvin M. Johnson introduced a version of the M1 Carbine called the "Spitfire" that fired a 5.7mm (.22in) wildcat cartridge known as the 5.7mm MMJ or .22 Spitfire.[42] The Spitfire fired a 40-grain (2.6g) bullet with a muzzle velocity of An Auto-Ordnance AOM-130 Carbine manufactured in 2007. 2850ft/s (870m/s) for a muzzle energy of 720 foot-pounds force (980J).[66] Johnson advertised the smaller caliber and the modified carbine as a survival rifle for use in jungles or other remote areas.[66] While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 Carbine, it was not pursued, and few Spitfire carbines were made.[66] More recently, the Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 Carbine replica in 2005. The original Auto-Ordnance had produced various replacement parts for IBM during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica. The AOM110 and AOM120 models (no longer produced) featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs. The current AOM130 and AOM140 models are identical except for American walnut stocks and handguards.[67] [68] An Israeli arms company (Advanced Combat Systems) offers a modernized bullpup variant called the Hezi SM-1.[69] The company claims accuracy of 1.5 MOA at 100 yards (91m).[70] Other commercial manufacturers have included: Alpine of Azusa, Calif.[71] AMAC or Jacksonville, Ark. (acquired Iver Johnson Arms)[72] AMPCO of Miami, Fla.[73] Bullseye Gun Works of Miami, Fla.[74] Crosman Air Rifle; produced an M1 Carbine look-a-like [75] ERMA's Firearms Manufacturing of Steelville, Mo.[76] Erma Werke of Dachau, Bavaria serviced carbines used by the West German police post World War II. Manufactured replacement parts for the same carbines. Manufactured .22 replica carbines for use as training rifles for police in West Germany and Austria. Also for commercial export worldwide.[77] [78] Federal Ordnance of South El Monte, Calif.[79] Global Arms [80] H&S of Plainfield, NJ (predecessor of Plainfield Machine)[81] Howa of Nagoya, Japan, made carbines and parts for the post-World War II Japanese and Thai militaries, and limited numbers of a hunting rifle version [82] Israel Arms International (IAI) of Houston, Texas assembled carbines from parts from other sources [83] The Iver Johnson Arms of Plainfield, NJ and later Jacksonville, Ark., (acquired M1 Carbine operations of Plainfield Machine) and followed the lead of Universal in producing a pistol version called the "Enforcer".[84] Johnston-Tucker of St. Louis, Mo.[85] Millvile Ordnance (MOCO) of Union, N.J. (predecessor of H&S) [86] National Ordnance of Azusa, Calif. and later South El Monte, Calif.[87]

NATO of Atlanta, GA[88] Plainfield Machine Company of Plainfield, N.J. and later Middlesex, N.J. (P.O. Box in Dunellen, N.J.), M1 Carbine manufacture later purchased and operated by Iver Johnson [89]

M1 carbine Rock Island Armory of Geneseo, Ill.[90] Rowen, Becker Company of Waterville, Ohio [91] Springfield Armory of Geneseo, Ill.[92] Texas Armament Co. of Brownwood, Tex.[93] Tiroler Sportwaffenfabrik und Apparatenbau GmbH of Kugstein, Austria manufactured an air rifle that looked and operated like the M1 Carbine for use in training by Austria and West Germany.[94] Universal Firearms of Hialeah, Fla. - Early Universal guns were, like other manufacturers, assembled from USGI parts. However, beginning in 1968, the company began producing the "New Carbine", which externally resembled the M1 but was in fact a completely new firearm internally, using a different receiver, bolt carrier, bolt, recoil spring assembly, etc. with almost no interchangeability with GI-issue carbines.[95] Acquired by Iver Johnson in 1983 and moved to Jacksonville, Ark. in 1985. Williams Gun Sight of Davison, Mich. produced a series of 50 sporterized M1 Carbines [96]


Hunting and civilian use

After World War II, the M1 Carbine became a popular target and ranch rifle, until it was replaced in that role by more modern semi-automatic rifles; such as the .223 caliber Ruger Mini-14. The M1 Carbine can be used for big-game hunting, such as white-tailed deer and mule deer at close range (less than 100 yards), but is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elk, moose, and bear. A standard .30 carbine soft-point round weighs 110 grains (7.1g) and has a muzzle velocity of about 1900ft/s (580m/s) giving it about 880ftlbf (1190joules) of energy. By comparison, a .357 Magnum revolver fires the 110 grains (7.1g) hollow-point bullet from a 4-inch (100mm) barrel at about 1500ft/s (460m/s) for about 550ftlbf (750J) of energy.[97] 30 Carbine sporting ammunition is factory recommended for hunting and control of large varmints like fox, javelina or coyote. Some U.S. states prohibit use of the .30 Carbine cartridge for hunting deer and larger animals due to a lessened chance A famous photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 with two 30-round of killing an animal in a single shot, even with expanding bullets. The M1 magazines clipped together using the Carbine is also prohibited for hunting in several states such as "Jungle style" method. Pennsylvania[98] because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois[99] which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting. Five round magazines are commercially made for use in states that limit the capacity of semi-automatic hunting rifles. Ten round magazines are made for use in jurisdictions that limit the capacity of defensive weapons. The M1 Carbine was also used by various law enforcement agencies and prison guards, and was prominently carried by riot police during the civil unrest of the late 1960s and early 1970s; until it was replaced in those roles by more modern .223 caliber semi-automatic rifles such as the Ruger Mini-14 and the Colt AR-15 type rifles in the late 1970s. The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by Malcolm X (as a self-defense tool) and Patty Hearst (as a bank robbery weapon). Both were featured in famous news photographs carrying the carbine.

M1 carbine


The M1 Carbine is still in use today by many civilian shooters around the world. The M1 carbine is used in military marksmanship training and competitive target matches conducted by rifle clubs affiliated with the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) and is also prized as a historically significant collector's item.

Related equipment and accessories

Patty Hearst holding a sawed-off M1 carbine during her infamous bank robbery attempt.

Ammunition types
The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include:[100] Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Ball, M1 Cartridge, Grenade, Caliber .30, M6 (also authorized for other blank firing uses, due to a lack of a dedicated blank cartridge) Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Dummy, M13 Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Ball, Test, High Pressure, M18 Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Tracer, M16 (also rated as having an incendiary effect) Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Tracer, M27 (dimmer illumination and no incendiary effect)

[1] George, John, Shots Fired In Anger, (2nd ed., enlarged), Washington, D.C.: NRA Press, ISBN 093599842X, 9780935998429 (1981), p. 394 [2] Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. and New York: Galahad Books, ISBN 0883654032, 9780883654033 (1979), p. 130 [3] Larry Ruth, M1 Carbine: Design, Development & Production, (The Gun Room Press, 1979, ISBN 0-88227-020-6) contains many Ordnance documents related to the "Light Rifle" specification that led to the M1 carbine [4] Canfield, Bruce N., "'Carbine' Williams: Myth & Reality", The American Rifleman, February 2009. [5] Bishop, Chris (1998). The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. New York: Orbis Publiishing Ltd. ISBN0-7607-1022-8. [6] Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, p. 33: Officers were issued .45 M1911 pistols as individual weapons until 1943, when they were issued the M1 Carbine in place of the pistol. [7] Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1-84176-739-5, pp. 33-35: Officers and NCOs, as well as airborne and other elite troops were frequently allowed to exchange with Ordnance personnel for their individual weapon of choice. [8] Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Mount Ida AR: Lancer Militaria Press, ISBN 0935856021, 9780935856026 (1988), pp. 191-195: Small-statured men such as Capt. Shore and Sgt. Audie Murphy liked the carbine, as its small stock dimensions fit them particularly well. [9] McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World War II, New York: Random House Publishing, ISBN 0891418237 (1998), p. 52: Sergeant Herbert Miller of the U.S. 6th Armored Division stated that he "was very happy with the carbine...It's fast, it's easy to use in a hurry. For churches and houses and things like that, it was good." [10] Gavin, James M. (Lt. Gen.), War and Peace in the Space Age, New York: Harper and Brothers (1958), pp. 57, 63: Col. Gavin's love affair with his M1A1 carbine ended in Sicily, when his carbine and that of Maj. Vandervoort jammed repeatedly. Noticing that carbine fire rarely suppressed rifle fire from German infantry, he and Vandervoort traded with wounded soldiers for their M1 rifles and ammunition; Gavin carried an M1 rifle for the rest of the war.

M1 carbine
[11] Burgett, Donald, Seven Roads To Hell, New York: Dell Publishing (1999), ISBN 0-440-23627-4 pp. 153-154: Burgett, a machine-gunner in the 101st Airborne from Normandy to the Battle of the Bulge, witnessed several failures of the .30 carbine to stop German soldiers after being hit. [12] Chapman, F. Spencer, The Jungle Is Neutral: A Soldier's Two-Year Escape from the Japanese Army, Lyons Press, 1st ed., ISBN 1592281079, 9781592281077 (2003), p. 300 [13] Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 297 [14] McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World War II, New York: Random House Publishing, ISBN 0891418237 (1998), p. 52: Private Richard Lovett of the U.S. Americal Division noted that "It didn't have stopping power. Enemy soldiers were shot many times but kept on coming." [15] McManus, John C., The Deadly Brotherhood, p. 52 [16] U.S. Army, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces: Body armor, Technical Manual, 15 September 1944, Chap. X, sec. 4(b) http:/ / www. ibiblio. org/ hyperwar/ Japan/ IJA/ HB/ HB-10. html [17] George, John, Shots Fired In Anger NRA Press (1981), p. 450 [18] Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Lancer Militaria Press (1988), pp. 191-195 [19] Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Pub. Co., The Samworth Press, ISBN 1884849091 (1948), p. 240 [20] Rush, Robert S., US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing (2002), ISBN 1-84176-330-6, 9781841763309, p.53 [21] M3 Infra Red Night Sight Article (http:/ / www. rt66. com/ ~korteng/ SmallArms/ m3irsnip. htm) [22] Canfield, Bruce, Arms of the Chosin Few (http:/ / www. americanrifleman. org/ articles/ arms-chosin-few/ ) American Rifleman, 2 November 2010, retrieved 10 May 2011 [23] Dill, James, Winter of the Yalu, Changjin Journal 06.22.00 [24] Canfield, Bruce, Arms of the Chosin Few American Rifleman, 2 November 2010, retrieved 10 May 2011 [25] Hammel, Eric, Chosin: Heroic Ordeal of the Korean War, Zenith Press, 1st ed., ISBN 9780760331545, 9780760331545 (2007), p. 205 [26] S.L.A. Marshall, Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51, 1st Report ORO-R-13 of 27 October 1951, Project Doughboy [Restricted], Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1951) [27] Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0871139936, 9780871139931 (2009), p. 161 [28] O'Donnell, Patrick, Give Me Tomorrow: The Korean War's Greatest Untold Story: The Epic Stand of the Marines of George Company, Da Capo Press 1st ed., ISBN 0306818019, 9780306818011 (2010), p. 88, 168, 173 [29] Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0871139936, 9780871139931 (2009), p. 113: In addition to their bulky cotton-padded telegroika coats, which could freeze solid with perspiration, Chicom infantry frequently wore vests or undercoats of thick goatskin. [30] Jowett, Philip S., The Chinese Army 1937-49: World War II and Civil War, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 9781841769042 (2005), p. 47 [31] Thomas, Nigel, The Korean War 1950-53, Osprey Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0850456851, 9780850456851 (1986), p. 47 [32] Andrew, Martin (Dr.), Logistics in the PLA, Army Sustainment, Vol. 42, Issue 2, MarchApril 2010 [33] Thomas, Nigel, The Korean War 1950-53, Osprey Publishing Ltd., ISBN 0850456851, 9780850456851 (1986), pp. 37, 47: Many Chinese troops carried either rice or shaoping, an unleavened bread flour mixture in a fabric tube slung over the shoulder. [34] Chinese troops frequently wore bandolier-type ammunition pouches and carried extra PPsh or Thompson magazines in addition to 4-5 stick grenades. [35] Russ, Martin, Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign: Korea 1950, Penguin Publishing, ISBN 0140292594, 9780140292596 (2000), p. 40: The failure of the .30 carbine round to stop enemy soldiers may not have been due to inadequate penetration. Marine Lt. James Stemple reported that he shot an enemy soldier with his M2 carbine four times in the chest and saw the padding fly out the back of the soldier's padded jacket as the bullets penetrated his body, yet the enemy soldier kept on coming. [36] Marshall, S.L.A., Infantry Operations and Weapons Usage in Korea, Project Doughboy, Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1953), pp. 26-27 [37] Clavin, Tom, Last Stand of Fox Company, New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, ISBN 0871139936, 9780871139931 (2009), pp. 82, 113 [38] O'Donnell, Patrick, Give Me Tomorrow: The Korean War's Greatest Untold Story, p. 88 [39] Spurr, Russell, Enter the Dragon: China's Undeclared War Against the U.S. in Korea, 1950-51, New York, NY: Newmarket Press, ISBN 9781557049148 (1998), p.182: Chinese frontline PLA troops disliked the M1/M2 carbine, as they believed its cartridge had inadequate stopping power. Captured U.S. carbines were instead issued to runners and mortar crews. [40] http:/ / www. bavarianm1carbines. com/ carbinesnara. html [41] Diagram Group (1991). Weapons: An international encyclopedia from 5000 B.C. to 2000 A.D.. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc.. ISBN0-312-03950-6 [42] Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0873490339, 9780873490337 (6th ed., 1989), p. 52 [43] Roberts, Joe American Rifleman (December 2007) p.20 [44] Dunlap, Roy, Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 293 [45] Ruth, Larry L. War Baby: The U.S. Caliber .30 Carbine, Vol. 1, Collector Grade Publications, ISBN 0889351171, 9780889351172 (1992), pp. 621-623 [46] "A Pocket History of the M1 Carbine" - Fulton Armory (http:/ / www. fulton-armory. com/ M1Carbine. htm) [47] http:/ / www. cameron-highland-destination. com/ jungle-beat-roy-follows-fort-brooke. html


M1 carbine
[48] William, Jack and Moran, Grace Spearhead in Malaya 1959 P. Davies, p. 239 [49] Crawford, Oliver, The Door Marked Malaya, London: Rupert Hart-Davis (1958), p. 88 [50] Central Office of Information British Information Services Survey of Current Affairs 1977 H.M Stationary Office [51] Donald M. Goldstein, Katherine V. Dillon and J. Michael Wenger, Nuts! The Battle of the Bulge, Brassey's, 1994, ISBN-0-02-881069-4. Page 75, photo 4-69, captured German film shows German officer armed with a M1 carbine in the Battle of the Bulge, Dec 1944. [52] Unwin, Charles C.; Vanessa U., Mike R., eds (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN1840132763. [53] http:/ / www. bavarianm1carbines. com/ austria. html [54] http:/ / www. bavarianm1carbines. com/ bavaria. html [55] http:/ / www. smallarmssurvey. org/ files/ sas/ publications/ w_papers_pdf/ WP/ WP4_Cambodia. pdf [56] Hogg, Ian (1989). Jane's Infantry Weapons 1989-90, 15th Edition. Jane's Information Group. p.216. ISBN0710608896. [57] Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995). ISBN 978-0710612410. [58] http:/ / www. victims. org. uk/ ira%20weapons. html [59] Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009-2010. Jane's Information Group. p.898. ISBN0710628692. [60] Plaster, John L.; Penguin Group. SOG: The Secret Wars of America's Commandos in Vietnam. Onyx Books; 1 edition (May 1997). ISBN 0-451-19508-6. [61] Department of the Army Technical Manual TM9-1276 and Department of the Air Force Technical Order TO39A-5AD-2, Cal. .30 Carbines, M1, M1A1, M2, and M3. February 1953. [62] Larry Ruth, M1 Carbine: Design, Development & Production, Gun Room Press, 1979, p.173. [63] W.H.B. Smith, Small Arms of the World, Stackpole, 1966, illustrates an M2 carbine in an M1A1 stock on p.642 and a parts breakdown of the M2 on p.646 is shown with a flat top bolt. [64] Canfield, June 2007, p. 37 [65] [66] [67] [68] [69] [70] [71] [72] [73] [74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79] [80] [81] [82] [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] [95] [96] [97] Rock-Ola M1 Carbine (http:/ / www. americanrifleman. org/ ArticlePage. aspx?id=1596& cid=7) Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0873490339, 9780873490337 (6th ed., 1989), p. 127. "Auto-Ordnance M1 Carbines" - Auto-Ordnance.com (http:/ / www. auto-ordnance. com/ ao_aom110_f. html) "M1 Carbine" - American Rifleman (http:/ / americanrifleman. org/ ArticlePage. aspx?id=1699& cid=4) "ACS Hezi SM-1" - SecurityArms.com (http:/ / www. securityarms. com/ 20010315/ galleryfiles/ 2800/ 2803. htm) "HEZI SM-1 Upgrade" - AdvancedCombat.com (http:/ / www. advancedcombat. com/ military/ sm1. html) "Alpine M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_alpine. html) "AMAC M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_amac. html) "AMPCO M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_ampco. html) "Bullseye M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_bullseye. html) "Crosman air rifle M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_crosman. html) "ERMAS Firearms M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_ermas. html) "U.S. GI Carbines used by the police of West Germany & Austria" (http:/ / www. BavarianM1Carbines. com) "Erma Werke Model EM1" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_em1. html) "Federal Ordnance M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_fedord. html) "Global Arms M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_global. html) "H&S M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_hs. html) "Howa M1 Carbines" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_howa. html) "IAI M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_iai. html) "Iver Johnson M1 Carbines" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_ij. html) "Johnston-Tucker M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_johstontucker. html) "MOCO M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_millville. html) "National Ordnance M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_natord. html) "NATO M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_nato. html) "Plainfield Machine M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_plainfield. html) "Rock Island Armory M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_ria. html) "Rowen Becker M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_rb. html) "Springfield Armory M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_springfield. html) "Texas Armaments M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_texarm. html) "Tirol air rifle look-a-like M1 Carbine training rifle" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_tyrol. html) "Universal Firearms" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_universal. html) "Williams Gun Sight Sporterized M1 Carbine" (http:/ / www. M1CarbinesInc. com/ carbine_williams. html) Winchester Ammunition (http:/ / www. winchester. com/ )


[98] Pennsylvania Game Commission - State Wildlife Management Agency: Deer Hunting Laws and Regulations (http:/ / www. pgc. state. pa. us/ pgc/ cwp/ view. asp?a=465& q=151336) [99] Illinois: Digest of Hunting and Trapping Regulations 2007-2008, "Statewide Deer Hunting Information", Illinois Department of Natural Resources, p. 11. (http:/ / dnr. state. il. us/ admin/ systems/ Digest/ Digest. pdf)

M1 carbine
[100] TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition, 1961, p. 39-41


Barnes, Frank C., Cartridges of the World, Iola, WI: DBI Books Inc., ISBN 0873490339, 9780873490337, (6th ed., 1989). Canfield, Bruce N. (June 2007). A New Lease on Life: The Post-World War II M1 Carbine. American Rifleman. Dunlap, Roy F. Ordnance Went Up Front, Plantersville, SC: Small-Arms Technical Pub. Co., The Samworth Press, ISBN 1884849091 (1948). George, John (Lt. Col.), Shots Fired In Anger, (2nd ed., enlarged), Washington, D.C.: NRA Press, ISBN 093599842X, 9780935998429 (1981). Hufnagl, Wolfdieter. U.S.Karabiner M1 Waffe und Zubehr, Motorbuchverlag, 1994. IBM Archives (http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1978.html) Korean War cold weather malfunctions (http://libraryautomation.com/nymas/changjinjournal.html) Marshall, S.L.A., Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51, 1st Report ORO-R-13, Project Doughboy, Report ORO-R-13 of 27 October 1951 [Restricted], Operations Research Office (ORO), U.S. Army (1951). Shore, C. (Capt), With British Snipers To The Reich, Mount Ida AR: Lancer Militaria Press, ISBN 0935856021, 9780935856026 (1988). United States Government. Departments of the Army and Air Force. TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition. Washington, DC: Departments of the Army and Air Force, 1961. U.S. Army Catalog of Standard Ordnance Items. Second Edition 1944, Volume III, p.419 Weeks, John, World War II Small Arms, London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. and New York: Galahad Books, ISBN 0883654032, 9780883654033 (1979). Worrell, Jessica (2003). "Range of a Rifle Bullet" (http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/JessicaWorrell. shtml). The Physics Factbook.

External links
US Army M1 Carbine Technical Manual (http://m1.50webs.com/) M1 Carbine Article (http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/SmallArms/m1carbin.htm) M1 Carbine Family: M1, M1A1, M2, M3 (http://www.olive-drab.com/od_other_firearms_rifle_m1carbine. php3) The M1/M2 Carbine Magazine FAQ (http://www.rawles.to/M1_Carbine_Mag_FAQ.html) Auto-Ordnance M1 Carbines (http://www.auto-ordnance.com/PA-1AO_m1.html) 90th Reference manual page including FM 23-7 Carbine, 1942 manual (http://www.90thidpg.us/Reference/ Reference.html) Articles page including information on blank adapting the M1 carbine (http://www.90thidpg.us/Equipment/ Articles/index.html) M1 Carbine page at Modern Firearms (http://world.guns.ru/rifle/rfl08-e.htm)

M16 rifle


M16 rifle
Rifle, 5.56 mm, M16

From top to bottom: M16A1, M16A2, M4A1, M16A4 Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle
United States

Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1963Present See Users Vietnam War, Somali Civil War, Iraq War, War in Afghanistan (2001-present) Production history Designer

Eugene Stoner [1] L. James Sullivan

Designed Manufacturer


Colt Defense Daewoo FN Herstal H & R Firearms General Motors Hydramatic Division Elisco

Produced Numberbuilt Variants

1960present ~8 million

See Variants Specifications (M16A2)

Weight Length Barrellength Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange

7.18 lbs (3.26 kg) (unloaded) 8.79lb (4.0kg) (loaded) 39.5in (1000mm) 20in (508mm) 5.5645mm NATO Gas-operated, rotating bolt (Direct impingement) 1215 rounds/min sustained, 4560 rounds/min semi-automatic, & 700950 rounds/min cyclic 3,110 ft/s (948 m/s)

550 meters (point target), 800 meters (area target)

M16 rifle The M16 (more formally Rifle, Caliber 5.56mm, M16) is the United States Military designation for the AR-15 rifle. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56x45mm cartridge. The M16 entered United States Army service and was deployed for jungle warfare operations in South Vietnam in 1963,[4] becoming the U.S. Military's standard service rifle of the Vietnam War by 1969,[5] replacing the M14 rifle in that role. The U.S. Army retained the M14 in CONUS, Europe, and South Korea until 1970. Since the Vietnam War, the M16 rifle family has been the primary service rifle of the U.S. Military. The M16 has been widely adopted by militaries around the world. Total worldwide production of M16-style weapons since the design's inception has been approximately 8 million, making it the most produced firearm of its caliber.[2] The M16 is being phased out in the United States Army and being replaced by the M4 carbine, which is itself a shortened derivative of the M16A2, as of 2010.[6] The M16 could be supplemented by the Individual Carbine beginning in 2014, if procurement is attained.[7]


The M16 is a lightweight, 5.56mm, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed assault rifle, with a rotating bolt, actuated by direct impingement gas operation. The rifle is made of steel, 7075 aluminum alloy, composite plastics and polymer materials. The U.S. Air Force's rifle, the M16, and the Army rifle, the XM16E1, were the first versions of the M16 rifle fielded. Soon, the U.S. Army standardized an upgrade of the XM16E1 as the M16A1 rifle, an M16 with a forward assist feature requested by the Army. All of the early versions were chambered to fire the M193/M196 cartridge in the semi-automatic and the automatic firing modes. This occurred in the early 1960s, with the Army issuing it in late 1964.[8] Commercial AR-15s were first issued to Special Forces troops in spring of 1964.[9] The M16A2 rifle entered service in the 1980s, being ordered in large scale by 1987, chambered to fire the standard NATO cartridge, the Belgian-designed M855/M856 cartridge.[8] The M16A2 is a select-fire rifle (semi-automatic fire, three-round-burst fire) incorporating design elements requested by the Marine Corps:[8] an adjustable, windage rear-sight; a stock 58 inches (16mm) longer; heavier barrel; case deflector for left-hand shooters; and cylindrical handguards.[8] The fire mode selector is on the receiver's left side. The M16A2 is still a widespread rifle in the U.S. Navy, Coast Guard and Air Force, while no longer in heavy use in the Army and Marine Corps. The M16A3 rifle is an M16A2 rifle with an M16A1's fire control group (semi-automatic fire, automatic fire) that is used only by the U.S. Navy.

A U.S. soldier on NBC exercise, holding an M16A1 rifle and wearing an M40 Field Protective Mask. Note the receiver, forward assist and the barrel flash suppressor.

The M16A4 rifle was standard issue for the United States Marine Corps in Operation Iraqi Freedom since 2004; it replaced the M16A2 in front line units. In the U.S. Army the M16A2 rifle is being supplemented with two rifle models, the M16A4 and the M4 carbine as the standard issue assault rifle. The M16A4 has a flat-top receiver developed for the M4 carbine, a handguard with four Picatinny rails for mounting a sight, laser, night vision device, forward handgrip, removable handle, or a flashlight. The M16 rifle is principally manufactured by Colt and Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (under a U.S. military contract since 1988 by FNH-USA; currently in production since 1991, primarily M16A2, A3, and A4), with variants made elsewhere in the world. Versions for the U.S. military have also been made by H & R Firearms[10] General Motors Hydramatic Division[11] and most recently by Sabre Defence.[12] Semi-automatic versions of the AR-15 are popular recreational shooting rifles, with versions manufactured by other small and large manufacturers in the U.S.[13]

M16 rifle


ArmaLite sold its rights to the AR-15 to Colt in 1959.[14] The AR-15 was first adopted in 1962 by the United States Air Force, ultimately receiving the designation M16. The U.S. Army began to field the XM16E1 en masse in 1965 with most of them going to the Republic of Vietnam, and the newly organized and experimental Airmobile Divisions, the 1st Air Cavalry Division in particular. The U.S. Marine Corps in South Vietnam also experimented with the M16 rifle in combat during this period. The XM16E1 was standardized as the The XM16E1 is seen here fitted with an M16A1 in 1967. This version remained the primary infantry rifle of AN/PVS-2 night vision scope. U.S. forces in South Vietnam until the end of the war in 1975, and remained with all U.S. military ground forces after it had replaced the M14 service rifle in 1970 in CONUS, Europe (Germany), and South Korea; when it was supplemented by the M16A2. During the early 1980s a roughly standardized load for this ammunition was adopted throughout NATO (see: 5.56x45mm NATO). The M16A3 is a fully automatic variant of the M16A2, issued within the United States Navy. The M16A2 is currently being supplemented by the M16A4, which incorporates the flattop receiver unit developed for the M4 carbine, and Picatinny rail system. M16A2s are still in stock with the U.S. Army and Marine Corps, but are used primarily by reserve and National Guard units as well as by the U.S. Air Force. The M16 rifle design, including variant or modified version of it such as the Armalite/Colt AR-15 series, AAI M15 rifle; AP74; EAC J-15; SGW XM15A; any 22-caliber rimfire variant, including the Mitchell M16A-1/22, Mitchell M16/22, Mitchell CAR-15/22, and AP74 Auto Rifle, is a prohibited and restricted weapon in Canada.[15]

Project SALVO
In 1948, the Army organized the civilian Operations Research Office, mirroring similar operations research organizations in the United Kingdom. One of their first efforts, Project ALCLAD, studied body armor and the conclusion was that they would need to know more about battlefield injuries in order to make reasonable suggestions.[16] Over 3 million battlefield reports from World War I and World War II were analyzed and over the next few years they released a series of reports on their findings.[16] The conclusion was that most combat takes place at short range. In a highly mobile war, combat teams ran into each other largely by surprise; and the team with the higher firepower tended to win. They also found that the chance of being hit in combat was essentially random; accurate "aiming" made little difference because the targets no longer sat still. The number one predictor of casualties was the total number of bullets fired.[16] Other studies of behavior in battle revealed that many U.S. infantrymen (as many as 2/3) never actually fired their rifles in combat. By contrast, soldiers armed with rapid fire weapons

An M16 (third from top), an AR-10 and a second M16 along with other Vietnam War era rifles.

M16 rifle were much more likely to have fired their weapons in battle.[17] These conclusions suggested that infantry should be equipped with a fully automatic rifle of some sort in order to increase the actual firepower of regular soldiers. It was also clear, however, that such weapons dramatically increased ammunition use and in order for a rifleman to be able to carry enough ammunition for a firefight he would have to carry something much lighter. Existing rifles met none of these criteria. Although it appeared the new 7.62mm T44 (precursor to the M14) would increase the rate of fire, its heavy 7.62mm NATO cartridge made carrying significant quantities of ammunition difficult. Moreover, the length and weight of the weapon made it unsuitable for short range combat situations often found in jungle and urban combat or mechanized warfare, where a smaller and lighter weapon could be brought to bear faster. These efforts were noticed by Colonel Ren Studler, U.S. Army Ordnance's Chief of Small Arms Research and Development. Col. Studler asked the Aberdeen Proving Ground to submit a report on the smaller caliber weapons. A team led by Donald Hall, director of M16A1 program development at Aberdeen, reported that a .22inch (5.56mm) round fired at a higher velocity would have performance equal to larger [18] rounds in most combat. With the higher rate of fire possible due to lower recoil it was likely such a weapon would inflict more casualties on the enemy. His team members, notably William C. Davis,Jr. and Gerald A. Gustafson, started development of a series of experimental .22 (5.56mm) cartridges. In 1955, their request for further funding was denied. A new study, Project SALVO, was set up to try to find a weapon design suited to real-world combat. Running between 1953 and 1957 in two phases, SALVO eventually suggested that a weapon firing four rounds into a 20-inch (508mm) area would double the hit probability of existing semi-automatic weapons. In the second phase, SALVO II, several experimental weapons concepts were tested. Irwin Barr of AAI Corporation introduced a series of flechette weapons, starting with a shotgun shell containing 32 darts and ending with single-round flechette "rifles". Winchester and Springfield Armory offered multiple barrel weapons, while ORO's own design used two .22, .25 or .27 caliber bullets loaded into a single .308 Winchester or .30-06 cartridge.


Eugene Stoner
Meanwhile testing of the 7.62mm T44 continued, and Fabrique Nationale also submitted their new FN FAL via the American firm Harrington & Richardson as the T48. The T44 was selected as the new battle rifle for the U.S. Army (rechristened the M14) despite a strong showing by the T48. In 1954, Eugene Stoner of the newly formed ArmaLite helped develop the 7.62mm AR-10. Springfield's T44 and similar entries were conventional rifles using wood for the "furniture" and otherwise built entirely of steel using mostly forged and machined parts. ArmaLite was founded specifically to bring the latest in designs and alloys to firearms design, and Stoner felt he could easily beat the other offerings.

A U.S. soldier with M16A2 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. The United States Army did not place a large order for the A2 model until 1986.

The AR-10's receiver was made of forged and milled aluminium alloy instead of steel. The barrel was mated to the receiver by a separate hardened steel extension to which the bolt locked. This allowed a lightweight aluminum receiver to be used while still maintaining a steel-on-steel lockup. The bolt was operated by high-pressure combustion gases taken from a hole in the middle of the barrel directly through a tube above the barrel to a cylinder created in the bolt carrier with the bolt carrier itself acting as a piston. Traditional rifles located this cylinder and piston close to the gas vent. The stock and grips were made of a glass-reinforced plastic

M16 rifle shell over a rigid foam plastic core. The muzzle brake was fabricated from titanium. Over Stoner's objections, various experimental composite and 'Sullaloy' aluminum barrels were fitted to some AR-10 prototypes by ArmaLite's president, George Sullivan. The Sullaloy barrel was made entirely of heat-treated aluminum, while the composite barrels used aluminum extruded over a thin stainless steel liner. Meanwhile the layout of the weapon itself was also somewhat different. Previous designs generally placed the sights directly on the barrel, using a bend in the stock to align the sights at eye level while transferring the recoil down to the shoulder. This meant that the weapon tended to rise when fired making it very difficult to control during fully automatic fire. The ArmaLite team used a solution previously used on weapons such as the German FG 42 and Johnson light machine gun; they located the barrel in line with the stock, well below eye level, and raised the sights to eye level. The rear sight was built into a carrying handle over the receiver. Despite being over 2lb (0.91kg) lighter than the competition, the AR-10 offered significantly greater accuracy and recoil control. Two prototype rifles were delivered to the U.S. Army's Springfield Armory for testing late in 1956. At this time, the U.S. armed forces were already two years into a service rifle evaluation program, and the AR-10 was a newcomer with respect to older, more fully developed designs. Over Stoner's continued objections, George Sullivan had insisted that both prototypes be fitted with composite aluminum/steel barrels. Shortly after a composite barrel burst on one prototype in 1957, the AR-10 was rejected. The AR-10 was later produced by a Dutch firm, Artillerie Inrichtingen, and saw limited but successful military service with several foreign nations such as Sudan, Guatemala, and Portugal. Portugal deployed a number of AR-10s for use by its airborne (Caadores Pra-quedista) battalions, and the rifle saw considerable combat service in Portugal's counter-insurgency campaigns in Angola and Mozambique.[19] Some AR-10 rifles were still in service with airborne forces serving during the withdrawal from Portuguese Timor in 1975.


In 1957, a copy of Gustafson's funding request from 1955 found its way into the hands of General Willard G. Wyman, commander of the U.S. Continental Army Command. He immediately put together a team to develop a .223 caliber (5.56mm) weapon for testing. Their finalized request called for a select-fire weapon of 6 pounds (2.7kg) when loaded with 20 rounds of ammunition. The bullet had to penetrate a standard U.S. steel helmet, body armor, or a steel plate of 0.135 inches (3.4mm) and retain a velocity in excess of the speed of sound at 500 yards (460m), while equaling or exceeding the "wounding" ability of the .30 Carbine.[16] [20] Wyman had seen the AR-10 in an earlier demonstration, and impressed by its performance he personally suggested that ArmaLite enter a weapon for testing using a 5.56mm cartridge designed by Winchester.[16] Their first design, using conventional layout and wooden furniture, proved to be too light. When combined with a conventional stock, recoil was excessive in fully automatic fire. Their second design was simply a scaled-down AR-10, and immediately proved much more controllable. Winchester entered the LMR,[21] a design based loosely on their M1 carbine, and Earle Harvey of Springfield attempted to enter a design, but was overruled by his superiors at Springfield, who refused to divert resources from the T44. In the end, ArmaLite's AR-15 had no competition. The lighter round allowed the rifle to be scaled down, and was smaller and lighter than the previous AR-10. The AR-15 weighed only around 5.5 pounds (2.5kg) empty, and 6 pounds (2.7kg) loaded (with a 20 round magazine). During testing in March 1958, rainwater caused the barrels of both the ArmaLite and Winchester rifles to burst, causing the Army to once again press for a larger round, this time at 0.258in (6.6mm). Nevertheless, they suggested continued testing for cold-weather suitability in Alaska. Stoner was later asked to fly in to replace several parts, and when he arrived he found the rifles had been improperly reassembled. When he returned he was surprised to learn that they too had rejected the design even before he had arrived; their report also endorsed the 0.258in (6.6mm) round. After reading these reports, General Maxwell Taylor became dead-set against the design, and pressed for continued production of the M14.

M16 rifle Not all the reports were negative. In a series of mock-combat situations testing the AR-15, M14 and AK-47, the Army found that the AR-15's small size and light weight allowed it to be brought to bear much more quickly, just as CONARC had suggested. Their final conclusion was that an 8-man team equipped with the AR-15 would have the same firepower as a current 11-man team armed with the M14. U.S. troops were able to carry more than twice as much 5.5645mm ammunition as 7.62x51mm for the same weight, which would allow them a better advantage against a typical NVA unit armed with AK-47s. At this point, Fairchild had spent $1.45 million in development expenses, and wished to divest itself of its small-arms business. Fairchild sold production rights for the AR-15 to Colt Firearms in December 1959, for only $75,000 cash and a 4.5% royalty on subsequent sales. In 1960, ArmaLite was reorganized, and Stoner left the company.


M16 adoption
Curtis LeMay viewed a demonstration of the AR-15 in July 1960. In the summer of 1961, General LeMay had been promoted to the position of USAF Chief of Staff, and requested an order of 80,000 AR-15s for the U.S. Air Force.[22] However under the recommendation of General Maxwell D. Taylor, who advised the Commander in Chief that having two different calibers within the military system at the same time would be problematic, President Kennedy turned down the request.[22] However, Advanced Research Projects Agency, which had been created in 1958 in response to the Soviet Sputnik program, embarked on project AGILE in the spring of 1961. AGILE's priority mission was to devise inventive fixes to the communist problem in South Vietnam. In October 1961, William Godel, a senior man at ARPA, sent 10 AR-15s to South Vietnam to let the allies test them. The reception was enthusiastic, and in 1962 another 1,000 AR-15s were sent to South Vietnam.[23] Special Operations units and advisers working with the South Vietnamese troops filed battlefield reports lavishly praising the AR-15 and the stopping effectiveness of the 5.56mm cartridge, and pressed for its adoption. However, what no one knew, except the men directly using the AR-15s in Vietnam, were the devastating kills[24] made by the new rifle, photographs of which, showing enemy casualties made by the .223 (5.56mm) bullet remained classified into the 1980s.[24] The damage caused by the .223 (5.56mm) "varmint"[24] bullet was observed and originally believed to be caused by "tumbling" due to the slow 1 in 14-inch (360mm) rifling twist rate.[25] However, this twist rate only made the bullet less stable in air.[25] Any pointed lead core bullet will turn base over point ("tumble") after penetration in flesh, because the center of gravity is aft of the center of the projectile.[25] The large wounds observed by soldiers in Vietnam were actually caused by projectile fragmentation, which was created by a combination of the projectile's velocity and construction.[25] U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara now had two conflicting views: the ARPA report favoring the AR-15 and the Pentagon's position on the M14. Even President John F. Kennedy expressed concern, so McNamara ordered Secretary of the Army Cyrus Vance to test the M14, the AR-15 and the AK-47. The Army's test report stated only the M14 was suitable for Army use, but Vance wondered about the impartiality of those conducting the tests. He ordered the Army Inspector General to investigate the testing methods used, who reported that the testers showed favor to the M14.

M16 rifle


Secretary Robert McNamara ordered a halt to M14 production in January 1963, after receiving reports that M14 production was insufficient to meet the needs of the armed forces. Secretary McNamara had long been a proponent of weapons program consolidation among the armed services. At the time, the AR-15 was the only rifle that could fulfill a requirement of a "universal" infantry weapon for issue to all services. McNamara ordered the weapon be adopted unmodified, in its current configuration, for immediate issue to all services, despite receiving reports noting several deficiencies with the M16 as a service rifle, including the lack of a chrome-lined bore and chamber, the 5.56mm projectile's instability under arctic conditions, and the fact that large quantities of 5.56mm ammunition required for immediate service were not available. In addition, the Army insisted on the inclusion of a forward assist to help push the bolt into battery in the event U.S. Soldier cleans his XM16E1 during the Vietnam War in 1966. that a cartridge failed to seat in the chamber through fouling or corrosion. Colt had argued the rifle was a self-cleaning design, requiring little or no maintenance. Colt, Eugene Stoner, and the U.S. Air Force believed that a forward assist needlessly complicated the rifle, adding about $4.50 to its procurement cost with no real benefit. As a result, the design was split into two variants: the Air Force's M16 without the forward assist, and for the other service branches, the XM16E1 with the forward assist. In November 1963, McNamara approved the Army's order of 85,000 XM16E1s for jungle warfare operations;[26] and to appease General LeMay, the Air Force was granted an order for another 19,000 M16s.[16] [27] Meanwhile, the Army carried out another project, the Small Arms Weapons Systems, on general infantry firearm needs in the immediate future. They recommended the immediate adoption of the weapon. Later that year the Air Force officially accepted their first batch as the United States Rifle, Caliber 5.56mm, M16. The Army immediately began to issue the XM16E1 to infantry units but the rifle was initially delivered without adequate cleaning supplies or instructions. When the M16 reached Vietnam with U.S. troops in March 1965, reports of stoppages in combat began to surface. Often the gun suffered from a stoppage known as failure to extract, which meant that a spent cartridge case remained lodged in the chamber after a bullet flew out the muzzle.[28] Although the M14 featured a chrome-lined barrel and chamber to resist corrosion in combat conditions, neither the bore nor the chamber of the M16/XM16E1 was chrome-lined. Several documented accounts of troops killed by enemy fire with inoperable rifles broken-down for cleaning eventually brought a Congressional investigation.[29]

We left with 72 men in our platoon and came back with 19, Believe it or not, you know what killed most of us? Our own rifle. Practically every one of our dead was found with his [M16] torn down next to him where he had been trying to fix it. [29] - Marine Corps Rifleman, Vietnam.

The root cause of the stoppages turned out to be a problem with the powder for the ammunition. In 1964 when the Army was informed that DuPont could not mass-produce the nitrocellulose-based powder to the specifications demanded by the M16, the Olin Mathieson Company provided a high-performance ball propellant of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. While the Olin WC 846 powder was capable of firing an M16 5.56mm round at the desired 3300ft (1000m) per second, it had the unintended consequence of increasing the automatic rate of fire from 850 to 1000 rounds per minute. This would leave behind dirty residue, making the M16 more likely to have a stoppage. The problem was resolved by fitting the M16 with a buffer system, slowing the rate of fire back down to 650 to 850 rounds per minute and outfitting all newly produced M16s with an anti corrosive chrome-plated chamber.[30] On February 28, 1967, the XM16E1 was standardized as the M16A1. Major revisions to the design followed. The rifle was given a chrome-lined chamber (and later, the entire bore) to eliminate corrosion and stuck cartridges, and the rifle's recoil mechanism was re-designed to accommodate Army-issued 5.56mm ammunition. Rifle cleaning tools and powder solvents/lubricants were issued. Intensive training programs in weapons cleaning were instituted,

M16 rifle and a comic book style manual was circulated among the troops to demonstrate proper maintenance.[16] The reliability problems of the M16 diminished quickly, although the rifle's reputation continued to suffer.[16] According to a February 1968 Department of Defense report the M16 rifle achieved widespread acceptance by U.S. troops in Vietnam. Only 38 of 2100 individuals queried wanted to replace the M16 with another weapon. Of those 38, 35 wanted the CAR-15 (a shorter version of the M16) instead.[31]


NATO standards
In March 1970, the U.S. stated that all NATO forces should eventually adopt the 5.56x45mm cartridge. This shift represented a change in the philosophy of the military's long-held position about caliber size. By the middle of the 1970s, other armies were also looking at M16-style weapons. A NATO standardization effort soon started, and tests of various rounds were carried out starting in 1977. The U.S. offered their original 5.56x45mm design, the M193, with no modifications, but there were concerns about its penetration in the face of the wider introduction of body armor. In the end the Belgian 5.56x45mm SS109 round was chosen (STANAG 4172). Their round was based on the U.S. cartridge but included a new 62 grain bullet design with a small steel tip added to improve penetration. The U.S. Marine Corps was first to adopt the round with the M16A2, introduced in 1982. This was to become the standard U.S. military rifle. The NATO 5.56x45mm standard ammunition produced for U.S. forces is designated M855. Shortly after NATO's acceptance of the 5.56x45mm NATO rifle cartridge in October 1980.[32] Draft Standardization Agreement 4179 (STANAG 4179) was proposed in order to allow the military services of member nations easily to share rifle ammunition and magazines during operations, at the individual soldier level, in the interest of easing logistical concerns. The magazine chosen to become the STANAG magazine was originally designed for the U.S. M16 rifle. Many NATO member nations, but not all, subsequently developed or purchased rifles with the ability to accept this type of magazine. However the standard was never ratified and remains a 'Draft STANAG'[33]

German Army soldiers of the 13th Panzergrenadier Division qualify with the M16A2 at Wrzburg, as part of a partnership range with the U.S. 1st Infantry Division.

Vietnam era 20-round magazine (left) and Current issue NATO STANAG 30-round magazine (right).

The NATO Accessory Rail STANAG 4694, or Picatinny rail STANAG 2324, or a "Tactical Rail" is a bracket used on M16 type rifles in order to provide a standardized mounting platform. The rail comprises a series of ridges with a T-shaped cross-section interspersed with flat "spacing slots". Scopes are mounted either by sliding them on from one end or the other; by means of a "rail-grabber" which is clamped to the rail with bolts, thumbscrews or levers; or onto the slots between the raised sections. The rail was originally for scopes. However, once established, the use of the system was expanded to other accessories, such as tactical lights, laser aiming modules, night vision devices, reflex sights, foregrips, bipods, and bayonets. All current M16 type rifles are capable of launching NATO STANAG type 22mm rifle grenades from their integral flash hiders without the use of an adapter. These 22 mm grenade types range from powerful anti-tank rounds to simple finned tubes with a fragmentation hand grenade attached to the end. They come in the "standard" type which are propelled by a blank cartridge inserted into the chamber of the rifle. They also come in the "bullet trap" and "shoot through" types, as their names imply use live ammunition. The U.S. military does not generally use rifle

M16 rifle grenades, however they are used by other Nations. Currently, the M16 is in use by 15 NATO countries and more than 80 countries world wide.


Grenade launcher
The M203 40 mm grenade launcher was originally designed to be mounted on the M16 and its variants. It uses the same rounds as the older M79 "shotgun"-type grenade launcher, which utilize High-Low Propulsion System to keep recoil forces low. The M203 is versatile and compatible with many rifle models. It is widely used by the U.S. Military and is routinely seen on the M4 Carbine. The launcher can also be mounted onto the Canadian made C7, and requires the bottom handguard on the rifle to be removed in order to mount the launcher.

Loading an M203 40 mm grenade launcher attached to an M16 rifle with a practice round.

The M16's receivers are made of 7075 aluminum alloy, its barrel, bolt, and bolt carrier of steel, and its handguards, pistol grip, and buttstock of plastics. Early models were especially lightweight at 6.5 pounds (2.9kg) without magazine and sling. This was significantly less than older 7.62mm "battle rifles" of the 1950s and 1960s. It also compares with the 6.5 pounds (2.9kg) AKM without magazine.[34] M16A2 and later variants (A3 & A4) weigh more (8.5lb (3.9kg) loaded) because of the adoption of a thicker barrel profile. The thicker barrel is more Top drawing is of an A2-style rifle; bottom resistant to damage when handled roughly and is also slower to drawing is of an A2-style rifle with A1 rear sights overheat during sustained fire. Unlike a traditional "bull" barrel that is (as with the C7) thick its entire length, the M16A2's barrel is only thick forward of the handguards. The barrel profile under the handguards remained the same as the M16A1 for compatibility with the M203 grenade launcher. The rifle is the same length as the M16A2. The M16 rifle fires the 5.56x45mm cartridge and can produce massive wounding effects when the bullet impacts at high velocity and yaws in tissue leading to fragmentation and rapid transfer of energy.[35] [36] [37] This produces wounds that were so devastating that the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)[38] and many countries (Austria, Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Cyprus, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Mexico, Romania, Samoa, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, etc.)[39] considered the M16 to be an inhumane weapon.[40] [41] One distinctive ergonomic feature is a plastic or metal stock directly behind the action, which contains a recoil spring.[42] This serves the dual function of operating spring and recoil buffer.[42] The stock being in line with the bore reduces muzzle rise, especially during automatic fire. Because recoil does not significantly shift the point of aim, faster follow-up shots are possible and user fatigue is reduced. Another distinctive ergonomic feature is a carrying handle on top of the receiver, with an integrated rear sight assembly and charging handle. This design is a by-product of the original design where the carry handle served to protect the charging handle and mount a scope.[42] In practice, the handle is rarely used to carry the weapon and doing so is expressly prohibited in many military organizations, as it is considered unsafe. Holding the weapon by the pistol grip provides quicker response time and better "muzzle awareness," while a shoulder sling provides a more convenient option when response time is not a concern. The "accessory rail" is also considered unsafe to use after the

M16 rifle weapon has been fired for prolonged periods as enough heat, to melt flesh, will transfer from the receiver to the handle. More importantly, with the sight plane 2.5in (63.5mm) over the bore, the M16 has an inherent parallax problem that can be confounding to shooters. At closer ranges (typically inside 1520 meters), the shooter must aim high in order to place shots where desired. Newer models have a "flattop" upper receiver with a Picatinny rail, to which the user can attach either a conventional sighting system or numerous optical devices such as night vision scopes. The M16 utilizes direct impingement gas operation; energy from high-pressure gas tapped from a non-adjustable port built into the front sight assembly actuates the moving parts in the weapon. Combustion gases travel via a gas tube above the barrel directly into a chamber in the bolt carrier behind the bolt itself, pushing the carrier away from the bolt. This reduces the number of moving parts by eliminating the need for a separate piston and cylinder and it provides better performance in rapid fire by keeping reciprocating masses on the same axis as the bore. The primary criticism of direct impingement is that fouling and debris from expended gunpowder is blown directly into the breech. As the superheated combustion gas travels down the tube, it expands and cools. This cooling causes vaporized matter to condense as it cools depositing a much greater volume of solids into the operating components of the action. The increased fouling can cause malfunctions if the rifle is not cleaned as frequently as should be. The amount of sooting deposits tends to vary with powder specification, caliber, and gas port design. In April 2010 TACOM Life Cycle Management Command issued permission for soldiers to camouflage M4/M16 weapons with paint if given command approval.[43]


Pre-Production ArmaLite AR-15
The weapon that eventually became the M16 series only had a vague resemblance to its offspring. The rifle was basically a scaled down AR-10 with an ambidextrous charging handle located within the carrying handle, a narrower front sight "A" frame, and no flash suppressor.[44]

AR-15 (Colt Models 601 & 602)

Colt's first two models produced after the acquisition of the rifle from ArmaLite were the 601 and 602, and these rifles were in many ways clones of the original ArmaLite rifle (in fact, these rifles were often found stamped Colt ArmaLite AR-15, Property of the U.S. Government caliber .223, and no reference to being a M16).[45] The 601 and 602 are easily identified by their flat lower receivers without raised surfaces around the magazine well and occasionally green or brown furniture. The 601 was adopted first of any of the rifles by the USAF, and was quickly supplemented with the XM16 (Colt Model 602) and later the M16 (Colt Model 604) as improvements were made. There was also a limited purchase of 602s, and a number of both of these rifles found their way to a number of Special Operations units then operating in South East Asia, most notably the U.S. Navy SEALs. The only major difference between the 601 and 602 is the switch from the original 1:14-inch rifling twist to the more common 1:12-inch twist. These weapons were equipped with a triangular charging handle and a bolt hold open device that lacked a raised lower engagement surface. The bolt hold open device had a slanted and serrated surface that had to be engaged with a bare thumb, index finger, or thumb nail because of the lack of this surface. The United States Air Force continued to use the AR-15 marked rifles in various configurations into the 1990s.

M16 rifle


Variant originally adopted by the U.S. Air Force. This was the first M16 adopted operationally. This variant had triangular handguards, butt stocks without a compartment for the storage of a cleaning kit,[46] a three-pronged flash suppressor, and no forward assist. Bolt carriers An early M16 rifle: note "duckbill" flash suppressor, triangular grip, and the lack of were originally chrome plated and slick-sided, lacking forward assist forward assist and brass deflector notches. Later, the chrome plated carriers were dropped in favor of Army issued notched and parkerized carriers though the interior portion of the bolt carrier is still chrome-lined. The Air Force continued to operate these weapons until around 2001, at which time the Air Force converted all of its M16s to the M16A2 configuration. The M16 was also adopted by the British SAS, who used it to effect during the Falklands War.[47]

XM16E1 and M16A1 (Colt Model 603)

The U.S. Army XM16E1 was essentially the same weapon as the M16 with the addition of a forward assist and corresponding notches in the bolt carrier. The M16A1 was the finalized production model in 1967. To address issues raised by the XM16E1's testing cycle, a closed, bird-cage flash suppressor replaced the XM16E1's three-pronged flash suppressor which caught on twigs and leaves. Various other changes were made after numerous problems in the field. Cleaning kits were developed and issued while barrels with chrome-plated chambers and later fully lined bores were introduced. With these and other changes, the malfunction rate slowly declined and new soldiers were generally unfamiliar with early problems. A rib was built into the side of the receiver on the XM16E1 to help prevent accidentally pressing the magazine release button while closing the ejection port cover. This rib was later extended on production M16A1s to help in preventing the magazine release from inadvertently being pressed. The hole in the bolt that accepts the cam pin was crimped inward on one side, in such a way that the cam pin may not be inserted with the bolt installed backwards, which would cause failures to eject until corrected. The M16A1 remains in service in limited numbers in the United States but is still standard issue in many world armies.

The development of the M16A2 rifle was originally requested by the United States Marine Corps as a result of the USMC's combat experience in Vietnam with the XM16E1 and M16A1.[8] The Marines were the first branch of the U.S. Armed Forces to adopt the M16A2 in the early/mid 1980s with the United States Army following suit in the New rear sight, brass deflector and forward assist late 1980s. This rifle is now the current issue to Marine Corps' recruits of M16A2 in both MCRD San Diego and MCRD Parris Island. Modifications to the M16A2 were extensive. In addition to the new rifling, the barrel was made with a greater thickness in front of the front sight post to resist bending in the field and to allow a longer period of sustained fire without overheating. The rest of the barrel was maintained at the original thickness to enable the M203 grenade launcher to be attached.[8] The front sight was now a square post with 4 detent positions, adjustable for vertical zeroing by using a cartridge, nail or special tool. A new adjustable rear sight was added, allowing the rear

M16 rifle


sight to be dialed in for specific range settings between 300 and 800 meters to take full advantage of the ballistic characteristics of the new SS109 rounds and to allow windage adjustments without the need of a tool or cartridge.[8] The flash suppressor was again modified, this time to be closed on the bottom so it would not kick up dirt or snow when being fired from the prone position, and acting as a recoil compensator.[48] The front grip was modified from the original triangular shape to a round one, which better fitted smaller hands and A Marine with an M16A2 on a training exercise could be fitted to older models of the M16.[8] The new handguards at Camp Baharia, Iraq, 2004 were also symmetrical so that armories need not separate left and right spares. The handguard retention ring was tapered to make it easier to install and uninstall the handguards.[8] A notch for the middle finger was added to the pistol grip, as well as more texture to enhance the grip. The buttstock was lengthened by 58 inches (16mm).[8] The new buttstock became ten times stronger than the original due to advances in polymer technology since the early 1960s. Original M16 stocks were made from fiberglass-impregnated resin; the newer stocks were engineered from DuPont Zytel glass-filled thermoset polymers. The new stock included a fully textured polymer buttplate for better grip on the shoulder, and retained a panel for accessing a small compartment inside the stock, often used for storing a basic cleaning kit. The heavier bullet reduces muzzle velocity from 3200 feet per second (980m/s), to about 3050 feet per second (930m/s). The A2 also uses a faster twist rifling to allow the use of a trajectory-matched tracer round. A spent case deflector was incorporated into the upper receiver immediately behind the ejection port to prevent cases from striking left-handed users.[8] The action was also modified, replacing the fully automatic setting with a three-round burst setting.[8] When using a fully automatic weapon, poorly trained troops often hold down the trigger and "spray" when under fire. The U.S. Army concluded that three-shot groups provide an optimum combination of ammunition conservation, accuracy and firepower. All together, the M16A2's new features added weight and complexity to the M16 series. Critics also point out that neither of the rear sight apertures is ideally sized. The smaller aperture was described as being too small, making quick acquisition of the front sight post difficult; and the larger aperture was described as being too large, resulting in decreased accuracy. To make matters worse, the rear sight apertures are not machined to be on the same plane. In other words, the point of impact changes when the user changes from one aperture to the other. The rear sight's range adjustment feature is rarely used in combat as soldiers tend to leave the rear sight on its lowest range setting of 300 meters. This distance is seen by many as an excessively long range for the minimum setting, given that most engagements take place at significantly shorter ranges. Despite criticism, a new rifle was needed both to comply with NATO standardization of the SS109 (M855) and to replace aging Vietnam era weapons in the inventory.

The M16A3 was a fully automatic variant of the M16A2 adopted in small numbers around the time of the introduction of the M16A2, primarily by the U.S. Navy for use by SEAL, Seabee, and Security units.[49] It features the M16A1 trigger group providing "safe", "semi-automatic", and "fully automatic" modes. The M16A3 is often incorrectly described as the fully automatic version of the M16A4 or an M16A2 with a Picatinny rail. This misunderstanding likely stems from the use of the "A3" designation by Colt and other manufacturers to describe commercial AR-15 type rifles before the official adoption of the M16A3 or M16A4. Colt used the "A3" designation in the hopes of winning military contracts as they also did with the terms, "M4" and "M5".

M16 rifle


The M16A4, now standard issue for front-line U.S. Marine Corps and some U.S. Army units, replaces the combination fixed carry handle/rear iron sight with a MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail, allowing for the rifle to be equipped with a carry handle and/or most military and consumer scopes or sighting systems.[49] Military issue rifles are also equipped with a Knight's Armament Company M5 RAS handguard, allowing vertical grips, lasers, tactical lights, and other accessories to be attached, coining the designation M16A4 MWS (or Modular Weapon System) in U.S. Army field manuals.[50]

U.S. Marines aboard the USS Essex zero their M16A4 rifles

Colt Model 655 and 656 "Sniper" variants
With the expanding Vietnam War, Colt developed two rifles of the M16 pattern for evaluation as possible light sniper or designated marksman rifles. The Colt Model 655 M16A1 Special High Profile was essentially a standard A1 rifle with a heavier barrel and a scope mount that attached to the rifle's carry handle. The Colt Model 656 M16A1 Special Low Profile had a special upper receiver with no carrying handle. Instead, it had a low-profile iron sight adjustable for windage and a Weaver base for mounting a scope, a precursor to the Colt and Picatinny rails. It also had a hooded front iron sight in addition to the heavy barrel. Both rifles came standard with either a Leatherwood/Realist scope 3-9x Adjustable Ranging Telescope. Some of them were fitted with a Sionics noise and flash suppressor. Neither of these rifles were ever standardized. These weapons can be seen in many ways to be predecessors of the U.S. Army's SDM-R and the USMC's SAM-R weapons.

In Vietnam, some soldiers were issued a carbine version of the M16 called the XM177. The XM177 had a shorter 10in (254mm) barrel and a telescoping stock, which made it substantially more compact. It also possessed a combination flash hider/sound moderator to reduce problems with muzzle flash and loud report. The USAF's GAU-5/A (XM177) and the U.S. Army's XM177E1 variants differed over the A USAF GAU-5/A carbine. latters inclusion of a forward assist, although some GAU-5s do have the forward assist. The final USAF GAU-5A/A and U.S. Army XM177E2 had an 11.5in (292mm) barrel with a longer flash/sound suppressor. The lengthening of the barrel was to support the attachment of Colt's own XM148 40mm grenade launcher. These versions were also known as the Colt Commando model commonly referenced and marketed as the CAR-15. The variants were issued in limited numbers to special forces, helicopter crews, Air Force pilots, Air Force Security Police Military Working Dog (MWD) handlers, officers, radio operators, artillerymen, and troops other than front line riflemen. Some USAF GAU-5A/As were later equipped with even longer 14.5 inches (370mm) 1/12 rifled barrels as the two shorter versions were worn out. The 14.5-inch (370mm) barrel allowed the use of MILES gear and for bayonets to be used with the Sub-Machine Guns (as The USAF described them). By 1989 the USAF started to replace the earlier barrels with 1/7 rifled models. Also used by the British SAS, who used it to effect during the Falklands War.[47]

M16 rifle


Colt Model 733

Colt also returned to the original "Commando" idea, with its Model 733, essentially a modernized XM177E2 with many of the features introduced on the M16A2.

M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW)

M231 Firing Port Weapon (FPW) is an adapted version of the M16 assault rifle for firing from ports on the M2/M3 Bradley AFV. The infantry's normal M16s are too long for use in a "buttoned up" APC, so the FPW was developed to provide a suitable weapon for this role. Designed by the Rock Island Arsenal, the M231 FPW remains in M231 FPW service, although all but the rear two firing ports on the Bradley have been removed. The M231 FPW is often used by dismounted Mechanized Infantry during trench clearing and MOUT operations due to its compact size and high rate of fire. The M231 FPW fires from the open bolt and is only configured for fully automatic fire. The open bolt configuration gives the M231 a much higher cyclic rate of fire than the closed bolt operation of the M16A1.

Mk 4 Mod 0
The Mk 4 Mod 0 was a variant of the M16A1 produced for the U.S. Navy SEALs during the Vietnam War and adopted in April 1970. It differed from the basic M16A1 primarily in being optimized for maritime operations and coming equipped with a sound suppressor. Most of the operating parts of the rifle were coated in Kal-Guard, a hole of 0.25 inches (6.4mm) was drilled through the stock and buffer tube for drainage, and an O-ring was added to the end of the buffer assembly. The weapon could reportedly be carried to the depth of 200 feet (60 m) without damage. The initial Mk 2 Mod 0 Blast Suppressor was based on the U.S. Army's Human Engineering Lab's (HEL) M4 noise suppressor. The HEL M4 vented gas directly from the action, requiring a modified bolt carrier. A gas deflector was added to the charging handle to prevent gas from contacting the user. Thus, the HEL M4 suppressor was permanently mounted though it allowed normal semi-automatic and automatic operation. If the HEL M4 suppressor were removed, the weapon would have to be manually loaded after each single shot. On the other hand, the Mk 2 Mod 0 blast suppressor was considered an integral part of the Mk 4 Mod 0 rifle, but it would function normally if the suppressor were removed. The Mk 2 Mod 0 blast suppressor also drained water much more quickly and did not require any modification to the bolt carrier or to the charging handle. In the late 1970s, the Mk 2 Mod 0 blast suppressor was replaced by the Mk 2 blast suppressor made by Knight's Armament Company (KAC). The KAC suppressor can be fully submerged and water will drain out in less than eight seconds. It will operate without degradation even if the M16A1 is fired at the maximum rate of fire. The U.S. Army replaced the HEL M4 with the much simpler Studies in Operational Negation of Insurgency and Counter-Subversion (SIONICS) MAW-A1 noise and flash suppressor.

Mark 12
Developed to increase the effective range of soldiers in the designated marksman role, the US Navy developed the Mark 12 Special Purpose Rifle (SPR). Configurations in service vary, but the core of the Mark 12 SPR is an 18" heavy barrel with muzzle brake and free float tube. This tube relieves pressure on the barrel caused by standard handguards and greatly increases the potential accuracy of the system. Also common are higher magnification optics ranging from the 6 power Trijicon ACOG to the Leupold Mark 4 Tactical rifle scopes. Firing Mark 262 Mod 0 ammunition with a 77gr Open tip Match bullet, the system has an official effective range of 600+ meters. However published reports of confirmed kills beyond 800 m from Iraq and Afghanistan are not uncommon.

M16 rifle


M4 carbine
The M4 carbine was developed from various outgrowths of these designs, including a number of 14.5-inch (368mm)-barreled A1 style carbines. The XM4 (Colt Model 727) started its trials in the mid-80s, with a barrel of 14.5 inches (370mm). Officially adopted as a replacement for the M3 "Grease Gun" (and the Beretta M9 and M16A2 for select troops) in 1994, it was used with great success in the Balkans and in more recent conflicts, including the Afghanistan and Iraq theaters. The M4 carbine has a three-round burst firing mode, while the M4A1 carbine has a fully automatic firing mode. Both have a Picatinny rail on the upper receiver, allowing the carry handle/rear sight assembly to be replaced with other sighting devices.

An M4A1 carbine (foreground) and two M16A2s (background) being fired by U.S. Marines during a live fire exercise: though adopted in the 1990s and derived from the M16A2, the M4 carbine was part of a long line of short-barreled AR-15 used in the U.S. military

International derivatives
C7 and C8 The Diemaco C7 and C8 are updated variants of the M16 developed and used by the Canadian Forces and are now manufactured by Colt Canada. The C7 is a further development of the experimental M16A1E1. Like earlier M16s, it can be fired in either single shot or automatic mode, instead of the burst function selected for the M16A2. The C7 also features the structural strengthening, improved handguards, and longer stock developed for the M16A2. Diemaco changed the trapdoor in the buttstock to make it easier to access and a Canadian Forces Reserve infantrymen train in spacer of 0.5 inches (13mm) is available to adjust stock length to user urban operations with C7 and C8 rifles. preference. The most easily noticeable external difference between American M16A2s and Diemaco C7s is the retention of the A1 style rear sights. Not easily apparent is Diemaco's use of hammer-forged barrels. The Canadians originally desired to use a heavy barrel profile instead. The C7 has been developed to the C7A1, with a Weaver rail on the upper receiver for a C79 optical sight, and to the C7A2, with different furniture and internal improvements. The Diemaco produced Weaver rail on the original C7A1 variants does not meet the M1913 'Picatinny' standard, leading to some problems with mounting commercial sights. This is easily remedied with minor modification to their the upper receiver or the sight itself. Since Diemaco's acquisition by Colt to form Colt Canada, all Canadian produced flattop upper receivers are machined to the M1913 standard. The C8 is the carbine version of the C7.[51] The C7 and C8 are also used by Hrens Jegerkommando, Marinejegerkommandoen and FSK (Norway), Military of Denmark (all branches), the Royal Netherlands Army and Netherlands Marine Corps as its main infantry weapon. Following trials, variants became the weapon of choice of the British SAS.

M16 rifle Others The Chinese Norinco CQ is an unlicensed derivative of the M16A1 made specifically for export, with the most obvious external differences being in its handguard and revolver-style pistol grip. Khaybar KH2002, is an Iranian bullpup conversion of the locally produced S-5.56 rifle. Iran intends to replace the standard issue weapon of its armed forces with the Khaybar. The S-5.56 assault rifle itself is an Iranian M16 derivative based on the Norinco CQ. Two versions of the S-5.56 include the S-5.56A1, used for M-193-type bullets while the S-5.56A3 is used for SS-109-type bullets. The MSSR rifle developed as an effective, low cost sniper rifle by the Philippine Marine Corps Scout Snipers. The Special Operations Assault Rifle (SOAR) assault carbine was developed by Ferfrans based on the M16 rifle. It is used by the Special Action Force. Taiwan uses piston-driven M16-based weapons as their standard rifle. These include the T65, T86 and T91 assault rifles.


Colt model no. Military designation Barrel Length Barrel Handguard type Buttstock type grip type 601 AR-15 20 in A1 (1:14 Green or full-length Green or brown fixed A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 Duckbill flash suppressor No No Yes Safe-Semi-Auto Lower type Upper Rear sight type Front sight type Muzzle device assist? Case Forward deflector? Bayonet lug? Trigger pack

Pistol receiver receiver type

(508mm) profile brown twist) triangular 602 AR-15 or XM16 20 in A1 (1:12 twist) 603 XM16E1 20 in A1 (1:12 twist) Full-length Full-length

Fixed A1






Duckbill or three-prong flash suppressor





(508mm) profile triangular

Fixed A1






Three-prong Yes or M16A1 birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile triangular



20 in

A1 (1:12 twist)


Fixed A1






M16A1-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile triangular



20 in

A1 (1:12 twist)


Fixed A1






Three-prong No or M16A1-style birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile triangular



20 in

A2 (1:7 twist)


Fixed A2


A1 or A2

A1 or A2

A1 or A2


M16A1 or M16A2-style birdcage flash suppressor


Yes or No Yes

Safe-Semi-Auto or Safe-Semi-Burst

(508mm) profile ribbed



20 in

A2 (1:7 twist)


Fixed A2






M16A2-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile ribbed

M16 rifle

20 in A2 (1:7 twist) Full-length Fixed A2 A2 A2 Flattop with Colt Rail Flip-up Folding M16A2-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor Full-length w/ HEL guide Retractable ACR A2 Flattop with Colt rail None A2 ACR muzzle Yes brake Yes Yes Safe-Semi-Burst Yes Yes Safe-Semi-Burst



(508mm) profile ribbed



20 in

A2 (1:7 twist)

(508mm) profile semi-beavertail ACR


M16A2E3/M16A3 20 in

A2 (1:7 twist)


Fixed A2






M16A2-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile ribbed


M16A1 Special High Profile

20 in

HBAR Full-length (1:12 twist)

Fixed A1






M16A1-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile triangular


M16A1 Special Low Profile

20 in

HBAR Full-length (1:12 twist)

Fixed A1



A1 with modified Weaver base

Low A1

Hooded M16A1-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile triangular

Profile A1


M16A2E4/M16A4 20 in

A2 (1:7 twist)

Full-length M5 RAS

Fixed A2



Flattop with MIL-STD-1913 rail



M16A2-style Yes birdcage flash suppressor




(508mm) profile ribbed or KAC

Colt model no.

Military designation

Barrel Length Barrel

Handguard type

Buttstock type grip type

Lower type


Rear sight type

Front sight type

Muzzle device assist?

Case Forward deflector? Bayonet lug?

Trigger pack

Pistol receiver receiver type

Production and users

The M16 is the most commonly manufactured 5.56x45 mm rifle in the world. Currently, the M16 is in use by 15 NATO countries and more than 80 countries world wide. Together, numerous companies in the United States, Canada, and China have produced more than 8,000,000 rifles of all variants. Approximately 90% are still in operation.[52] The M16 replaced the M14 and M1 carbine as standard infantry rifles of the U.S. armed forces. The M14 continues to see limited service, mostly in sniper, designated marksman, and ceremonial roles.

Afghanistan[53] Argentina: Used M16A1 in the Falklands. Currently uses the M16A2.[54] Australia[55] (M16A1) (Replaced 1989 by the F88 AuSteyr) Bangladesh: Used by the military, special forces and counter terrorism units.[56] Barbados[57] Belize[57] Bolivia
[57] A Canadian Army soldier fires the current issue C7A2 rifle at the range with a C79A2 sight. This particular example is missing the standard TRIAD mount.

Brazil[57] Brunei[57]

M16 rifle Cambodia[58] [59] (M16A1) Cameroon[57] Canada: C7 and C8 variants made by Colt Canada is used by the Canadian Forces.[60] Chile[57] Costa Rica[61] Democratic Republic of the Congo[58] Denmark:[57] C7 and C8 variants made by Colt Canada are used by the Royal Danish Army. Dominican Republic[57] East Timor[62] Ecuador[57] El Salvador[57] (M16A1-M16A2) Estonia[63] Fiji[57] France[57] Gabon[57] Ghana[57] Greece[57] M16A2/M4 is used by the Special forces of the [[Hellenic Army]ISAF Forces in Afghanistan ] and Hellenic Navy Grenada[57] Guatemala[58] Haiti[58] Honduras[64] India[57] Indonesia[57] Indonesian Army largely used M16s during Indonesian invasion of East Timor. Now used by Indonesian Special Forces. Iraq: Iraqi army.[65] Israel[66] Jamaica[57] Jordan[57] Republic of Korea: During Vietnam War, United States provided 27,000 M16 rifles to Republic of Korea Armed Forces in Vietnam. Also, 600,000 Units were manufactured under license by Daewoo. The delivery started in 1974 and ended in 1985.[57] Lebanon[58] [67] Lesotho[57] Liberia[58] Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces.[68] Malaysia[57] Mexico[57] Monaco Morocco[57] New Zealand[57] (Replaced 1988 by Steyr AUG) Nepal[69]
Malaysian Army soldier with an M16A1 equipped with an M203 grenade launcher during a CARAT Malaysia 2008.


A member of the U.S. Air Force with an M16A2 in Kuwait.

U.S. Marine firing an M16A4 equipped with an ACOG.

M16 rifle Netherlands: C7 and C8 variants are used by the Royal Netherlands Army.[60] Nicaragua[57] Nigeria[57] Oman[57] Pakistan: Special Service Group (SSG) of the Pakistan Army.[70] Panama[57] (M16A1) Peru[57] Philippines: Manufactured under license by Elisco Tool and Manufacturing.[57] Qatar[57] Senegal[71] Singapore: Local variant of the M16A1 (M16S1) manufactured under license by ST Kinetics.[58] Somalia[57] South Africa[57] Sri Lanka[58] Thailand[57] (M16A1/A2/A4)
Monegasque carabinier with M16 rifle.


Philippine Marines using M16A1 rifles with M16A2 foregrips during a military exercise.

Tunisia[57] Turkey[57] (M16A1/A2/A4) Uganda[57] United Arab Emirates[57] United Kingdom: Special Air Service.[72] United States[73] Uruguay[57] Vietnam[57] (M16A1, captured)

Future replacement
Previous attempts by the U.S. Military to replace the M16 were unsuccessful or only supplemented it. The M4 carbine will eventually replace the M16 rifle in the United States Army.

Throughout the 1970s, the Army experimented with various materials to replace brass in cartridge casings. Brass has a number of qualities that make it almost ideal for a cartridge, including low friction against steel, making it easier to extract, and the ease with which casings can be manufactured. However, brass is also dense and expensive, so replacing it could lower both the cost and weight of the ammunition. Aluminum and steel were popular materials for complete rounds, and AAI successfully developed a plastic blank. Completely caseless ammunition was also studied on several occasions, notably the German 4.7mm designs, and this concept is now being continued with the Lightweight Small Arms Technologies Program.

M16 rifle


Later in the 1980s, the Advanced Combat Rifle program was run to find a replacement for the M16. Colt entered a modified M16A2 known as the Colt ACR, which used duplex rounds, a system that lowered recoil by 40% to improve repeating shots, and added a 3.5x scope. This weapon, designated M16A2E2, also featured a "guide" of sorts as part of a special handguard developed by the U.S. Army Human Engineering Laboratory designed to assist in snap-shooting, and a carbine style stock very similar to the recent stock developed by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division. The Steyr ACR used new flechette ammunition that was nominally called 5.56mm, with a very high 4750ft/s (1448m/s) muzzle velocity. Other variants experimented with caseless ammunition technologies as well.
Colt ACR/M16A2E2 fitted with ELCAN C79 scope (second from top to bottom)

Replacement designs
In the 1980s, the M249 was issued to infantry units, replacing some M60s and some M16A1s at the squad level. In the 1990s the M4 carbine took over the operational role of the M3 submachine gun, some M9s, and many M16A2s. The U.S. Air Force mostly uses M4 and GAU-5 carbines for security squadrons and M16A2s for non-security personnel. The U.S. Navy decided to retain the M16A2 and M16A3 for its units that use rifles like the U.S. Navy Seabees. The U.S. Army and Marine Corps have largely relegated the M16A2 to non-combat roles, choosing instead the M16A4 and M4. Further, the M16 never entirely replaced the M14 in all roles, which continues to be used in a number of niche applications throughout the Armed Forces, especially with the U.S. Navy. Replacement of the M16 family has been proposed at various points, and its longevity is in part due to a series of failures in projects meant to replace it, driven largely by the requirement for a significant improvement. Immediately after the introduction of the M16, the Marine Corps sought to adopt the Stoner 63. Although they found it superior in most ways, it was still at an early stage of development; the Marines chose the technically inferior but mature M16. The Advanced Combat Rifle program in the 1980s produced weapons that were superior in some ways, but none improved upon the M16 series enough to replace it. It was also potentially going to be replaced by the SABR, from the OICW project. The weapon system originally planned by the OICW project was put on hold around the turn of century, in favor of a simpler new 5.56mm rifle project that offered less far-reaching improvements. The resulting XM8 rifle was also intended as a potential replacement for the M16 family. However, this program too ran into problems around 200405, and was put on hold in favor of an open competition for what became known as the OICW Increment 1. (Increment 2 is the standalone XM25 Individual Airburst Weapon System, and Increment 3 is the XM29 OICW, a weapon that combined the earlier two increments.) This competition was subsequently put on hold in the summer of 2005 to take into account input from other services, and on October 31, 2005, the competition was canceled. A partial replacement for the M16 rifle is the SOF Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR), designated Mk 16. The 5.56x45 Mk 16 emerged as the winner of a USSOCOM competition to find a new rifle for Special Operations Forces in 2003. Most of the SCAR's basic controls (pistol grip, magazine release, selector lever, and bolt release) share the same location and function as on the M16 and M4 they are supplementing. Since the cancellation of the XM8 program, and into 2008, the LSAT rifle program has been pursued for the next generation of U.S. small arms. The program has already produced practical results and is currently projected to provide the next U.S. military rifle.[74] Development of the LSAT rifle began in 2008.[74] Several companies have been working on and creating potential candidates for the U.S. military's next primary weapon. The Heckler & Koch HK416 has been in use by Delta Force since 2004. The HK416 is offered as a conversion kit that can retrofit current M4 carbines. The HK416 recently won a testing competition for the US Marine Corps Infantry Automatic Rifle program and entered final testing as the M27 in summer 2010.[75] The

M16 rifle HK416 is also one of several M4 designs on the front competitors of the Army's Individual Carbine competition.[76] The H&K's design replaces the direct impingement gas system with a newer piston design. The reason to build a new M4 is to produce a new more reliable carbine for US troops in a few years.[76] During the late 1990s and early 2000s the IMI developed the IMI Tavor TAR-21 which has supplemented the M16s and M4s in service with the Israeli Defense Force. The M4 carbine will eventually replace the M16 rifle in most combat units in the U.S. Army.[6]


Gas Piston
Complicating the Army search for higher reliability in the M4 is a number of observations of M4 gas piston alternatives that suffer unintended design problems. The first is that many of the gas piston modifications for the M4 isolate the piston so that piston jams or related malfunction require the entire weapon be disassembled, such disassembly cannot be performed by the end user and requires a qualified armorer to perform out of field, where as any malfunction with the direct-impingement system can be fixed by the end user in field. The second is that gas piston alternatives use an off-axis operation of the piston that can introduce carrier tilt, whereby the bolt carrier fails to enter the buffer tube at a straight angle resulting in part wearing. The third is that the use of a sound suppressor results in hot gases entering the chamber, regardless of a direct-gas impingement or gas piston design choice.[77] [78]

[1] Ezell, Virginia Hart (November 2001). "Focus on Basics, Urges Small Arms Designer" (http:/ / www. nationaldefensemagazine. org/ archive/ 2001/ November/ Pages/ Focus_on4174. aspx). National Defense (National Defense Industrial Association). . [2] Colt Weapon Systems (http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ M16. asp). [3] M15 5.56mm Rifle. Specifications (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110725160425/ http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ M16_2. asp). colt.com [4] Rose, pp. 380 & 392. [5] Urdang, p. 801. [6] "Small ArmsIndividual Weapons" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ man/ dod-101/ sys/ land/ wsh2011/ 290. pdf). 3. . Retrieved 8 November 2010. [7] Lance M. Bacon (30 April 2011). "Improved carbines headed your way" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2011/ 04/ army-improved-carbines-heading-your-way-043011w/ ). Gannett Government Media Corporation. . Retrieved 30 April 2011. [8] Venola, Richard (2005). "What a Long Strange Trip It's Been". Book of the AR-15 1 (2): 618. [9] Ford, Daniel (2001). The Only War We've Got: Early Days in South Vietnam (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=sV_K3L6hTqEC). ISBN9780595175512. . [10] H&R "About Us" page (http:/ / www. hr1871. com/ about/ ). [11] The Gun Zone (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-5. html). [12] Sabre Defence Industries Awarded M16 Rifle Contract (http:/ / www. defensereview. com/ sabre-defence-industries-awarded-m16-rifle-contract-m16a3-m16a4-rifles/ ). [13] AR15 Manufacturers & Builders (http:/ / www. ar-15. us/ AR15_Manufacturers. php). [14] p.96 Dockery, Kevin Future Weapons Berkley Books, 2007 [15] Regulations Prescribing Certain Firearms and other Weapons, Components and Parts of Weapons, Accessories, Cartridge Magazines, Ammunition and Projectiles as Prohibited or Restricted, SOR/98-462 (http:/ / www. canlii. org/ en/ ca/ laws/ regu/ sor-98-462/ latest/ sor-98-462. html). Canlii. 29-06-2010 [16] Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp.4647. ISBN978-0880296014. [17] Marshall, S. L. A. (1966). Men against Fire:The Problem of Combat Command in Future War. New York City: William Morrow and Company. pp.5060. [18] Hall, Donald L. (1952). An Effectiveness Study of the Infantry Rifle (http:/ / handle. dtic. mil/ 100. 2/ AD377335). Maryland: Army Ballistic Research Lab, Aberdeen Proving Ground. . [19] Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 972-46-1192-2, pp. 183184. [20] Hutton, Robert (ed.), The .223, Guns & Ammo Annual Edition, 1971. [21] Winchester Lmr (http:/ / www. securityarms. com/ 20010315/ galleryfiles/ 1800/ 1863. htm). Securityarms.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [22] Rose, p. 372. [23] Rose, pp. 372373. [24] Rose, p. 373. [25] :: Ammo Oracle (http:/ / ammo. ar15. com/ ammo/ project/ term_tighttwist. html). Ammo.ar15.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [26] Rose, pp. 380, 392. [27] Rose, p. 380.

M16 rifle
[28] C.H. Chivers (November 2, 2009). "How Reliable is the M16 Rifle?" (http:/ / atwar. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ how-reliable-is-the-m-16-rifle/ ). New York Times. . [29] "Defense: Under Fire" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,843858,00. html). Time Magazine, 9 June 1967. [30] Defense: Powder Pains (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,899755,00. html) Time Magazine, 8 September 1967. [31] Maj. Bruce F. Kay An Analysis of Infantry's Need for an Assault Submachine Gun (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ cgi-bin/ GetTRDoc?AD=ADA044796& Location=U2& doc=GetTRDoc. pdf), Master of Military Art and Science thesis. University of Nebraska. Final Report 10 June 1977. p. 34. [32] Watters,Daniel: " The 5.56 X 45mm Timeline: A Chronology of Development (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-8. html)", The Gun Zone, 20002007. [33] " NATO Infantry Weapons Standardization (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2008Intl/ Arvidsson. pdf)", NDIA Conference 2008 [34] weight without magazine of AK (1949) 3.9 kg, AK (1955) 3.5 kg, AKM (1959) 2.9 kg Field manual for AK ( 7.62- ()); Field manual for AKM and AKMS ( 7.62- ( )) [35] American Rifle: A Biography, Alexander Rose (2009) p. 375-376 [36] The SAS Training Manual, Chris McNab, (2002) pp. 108109 [37] "Scientific Evidence for 'Hydrostatic Shock'" (http:/ / arxiv. org/ abs/ 0803. 3051), Michael Courtney and Amy Courtney, (2008) [38] International Legal Initiatives to Restrict Military Small Arms Ammunition W. Hays Parks Copyright 2010 by W. Hays Parks International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) page 1-18 [39] International Legal Initiatives to Restrict Military Small Arms Ammunition W. Hays Parks Copyright 2010 by W. Hays Parks International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) page 1-18 [40] Ian V. Hogg , Military Small Arms of the 20th Century, 1981 [41] Parks, W. Hays. "International Legal Initiatives to Restrict Military Small Arms Ammunition" (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2010armament/ TuesdayLandmarkBHaysParks. pdf). W. Hays Parks International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) via DTIC.mil, 2010. [42] Ezell, Edward Clinton (1983). Small Arms of the World. New York: Stackpole Books. pp.746762. ISBN978-0880296014. [43] Dawson, D. "Crib Notes for Soldiers Weapons Painting 101" (http:/ / peosoldier. armylive. dodlive. mil/ 2010/ 05/ 14/ crib-notes-for-soldiers--weapons-painting-101/ ). . Retrieved 16 May 2010. [44] Page 744 "Small Arms of the World" 12th revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell. [45] Pages 744759 "Small Arms of the World" 12th Revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell. [46] Page 754 "Small Arms of the World" 12th Revised Edition by Edward Clinton Ezell. [47] Special Operations.com (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Foreign/ United_Kingdom/ SAS/ Weapons. htm). [48] Hogg, Ian; Weeks, John (2000). Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=teAAHt1GaE8C& q=Military+ Small+ Arms+ of+ the+ 20th+ Century& dq=Military+ Small+ Arms+ of+ the+ 20th+ Century) (7 ed.). Krause Publications. p.292. ISBN9780873418249. . [49] "US Navy, Marines Buy M-16 Rifles" (http:/ / www. defenseindustrydaily. com/ the-usas-m-16-rifle-purchases-04517/ ). Defense Industry Daily. 2 January 2008. . [50] US Army Field Manual: RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4 and M4 CARBINE (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ library/ policy/ army/ fm/ 3-22-9/ c02. htm#2_1). 24 April 2003. . [51] Canadian Forces Automatic Rifles (http:/ / www. casr. ca/ 101-army-smallarm-1. htm). Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved: 2009-08-23. [52] Customers / Weapon users (http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ customers. asp), Colt Weapon Systems. [53] Fishel, Justin (2007-12-04). "U.S. Military to Provide Afghan Army With M-16 Rifles" (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ story/ 0,2933,315121,00. html). FOXNews.com. . [54] Exposicin del Ejrcito Argentino en Palermo, Buenos Aires- Mayo de 2005 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20090122004105/ http:/ / saorbats. com. ar/ GaleriaSaorbats/ EA05/ EA05/ index. html). saorbats.com.ar [55] "Australian weapons, Viet Nam and since" (http:/ / www. diggerhistory. info/ pages-weapons/ allied_recent. htm). Diggerhistory.info. 2002-11-11. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. [56] "Small Arms | Bangladesh Military Forces | BDMilitary.com The voice of the Bangladesh Armed Forces" (http:/ / www. bdmilitary. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=71& Itemid=95). BDMilitary.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. [57] Jane's Special Forces Recognition Guide, Ewen Southby-Tailyour (2005) p. 446 [58] "Report: Profiling the Small Arms Industry World Policy Institute Research Project" (http:/ / www. worldpolicy. org/ projects/ arms/ reports/ smallarms. htm). World Policy Institute. November 2000. . Retrieved 2010-07-15. [59] Working Papers (http:/ / www. smallarmssurvey. org/ files/ sas/ publications/ w_papers_pdf/ WP/ WP4_Cambodia. pdf). Small Arms Survey (2011-05-05). Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [60] Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4. [61] . http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ customers. asp. [62] Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment Southeast Asia. Issue 20 2007. Pages 146 and 152. [63] "Eesti Kaitsevgi Tehnika Automaat M-16 A1" (http:/ / www. mil. ee/ ?menu=tehnika1& sisu=m16a1). Mil.ee. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. [64] Gander, Terry J.; Hogg, Ian V. Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995/1996. Jane's Information Group; 21 edition (May 1995). ISBN 978-0710612410.


M16 rifle
[65] "First steps to arming Iraq's soldiers" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 6665759. stm). BBC News. 2007-05-18. . Retrieved 2010-05-12. [66] John Pike (2003-12-17). "Israel's army phases out country's iconic Uzi submachine gun" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ org/ news/ 2003/ 031217-uzi. htm). Globalsecurity.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. [67] Unwin, Charles C.; Vanessa U., Mike R., eds (2002). 20th Century Military Uniforms (2nd ed.). Kent: Grange Books. ISBN1840132763. [68] "Lietuvos kariuomen :: Ginkluot ir karin technika Automatiniai autuvai Automatinis autuvas M-16" (http:/ / kariuomene. kam. lt/ lt/ ginkluote_ir_karine_technika/ automatiniai_sautuvai/ automatinis_sautuvas_m-16. html). Kariuomene.kam.lt. 2009-04-17. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. (Lithuanian) [69] "Nepal takes delivery of US rifles" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 2631939. stm). BBC News. 2003-01-06. . Retrieved 2010-05-12. [70] "Pakdef.info Pakistan Military Consortium: Special Service Group" (http:/ / www. pakdef. info/ pakmilitary/ army/ regiments/ ssg. html). Saad, S.; Ali, M.; Shabbir, Usman. 1998. . Retrieved 2009-08-15. [71] "Army seeks Senegal ear-choppers" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ africa/ 7392685. stm). BBC News. 2008-05-09. . Retrieved 2010-05-12. [72] Poyer, Joe. "Modern Firearms AR-15 M16 M16A1 M16A2 M16A3 assault rifle" (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ assault/ as18-e. htm). World.guns.ru. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. [73] "M-16 Rifle Fact File for the United States Army" (http:/ / www. army. mil/ factfiles/ equipment/ individual/ m16. html). Army.mil. . Retrieved 2010-08-22. [74] Bruce, Robert. "LSAT The Future of Small Arms Now?" (http:/ / www. nrapublications. org/ TAR/ LSAT. asp). American Rifleman. National Rifle Association. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. [75] Lamothe, Dan (July 2, 2010). "Conway eyes additional testing for auto-rifle" (http:/ / www. marinecorpstimes. com/ news/ 2010/ 07/ marine_IAR_070110w/ ). Marine Corps Times. . Retrieved 2 July 2010. [76] Fuller, BG Peter N.; COL Douglas A. Tamilio (18 MAY 2010). "Project Manager Soldier Weapons Briefing for NDIA" (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2010armament/ TuesdayLandmarkBTamilio. pdf). PEO Soldier. United States Army. . Retrieved 28 October 2010. [77] "15259frcov.fm" (http:/ / images. military. com/ pix/ defensetech/ cna_m4_study_d0015259_a2. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [78] Mike Pannone (2010-03-19). "The Big M4 Myth: Fouling caused by the direct impingement gas system makes the M4/M4A1 Carbine unreliable." (http:/ / www. defensereview. com/ the-big-m4-myth-fouling-caused-by-the-direct-impingement-gas-system-makes-the-m4-unreliable/ ). Defensive Review. . Retrieved 2011-07-27.


Modern Warfare, Published by Mark Dartford, Marshall Cavendish (London) 1985 Afonso, Aniceto and Gomes, Carlos de Matos, Guerra Colonial (2000), ISBN 9724611922 Ezell, Edward Clinton (1984). The Great Rifle Controversy: Search for the Ultimate Infantry Weapon from World War II Through Vietnam and Beyond. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: Halsted Press. ISBN9780811707091. Hughes, David R. (1990). The History and Development of the M16 Rifle and its Cartridge. Oceanside, California: Armory Publications. ISBN0962609609. Hutton, Robert, The .223, Guns & Ammo Annual Edition, 1971. McNaugher, Thomas L. "Marksmanship, Mcnamara and the M16 Rifle: Organisations, Analysis and Weapons Acquisition", http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P6306/ Pikula, Sam (Major), The ArmaLite AR-10, 1998 Rose, Alexander. American Rifle-A Biography. 2008; Bantam Dell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-553-80517-8. Stevens, R. Blake and Edward C. Ezell. (1994). The Black Rifle: M16 Retrospective, Ontario: Collector Grade Publications. Urdang, Laurence, Editor in Chief. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language. 1969; Random House/New York.

M16 rifle


External links
Colt Manufacturing: The M16A4 Rifle (http://www.colt.com/mil/M16.asp) PEO Soldier M16 fact sheet (http://peosoldier.army.mil/factsheets/SW_IW_M16.pdf) AR15.com, the largest M-16/AR-15 Resource on the Web (http://www.ar15.com) The Gun Zone: A 5.56 mm Timeline (http://www.thegunzone.com/556dw.html) The AR-15/M16 Magazine FAQ (http://www.rawles.to/AR-15_M16_Magazine_FAQ.html) Combat Training with the M16 Manual (http://www.nazarian.no/images/wep/504_FM_23-9_M16.pdf) (PDF) Rifle Marksmanship M16A1, M16A2/3, M16A4 and M4 Carbine (Army Field Manual) (http://www. globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/3-22-9/index.html) Operator's Manual for Rifle, 5.56 mm, M16; Rifle 5.56 mm, M16A1 (http://www.archive.org/details/ OperatorsManualForM16M16a1) Operator's Manual for Rifle, 5.56 mm, M16A2; Rifle 5.56 mm, M16A3; Rifle, 5.56 mm, M16A4; Carbine, 5.56 mm, M4; Carbine, 5.56 mm, M4A1 (http://www.ar15.com/content/manuals/TM9-1005-319-10.pdf) Video of 1965 training film on the early XM16E1 variant downloadable for free from www.archive.org The Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org/details/ Rifle556mmXM16E1OperationandCycleofFunctioningTF93663)

M16 in parts (http://www.bimbel.de/artikel/artikel-25.html) (German) M16 Assault Rifle Description (http://discovermilitary.com/weapons/m16-rifle/)

M4 carbine


M4 carbine
Carbine, 5.56 mm, M4

An M4 with an aftermarket buttstock, Rail Adapter System (RAS), flip-up rear sight, vertical forward grip with bipod and Aimpoint M68 CCO Type Placeoforigin Carbine
United States

Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1994present See Users

War in Afghanistan (2001present) War in Iraq (20032010) Colombian Armed Conflict

Production history Manufacturer Produced Variants Colt Defense 1994present M4A1, CQBR (Mk. 18 Mod 0) Specifications Weight Length Barrellength Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Feedsystem Sights 6.36lb (2.88kg) empty 6.9lb (3.1kg) with 30 rounds 33in (840mm) (stock extended) 29.75in (756mm) (stock retracted) 14.5in (370mm) 5.56x45mm NATO Gas-operated, rotating bolt 700950 round/min cyclic 2,900 ft/s or 884 m/s
[1] [2] [1]

500 m for a point target and 600 m for an area target

30 round box magazine or other STANAG Magazines. Iron or various optics

The M4 carbine is a family of firearms tracing its lineage back to earlier carbine versions of the M16, all based on the original AR-15 designed by Eugene Stoner and made by ArmaLite. It is a shorter and lighter version of the

M4 carbine M16A2 assault rifle, with 80% parts commonality.[3] It is a gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed, selective fire, shoulder-fired weapon with a telescoping stock. A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle, the M4 has a 14.5in (370mm) barrel, allowing the individual soldier to better operate in close quarters. The M4 has selective fire options including semi-automatic and three-round burst (like the M16A2), while the M4A1 has the capability to fire fully automatic instead of three-round burst. The carbine is also capable of mounting an M203 grenade launcher, the M203A1 with a 9-inch barrel as opposed to the standard 12-inch barrel of the M203 used on the M16 series. The M4 carbine is slated to eventually replace the M16 rifle for most combat units in the United States Army.[4] The winner of the Individual Carbine competition may replace the M4 carbine in U.S. Army service.[5]


The M4 was intended to replace the .45 ACP M3 submachine guns and selected M9 pistols and M16 rifle series with most Army units (this plan was thought to be changed with the development of the XM29 OICW and the XM8 carbine; however, both projects were canceled.) The United States Marine Corps has ordered its officers (up to the rank of lieutenant colonel) and Staff Non-commissioned officers to carry the M4 carbine instead of the M9 handgun. This is in keeping with the Marine Corps doctrine, "Every Marine a rifleman." United States Navy corpsmen E5 and below will also be issued M4s instead of the M9.[6]

Improved M4
On July 1, 2009, the U.S. Army took complete ownership of the M4 design.[7] This will allow companies besides Colt to compete with their own M4 designs. The Army planned on fielding the last of its M4 requirement in 2010.[7] On October30, 2009, Army weapons officials proposed a series of changes to the M4 to Congress. Requested changes include an electronic round counter that records the number of shots fired, a heavier barrel, and possibly replacing the direct impingement system with a gas piston system, the benefits of this, however, have come under scrutiny from both the military and civilian firearms community.[8] [9] It should also be pointed out that, according to a PDF detailing the M4 Carbine improvement plans released by PEO Soldier, the direct impingement system will only be replaced after reviews are done comparing the direct impingement system to commercial gas piston operating system to find out and use the best available operating system in the US Army's improved M4A1. [10] As of September 2010 the Army has announced it will buy 12,000 M4A1s from Colt Firearms by the end of 2010 and will by early 2011 order 25,000 more M4A1s. The Army announced also to have open competition for the newly designed M4 bolt carrier and gas piston operation system, which will be fitted to the newly bought M4A1 carbines. The service branch plans to buy 12,000 of these conversion kits in early 2011. In late 2011 the Army plans to buy 65,000 more conversion kits. From there the Army will decide if it will upgrade all of itsM4s.[11]

Future replacement
The carbine variant of the XM8 rifle was canceled in 2005. On November 13, 2008, the U.S. Army hosted an invitation-only Industry Day regarding a potential future replacement for the M4 carbine. Nineteen companies provided displays and briefings for military officials. The weapons displayed included the Barrett REC7 PDW, Bushmaster ACR, FN SCAR, Heckler & Koch HK416, Heckler & Koch XM8, LWRC M6A4, Robinson Arms XCR, SIG 556, as well as Colt's own improved version of the M4, the Colt ACC-M. The goal of the Industry Day was to provide officials with knowledge as to the current state of the art, which will assist the writing of a formal requirements document.[12] The possible successor to the M4 carbine in the U.S. Army is the Individual Carbine.[5] This program is to provide a new carbine for the Army, while the USMC has decided to stay with the M4 for carbine use.[11]

M4 carbine


The M4 and its variants fire 5.56x45mm NATO ammunition (and .223 Remington ammunition) and are gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed, selective fire firearms with either a multi-position telescoping stock or a fixed A2 or LE tactical stock.[13] Original M4 models had a flat-ended telescoping stock, but newer models are now equipped with a redesigned telescoping stock that is slightly larger with curvature at the end.[14] The M4 is similar to much earlier compact M16 versions, such as the 1960s-era XM177 family. Some of those visual designs are obvious in both weapons, however most of the similarities are not very noticeable.

M4 with M68 Close Combat Optic and AN/PAQ-4

Colt Model 933, a variant of the M4 with a shorter 11.5-inch barrel, seen here fitted with an M68 CCO

As with many carbines, the M4 is handy and more convenient to carry than a full-length rifle. The price is slightly inferior ballistic performance compared to the full-size M16, with its nearly 6" (15cm) longer barrel. This becomes most apparent at ranges of 300 yards and beyond. Statistically, however, most small-arms engagements occur within 100 yards. This means that the M4 is very much an adequate weapon for the majority of troops. The marginal sacrifice in terminal ballistics and range, in exchange for greatly improved handling characteristics, is usually thought to be a worthwhile compromise. While the M4's maneuverability makes it a candidate for non-infantry troops (vehicle crews, clerks and staff officers), it also makes it ideal for close quarters battle (CQB). The M4 was developed and produced for the United States government by Colt Firearms, which had an exclusive contract to produce the M4 family of weapons through 2009; however, a number of other manufacturers offer M4-like firearms. The M4, along with the M16A4, have mostly replaced the M16A2 in the Army and Marines. The U.S. Air Force, for example, has transitioned completely to the M4 for Security Forces squadrons, while other armed personnel retain the M16A2. The US Navy uses M4A1s for Special Operations and by vehicle crews.
The M4 with the newer, redesigned telescoping stock

Some features of the M4 and M4A1 compared to a full-length M16-series rifle include: Compact size

M4 carbine Shortened barrel 14.5in (370mm) Telescoping buttstock However, there have been some criticisms of the carbine, such as lower muzzle velocities and louder report due to the shorter barrel, additional stress on parts because of the shorter gas system, and a tendency to overheat faster than the M16A2.


Like all the variants of the M16, the M4 and the M4A1 can be fitted with many accessories, such as night vision devices, suppressors, laser pointers, telescopic sights, bipods, either the M203 or M320 grenade launchers, the M26 MASS shotgun,forward hand grips and anything else compatible with a MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail. Other common accessories include the AN/PEQ-2, Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG), and M68 CCO. EOTech holographic weapon sights are part of the SOPMOD II package. Visible and IR (infrared) lights of various manufacturers are also commonly attached using various mounting methods. As with all versions of the M16, the M4 accepts a blank-firing attachment (BFA) for training purposes. Feedramps M4 feedramps are extended from the barrel extension into the upper receiver. This can help alleviate feeding problems which may occur as a result of the increased pressure of the shortened gas system of the M4. This problem is primarily seen in full-auto applications. While some feel they are unnecessary, their perceived or real utility to others has led to the increasing availability of this feature on civilian AR-15 products.

An M4A1 just after firing, with an ejected case in mid-air; the M203 and M68 CCO are attached.

Except for the very first delivery order, all U.S. military-issue M4 and M4A1 carbines possess a flat-top NATO M1913-specification (Picatinny) rail on top of the receiver for attachment of optical sights and other aiming devices Trijicon TA01 and TA31 Advanced Combat Optical Gunsights (ACOG), EOTech 550 series holographic sights, and Aimpoint M68 Close Combat Optic (M68 CCO) being the favorite choices and a detachable rail-mounted carrying handle. Standards are the Colt Model 920 (M4) and 921 (M4A1). Variants of the carbine built by different manufacturers are also in service with many other foreign special forces units, such as the Australian Special Air Service Regiment (SASR). While the SASR uses weapons of essentially the same pattern built by Colt for export (Colt uses different models to separate weapons for the U.S. military and those for commercial/export purposes), the British SAS uses a variant on the basic theme, the Colt Canada (formerly Diemaco) C8SFW. The M4 carbine is slated to eventually replace the M16 rifle in the United States Army.[4]

M4 carbine


M4 MWS (Modular Weapon System)

Colt Model 925 carbines were tested fitted with the Knight's Armament Corporation (KAC) M4 RAS under the designation M4E2, but this designation appears to have been scrapped in favor of mounting this system to existing carbines without changing the designation. The U.S. Army Field Manual specifies for the Army that adding the Rail Adapter System (RAS) turns the weapon into the M4 MWS or Modular Weapon System.


The M4A1 carbine is a fully automatic variant of the basic M4 carbine intended for special operations use. The M4A1 has a "S-1-F" (safe/semi-automatic/fully automatic) trigger group, while the M4 has a "S-1-3" (safe/semi-automatic/3-round burst) trigger group. The M4A1 is used by almost all U.S special operation units. The M4A1 is especially favored by counter-terrorist and special forces units for close quarters combat because of the carbine's compactness and firepower. These features are also very useful in urban warfare. It has a maximum effective range of about 500 to 600 meters (550660 yd).[2] All U.S. Army forces will begin replacing their basic M4 carbines and all 600,000 M16 rifles with the M4A1 variant in 2014. The M4A1 in turn would likely be replaced with the Individual Carbine. Replacement of the M16 would come from the Individual Carbine instead of the M4A1 if procurement was attained.[15] In the last few years, M4A1 carbines have been refit or received straight from factory with barrels with a thicker profile under the handguard. This is for a variety of reasons such as heat dissipation, which is useful due to the complaints of high-heat production from test soldiers, which occurs during full-auto and accuracy as a byproduct of barrel weight. These heavier barrel weapons are also fitted with a heavier buffer known as the H2. Out of three sliding weights inside the buffer, the H2 possesses two tungsten weights and one steel weight, versus the standard H buffer, which uses one tungsten weight and two steel weights. These weapons, known by Colt as the Model 921HB (for Heavy Barrel), have also been designated M4A1, and as far as the government is concerned the M4A1 represents both the 921 and 921HB.

M4 MWS (Modular Weapon System) shown with various accessories including M203 grenade launcher, RIS foregrip, removable carry handle/rear sight assembly, AN/PEQ-4 laser system, M68 CCO reflex sight, and the AN/PVS-4 night vision optics

Mark 18 CQBR
Current contractor for the Mark 18 is Colt & Lewis Machine & Tool NSN 1005-01-527-2288. It is equipped with a 10.3" barrel.


M4 carbine


USSOCOM developed the Special Operations Peculiar Modification (SOPMOD) Block I kit for the carbines used by units under its jurisdiction. The kit features an M4A1, a Rail Interface System (RIS) handguard developed by Knight's Armament Company, a shortened quick-detachable M203 grenade launcher and leaf sight, a KAC sound suppressor, a KAC back-up rear sight, an Insight Technologies AN/PEQ-2A visible laser/infrared designator, along with Trijicon's ACOG and Reflex sights, and a night vision sight. This kit was designed to be configurable (modular) for various missions, and the kit is currently in service with special operations units.

SOPMOD (Special Operations Peculiar Modification) Block I

A second-generation SOPMOD kit (now known as SOPMOD II) includes innovative optics, such as the Elcan Specter DR and the Eotech 553. Block II uses the RIS II rails manufactured by Daniel Defense in both a 9.5 and 12.5 length.


2012-XXXX SOPMOD 1 & 2 Compatible with both M4A1 Carbine & SCAR SOPMOD 2 Compatibilities with all SOF Weapons

2007 dust test
In the fall 2007, the Army tested the M4 against three other carbines in "sandstorm conditions" at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: the Heckler & Koch XM8, Fabrique Nationale de Herstal SOF Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR) and the Heckler & Koch HK416. Ten of each type of rifle were used to fire 6,000 rounds each, for a total of 60,000 rounds per rifle type.[16] The M4 suffered far more stoppages than its competitors: 882 stoppages, 19 requiring an armorer to fix. The XM8 had the fewest stoppages, 116 minor stoppages and 11 major ones, followed by the FN SCAR with 226 stoppages and the HK416 with 233.[17] [18] The Army was quick to point out that even with 863 minor stoppagestermed "class one" stoppages which require 10 seconds or less to clear and "class two" stoppages which require more than ten seconds to clearthe M4 functioned well, with over 98 percent of the 60,000 total rounds firing without a problem. The Army said it planned to improve the M4 with a new cold-hammer-forged barrel to give longer life and more reliable magazines to reduce the stoppages. Magazine failures caused 239 of the M4's 882 failures. Army officials said the new magazines could be combat-ready by spring if testing went well.[19]

Gas Piston
Complicating the Army search for higher reliability in the M4 is a number of observations of M4 gas piston alternatives that suffer unintended design problems. The first is that many of the gas piston modifications for the M4 isolate the piston so that piston jams or related malfunction require the entire weapon be disassembled, such disassembly cannot be performed by the end user and requires a qualified armorer to perform out of field, where as any malfunction with the direct-impingement system can be fixed by the end user in field. The second is that gas piston alternatives use an off-axis operation of the piston that can introduce carrier tilt, whereby the bolt carrier fails to enter the buffer tube at a straight angle resulting in part wearing. The third is that the use of a sound suppressor results in hot gases entering the chamber, regardless of a direct-gas impingement or gas piston design choice. The

M4 carbine gas-piston system also causes the firearm to become proprietary to the manufacturer, making modifications and changes with parts from other manufacturers difficult.[20] [9] The argument for a gas piston is that it would reduce fouling; the argument against is that is would increase weight and reduce accuracy. The issue remains contentious and unresolved.


Trademark issues
Colt previously held a U.S. trademark on the term "M4".[21] Many manufacturers have production firearms that are essentially identical to a military M4. Civilian models are sometimes colloquially referred to as "M4gery"[22] ( /mfrdri/,[23] a portmanteau of "M4" and "forgery"). Colt had maintained that it retains sole rights to the M4 name and design. Other manufacturers had long maintained that Colt had been overstating its rights, and that "M4" had now become a generic term for a shortened AR-15. In April 2004, Colt filed a lawsuit against Heckler & Koch and Bushmaster Firearms, claiming acts of A U.S. Marshal covers a doorway with an M4. trademark infringement, trade dress infringement, trademark dilution, false designation of origin, false advertising, patent infringement, unfair competition, and deceptive trade practices. Heckler & Koch later settled out of court, changing one product's name from "HK M4" to "HK416". However, on December 8, 2005, a District court judge in Maine granted a summary judgment in favor of Bushmaster Firearms, dismissing all of Colt's claims except for false advertising. On the latter claim, Colt could not recover monetary damages. The court also ruled that "M4" was now a generic name, and that Colt's trademark should be revoked.[24]

Afghanistan: Used only by Afghan Army commandos.[25] [26] M4s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.[27] Additional M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Australia: Used by the Special Operations Command,[29] Clearance Divers.[30] and Police Tactical Groups[31] Bangladesh: Used by Bangladesh Paracommandos, Dhaka Metropolitan Police SWAT teams and Special Warfare Diving And Salvage[32] Bahrain: M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Belize: M4s/M4A1s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.[27] Brazil: Used by Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State.[33] Canada: C8 rifle.[34] Czech Republic: The M4 Karabin A3 is used in small numbers by specialized units of the Czech Army.[35] Known to be in use by the 601st Special Forces Group in 2006 to replace the Sa vz.58.[36] Colombia: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales.[28] Ecuador: M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28]

A member of the Philippine Special Action Force holding a M4 Carbine while guarding the U.S. Embassy in Manila.

M4 carbine El Salvador: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.[37] Additional M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Georgia: Georgian Armed Forces.[38] [39] Greece: Used by EKAM.[40] Hong Kong: M4A1 by Special Duties Unit of the Hong Kong Police Force[41] Hungary: M4A1 SOPMOD by Hungarian Special Force [42] India: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales.[28] M4A1 is also used by the Mizoram Armed Police, and Force One of the Mumbai Police.[43] [44] Indonesia: Used by Detachment 88 Counter-terrorism Police Squad operators.[45] Also used by Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.[46] Iraq: Used by the Iraqi Army.[47] Main weapon of the Iraqi National Counter-Terrorism Force.[48] Israel: Sold as part of a January 2001 Foreign Military Sales package to Israel.[49] Italy: Only Special Forces[50] Jamaica: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.[37] Japan: M4A1s as part of a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] M4A1 SOPMOD rifles are in use by the Japanese Special Forces Group.[51] Jordan: M4s sold as part of a 2007 Foreign Military Sales package.[37] Additionals M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Kosovo: Kosovo Security Force[52] Lebanon: M4 components being sold to Lebanese special forces.[53] M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Macedonia: M4s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28]
Members of the Serbian SAJ, the one in the center holding a Colt Model 933 while the one on the left holds a SIG SG 552. Indonesian police unit, Detachment 88


Malaysia: Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd.[54] To be used by the Malaysian Armed Forces, special forces of Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency and Royal Malaysian Police.[55]

Nepal: Sold as part of a 2005 Foreign Military Sales package.[56] New Zealand: Used by NZSAS operators and the police Armed Offenders Squad.[57] [58] Panama: M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28]

M4 carbine Philippines: M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Two variants of the M4 carbine are made by Floro International Corporation, consisting of the M4A1 5.56MM RIFLE and the M4A1 Model-C 5.56MM RIFLE.[59] [60] Poland: Used by Polish special forces unit Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego (GROM).[61] Portugal: Used by Marines special forces DAE (Destacamento de Aces Especiais).[62] Serbia: Used by various police units.[63] Singapore: Used by the Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation.[64] Taiwan: Used by National Police Agency (Republic of China)


Officers of the Police Special Operations Battalion of Rio de Janeiro (BOPE-RJ) Using the Colt 933 assault rifle while doing an operation in a favela in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Thailand: M4A1s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.[27] Tonga: M4/M4A1s sold as a 2008 Foreign Military Sales package.[28] Turkey[66] United Arab Emirates: Purchased 2,500 M4 carbines in 1993.[67] United States[34] Yemen: M4s sold as part of a 2006 Foreign Military Sales package.[27]

U.S. citizen ownership

Sales of select-fire or full automatic M4s by Colt are restricted to military and law enforcement agencies. Only under special circumstances can a private citizen own an M4 in a select-fire or fully automatic configuration. While many machine guns can be legally owned with a proper tax stamp from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, an amendment to the Firearm Owners Protection Act of 1986 barred the transfer to private citizens of machine guns made or registered in the U.S. after May 19, 1986. The only exception was for Special Occupational Taxpayers (SOT): licensed machine gun dealers with demonstration letters, manufacturers, and those dealing in exports and imports. As such, only the earliest Colt M4 prototypes built prior to May 19, 1986 would be legal to own by civilians not in the categories mentioned. However, US firearms law considers the lower receiver of a M16/M4 type rifle to be the "firearm" (the serial numbered and, in the case of machine guns, registered under federal law, part of the weapon). Therefore the more common registered Colt M16 may be configured as an M4 by replacing the M16 upper receiver/barrel assembly with an M4 upper half, and replacing the fixed rifle stock with a 4 or 6 position telescoping M4 stock.

[1] M4 5.56mm Carbine (http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ M4_2. asp). Colt. [2] "M-4 Carbine" (http:/ / www. army. mil/ factfiles/ equipment/ individual/ m4. html). U.S. Army Fact Files. United States Army. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [3] "The Design & Development of the M-4 Carbine" (http:/ / www. specialoperations. com/ Weapons/ Features/ M4/ Page_Two. htm). Special Operations.Com. . Retrieved 2008-11-08. [4] "Small ArmsIndividual Weapons" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ man/ dod-101/ sys/ land/ wsh2011/ 290. pdf). 3. . Retrieved 8 November 2010. [5] Fuller, BG Peter N.; COL Douglas A. Tamilio (18 MAY 2010). "Project Manager Soldier Weapons Briefing for NDIA" (http:/ / www. dtic. mil/ ndia/ 2010armament/ TuesdayLandmarkBTamilio. pdf). PEO Soldier. United States Army. . Retrieved 28 October 2010. [6] "New Assignment Rationale for Individual Weapons" (http:/ / www2. marines. mil/ news/ messages/ Pages/ 2007/ Messagesfinal4. aspx). U.S. Marine Corps, June 22, 2007. [7] Matthew Cox (2009-07-07). "Army acquires rights to M4" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2009/ 07/ army_carbine_070609w/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2009-08-18.

M4 carbine
[8] Matthew Cox (2009-11-21). "Major revamp possible for M4 carbine" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2009/ 11/ army_M4_112109w/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2009-11-21. [9] Mike Pannone (2010-03-19). "The Big M4 Myth: Fouling caused by the direct impingement gas system makes the M4/M4A1 Carbine unreliable." (http:/ / www. defensereview. com/ the-big-m4-myth-fouling-caused-by-the-direct-impingement-gas-system-makes-the-m4-unreliable/ ). Defensive Review. . Retrieved 2011-07-27. [10] "Dual Path Strategy: M4 PIP" (https:/ / peosoldier. army. mil/ FactSheets/ PMSW/ Dual_Path_Strategy_M4_PIP. pdf). 7. . Retrieved 7 September 2011. [11] Dan Lamothe. "Corps to pass on Army upgrades to M4" (http:/ / marinecorpstimes. com/ news/ 2010/ 09/ marine-corps-passes-on-army-carbine-updates-091110w/ ). Army Times Publishing Company. . Retrieved 13 September 2010. [12] Matthew Cox (2008-11-25). "Army considers options in replacing the M4" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2008/ 11/ army_carbineday_112308w/ ). Army Times. . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [13] "Animation of the gas system of the M4 carbine" (http:/ / www. militarytimes. com/ projects/ flash/ 2007_02_20_carbine/ ). Militarytimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [14] "Photo of the Colt M4 with the redesigned telescoping stock" (http:/ / www. colt. com/ mil/ downloads/ m4_01. jpg). Colt Defense. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [15] Lance M. Bacon (30). "Improved carbines headed your way" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2011/ 04/ army-improved-carbines-heading-your-way-043011w/ ). Gannett Government Media Corporation. . Retrieved 30 April 2011. [16] Lowe, Christian (2007-12-18). "M4 Carbine Fares Poorly in Dust Test" (http:/ / www. military. com/ NewsContent/ 0,13319,158468,00. html). Military.com. Military Advantage. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [17] "...And Here's the Rest of the M4 Story" (http:/ / www. defensetech. org/ archives/ 003909. html). Defense Tech. Military Advantage. 2007-12-18. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [18] Cox, Matthew (2007-12-19). "Newer carbines outperform M4 in dust test" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ army_carbine_dusttest_071217/ ). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [19] Cox, Matthew (2007-12-17). "M4 may get tougher barrel, better mags" (http:/ / www. armytimes. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ army_m4_hearing_071217w/ ). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [20] "15259frcov.fm" (http:/ / images. military. com/ pix/ defensetech/ cna_m4_study_d0015259_a2. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [21] US Trademark serial number 76335060 registration number 2734001 [22] "m4gery" (http:/ / www. urbandictionary. com/ define. php?term=m4gery). Urban Dictionary. . Retrieved 2008-09-13. [23] USdict:mfrjr [24] "OpenJurist synopsis of denial of Colt's appeal to 08 Dec 2005 ruling" (http:/ / openjurist. org/ 486/ f3d/ 701/ colt-defense-llc-v-bushmaster-firearms-inc). Openjurist.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [25] Petty Officer First Class David Votroubek (JulyAugust 2008). "New Gear for Afghan Commandos" (http:/ / www. almc. army. mil/ alog/ issues/ JulAug08/ newgear_afghan. html). United States Army Logistics Management College. . Retrieved 2009-03-24. [26] Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson (2007-07-23). "New Afghan Commandos Take to the Frontlines" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story. php?storyId=12127848). National Public Radio. . Retrieved 2009-03-24. [27] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2006" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-16. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [28] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2008" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-18. html). The Gun Zone. . Retrieved 2009-01-27. [29] Victor Epand. "Bull Pup Guns Configuration" (http:/ / www. thearticledude. com/ articledetail. php?artid=28606& catid=145). . Retrieved 2009-03-24. [30] Clearance Divers | DefenceJobs (http:/ / www. defencejobs. gov. au/ navy/ technology/ clearanceDivers/ maritimeTactical. aspx). Defence Jobs. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [31] Macchour Chaouk shooting | Macchour Chaouk shooting (http:/ / www. perthnow. com. au/ gallery-e6frg1vc-1225904843932?page=9). Perth Now (2010-08-13). Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [32] "M4 Carbine" (http:/ / www. bdmilitary. com/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=210& Itemid=95). Asia Pacific Defence Solutions Group. . Retrieved 2009-01-20. [33] :: PMERJ Polcia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Porque essa a nossa polcia :: (http:/ / www. policiamilitar. rj. gov. br/ armas_veiculos. php). Policiamilitar.rj.gov.br. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [34] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-00-712760-X. [35] RUN ZBRAN AR (http:/ / www. army. cz/ assets/ files/ 9334/ zbrane_definit. pdf). Ministerstvo obrany esk republiky AVIS, 2007 ISBN 978-80-7278-388-5 [36] 601st Special Forces Group Official Website (http:/ / www. 601skss. cz/ english/ clickmap/ m60_en. html). 601skss.cz. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [37] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2007" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-17. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [38] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2008" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-18. html). . Retrieved 2009-09-11. [39] Georgian Army Bids Farewell to Soviet Guns (http:/ / www. mod. gov. ge/ files/ ijwtsgknrxgeo. pdf). Today Defence. January 2008 Issue 7. Ministry of Defence of Georgia [40] "Greece Ministry of Public Order Press Office: Special Anti-Terrorist Unit" (http:/ / www. astynomia. gr/ images/ stories/ DOCS/ Attachment11480_ENHMEROTIKO_EKAM_ENGL. pdf). Official Website of the Hellenic Police. July 2004. . Retrieved 2009-10-13.


M4 carbine
[41] SDUHD version.mpg (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=s0hOtZnha7g). YouTube. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [42] (http:/ / shadowspear. com/ hungary-special-operations/ 34-berceseny-laszlo-kulonleges-muveleti-zaszloalj. html) [43] Mizo cops to get foreign weapons (http:/ / www. meghalayatimes. info/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=13416:mizo-cops-to-get-foreign-weapons& catid=36:state& Itemid=29). Meghalayatimes.info (2010-06-13). Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [44] (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2009/ 04/ 08/ stories/ 2009040861831000. html) [45] Bill Guerin (2007-06-16). "Another success for Detachment 88" (http:/ / www. atimes. com/ atimes/ Southeast_Asia/ IF16Ae01. html). Asia Times Online. . Retrieved 2009-01-20. [46] "Kopassus & Kopaska Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (http:/ / www. hrvatski-vojnik. hr/ hrvatski-vojnik/ 1612007/ ind. asp) (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. . Retrieved 2010-06-12. [47] Joseph Giordono (2007-05-16). "Iraqi soldiers switching over to M-16s and M-4s" (http:/ / www. stripes. com/ article. asp?section=104& article=53489& archive=true). Stars & Stripes. . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [48] CJSOTF-AP Public Affairs. "U.S. Special Forces, Iraqi army ops: Raids result in 102 detainees, large weapons cache, no losses" (http:/ / www. professionalsoldiers. com/ files/ tos_apr_06. pdf). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [49] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 20002001" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-12. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [50] (Italian) Armi > Fucili d'Assalto > Colt M4 (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20110722030839/ http:/ / www. colmoschin. it/ page/ carm4. asp). colmoschin.it [51] "" (http:/ / spikemilrev. com/ news/ 2008/ 7/ 29-3. html) (in Japanese). . Retrieved 2009-01-12. [52] Iran Defense Forum View Single Post Kosova Security Forces & POLICE Pictures (http:/ / www. irandefence. net/ showpost. php?p=944630& postcount=112). Irandefence.net (2011-01-21). Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [53] Christopher J. Castelli (September 2008). "Department of Defense to equip Lebanon's Special Forces with Small Arms, Vehicles" (http:/ / www. disam. dsca. mil/ pubs/ Vol 30_3/ Castelli. pdf). DISAM Journal. . Retrieved 2009-02-08. [54] "Malaysia has licence to make M4 assault rifles" (http:/ / www. thestar. com. my/ news/ story. asp?file=/ 2007/ 11/ 5/ nation/ 19381084& sec=nation). The Star. 2007-11-05. . Retrieved 2010-03-22. [55] Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces" (http:/ / www. tactical-life. com/ online/ special-weapons/ malaysian-special-forces). Special Weapons. . Retrieved 2009-12-17. [56] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2005" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-15. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [57] "Unofficial New Zealand Special Air Service page" (http:/ / www. diggerhistory. info/ pages-army-today/ rar-sasr/ nz-sas. htm). . Retrieved 2009-03-25. [58] Split second decisions: police rules of engagement... (http:/ / www. stuff. co. nz/ national/ 1387878). Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [59] "M4A1 5.56MM RIFLE" (http:/ / www. floro-intl. com/ m4a1_556mm_rifle. html). Floro International Corporation. . Retrieved 2011-03-08. [60] "M4A1 Model-C 5.56MM RIFLE" (http:/ / www. floro-intl. com/ m4a1_modelc_556mm_rifle. html). Floro International Corporation. . Retrieved 2011-03-08. [61] Sebastian Miernik. "//- Strona powicona Wojskowej Formacji Specjalnej GROM -//" (http:/ / www. grom. mil. pl/ uzbrojenie_pliki/ UZBROJENIE. HTM). Grom.mil.pl. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [62] "Portugal Destacamento de Aes Especiais (DAE)" (http:/ / tropaselite. t35. com/ portugal-Marinha-DAE. htm). Tropaselite.t35.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [63] "Kalibar | Tekst" (http:/ / www. kalibar. rs/ code/ navigate. php?Id=108& editionId=6& articleId=24). Kalibar.rs. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [64] "Singapurske Specijalne Postrojbe" (http:/ / www. hrvatski-vojnik. hr/ hrvatski-vojnik/ 2122008/ singapur. asp) (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. . Retrieved 2009-10-25. [65] (http:/ / www. ptpolice. gov. tw/ _teams/ mobile/ CmsShow. aspx?Parm=200718112014797,2006112110379234,5). Ptpolice.gov.tw (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2011-09-27. [66] David Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2005" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-15. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-10. [67] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 19901994" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-10. html). . Retrieved 2009-03-25.


External links
Colt Official M4 Military page (http://www.colt.com/mil/M4.asp) and Colt M4 Law Enforcement page (http:/ /www.colt.com/law/M4.asp) US Army M4 fact file (http://www.army.mil/factfiles/equipment/individual/m4.html) The AR-15/M16 Magazine FAQ (http://www.rawles.to/AR-15_M16_Magazine_FAQ.html) U.S. Army Won't Field Rifle Deemed Superior to M4 (http://www.military.com/NewsContent/ 0,13319,131317,00.html?wh=wh) The USA's M4 Carbine Controversy (http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/ the-usas-m4-carbine-controversy-03289/#more-3289) Online Army Study Guide (http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/m4/ m4-study-guide.shtml)

Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle


Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle

United States Navy Mk12 Special Purpose Rifle

An SPR Type Placeoforigin Sniper rifle/designated marksman rifle

United States

Service history Inservice Wars 2002present Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom Specifications Weight Length Barrellength Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Feedsystem 10lb (4.5kg). (Fully loaded, w/heavy barrel, optic & 30 rounds) 37.5 Inches 18 Inches 5.56x45mm NATO Gas-operated, Rotating bolt Semi-automatic 3050ft/s (930m/s) 600 yards (550m) 20- or 30-round STANAG Magazine

The United States Navy Mark 12 Mod 0/1 Special Purpose Rifle (SPR) is a rifle in service with United States Special Operations Forces in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. SPR initially stood for Special Purpose Receiver, but that nomenclature has been replaced as the weapon became a stand-alone weapons system, and not just an add-on upper receiver assembly (part of the proposed SOPMOD upgrades). The SPR was eventually type classified by the U.S. Navy as the Mk 12. Note that the weapon was developed by a Navy office (Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division) for SOCOM units, not for use by units that fall under the conventional US Navy.

The SPR, used by Special Operations Forces of both the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy, is a heavily modified light sniper/designated marksman variation of the AR-15/M16 line of infantry weapons, and is chambered for NATO standard 5.56x45mm ammunition. The SPR concept was originally proposed by Mark Westrom, currently president of ArmaLite, while working at Rock Island Arsenal. The program was an outgrowth of the desire by both US Army and Navy special operations forces for a rifle with greater effective range than an M4 carbine but still shorter in length than a standard issue M16A2/A4. The SPR program appears to have grown out of both the SOPMOD Block

Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle II program, and the U.S. Navy SEALs Recon Rifle (a 16" flat-topped M16 carbine). The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division expanded on the Recon Rifle. The exact history of the SPR is unclear, but there appear to be either four or five prime iterations of the weapon, culminating in the most recent Mk 12 Mod 1 version. One progression has four models: SPR Proto 1, SPR Proto 2, Mk 12 Mod 0 and Mk 12 Mod 1. The other progression has five models: SPR, SPR/A, SPR/B, Mk 12 Mod 0, and Mk 12 Mod 1. The specifications in this article follow the second progression. Different U.S. military service branches appear to typically deploy different iterations of the SPR. Photographs, including both U.S. Department of Defense photographs and privately-obtained photographs, consistently show most U.S. Army Special Forces operators using the Mk 12 Mod 0, while NAVSPECWAR operators and U.S. Army Rangers have been identified as using the Mk 12 Mod 1 version.[1] [2] Limited use was seen with the USMC.[3] The SPR has been featured prominently both in media photos of the Iraq War and in video games such as the government-created America's Army: Special Forces and in Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon 2.


Upper Receiver: The majority of the SPR upper receivers were initially supplied by Colt, with others being produced by Colt Canada (then Diemaco). Colt had been outsourcing parts of its production to Diemaco for several years, then purchased Diemaco in February 2005. It is unclear whether the upper receivers for the later SPRs came solely from ArmaLite, or were a mix of receivers from ArmaLite and Colt/Diemaco. All of these upper receivers are flat-topped, but have been seen with either the old-style teardrop forward assist or the newer round style. Lower Receiver: When the SPR program was still just an upper receiver assembly (and not a complete rifle), Crane assembled all of its prototypes using either M16A1 or M4A1 lower receivers. It is unknown whether this pattern continued as the rifle evolved. There is also some issue about whether, when the Navy type-classified the weapon, Precision Reflex Incorporated (PRI) began assembling the rifles themselves. While a number of trigger options were tried in the end, the Knight's Armament Company (KAC) 2-stage trigger was finally decided upon as the standard. Barrel: An 18-inch (457mm) threaded-muzzle match-grade free floating stainless steel heavy barrel with a 1:7 (178mm) rifling twist ratio is standard for the SPR. The barrels are manufactured by Douglas Barrels with a special contour to maximize accuracy and to minimize weight. An OPS Inc. muzzle brake and collar (to align the OPS Inc. 12th Model Suppressor) is installed with the barrel. These barrels were designed to take advantage of the new Mk 262 cartridge, which uses a 77-grain (5 g) bullet. Buttstock: SPRs have been seen with M16A1 or M16A2 fixed buttstocks, telescoping M4 buttstocks, and the Crane Enhanced telescoping buttstock. The rifles are compatible with any type of stock system developed for the M16. Handguards: In all cases a free-floating forearm is used, which does not touch the barrel directly. This increases the accuracy of the weapon by removing vibration and pressure exerted on the barrel by the rest of the gun. The first SPRs used PRI Gen I or Gen II carbon-fiber free-float tubes. The SPR/A, SPR/B, and Mk 12 Mod 1 all use the Knights Armament Company M4 Match Free-Floating Rail Adapter System. The Mk 12 Mod 0 uses PRI Gen III free-float tubes. The Gen I and Gen II Freefloat Forearms are combined with the Atlantic Research Marketing Systems #38 SPR MOD Sleeve, while the Gen III Freefloat Forearm, due to its it larger barrel nut, only works with the ARMS #38 SPR PEQ-2-3. Sights: The original SPR used an early PRI flip-up front sight with an elevation dial, which has since been discontinued. The Mk 12 Mod 0 uses the current PRI flip-up front sight. The SPR/A, SPR/B, and Mk 12 Mod 1 use the KAC rail foreend flip-up front sight. The SPR and Mk 12 Mod 0 use the ARMS #40 flip up rear sight. The rest of the models use the KAC 600 meter flip up rear.

Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle Optics: Due to the relative modularity of the system, optics (as well as almost everything else) can be mounted according to the operator's wishes. However, SPRs are most often seen with a 3.51040mm Leupold LR M3 (SPR/A), a 2.5936mm TS-30 (SPR/B), or a 3936mm TS-30 A2 (Mk 12 Mod 0/1) Mid Range/Tactical Illuminated Reticle Dayscope. Night vision devices can also be attached. These scopes usually come with flip open dust covers and a honeycomb anti-glare anti-reflection device. Given Nightforce Optics' NAVSPECWAR contract, it is believed that many NAVSPECWAR issued SPRs will use the Nightforce 2.5-10x24 NXS scope.[4] Mounts: A long accessory rail, called a SWAN Sleeve (ARMS SPR MOD or ARMS #38 SPR PEQ-2-3), manufactured by ARMS, is installed, running the length of the rifle. The SPR/A and SPR/B both used the KAC M4 Match FF RAS. Two ARMS #22 Throwlever 30mm steel rings are used to mount the dayscope. The SPR/A, SPR/B, and Mk 12 Mod 1 use ARMS #22 high rings, while due to the increased height from the SWAN Sleeve, the SPR and Mk 12 Mod 0 use ARMS #22 medium rings. An under-the-handguard ARMS #32 Throwlever mount is used to mount the Harris bipod (the ARMS #42 Throwlever mount is used to mount the Versa-Pod); this features a quick release action. Bipod: Originally Versa-Pods (a cheaper Chinese-made copy of the relatively expensive Parker-Hale swivel bipod) were used, but were taken off the system after the initial SPR. Currently, a Harris swivel model bipod is typically used with the SPR, and is sometimes seen with a KMW Pod-Loc tension adjustment device. As mentioned above, the bipod is mounted via a ARMS #32 throwlever device attached to the bottom rail of the rifle's forearm. The ARMS mount is used on both the Mod 0 and Mod 1. Suppressor: The OPS Inc. 12th Model SPR Muzzle Brake Suppressor threads directly onto the OPS Inc. muzzle brake and uses the collar to stay centered. Ammunition: The SPR is not used to fire standard issue 5.56mm M855A1 or M193 ball or M856 tracer ammunition. Due to the limits in terminal performance and relatively poor accuracy of the 62-grain (4 g) M855 ball, the Mk 262 Open Tip Match (OTM) round was developed as a more accurate round for the SPR, and manufactured by Black Hills Ammunition. The first production batches were designated Mk 262 Mod 0 and used a Sierra Bullets MatchKing 77-grain (5 g) Hollow Point Boat Tail bullet without a cannelure (crimping groove). Black Hills then approached the Nosler bullet manufacturing company, who made a similar 77gr (5.0g) OTM bullet, and Nosler agreed to supply cannelured bullets to Black Hills. The newer load was designated Mk 262 Mod 1. Recently, Sierra added a minimal crimp to its bullet, and this has since replaced the Nosler bullet in the current versions of Mk 262 Mod 1.


Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle



SPR/A with fixed stock, Harris bipod, and KAC M4 Match FF RAS.

SPR/B setup similarly to the SPR/A to the left. The SPR/A and SPR/B only differ on the type of scope used.

US Army SF operator carrying an OD green-painted Mk 12 Mod 0. The front end of the rifle (with suppressor removed) details the OPS Inc. muzzle brake, the Versa-Pod bipod (folded) and Insight Technologies AN/PEQ-2A infrared laser illuminator mounted on the side of the handguards.

SPR with a fixed stock and various night vision optics attached.

US Army SF operator shows his Filipino counterparts an SPR. This one also has a full M16 stock, has the OPS Inc. suppressor attached, and is camouflage painted.

US Army SF takes aim with his desert camouflage-painted SPR. An Insight Technologies AN/PEQ-2A Target Pointer/Illuminator Aiming Light (TIPAL) is mounted on the right of the rifle's handguards. A standard M4 telescoping stock is mounted.

An SPR, not a Mk 12 Mod 0. Note the early PRI freefloat tube of constant diameter. This SPR has a Versa-pod bipod and has a fixed stock. The upper receiver has a teardrop-shaped forward assist.

A U.S sniper looks through the scope of a Mk 12 Mod 1 Special Purpose Rifle.

Mk 12 Special Purpose Rifle


[1] Bartocci, Black Rifle II: The M16 into the 21st Century. Copyright 2004, Collector Grade Publications. [2] Bryant and Bryant, Weapons of the US Army Rangers. Copyright 2005, Zenith Press. [3] Daryl Bolke. "MK 12 NAVY SEAL STEEL" (http:/ / www. tactical-life. com/ online/ tactical-weapons/ mk-12-navy-seal-steel/ ). Tactical Life. . Retrieved 2011-06-22. [4] "$10.7M in 7,700 Special Ops Rifle Scopes" (http:/ / www. defenseindustrydaily. com/ 2005/ 07/ 107m-in-7700-special-ops-rifle-scopes/ index. php). Defense Industry Daily. 2005-02-11. . Retrieved 2009-03-22.

External links
Atlantic Research Marketing Systems, Inc. (http://www.armsmounts.com/) Global Security page on the Mk12 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mk12.htm) Guns & Ammo Article on the Mk12 in combat (http://www.gunsandammo.com/content/ black-hills-mk-262-mod-1) www.mk12.net - Mark 12 Mod X SPR Specifications, information, and pictures (http://www.mk12.net/)

Picatinny rail
The Picatinny rail ( /pktni/ or /pktni/) or MIL-STD-1913 rail or STANAG 2324 rail or a "Tactical Rail" is a bracket used on some firearms in order to provide a standardized mounting platform. A similar system is the Weaver rail mount.

The rail comprises a series of ridges with a T-shaped cross-section interspersed with flat "spacing slots". Scopes are mounted either by sliding them on from one end or the other; by means of a weaver mount which is clamped to the rail with bolts, thumbscrews or levers; or onto the slots between the raised sections.

Its name comes from the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, USA where it was originally tested. Recently, NATO nations have finalised plans for a new NATO Accessory Rail which is backwards-compatible with (and could replace) the Picatinny rail. [1]

The rail was originally for scopes. However, once established, the use of the system was expanded to other accessories, such as tactical lights, laser aiming modules, night vision devices, reflex sights, foregrips, bipods, and bayonets. Because they were originally designed and used for telescopic sights, the rails were first used only on the receivers of larger caliber rifles. But their use has extended to the point that Picatinny rails and accessories have replaced iron sights in the design of many firearms, and they are also incorporated into the undersides of semi-automatic pistol frames and even on grips.

The Heckler & Koch HK416 is equipped with a proprietary accessory rail handguard with MIL-STD-1913 rails on all four sides, used here to mount a vertical foregrip and Aimpoint CompM4 red dot sight

Technical specifications

Picatinny rail In order to provide a stable platform, the rail should not flex as the barrel heats and cools; this is the purpose of the spacing slots: they give the rail considerable room to expand and contract lengthwise without distorting its shape. The Picatinny locking slot width is 0.206in (5.23mm). The spacing of slot centers is 0.394in (10.01mm) and the slot depth is 0.118in (3.00mm).[2] The only differences between the Picatinny rail and the similar Weaver rail are the size of these slots and the fact that they are standardized. Weaver rails have a slot width of 0.180in (4.57mm), but are not necessarily consistent in the spacing of slot centers.[3] Some accessories are designed to fit on both Weaver and Picatinny rails; but most Picatinny devices will not fit on Weaver rails.[3]


Picatinny Rail Dimensions, Cross Section (dimensions in inches)

Picatinny Rail side view (dimensions in inches)

[1] "NATO countries finalise plans for a standard rail adaptor system" (http:/ / www. janes. com/ news/ defence/ land/ idr/ idr090520_1_n. shtml). Janes. 2010. . Retrieved 2010-05-08. [2] http:/ / www. quarterbore. com/ library/ pdf_files/ mil-std-1913. pdf [3] Brownells - World's Largest Supplier of Firearm Accessories and Gunsmithing Tools (http:/ / www. brownells. com/ aspx/ NS/ GunTech/ NewsletterArchive. aspx?p=0& t=2& i=558)

(http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_elevation_of_a_picatinny_rail_(dimentioned).jpg) (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:End-elevation.jpg) Picatinny Rail Specifications (http://www.biggerhammer.net/picatinny) DODSSP (http://dodssp.daps.dla.mil) U.S. Department of Defense Single Stock Point for Military Specifications, Standards and Related Publications




The L85A2 assault rifle. Type Placeoforigin Assault rifle Light Support Weapon
United Kingdom

Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1985present See Users Northern Ireland 1991 Persian Gulf War Bosnian War Kosovo War Sierra Leone Civil War Afghanistan Iraq War Production history Designed Manufacturer Produced Numberbuilt Variants 1970s1980s BAE Systems Heckler & Koch 19851994 Approx. 350,000 L85A1 Rifle L85A2 Rifle L86A1 Light Support Weapon L86A2 Light Support Weapon L22A1 Carbine L98A1 Cadet Rifle L98A2 Cadet Rifle Specifications Weight 3.82kg (8.4lb) (L85A1 empty) 4.98kg (11.0lb) (L85A1 with SUSAT sight and loaded 30 round magazine) 6.58kg (14.5lb) (L86A1 LSW) 4.42kg (9.7lb) (L22A1)


Length 785mm (30.9in) (L85A1) 900mm (35.4in) (L86A1 LSW) 709mm (27.9in) (L22A1) 518mm (20.4in) (L85A1) 646mm (25.4in) (L86A1 LSW) 442mm (17.4in) (L22A1) 5.56x45mm NATO Gas-operated, rotating bolt 610775 rounds/min 940m/s (3084ft/s) (L85A1) 970m/s (3182.4ft/s) (L86A1 LSW)


Cartridge Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity

Effectiverange 450 m with iron sights, 650 m with SUSAT (L85A2) 850 m (L86 LSW) Feedsystem Sights 30-round detachable STANAG magazine Telescopic SUSAT or ACOG scopes, aperture iron sights

The SA80 (Small Arms for the 1980s) is a British family of 5.56mm small arms. It is a selective fire, gas-operated assault rifle. SA80 prototypes were trialled in 1976 and production was completed in 1994. The L85 rifle variant of the SA80 family has been the standard issue service rifle of the British Armed Forces since 1987, replacing the L1A1 variant of the FN FAL. The improved L85A2 remains in service today. The remainder of the family comprises the L86 Light Support Weapon, the short-barrelled L22 carbine and the L98 Cadet rifle. The SA80 was the last in a long line of British weapons (including the Lee-Enfield family) to come from the national arms development and production facility at Enfield Lock. Its bullpup configuration stems from a late-1940s programme at Royal Small Arms Factory Enfield to design a new service rifle which was known as the EM-2, which though similar in outline, was an entirely different weapon, being a highly advanced bullpup configuration rifle, which despite good performance was never adopted by the British Army.

The system's history dates back to the late 1940s, when an ambitious program to develop a new cartridge and new class of rifle was launched in the United Kingdom based on combat experience drawn from World War II. Two 7mm prototypes were built in a bullpup configuration, designated the EM-1 and EM-2. When NATO adopted the 7.62x51mm rifle cartridge as the standard calibre for its service rifles, further development of these rifles was discontinued (the British Army chose to adopt the 7.62mm L1A1 SLR semi-automatic rifle, which is a license-built version of the Belgian FN FAL). In 1969, the Enfield factory began work on a brand new family of weapons, chambered in a newly-designed British 4.85x49mm intermediate cartridge. While the experimental weapon family was very different from the EM-2 in internal design and construction methods, its bullpup configuration with an optical sight was a clear influence on the design of what was to become the SA80. The system was to be composed of two weapons: an individual rifle, the XL64E5 rifle and a light support weapon known as the XL65E4 light machine gun. The sheet metal construction, and the design of the bolt, bolt carrier, guide rods, gas system and the weapon's disassembly showed strong similarities to the SAR-87, which was under joint-development by Sterling Armaments Company of Dagenham and Chartered Industries of Singapore.[1] [2]

SA80 Also to note a bullpup conversion of the AR-18 and the Stoner 63 was made by Enfield, the rival company of Sterling Armaments Ltd when developing the SA80[3] [4] . In 1976, the prototypes were ready to undergo trials. However, after NATO's decision to standardize ammunition among its members, Enfield engineers re-chambered the rifles to the American 5.56x45mm M193 cartridge. The newly redesigned 5.56mm version of the XL64E5 became known as the XL70E3. The left-handed XL68 was also re-chambered in 5.56x45mm as the XL78. The 5.56mm light support weapon variant, the XL73E3, developed from the XL65E4, was noted for the full length receiver extension with the bipod under the muzzle now indicative of the type.[5] Further development out of the initial so-called "Phase A"[5] pre-production series led to the XL85 and XL86. While the XL85E1 and XL86E1 were ultimately adopted as the L85 and L86 respectively, a number of additional test models were produced. The XL85E2 and XL86E2 were designed to an alternate build standard with 12 components different from E1 variants, including parts of the gas system, bolt, and magazine catch. Three series of variants were created for "Environmental User Trials". XL85E3 and XL86E3 variants were developed with 24 modified parts, most notably a plastic safety plunger. The E4's had 21 modified parts, no modification to the pistol grip, and an aluminium safety plunger, unlike the E3 variants. Lastly, the E5 variants had 9 modified parts in addition to those from the E3/E4 variants.[5]


After receiving feedback from users and incorporating the several design changes requested, including adapting the rifle for use with the heavier Belgian SS109 version of the 5.56x45mm round and improving reliability, the weapon system was accepted into service with the British Army in 1985 as the SA80. The SA80 family originally consisted of the L85A1 IW (Individual Weapon) and the L86A1 LSW (Light Support Weapon). The first rifle was issued on 2 October 1985 to Sergeant Gary Gavin, a 26-year-old in the Worcestershire and Sherwood Foresters.[6] The SA80 family was designed and produced (until 1988) by the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield Lock. In 1988 production of the rifle was transferred to the Royal Ordnance's Nottingham Small Arms Facility (later British Aerospace, Royal Ordnance; now BAE Systems Land Systems Munitions). In 1994 production was officially completed. Over 350,000 L85A1 rifles and L86A1 light machine guns had been manufactured for the United Kingdom. They are also in use with the Jamaica Defence Force.[7]

Design details
Operating mechanism
With the exception of the L98A1, the SA80 system is a selective fire gas-operated design that uses ignited powder gases bled through a port in the barrel to provide the weapon's automation. The rifle uses a short-stroke gas piston system located above the barrel, which is fed gas through a three-position adjustable gas regulator. The first gas setting is used for normal operation, the second is for use in difficult environmental conditions, while the third setting prevents any gas from reaching the piston and is used to launch rifle grenades. The weapon uses a rotating cylindrical bolt that contains 7 radially-mounted locking lugs, an extractor and casing ejector. The bolt's rotation is controlled by a cam pin that slides inside a helical camming guide machined into the bolt carrier.

A field stripped L85A1



The family is built in a bullpup layout (the action is behind the trigger group), with a forward-mounted pistol grip. The main advantage of this type of arrangement is the overall compactness of the weapon, which can be achieved without compromising the barrel length, hence the overall length of the L85 rifle is shorter than a carbine, but the barrel length is that of an assault rifle. However, the adoption of this layout also means the rifle must be used exclusively right-handed since the ejection port and cocking handle (which reciprocates during firing) are on the right side of the receiver, making aimed fire from the left shoulder impossible. The SA80 family is hammer-fired and has a trigger mechanism with a fire-control selector that enables semi-automatic fire and fully automatic fire (the fire selector lever is located at the left side of the receiver, just aft of the magazine). A cross bolt type safety prevents accidental firing and is located above the trigger; the "safe" setting blocks the movement of the trigger. The L85 rifle features a barrel with a slotted flash suppressor, which also serves as a mounting base for attaching and launching rifle grenades, attaching a blank-firing adaptor or a bayonet. The weapons are fed from a STANAG magazine, usually with a 30-round capacity. The magazine release button is placed above the magazine housing, on the left side of the receiver. When the last cartridge is fired from the magazine the bolt and bolt carrier assembly lock to the rear. The weapon's receiver is made from stamped sheet steel, reinforced with welded and riveted machined steel inserts. Synthetics were also used (i.e. the handguards, pistol grip, buttpad and cheek rest were all fabricated from nylon). A Picatinny railed handguard was also developed for the type.

Rifles used by the Royal Marines, British Army infantry soldiers (and other soldiers with a dismounted close combat role) and the RAF Regiment are equipped with a SUSAT (Sight Unit Small Arms, Trilux) optical sight, with a fixed 4x magnification and an illuminated aiming pointer powered by a variable tritium light source (as of 2006 almost all British Army personnel deployed on operations have been issued SUSATs). Mounted on the SUSAT's one-piece, pressure die-cast aluminium body are a set of back-up iron sights that consist of a front blade and small rear aperture. Rifles used with other branches of the A US Marine firing the L85 fitted with a armed forces when not on operations are configured with fixed iron tritium-illuminated SUSAT sight. sights, consisting of a flip rear aperture (housed inside a carry handle, mounted to the top of the receiver, replacing the SUSAT sight) and a forward post, installed on a bracket above the gas block. The rear sight can be adjusted for windage, and the foresightelevation. In place of the SUSAT a passive night vision CWS scope can be used, and alsoindependent of the SUSATa laser pointer. Weapons used by some Royal Marines, Infantry, Ministry of Defence Police and other soldiers with a dismounted close combat role in operations in Afghanistan have had the SUSAT replaced with the Trijicon Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG). In 2011 the the Ministry of Defence began issuing ELCAN SpecterOS 4x Lightweight Day Sights (LDS) in an effort to replace aging SUSAT units across the British Armed Forces, forming the first stage of the FIST infantry enhancement project.[8] In order to mount the new sight, the weapon has been provided with an adapter to convert the existing sight rail to the Picatinny standard, in keeping with the updated handguard. The FIST project has also seen upgrades to the existing Qioptiq CWS (4x) and Maxi-Kite (6x) night vision scopes, and the introduction of the FIST Thermal Sight, following operational experience with the VIPIR-2+ thermal weapon sight in Afghanistan. All of the new FIST weapon sights have the capacity to accept a 1x 'red-dot' Close Quarter Battlesight attachment.



The L85 is supplied with a sling, blank-firing adaptor, cleaning kit and a blade-type bayonet, which coupled with the sheath can double as a wire cutter (the sheath contains a small saw). The rifle can be adapted to use .22 Long Rifle training ammunition with a special conversion kit. The rifle variant also accommodates a 40mm under-barrel grenade launcher such as Heckler & Koch AG-36 40mm grenade launcher variants.[9]

There are 4 main variants that make up the SA80 'family': the L85 IW Rifle, the L86 Light Support Weapon, the L22 Carbine and the L98 Cadet rifle. The family has currently undergone two major models, LxxA1 being the first issue weapons, and the LxxA2 to distinguish weapons that have undergone H&K upgrades. (the 'L' designation is for "Land Service".)

L85 Rifle
The L85 rifle (full name Rifle, 5.56mm, L85A2), in its improved A2 version, is the standard individual weapon for the British armed forces.

A Royal Netherlands Marine Corps captain fires the L85A2

On operations the rifle is often fitted with a LLM01 Laser Light Module.[10] The L85A2 can also mount the L123A2 UGL[11] 40 mm underbarrel grenade launcher. The addition of the underbarrel grenade launcher adds another 3.30lb (1.49kg) to the L85A2's weight. Magazines issued with the L85A1 were aluminium, and not very robust. There are now three types of magazine issued with the L85A2, the most recent being the plastic Magpul EMAG purchased as an Urgent Operational Requirement (UOR),[12] the other two are of steel construction with a stainless steel follower. The main variant is for live ammunition, and the other is exclusively used for blank ammunition. The blank variant is identified by yellow stripes on the magazine, and is designed to prevent the loading of live rounds. As blank rounds are shorter than live rounds, live rounds will not physically fit into the blank magazine. Blank rounds will fit into the normal magazine, but their slightly shorter length creates problems with jamming.

A Ministry of Defence Police Officer on duty with L85A2

From 2007 an upgrade including the provision of ACOGs, a new handguard incorporating Picatinny rails (with optional hand grip/bipod),[13] and a new vortex style flash eliminator is being introduced for use by selected units.[14]



The L86A1 LSW is a magazine-fed automatic weapon originally intended to provide fire support at a fireteam level. It has a longer barrel than the L85A1 rifle and a bipod, shoulder trap and rear pistol grip, together with a shorter handguard. The extended barrel provides an increased muzzle velocity and further stabilises the bullet, giving a greater effective range. The weapon is otherwise identical to the L85 version on which it is based, and the same 30-rd magazines and sighting systems are used. Like the L85 rifle, it has a rate-of-fire selector on the left side behind the magazine housing, enabling either single shots or automatic fire.

Soldiers of the Brigade of Gurkhas equipped with the L85 rifle and L86 LSW with yellow blank-firing attachment.

The increased barrel length, bipod and the optical performance of the SUSAT gives the weapon excellent accuracy. From its inception, the L86 was a target of criticism on much the same basis as the L85. The LSW has the additional issue (shared by any light support weapon derived from a rifle, for example the heavy-barrel FN FAL) of its inability to deliver sustained automatic fire as it does not have a quick-change barrel, and is not belt fed.[15] The primary use of the LSW has shifted to that of a marksman's weapon within many infantry sections, capable of providing extremely accurate precision fire at ranges of over 600m.[16] The role of a light support weapon is instead filled with the L110A1 FN Minimi which is a belt fed weapon with a quick-change barrel. The L86A1 was upgraded to the L86A2 at the same time as L85A1 rifles were upgraded to L85A2 standards, undergoing the same set of modifications.

L22 carbine
Based on the L85A1 a compact carbine known as the L22A1 was also developed with a short, 442mm barrel (the weapon's weight, with the optical sight 4.42kg, length 709mm). The forward handguard was replaced with a vertical grip. The weapon uses the same SUSAT sight as found on the full size L85. The weapon has been upgraded with a Picatinny rail accessory rail instead of the fixed front grip. These carbine variants are used in small numbers by armoured vehicle crews.

Carbine variant as used by an aircrewman.

L98 Cadet General Purpose Rifles




The L98A1 Cadet GP Rifle was a general purpose (GP) rifle used by the Combined Cadet Force and Sea, Marine, Army and Air Cadets in the United Kingdom. It was introduced in 1987 replacing the .303 Lee Enfield No 4 rifles and .303 Bren guns used for weapons training. The L98A1 rifle is now no longer in use, it began a phased decommission in early 2009. UK cadet forces have now received the new L98A2 rifles and LSWs.

A Cadet fires the Cadet GP Rifle (L98A1).

The GP rifle was similar to the L85A1 but without the gas parts. It was a manually-operated, single-shot rifle it had a cocking handle extension piece mounted on the right side of the weapon which was cocked with the right hand, it was fitted with adjustable iron sights. The L98A1 had a number of design features that caused problems. A stoppage occurred if the cocking handle was not fully retracted and released because the spent round failed to eject cleanly fouling the breech and preventing the loading of the next cartridge. This fault was often caused by poor cleaning as dirt, grit and rain easily foul and The L98A1 stripped removed the oil from the exposed cocking handle slide making the action harder to cycle. The absence of the flash suppressor on the L98 also prevented the fitting of a blank firing attachment (BFA) thus increasing the safety distance from 5m to 50m. .22 conversions Two conversion kits existed which enabled the L98A1 to fire .22 LR rimfire cartridges instead of the standard 5.56mm NATO cartridge. This allowed the weapon to fire live rounds on .22 ranges when full size military ranges are unavailable. Both kits consisted of modified working parts (springs etc.), a special magazine that is the same size and shape as the standard 5.56mm magazine and a special adapter, shaped like a 5.56mm cartridge, which was fitted into the L98A1's breech. This adapter contained a smaller breech into which the modified bolt inserts the .22 cartridge. The modified magazine locked into the magazine housing exactly like a normal one would. The first kit was fitted with the standard GP cocking handle and worked in exactly the same way as a single-shot L98A1 cadet GP rifle. The second kit (the L41A1 sub-calibre adaptor)[17] was fitted using a L85A1 cocking handle. It allowed .22 rounds to be fired semi-automatically using direct blow back against the bolt to cycle the next round. The conversion was not permanent and either kit could have been removed from the L98A1 in the time it took to normally strip and reassemble the weapon. L103A1 Drill Purpose Rifle There was a Drill Purpose (DP) version of the L98A1, known as the L103A1. It was similar to the 'GP' rifle, however, modifications had been made in order to deactivate it: the barrel was sealed by filling it with lead, the firing pin was cut and welded down to the bolt face and the hammer was filed down, making reactivation uneconomical. The weapons were used by cadets for weapons training. The 'DP' could be identified by a white stripe on the hand guard and near the butt of the weapon with the letters 'DP' in the stripe. the bolt carrier assembly (bolt) was painted red and this can be seen from the breech on the right hand side of the weapon.

SA80 L98A2 The L98A2 GP Rifle was introduced in 2009, as a replacement for the L98A1 Cadet GP Rifle.[18] The main difference between the L98A2 rifle and the L98A1 is the addition of gas parts making the weapon semi-automatic. Unlike the L98A1 the A2 has the same cocking handle and operation as the L85A2. The L98A2 can be fitted with the Safe Blank Firing System (SBFS) incorporating a Blank Firing Attachment (BFA) and a blank-only magazine, this reduces the danger area when firing blank from the 50m of the L98A1 to 5m.
The L103A2 (a drill purpose L98A2). Note the absent front sight.


L103A2 Drill Purpose Rifle The L103A2 Cadet DP Rifle is used by cadets for practicing rifle drill and weapons handling. The L103A2 contains similar working and gas parts to the standard live firing weapon. Key distinguishing features and marks on the DP show that it is not capable for live firing: The bolt carrier is painted red The top cover is painted white The cheek pad is painted white DP is painted in white on both sides of the butt The firing pin is clipped short The striker hole in the bolt face is welded shut The barrel is welded into the barrel extension (the receiver) A portion of the barrel is cut away internally The barrel is welded shut The rear of the bolt is painted red Locking lugs are removed from the DP bolt and their corresponding lugs in the barrel extension welded shut A large metal block is welded into the TMH to fit into the hole cut in the barrel, preventing the DP TMH from being fitted to a live weapon

A semi-automatic variant has been manufactured for the US market in limited quantities by Prexis as the PL-85. This rifle is very much like the L98A2 mentioned above but can be recognised by its A1 style cocking handle.[19]

Service and modification

The SA80 gained an initial poor reputation amongst British Soldiers and Royal Marines as being unreliable and fragile, a fact picked up by the UK media,[15] entertainment industry,[20] and members of the House of Lords.[21] The writer and former soldier Andy McNab said in his book Bravo Two Zero, that the British Army procured a "Rolls-Royce in the SA80, albeit a prototype Rolls-Royce". Immediately after the first Gulf war 1990 (Operation Granby), the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) commissioned the LANDSET Report (officially entitled "Equipment Performance (SA80) During Operation Granby (The Gulf War)"), into the effectiveness of the L85A1 IW & L86A1 LSW.[22] This report criticised the acceptance of the weapon into service. Neither weapon had managed to pass the sand trials and both frequently jammed. The mechanism of both weapons required "good" lubrication as the weapon became prone to seizure if fired "dry", yet in

SA80 sandy condition the lubricated weapon became unreliable due to the lubrication attracting sand into the moving parts. The LANDSET report identified in excess of 50 faults. Most notably the magazine release catch, which could easily be caught on clothing and therefore accidentally release the magazine; the plastic safety plunger which became brittle in cold climates; firing pins that were not up to repeated use and prone to fracture, if used in automatic fire mode. Although this report identified over 50 faults, and some of the rifle's problems were corrected as a result (e.g. the magazine release guard and trigger), modification only addressed 7 of these issues and complaints over reliability in service continued. As a result, a more extensive modification programme was executed. In 2000, Heckler & Koch, at that time owned by the British small arms manufacturer Royal Ordnance, was contracted to upgrade the SA80 family of weapons. Two hundred thousand SA80s were re-manufactured at a cost of 400 each, producing the A2 variant. Changes focused primarily on improving reliability and include: a redesigned cocking handle, modified bolt, extractor and a redesigned hammer assembly that produces a slight delay in the hammer's operation in continuous fire mode, improving reliability and stability. There were equivalent LSW and Carbine modifications.[15] The British Ministry of Defence describes the L85A2 revision as "modified in light of operational experience... the most reliable weapons of their type in the world".[23] Army trials indicated extremely good reliability over a range of climates for various operational scenarios, though with a decline in reliability in hot, and especially hot and dry conditions.[24] The modified A2 variants are distinguished by the 'HK A2' marking on the top of the weapon just forward of the buttplate, and the distinctive comma shaped cocking handle (shaped to aid the ejection of the empty round casing and prevent stoppages). A higher quality HK steel STANAG 4179 magazine is now used, with the Magpul Industries EMAG lightweight magazine being introduced as of 2011[25] .


The SA80 has been used in all conflicts in which the British Army has been involved with since its introduction in the mid-1980s. Deployments include Northern Ireland, the First Gulf War, Bosnia, Kosovo, Sierra Leone, Afghanistan and Iraq. The British went into battle with fixed bayonets on the SA80 in Iraq, the first time fixed bayonets had been used since the Falklands War.[26]

Bolivia[27] Jamaica: Used since 1992.[7] [28] United Kingdom[29] [30]


L98A2 Variant.

PL85 Variant.




[1] Off Target by James Meek, The Guardian, Thurs 10 October 02 http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2002/ oct/ 10/ military. jamesmeek 'Many of the key parts of the SA80 were poorly copied by Royal Ordnance engineers from the Armalite AR18 and its British SAR-87 derivative, then made in Britain under licence by the Sterling Armaments factory in Dagenham, using the pressed-steel technique. The former owner of the factory, James Edmiston, says that his chief designer had seen an early prototype SA80 at an arms fair, stripped it down and discovered that the bolt, bolt carrier, magazine, springs and firing pin had been taken from an AR18. "Not once did Enfield ever ask Sterling for information on the AR18," he says. "I know of at least one component that they 'copied' incorrectly which could well have made a difference to reliability." ' [2] Military Small Arms of the 20th Century, 4th Edition, by Ian V. Hogg and John Weeks, ISBN 0-910676-28-3,Ca 1981 [3] http:/ / img. photobucket. com/ albums/ v140/ 24626151/ Guns/ enfieldseffort. jpg [4] http:/ / img. photobucket. com/ albums/ v140/ 24626151/ Guns/ Stoner. jpg [5] "The 5.56 X 45mm: 1974-1985 - A Chronology of Development" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-3. html). Daniel Watters, The Gun Zone. . Retrieved 2007-05-05. [6] The Guardian, Thursday 10 October 2002 (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ uk/ 2002/ oct/ 10/ military. jamesmeek) [7] Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 1990-1994" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-10. html). . Retrieved 2009-06-15. [8] "Desider magazine - Issue 36" (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 69FFA8EE-F63A-49D0-8A97-BDB6C6778D39/ 0/ desider_36_May2011. pdf) (PDF). Ministry of Defence. . [9] http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1458. aspx [10] "Kit Magazine" (http:/ / www2. army. mod. uk/ linkedfiles/ ceso/ trained_soldiers/ kit_magazine/ kit62_lo_res. pdf) (PDF). Ministry of Defence. . [11] DE&S response to freedom of information request (http:/ / www. whatdotheyknow. com/ request/ 36563/ response/ 96971/ attach/ 3/ 07 06 2010 162425 003 Matthew Davis. pdf) [12] "Magpuls EMAG gets 2nd window; Brits sign up for 1 million, thanks" (http:/ / militarytimes. com/ blogs/ gearscout/ 2010/ 10/ 07/ magpuls-emag-gets-2nd-window-brits-sign-up-for-1-million-thanks/ ). . [13] "Supply of Handguards and Downgrips for SA80A2" (http:/ / www. eda. europa. eu/ ebbweb/ Default. aspx). European Defence Agency. . "The Combat Support Equipment Integrated Project Team (CSE IPT), part of the Ministry of Defence United Kingdom, has a requirement for design, production and supply of a new handguard and downgrip for the SA80A2 Rifle to give improved grip capability. There is a possible requirement for up to quantity 8,000 of each item for Urgent Operational Requirements. There is a further possible requirement for up to quantity 15,000 to replace in service equipment." [14] "Kit Magazine, Issue 62 Winter 2007" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ linkedfiles/ ceso/ trained_soldiers/ kit_magazine/ kit62_hi_res. pdf) (PDF). Ministry of Defence. . Retrieved 2008-03-16. "This technology is here now! So if you see strange looking SA80s being carried by strange looking men, then rest assured, those users that had the requirement, had the make-over, at a price." [15] Hastings, Max (2004-07-31). "''Don't Buy British'', ''Guardian'' Article" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ military/ story/ 0,11816,1273304,00. html). London: Guardian. . Retrieved 2009-04-22. [16] "Light Support Weapon (LSW)" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1461. aspx). Ministry of Defence. . Retrieved 2008-05-25. "LSW has a heavier and longer barrel allowing greater muzzle velocity and accuracy than the standard SA80." [17] http:/ / www. rifleman. org. uk/ Enfield_Cadet_Rifle_L98A1. htm [18] "Army Cadet Magazine Spring 2009" (http:/ / cde. cerosmedia. com/ 1M49b53cba8dac3815. cde). . [19] http:/ / www. prexis. com/ Merchant2/ merchant. mvc?Screen=CTGY& Store_Code=P& Category_Code=PL85 [20] for example the Bremner, Bird and Fortune satirical comedy documentary Between Iraq and a Hard Place included the line: "The SA80 is a lethal weapon, especially for anyone trying to fire it," similar to a description of the Vietnam War era M16. [21] http:/ / hansard. millbanksystems. com/ lords/ 1990/ jul/ 17/ the-defence-estimates-1990 [22] Raw, Steve. 'The Last Enfield: SA80 - The Reluctant Rifle', Collector Grade Publications, Cobourg, Ontario, 2003, pp. 172-3. [23] UK Ministry of Defence (Army) - SA80 A2 Individual Weapon and Underslung Grenade Launcher (UGL) (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1458. aspx) [24] (http:/ / armydev. dera. gov. uk/ presscentre/ database/ showPR. asp?id=2382), mirrored at (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20050509010859/ http:/ / armydev. dera. gov. uk/ presscentre/ database/ showPR. asp?id=2382) [25] "Troops in Afghanistan get new lightweight rifle magazines" (http:/ / www. mod. uk/ DefenceInternet/ DefenceNews/ EquipmentAndLogistics/ TroopsInAfghanistanGetNewLightweightRifleMagazines. htm). . [26] Wyatt, Caroline (28 April 2009). "Remembering the Battle of Al Amara" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ uk_news/ 8016685. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 9 April 2011. [27] http:/ / www. laprensa. com. bo/ noticias/ 30-6-2011/ noticias/ 30-06-2011_19314. php [28] http:/ / www. jdfmil. org/ equipment/ weapons/ weapons_home. php [29] "SA80 A2 L85 Individual Weapon - British Army Website" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1458. aspx). Army.mod.uk. . Retrieved 2009-04-22. [30] "Light Support Weapon (LSW) - British Army Website" (http:/ / www. army. mod. uk/ equipment/ support-weapons/ 1461. aspx). Army.mod.uk. . Retrieved 2009-04-22.



External links
SA80 A2 L85 Individual Weapon (http://www.army.mod.uk/equipment/support-weapons/1458.aspx) at Army.mod.uk "Off Target" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,808713,00.html), The Guardian, 10 October 2002. History of the SA80. SA80: Mistake or Maligned? (http://www.quarry.nildram.co.uk/SA80.htm) Enfield L85 (SA80) assault rifle (http://world.guns.ru/assault/brit/sa0--l5-e.html) at Modern Firearms Enfield L85 (SA80) assault rifle (http://world.guns.ru/userfiles/images/assault/as22/sa80-l85a2.jpg)

The Special Operations Peculiar MODification (SOPMOD) kit is an accessory system for the M4A1 carbine and FN SCAR Mk 16/17 used by USSOCOM. The kit allows Special Operations personnel to configure their weapons to individual preferences and mission requirements. The program dates back to September 1989, when the Special Operations Special Technology (SOST) Modular Close Combat Carbine Project was founded. The Material Need Statement (MNS) was signed on May 1992, and by September 1993, the Operational Requirements Document (ORD) for the program was validated. Responsibility for the program was then assigned to the Naval Surface Warfare Center Crane Division.


The SOPMOD kit is composed mostly of non-developmental and commercial off-the-shelf (NDI/COTS) accessories packaged together to support four M4A1 carbines.

The original SOPMOD Block I kit included four of each of the following: Knight's Armament Company (KAC) Rail Interface System (RIS) forearm KAC's vertical foregrip KAC's backup iron sight (BUIS) Trijicon's Model TA01NSN 4x32mm Advanced Combat Optical Gunsight (ACOG) ECOS-N optical sight (a variant of the Aimpoint CompM2) Tactical Ordnance and Equipment Improved combat sling which allows for secure cross body/patrol carry. PRI Bracket mount for AN/PVS-14 night vision

Only two each of following were included per kit: Insight Technology's AN/PEQ-2 Infrared Target Pointer/Illuminator/Aiming Laser (ITPIAL) Insight Technology's Visible Light Illuminator (VLI) Trijicon's Model RX01M4A1 reflex sight

SOPMOD KAC's quick-detach sound suppressor (QDSS) Only one of the following was included per kit: KAC's quick-attach M203 grenade launcher mount Quick-attach sight for use with the M203 M203 with a 9-inch barrel Insight Technology's AN/PEQ-5 visible laser AN/PVS-17A mini-night vision sight AN/PSQ-18A M203 night sight Carrying/storage case for kit accessories


If more of the accessories are needed, it is typical for units to "cannibalize" the kits of inactive teams. The documentation for the kit does not require a rewrite if improved replacements for any of the current items can be found. As a result, this content list has changed. For instance, on many SOPMOD M4s today, the Crane Sloping Cheekweld Stock has been added. Currently Block II is still under development. A couple of potential additions are the M26 Modular Accessory Shotgun System and the M320 grenade launcher. Also various EOTech holographic sights are used on many SOPMOD'ed M4s. It can also attach basically anything that fits on a Picatinny rail and fits the length maximum for the weapon in question.

Block II
KAC's suppressors from Block I are cleaned and refielded Daniel Defense's RIS II Insight Technology's AN/PEQ-15 or ATIPAL IR laser/ IR light Elcan's SpecterDR 1-4x Optic EOtech 553 Carrying/storage case for kit accessories

External links
SOPMOD- GlobalSecurity [1]

[1] http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ systems/ ground/ sopmod. htm

Steyr AUG


Steyr AUG
Steyr AUG

Steyr AUG A1 with 508mm (20.0in) barrel Type Assault rifle Submachine gun Light machine gun


Service history Inservice Usedby Wars 1979present See Users


Afghanistan War Iraq War Production history


Horst Wesp Karl Wagner Karl Mser 1977 Steyr Mannlicher Thales Australia, Lithgow Facility SME Ordnance

Designed Manufacturer


1978present (Standard) [1] 1988present (Para)



See Variants Specifications


3.6kg (7.9lb) (Standard) 3.3kg (7.3lb) (Carbine) 3.2kg (7.1lb) (Subcarbine) 3.9kg (8.6lb) (HBAR) [1] 3.3kg (7.3lb) (Para) 790mm (31.1in) (Standard) 690mm (27.2in) (Carbine) 630mm (24.8in) (Subcarbine) 900mm (35.4in) (HBAR) [1] 665mm (26.2in) (Para)


Steyr AUG


508mm (20.0in) (Standard) 407mm (16.0in) (Carbine) 350mm (13.8in) (Subcarbine) 621mm (24.4in) (HBAR) [1] 420mm (16.5in) (Para) 5.56x45mm NATO [1] 9x19mm Parabellum


Action Rateoffire Muzzlevelocity Effectiverange Maximumrange Feedsystem

Gas-operated, rotating bolt 680-750 rounds/min


Standard rifle: 970m/s (3182ft/s) 300 metres (980ft) 2700 metres (8900ft)

5.56x45mm NATO: 30 or 42-round box magazine, Beta C-Mag [1] 9x19mm Parabellum: 25 or 32-round MPi 69 box magazine



Swarovski 1.5x telescopic sight, emergency battle sights

The AUG is an Austrian bullpup 5.56mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1970s by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch). The AUG (Armee Universal Gewehr"universal army rifle") was adopted by the Austrian Army as the StG 77 (Sturmgewehr 77) in 1977,[3] where it replaced the 7.62mm StG 58 automatic rifle (a license-built FN FAL).[4] In production since 1978, it is the standard small arm of the Austrian Bundesheer and various national police units. The rifle has also been adopted by the armed forces of Argentina, Australia ( - accepted into service in 1985 and manufactured by Australian Defence Industries in Lithgow, the F88 Austeyr model is also in use by New Zealand), Bolivia, Ecuador (since 1988), Ireland, Luxembourg, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia (introduced in 1978), Pakistan, and (since 1988) U.S. Customs Service (now the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency).

Design details
The AUG, a bullpup 5.56mm assault rifle, is a selective fire weapon with a conventional gas piston operated action that fires from a closed bolt.[5] Designed as a family of rifles that could be quickly adapted to a wide variety of roles with the change of the barrel to a desired length and profile, the AUG is a modular configuration rifle that employs a high level of polymer and advanced alloy components. The primary variant of the rifle, designated the AUG A1, consists of six main assemblies: the barrel, receiver with integrated telescopic sight, bolt and carrier, trigger mechanism, stock and magazine.[5] The AUG uses the 5.56x45mm NATO cartridge and the standard 1:9 rifling twist will stabilize both SS109/M855 and M193 bullets. Some nations including Australia and New Zealand use a version with a 1:7 twist optimised for the SS109 NATO round.

The rifle features an Spz-kr type two-stage trigger (pulling the trigger halfway produces semi-automatic fire, pulling the trigger all the way to the rear produces fully automatic fire) and a safety mechanism (cross-bolt, button type), located immediately above the hand grip.[5] In its safe position (white dot) the trigger is mechanically disabled; pressing the safety button to the left exposes a red dot and indicates the weapon is ready to fire. Some versions have an ALO or "automatic lockout", a small projection at the base of the trigger. This was first included on the Irish Defence Forces variant of the rifle, and soon after, the Australian Defence Forces variant. In the exposed position the

Steyr AUG ALO stops the trigger being squeezed past the semi-automatic position. If needed, the ALO can be pushed up to permit automatic fire.[6] The rifle is fed from translucent, double-column box magazines (molded from a high-strength polymer) with a 30-round capacity and an empty weight of 130g (4.6oz). The light machine gun version of the AUG uses an extended 42-round magazine. An Argentine version of the FN FAL chambered in 5.56mm NATO and known as the FALMP III Type 2 also used the AUG magazine. Integrated with the receiver casting is a fixed carry handle that contains a 1.5x telescopic sight made by Swarovski Optik.[5] It contains a simple black ring reticle with a basic rangefinder that is designed so that at 300m (984.3ft) a 180cm (5.9ft) tall man-size target will completely fill it, giving the shooter an accurate method of estimating range. The sight cannot be set to a specific range but can be adjusted for windage and elevation for an initial zero and is designed to be calibrated for 300 m. When so set, aiming at the centre of a target will produce a hit at all ranges out to 300m. The rifle also has a back-up iron sight with a rear notch and front blade, cast into the top of the aluminum optical sight housing, used in case of failure or damage to the primary optical sight. The sight is also equipped with a set of three illuminated dots (one on the front blade and two at the rear) for use in low-level lighting conditions. In order to mount a wide range of optics and accessories, a receiver with a NATO-standard Picatinny rail and detachable carry handle was also developed and introduced in 1997. Three-pronged, open-type flash suppressors were used on the 350mm (13.8in), 407mm (16.0in) and 508mm (20.0in) length barrels, whereas the 621mm (24.4in) light machine gun barrel received a closed-type ported muzzle device (combination flash suppressor and compensator) and an integral, lightweight folding bipod. The flash suppressors are screwed to the muzzle and internally threaded to take a blank-firing attachment. The rifle comes standard with four magazines, a muzzle cap, spare bolt for left-handed shooters, blank-firing adaptor, cleaning kit, sling and either an American M7 or German KCB-77 M1 bayonet.


The rifle is fully ambidextrous.[5] It can be configured for use by left-handed shooters by simply changing the bolt for a left-handed one with the extractor and ejector on opposite sides, and moving a blanking cap from the left ejection opening to the right. Variants include a compact 350mm (13.8in) barrel, 407mm (16.0in) carbine barrel, 508mm (20.0in) standard rifle-length barrel and a 621mm (24.4in) light machine gun barrel.[5] Rifles equipped with 407mm (16.0in) and 508mm (20.0in) barrels are able to launch rifle grenades. 508mm (20.0in) pattern barrels produced for military purposes are also equipped with a bayonet lug. The manufacturer offers two other 508mm (20.0in) barrel configurations: the firstfitted with a fixed, post foresight (used on the standard rifle version with aperture iron sights) and the second typeequipped with a 40 mm M203 grenade launcher that can be used mounted on the standard length rifle or autonomouslyas a stand-alone grenade launcher after attaching a shoulder pad to the end of the 5.56mm barrel.

Austrian soldiers train with the Steyr AUG.

Steyr AUG


Operating mechanism
The rotating bolt features 7 radial locking lugs and is unlocked by means of a pin on the bolt body and a recessed camming guide machined into the bolt carrier. The bolt carrier itself is guided by two guide rods brazed to it and these rods run inside steel bearings in the receiver. The guide rods are hollow and contain the return springs. The bolt also contains a claw extractor that forms the eighth locking lug and a spring-loaded "bump"-type casing ejector. The gas cylinder is offset to the right side of the barrel and works with one of the two guide rods. The AUG uses a short-stroke piston system where the right guide rod serves as the action rod, transmitting the rearward motion of the gas-driven piston to the bolt carrier. The left-hand rod provides retracting handle pressure when connected by the forward assist and can also be used to remove fouling in the gas cylinder by utilizing the left-hand guide rod as a reamer. The firearm uses a 3-position gas valve. The first setting, marked with a small dot, is used for normal operation. The second setting, illustrated with a large dot, indicates fouled conditions. The third, "GR" closed position is used to launch rifle grenades (of the non-bullet trap type). The AUG is hammer-fired and the firing mechanism is contained in the rear of the stock, near the butt, covered by a synthetic rubber shoulder plate. The hammer group is made entirely of plastics except for the springs and pins and is contained in an open-topped plastic box which lies between the magazine and the buttplate. During firing the recoiling bolt group travels over the top of it, resetting the hammer. Since the trigger is located some distance away, it transmits its energy through a sear lever which passes by the side of the magazine. The firing pin is operated by a plastic hammer under pressure from a coil spring.

The quick-change barrel used in the AUG is cold hammer-forged by GFM-GmbH of Steyr Austria for increased precision and durability, its bore, chamber and certain components of the gas system are chrome-plated. The standard rifle-length barrel features 6 right-hand grooves and a rifling twist rate of 228mm (1:9 in). An external sleeve is shrunk on to the barrel and carries the gas port and cylinder, gas valve and forward grip hinge jaw. There is a short cylinder which contains a piston and its associated return spring. The barrel locks into a steel insert inside the receiver through a system of eight lugs arranged around the chamber end and is equipped with a folding, vertical grip that helps to pivot and withdraw the barrel during barrel changes. The most compact of the barrels has a fixed vertical grip.

The receiver housing is a steel-reinforced aluminum extrusion finished with a baked enamel coating.[5] It holds the steel bearings for the barrel lugs and the guide rods. The non-reciprocating plastic cocking handle works in a slot on the left side of the receiver and is connected with the bolt carrier's left guide rod. The cocking handle has a forward assist featurealternatively called a "silent cocking device"used for pushing the bolt shut without recocking the rifle.[5] [7] A bolt hold-open device locks the bolt carrier assembly back after the last round has been fired.[7] The AUG lacks a bolt release button, and the cocking handle must be retracted to release the bolt group after a new magazine has been inserted. The rifles stock is made from fiberglass-reinforced polyamide 66. At the forward end is the pistol grip with an enlarged forward trigger guard completely enclosing the firing hand that allows the rifle to be operated with winter gloves.[5] The trigger is hung permanently on the pistol grip, together with its two operating rods which run in guides past the magazine housing. Behind that is the locking catch for the stock group. Pressing this to the right will separate the receiver and stock. The magazine catch is behind the housing, on the underside of the stock. Above the housing are the two ejector openings, one of which is always covered by a removable strip of plastic. The rear of the

An Australian infantryman with the F88S Austeyr variant equipped with a M203 grenade launcher and Trijicon ACOG sight.

Steyr AUG stock forms the actual shoulder rest which contains the hammer unit and the end of the bolt path. The butt is closed by an endplate which is held in place by the rear sling swivel. This swivel is attached to a pin which pushes in across the butt and secures the plate. There is a cavity under the buttplate that holds a cleaning kit.


A semi-automatic version of the rifle known as the AUG P is available to the civilian and law enforcement markets. It features a shorter, 407mm (16.0in) barrel and a modified bolt, carrier and trigger assembly that will only allow semi-automatic fire. The rifle also has a slightly different optical sight that features a reticule with a fine dot in the center of the aiming circle, allowing for more precise aiming.
An Austrian soldier equipped with the standard-length Steyr AUG.

The light machine gun variant can be modified to fire from an open bolt (called the AUG LMG in this configuration). To accomplish this, a modified bolt carrier, striker and trigger mechanism with sear are used. Based on the AUG, Steyr developed the 9mm AUG submachine gun that fires the 9x19mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. It is an automatic, blowback-operated model that fires from a closed bolt. Unlike the rifle variants, this SMG has a unique 420mm (16.5in) barrel with six right-hand grooves at a 250mm (1:9.8in) rifling twist rate, ended with a recoil compensator, a slightly different charging handle and a magazine well conversion insert enabling the use of standard 25-round box magazines from the Steyr MPi 81 and TMP submachine guns. A conversion kit used to transform any rifle variant into the submachine gun is also available. It consists of a barrel, bolt, adapter insert and magazine. AUG A1: Standard version introduced in 1977. Available with a choice of olive or black furniture.[8] AUG A2: Similar to the AUG A1, but features a redesigned charging handle and a detachable telescopic sight which can be replaced with a MIL-STD-1913 rail.[8] AUG A3: Similar to the AUG A2, but features a MIL-STD-1913 rail on top of the receiver, and an external bolt release.[9] AUG A3 SF (also known as the AUG A2 Commando): Similar to the AUG A2, but features MIL-STD-1913 rails mounted on the telescopic sight and on the right side of the receiver, and includes an external bolt release.[10] It was adopted by the Austrian Special Forces in late 2007.[11] AUG A3 SA USA: Semi-automatic AUG A3 with a 407mm (16.0in) barrel, made available for the U.S. civilian market in April 2009.[12] [13]
Steyr AUG A2 (407mm (16.0in) barrel) with MIL-STD-1913 rail attached Steyr AUG A1 (407mm (16.0in) barrel)

AUG P: Semi-automatic AUG A1 with a shorter, 407mm (16.0in) barrel. AUG P Special Receiver: Similar to the AUG P, but features a MIL-STD-1913 rail on top of the receiver.

Steyr AUG AUG Para (also known as the AUG SMG or AUG 9mm): Chambered in 919mm Parabellum and produced since 1988.[1] Differs from A1 model in barrel, bolt, magazine and a magazine well adapter, which allows the rifle to feed from Steyr MPi 69 magazines. This version operates as a blowback firearm, without use of the rifle's gas system.[14] For some time a kit of the above components was available to convert any AUG into a 9mm variant.[15] AUG A3 Para XS: 9mm version of the AUG A3, similar to the AUG Para. Features a 325mm (12.8in) barrel and Picatinny rail system.[16] AUG M203: An AUG modified for use with the M203 grenade launcher. AUG LSW (Light Support Weapon): A family of light support versions of the AUG. AUG HBAR (Heavy-Barreled Automatic Rifle): A longer, heavier-barreled version for use as a light machine gun.
Steyr AUG 9 mm Steyr AUG A3


AUG LMG (Light machine gun): Based on the AUG HBAR, fires from an open bolt, has 4x rather than 1.5 optic of the base AUG. AUG LMGT: Same as LMG, but has rail similar to the AUG P Special Receiver. AUG HBART: A designated marksman rifle based on the HBAR with a universal scope mount cast into the receiver and fitted with a Kahles ZF69 642 optical sight. AUG Z: Semi-automatic version, somewhat similar to the A2, intended primarily for civilian use. AUG SA: Semi-automatic version of the A1 variant; built for civilian use and import to the US before being banned from importation in 1989. USR: An AUG A2 modified to meet the former Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) (or Public Safety and Recreational Firearms Use Protection Act) regulations. AUG NATO: Uses a right-hand-only, NATO STANAG magazine stock assembly.[17]

American clones of the Steyr AUG

MSAR STG-556: Introduced at the 2007 SHOT Show, the MSAR STG-556 is manufactured by Microtech Small Arms Research Inc. (a subsidiary of Microtech Knives) and is an AUG A1 clone significantly re-engineered in its working system and principle as it features a bolt hold-open device as seen on the M16 rifle; otherwise the MSAR STG-556 retains the original AUG features, such as feeding from proprietary translucent plastic magazines and having the quick-change barrel option. The STG-556 rifle can be converted from either having a telescopic sight or a MIL-STD-1913 rail. It is available in either civilian (semi-automatic only) and military/law enforcement (selective fire) variants.[7] [18] TPD USA AXR: Revealed at the 2007 SHOT Show, manufactured by Tactical Products Design Inc. as an AUG A2 clone capable of semi-automatic only fire, aimed for both the civilian and law enforcement markets, and fed by STANAG magazines; the manufacturer sells clear plastic magazines which are STANAG 4179 compliant and will readily fit in any rifle with a compatible magazine catch.[19] The rifle does not have the integral scope, allowing users to use any kind of scopes or laser sights on the Picatinny railing.[20]

Steyr AUG


F88 Austeyr: The Australian Army's modified version of the Steyr AUG A1. Changes for the Australian version include a bayonet lug, a 1:7 in rifling pitch as found in the M16A2 rifle, optimized for the heavier 62-grain NATO-standard SS109/M855 round and an "automatic lockout" selector that can physically disable the fully automatic position of the two-stage trigger mechanism found on the standard AUG. Contrary to popular belief the Australian issued F88 does not have the crosshair inside the "doughnut", however the New An Australian soldier from 2RAR with a F88S Zealand issued AUG does incorporate this feature. The AUG won a Austeyr. Fitted is the standard issue, locally made competition against the prototype of what would become the 1.5x power sight. Bushmaster M17S. The components are built under license at the Australian Defence Industries factory in Lithgow, New South Wales (now known as Thales Australia).[21] F88C Austeyr: A carbine version of the Austeyr F88 featuring a shorter, 407mm (16.0in) barrel. The F88C is generally used as a personal defensive weapon where maneuverability is an issue, such as in armoured vehicles. F88S Austeyr: A version of the Australian Austeyr F88 with an integrated Picatinny rail in place of the standard optical sight that allows the attachment of various other sighting devices (night vision scopes, magnified and non-magnified optics such as the ELCAN C79, Trijicon ACOG or Aimpoint). F88S-A1C: The Austeyr F88S-A1C is a compact variant of the F88 fitted with a Picatinny rail. The rifle has a 407mm (16.0in) barrel. Typically issued to front-line combat infantry units with room and weight constraints such as cavalry, reconnaissance, light horse, paratroopers and airfield defense guards (RAAF). F88 GLA: Australian Army version with an M203 grenade launcher. It features an Inter-bar (armourer attached) interface, an RM Equipment M203PI grenade launcher, and a Knight's Armament quadrant sight assembly to which a Firepoint red dot sight is attached. The bayonet lug and forward vertical grip are not present in this model. F88T: ADI has developed a .22-caliber training rifle for use by the Australian Army. The rifle provides an economical training An Australian soldier briefs a U.S. Navy Admiral alternative, with very low ammunition cost, which can be used in on the F88S Austeyr. environmentally sensitive training areas and ranges where "overshooting" is an issue, and there is less of a chance to injure instructors and other persons.[21] Austeyr F88A4 / F88S-A2: ADI's proposed F88A4 will incorporate multiple Picatinny rails for the fitting of legacy systems such as the M203P1 40 mm grenade launcher as well as both commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and military off-the-shelf (MOTS) sighting and battle enhancement accessories. DSTO Advanced Individual Combat Weapon: Experimental weapon combining the barrel, action and magazine of a Austeyr F88 with an enlarged receiver and stock/body that also incorporates a multiple-shot 40mm grenade launcher. EF88 Austeyr: The EF88 prototype has been produced to further improve the ADF's F88 design. It includes a new 20 inch fluted barrel, a lengthened, A3 style top picatinny rail and a new picatinny rail bellow the barrel for mounting a new grenade launcher and other accessories. The handguard has also been altered in order to accept a new grenade launcher and the shape of the buttstock around the magazine port has been made more angular. Also the entire plastic furniture has been recoloured to matt black.[22]

Steyr AUG


Argentina: Argentine Armed Forces, will replace the M16A2.[23] Australia: Entered service in 1989 as the new issue weapon of the Australian Defence Force.[24] The first regular unit to be issued with the F88 was 6RAR, who received them in January 1989. Rifles are built locally by Thales Australia under license from Steyr Mannlicher.[25] Austria: Standard service weapon of the Bundesheer, serving as the StG 77 in official army nomenclature.[3] Also used by EKO Cobra.[26] Bolivia[27] Bulgaria: SOBT only.[28] Cameroon[27] Croatia: Special forces.[29] Djibouti[30] Ecuador[27] Falkland Islands: Falkland Islands Defence Force.[31] Gambia[27] Indonesia: Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group.[32]
An officer of the Austrian counter-terrorism unit EKO Cobra handling a Steyr AUG rifle during an airborne operation.

Ireland: Issued to regular and reserve soldiers of the Irish Army since 1988. The Irish Army Rangers use the Steyr AUG A3 and A2.[33] [34] [35]

An Australian soldier with a Steyr AUG rifle.

Italy: Carabinieri special forces: Gruppo di Intervento Speciale and 1st "Tuscania" Regiment[36] Luxembourg: Standard infantry rifle of the Luxembourg Army. The HBAR version is also employed as the section support weapon.[37] The Unit Spciale de la Police intervention unit of the Grand Ducal Police employs the AUG A2 variant.[38] Malaysia: Made under license from Steyr by SME Ordnance.[39] Local production of the AUG rifle series started in 1991[40] with a joint production with Steyr that started in 2004.[41] [42] Lawsuits from Steyr emerged when Malaysia decided to withdraw from joint production.[43] Morocco[27] [30] Netherlands[1] New Zealand: In service since 1988. The first 5,000 weapons delivered were manufactured in Austria by Steyr Daimler Puch. The majority of weapons now in service are the Australian ADI-made Austeyr F88 variant. It is called the IW Steyr (Individual Weapon Steyr) in service of the New Zealand Defence Force.[44] Oman[27] [35] Pakistan: Special Service Group (SSG) of the Pakistan Army.[45] Papua New Guinea: F88 variant.[27] Philippines: Used by the Scout Rangers.[46] Saudi Arabia[30] [35] Serbia: 72nd Reconnaissance-Commando Battalion.[29] Taiwan[27] [47] Tunisia[27] [35] United States: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.[48]

Steyr AUG Uruguay: Received 7,000 Steyr AUG A2UR rifles (with the A1 model sight and Picatinny rail) to be used by the Uruguayan infantry battalions.[49]


[1] Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Recognition Guides. Glasgow: Jane's Information Group and Collins Press. ISBN9780007127603. [2] STEYR AUG A1 / A2 (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_A1_A2_press_01. pdf& t=1296688753& hash=c66b5350ef0e01da18f6a9b5e258e07e) [3] sterreichs Bundesheer - Waffen und Gert - Sturmgewehr 77 (http:/ / www. bmlv. gv. at/ waffen/ waf_stg77. shtml) [4] Ezell (1993) p. 223 [5] Ezell(1993) p. 224 [6] Manual of the Steyr rifle, Irish Defence Forces [7] Choat, Chris (March 2008). "Microtech's STG-556 An Exclusive First Look". The Small Arms Review 11 (6): 4350 [8] "Steyr AUG A1 / A2" (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_A1_A2_press_01. pdf& t=1244185479& hash=0c46aaef884d605a158cc8f071e0d9f9) (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [9] "Steyr AUG A3" (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_A3_press_01. pdf& t=1244186156& hash=03cbd910081364335b9d679102a4ef4e) (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [10] "Steyr AUG A3 SF" (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_A3SF_press_01. pdf& t=1244186187& hash=8af3affc13f53d7bd8ccdafe807c9f75) (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [11] Steyr AUG A2 Commando (http:/ / www. doppeladler. com/ oebh/ infanterie/ stg77. htm) [12] "Steyr AUG/A3 SA USA" (http:/ / www. steyrarms. com/ products/ sporting-rifles/ steyr-aug-z/ ). Steyr Mannlicher US. Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [13] "Steyr AUG/A3 USA" (http:/ / emptormaven. com/ 2009/ 10/ steyr-auga3-usa/ ). . [14] "Steyr AUG 9mm" (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_9mm_press_01. pdf& t=1244186229& hash=6cfc561eebb60151883a5ec12f877966) (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [15] "AUG 9mm" (http:/ / remtek. com/ arms/ steyr/ aug/ aug9/ aug9mm. htm). REMTEK. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [16] "Steyr AUG A3 9mm XS" (http:/ / www. steyr-mannlicher. com/ index. php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl& u=0& file=uploads/ media/ STM_Produktblatt_AUG_A3_9mm_XS_press_01. pdf& t=1244186274& hash=7702ca358d8b8e6b19431ab9dc7b0c88) (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. . Retrieved 2009-06-04. [17] http:/ / steyr-aug. com/ Am161. jpg [18] "MSAR - Microtech Small Arms Research Inc." (http:/ / www. msarinc. com/ home. html). Microtech Small Arms Research. . Retrieved 2007-10-12. [19] TPD-USA - Tactical Products Design Inc. (http:/ / www. tpdusa. com/ products. php?cat=5) Retrieved on October 12, 2007. [20] Modern Firearms' TPD AXR Rifle. (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ civil/ civ020-e. htm) Retrieved on October 27, 2008. [21] Steyr. (http:/ / www. adi-limited. com/ site. asp?page=148) [22] http:/ / www. w54. biz/ showthread. php?79-EF88-Rail-Configuration [23] http:/ / www. australiandefence. com. au/ 56D2AD90-F807-11DD-8DFE0050568C22C9 [24] "F88 AUSteyr - Army Internet - ARMY" (http:/ / www. defence. gov. au/ ARMY/ F88_AUSteyr. asp). Defence.gov.au. 2009-07-14. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [25] Steyr (http:/ / www. adi-limited. com/ site. asp?page=148) [26] http:/ / www. bmi. gv. at/ cms/ BMI_EKO_Cobra/ publikationen/ files/ LawOrder. pdf [27] Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0710628695. [28] - (http:/ / www. capital. bg/ show. php?storyid=244753). Capital.bg, May 23, 1998 [29] http:/ / www. tactical-life. com/ online/ exclusives/ the-steyr-aug-a3-sf [30] "Steyr Aug Editorial" (http:/ / www. remtek. com/ arms/ steyr/ aug/ edit/ augsof. htm). Remtek.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [31] "Special Forces (Land) (Falkland Islands) - Janes Amphibious and Special Forces" (http:/ / www. janes. com/ articles/ Janes-Amphibious-and-Special-Forces/ Special-Forces-Land-Falkland-Islands. html). Janes.com. 2008-09-15. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [32] "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (http:/ / www. hrvatski-vojnik. hr/ hrvatski-vojnik/ 1612007/ ind. asp) (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. . Retrieved 2010-06-12. [33] Defence Forces - Army Steyr Assault Rifle (http:/ / www. military. ie/ army/ equipment/ weapons/ inf/ steyr/ steyr. htm) [34] [35] [36] [37] Steyr AUG (Armee Universal Gewehr - Universal Army Gun). (http:/ / www. 62infantry. com/ Weapons_Equipment/ Steyr_AUG. shtml) "Steyr Mannlicher US: Our History" (http:/ / www. steyrarms. com/ about/ our-history/ ). Steyrarms.com. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. FireArm Training System. "Militaria - Corpi Elite (12)" (http:/ / www. inilossum. it/ militaria12. html). Inilossum.it. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. Ltzebuerger Armi - Matriel - Armement (http:/ / www. armee. lu/ chap07/ c070102. htm)

Steyr AUG
[38] "Equipement :: Unit Spciale de la Police ::" (http:/ / www. usp. lu/ armement-assault-fr. php). USP.LU. . Retrieved 2009-11-17. [39] "SME Ordnance SDN BHD Products & Services" (http:/ / www. epicos. com/ epicos/ extended/ malaysia/ ordnance/ smeordnance_products. html). . Retrieved 2010-03-22. [40] Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 1990-1994" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-10. html). The Gun Zone. . Retrieved 2010-03-22. [41] Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2004" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-13. html). The Gun Zone. . Retrieved 2008-06-21. [42] "Austria to shift assault rifle Steyr production to Malaysia" (http:/ / www. defencetalk. com/ austria-to-shift-assault-rifle-steyr-production-to-malaysia-2791/ ). Defence Talk. 2004-04-12. . Retrieved 2010-03-22. [43] Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2005" (http:/ / www. thegunzone. com/ 556dw-15. html). The Gun Zone. . Retrieved 2010-03-22. [44] NZ Army - Personal Weapons (http:/ / www. army. mil. nz/ our-army/ equipment/ weapons/ default. htm) [45] "Pakdef.info Pakistan Military Consortium: Special Service Group" (http:/ / www. pakdef. info/ pakmilitary/ army/ regiments/ ssg. html). Saad, S.; Ali, M.; Shabbir, Usman. 1998. . Retrieved 2009-08-15. [46] Burgonio, TJ (2003-08-08). "Mutineers Used Hi-Tech Guns Given By US" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ org/ news/ 2003/ 030808-philippines-weapons01. htm). Philippine Daily Inquirer. GlobalSecurity.org. . [47] Kemp, Ian (2009). "A New 5.56mm Generation or a Changing of the Guard?" (http:/ / www. asianmilitaryreview. com/ upload/ 200906161450071. pdf). http:/ / asianmilitaryreview. com - Asian Military Review. . Retrieved 2010-04-18. [48] "Steyr AUG" (http:/ / www. riflesnguns. com/ assault/ steyr/ aug). Rifles n Guns. 2006-12-08. . [49] Light and heavy weapons (http:/ / www. armyrecognition. com/ uruguay_uruguayan_army_land_ground_forces_uk/ uruguay_uruguayan_army_land_ground_armed_defense_forces_military_equipment_armored_vehicle_uk. html#armes)


Ezell, Edward Clinton (1993) [1983]. Small Arms of the World. Thomas M. Pegg, research assistance (12th rev. ed.). New York: Barnes & Noble. pp.7577. ISBN9780880296014.

External links
Steyr Mannlichermilitary and law enforcement (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/behoerdenwaffen/) Steyr AUG A1/A2 (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/military-and-law-enforcement/steyr-aug-a1-a2/) Steyr AUG A3 (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/military-and-law-enforcement/steyr-aug-a3/) Steyr AUG A3 SF (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/military-and-law-enforcement/steyr-aug-a3-sf/) Steyr AUG 9mm (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/military-and-law-enforcement/steyr-aug-9mm/) Steyr AUG 9mm XS (http://www.steyr-mannlicher.com/military-and-law-enforcement/ steyr-aug-a3-9mm-xs/) Operators manual - Steyr-Mannlicher (http://www.scribd.com/doc/21345944/ Army-Universal-Assault-Rifle-steyr-Semi-Automatic-aug-Cal-5-56-223-MM-Nato-Manual) REMTEK (http://www.remtek.com/arms/steyr/steyraug.htm) Steyr-AUG.com (http://www.steyr-aug.com/) Buddy Hinton Collection (http://www.sturmgewehr.com/bhinton/AUG/) Modern Firearms (http://world.guns.ru/assault/as20-e.htm) The Steyr AUG in the Austrian Army (http://www.doppeladler.com/oebh/infanterie/stg77.htm) Overview of the Steyr AUG (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KasksiBzGbg) on YouTube Video of operation (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUv9NNnpPJg) on YouTube (Japanese) MSAR STG-556 Pictorial (http://50ae.net/collection/stg556/)



A suppressor, sound suppressor, sound moderator, or silencer, is a device attached to or part of the barrel of a firearm which reduces the amount of noise and flash generated by firing the weapon. A suppressor is usually a metal cylinder with internal mechanisms to reduce the sound of firing by slowing the escaping propellant gas and sometimes by reducing the velocity of the bullet.[1] [2] Early suppressors were created around the beginning of the 20th century by several inventors. American inventor Hiram Percy Maxim not to be confused with Several firearms with detachable suppressors, from top to bottom: An Hiram Stevens Maxim, inventor of the Maxim Machine Uzi, An AR-15 variant, A Heckler & Koch USP Tactical, A Beretta 92FS, and a SIG Mosquito. Gun, is credited with inventing and selling the first commercially successful models circa 1902. Maxim gave his device the trademarked name Maxim Silencer. The muffler for internal combustion engines was developed in parallel with the firearm suppressor by Maxim in the early 20th century, using many of the same techniques to provide quieter-running engines. Bolt action rimfire rifle with suppressor Indeed, in many European countries, automobile mufflers are still referred to as "silencers." The proper name Silencer has since fallen out of favor with some among the firearms industry, being replaced with the more literally accurate term sound suppressor or just suppressor, because a "sound suppressor" does not "silence" any weapon, rather it eliminates muzzle flash and reduces the sonic pressure of a firearm discharging. AWM-F sniper rifle with attached suppressor. Common usage and U.S. legislative language favor the historically earlier term, silencer. In U.S. law, the terms "firearm muffler" and "firearm silencer" are synonymous.[3] Suppressors were regularly used by agents of the United States Office of Strategic Services, who favored the newly designed High Standard HDM .22 Long Rifle pistol during World War II. OSS Director William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan demonstrated the pistol for President Franklin D. Roosevelt at the White House. According to OSS research chief Stanley Lovell,[4] Donovan (an old and trusted friend of the President) was waved into the Oval Office, where Roosevelt was dictating a letter. While Roosevelt finished his message, Donovan turned his back and fired ten shots into a sandbag he had brought with him, announced what he had done and handed the smoking gun to the astonished president.



Design and construction

The suppressor is typically a hollow cylindrical piece of machined metal (steel, aluminium, or titanium) containing expansion chambers that attaches to the muzzle of a pistol, submachine gun or rifle. These "can"-type suppressors (so-called as they resemble a beverage can), may be detached by the user and attached to a different firearm of the same caliber. Another type is the "integral" suppressor, which consists of expansion chambers surrounding the barrel. The barrel is pierced with openings or "ports" which bleed off gases into the chambers. This type of suppressor is part of the firearm, and maintenance of the suppressor requires that the firearm be at least partially disassembled. Both types of suppressor reduce noise by allowing the rapidly expanding gases from the firing of the cartridge to be briefly diverted or trapped inside a series of hollow chambers. The trapped gas expands and cools, and its pressure and velocity decreases as it exits the suppressor. The chambers are divided by either baffles or wipes (see below). There are typically at least four and up to perhaps fifteen chambers in a suppressor, depending on the intended use and design details. Often, a single, larger expansion chamber is located at the muzzle end of a can-type suppressor, which allows the propellant gas to expand considerably and slow down before it encounters the baffles or wipes. This larger chamber may be "reflexed" toward the rear of the barrel to minimize the overall length of the combined firearm and suppressor, especially with longer weapons such as rifles. Suppressors vary greatly in size and efficiency. One disposable type developed in the 1980s by the U.S. Navy for 9 mm pistols was 150mm (5.9in) long and 45mm (1.8in) in outside diameter, and was designed for six shots with standard ammunition or up to thirty shots with subsonic (slower than the speed of sound) ammunition. In contrast, one suppressor designed for rifles firing the powerful .50 caliber cartridge is 509mm (20.0in) long and 76mm (3.0in) in diameter.[5]

Cross-section drawing of a BR Tuote rifle suppressor, showing expansion chamber "reflexed" (going back around) the rifle barrel, and four baffles. The diffractor and baffles are carefully shaped to deflect gas.

Cross-section drawing of a Vaime .22 caliber rifle suppressor, showing short expansion chamber and thirteen plastic baffles. These baffles use alternating angled flat surfaces to repeatedly deflect gas expanding through the suppressor. In the actual suppressor, the baffles are also oriented at 90 degrees to each other about the axis of bullet travel (the illustration cannot demonstrate this well).

Cross-section drawing of a US Navy Hush Puppy Mk 2 pistol suppressor, showing expansion chamber wrapped around inner suppressor assembly, and four wipes. The bullet pushes a bullet-diameter hole through the wipes, trapping propellant gas behind it entirely until the bullet has passed through the wipe completely.



Baffles are usually circular metal dividers which separate the expansion chambers. Each baffle has a hole in its center to permit the passage of the bullet through the suppressor and towards the target. The hole is typically at least 0.04inch (1mm) larger than the bullet caliber to minimize the risk of the bullet hitting the baffle ("baffle strike"). Baffles are typically made of stainless steel, aluminium, titanium or alloys such as Inconel, and are either machined out of solid metal or stamped out of sheet metal. A few suppressors for low-powered cartridges such as the .22 Long Rifle have successfully used plastic baffles (certain models by Vaime and others.)[1]

Cross section diagram of Heckler & Koch MP5SD early model suppressor, from H&K 1971 patent. Vented barrel surrounded by metal mesh packing in expansion chambers, followed by conical baffles in forward chambers.

Baffles are separated by spacers, which keep them aligned at a specified distance apart inside the suppressor. Many baffles are manufactured as a single assembly with its spacer, and several suppressor designs have all the baffles attached together with spacers as a one-piece helical baffle stack. Modern baffles are usually carefully shaped to divert the propellant gases effectively into the chambers. This shaping can be a slanted flat surface, canted at an angle to the bore, or a conical or otherwise curved surface. One popular technique is to have alternating angled surfaces through the stack of baffles. Baffles come in several designs. M, K, Z, Monolithic Core[6] and (Omega) are the most prevalent. M-type is the crudest and composes an inverted cone. K forms slanted obstructions diverging from the sidewalls, creating turbulence across the boreline. Z is expensive to machine and includes "pockets" of dead airspace along the sidewalls which trap expanded gases and hold them thereby lengthening the time that the gases cool before exiting. Omega is an advanced design combining elements of all three previous designs. Omega forms a series of spaced cones drawing gas away from the boreline, incorporates a scallopped mouth creating cross-bore turbulence, which is in turn directed to a "mouse-hole" opening between the baffle stack and sidewall. They were created and developed by Joe Gadinni, and are in use by SWR Manufacturing.[7] Baffles usually last for a significant number of firings. Propellant gas heats and erodes the baffles, causing wear, which is worsened by high rates of fire. Aluminium baffles are seldom used with fully automatic weapons, because service life is unacceptably short. Some modern suppressors using steel or high-temperature alloy baffles can endure extended periods of fully automatic fire without damage. The highest-quality rifle suppressors available today have a claimed service life of greater than 30,000 rounds.[1] Baffles have not been given any specific angles, a specific size, or weight to meet any standards; they are created on a trial and error basis.[7] Wipes are inner dividers intended to touch the bullet as it passes through the suppressor, and are typically made of rubber, plastic or foam. Each wipe may either have a hole drilled in it before use, a pattern stamped into its surface at the point where the bullet will strike it, or it may simply be punched through by the bullet. Wipes typically last for a small number of firings (perhaps no more than five) before their performance is significantly degraded. While many suppressors used wipes in the Vietnam War era, most modern suppressors do not use them to minimize disassembly and parts replacement. "Wet" suppressors or "wet cans" use a small quantity of water, oil, grease or gel in the expansion chambers to cool the propellant gases and reduce their volume (see ideal gas law). The coolant lasts only a few shots before it must be replenished, but can greatly increase the effectiveness of the suppressor. Water is most effective, due to its high heat of vaporization, but it can run or evaporate out of the suppressor. Grease, while messier and less effective than water,

Suppressor can be left in the suppressor indefinitely without losing effectiveness. Oil is the least effective and least preferable, as it runs while being as messy as grease, and leaves behind a fine mist of aerosolized oil after each shot. Water-based gels, such as wire-pulling lubricant gel, are a good compromise; they offer the efficacy of water with less mess, as they do not run or drip. However, they take longer to apply, as they must be cleared from the bore of the suppressor to ensure a clear path for the bullet (grease requires this step as well). Generally, only pistol suppressors are shot wet, as rifle suppressors handle such high pressure and heat that the liquid is gone within 1-3 shots. Many manufacturers will not warranty their rifle suppressors for "wet" fire, as some feel this may even result in a dangerous over-pressurization of the silencer. Packing materials such as metal mesh, steel wool or metal washers may be used to fill the chambers and further dissipate and cool the gases. These are somewhat more effective than empty chambers, but less effective than wet designs.[1] Metal mesh, if properly used, may last for hundreds or thousands of shots of spaced semi-automatic fire, however steel wool usually degrades within ten shots with stainless wool lasting longer than regular steel wool. Like wipes, packing materials are rarely found in modern suppressors. Wipes, packing materials and purpose-designed wet cans have been generally abandoned in 21st-century suppressor design because they decrease overall accuracy and require excessive cleaning and maintenance. The instructions from several manufacturers state that their suppressors need not be cleaned at all. Furthermore, legal changes in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s made it much more difficult for end-users to legally replace internal silencer parts, and the newer designs reflect this reality.


Advanced types
In addition to containing and slowly releasing the gas pressure associated with muzzle blast or reducing pressure through the use of coolant mediums, advanced suppressor designs attempt to modify the properties of the sound waves generated by the muzzle blast. In these designs, effects known as frequency shifting and phase cancellation (or destructive interference) are used in an attempt to make the suppressor quieter. These effects are achieved by separating the flow of gases and causing them to collide with each other or by venting them through precision-made holes. The intended effect of frequency shifting is to shift audible sound waves frequencies into ultrasound (above 20 kHz), beyond the range of human hearing. The Russian AN-94 assault rifle features a muzzle attachment that claims apparent noise reduction by venting some gases through a "dog-whistle" type channel. Phase cancellation occurs when similar sound wave frequencies encounter each other 180 out of phase, cancelling the amplitude of the wave and eliminating the pressure variations perceived as sound. Using either property to advantage requires that the suppressor be designed within the specification of the muzzle blast in mind. For example, the velocity of the sound waves is a major factor. This figure can change significantly between different cartridges and barrel lengths. Thus, in order for maximum effectiveness to be achieved, the suppressor must be "tuned" for a specific cartridge/barrel length combination. This can be done through the use of either a fixed or adjustable baffle design. While it may sound daunting, any weapon that needs to provide such exceptional sound suppression is almost certainly going to be manufactured in small quantities and issued only for mission profiles critical enough to make such efforts worthwhile. However, these concepts are controversial because muzzle blast creates broadband noise rather than pure tones, and phase cancellation in particular is therefore extremely difficult (if not impossible) to achieve. Some suppressor manufacturers claim to use phase cancellation in their designs, but these claims are generally unsupported from a scientific perspective. From the practical perspective, supersonic cartridge loads are impractical to suppress past the levels that are merely hearing-safe for the shooter due to the sonic boom emitted by the bullet, and cartridges such as .22 LR and .45 ACP have long been recognized as easy to suppress even if using technology dating back to 1940s when the mission calls for the quietest gun available.



Sources of firearm noise

The portrayal of suppressed firearms in popular culture is not always accurate and could lead to the misconception that silencers are capable of completely eliminating the sound of firing, or reducing it to a quiet whistling or "phut" sound. This is unlikely because when a gun is fired, multiple sounds are possibly made. There are five major categories of suppressed fire noise: action, blast, sonic signature, impact, and operator. Some of these are present in all instances, others depend wholly on the specific mechanics of the weapon employed. In order of timing: Action noise required to ignite the round. Muzzle blast resulting from the discharge of propellant from the end of the barrel. Sonic signature of the projectile in flight (supersonic velocity rounds). Action noise in some firearm variants as the spent round is discharged and a fresh round reloaded. Impact noise created as the projectile finds terminal impact.

The two loudest sounds in a gunshot are typically the muzzle blast and the sonic signature. Paired reports from the same shot may be observed when the listener is first reached by the shock wave generated by the bullet flying past at supersonic speed, then by the muzzle blast moving at sound speed all the way from the muzzle. Multiple techniques are used to address each of these sounds, but the suppressor itself is capable of addressing muzzle blast, sonic signature (through integral gas bleed, at the price of reducing projectile speed to subsonic) and the ability to cancel the mechanical action noise through Nielsen device manipulation, canceling the ejection cycle.

Real world data

Live tests by independent reviewers of numerous commercially available suppressors find that even low caliber unsuppressed .22 LR firearms produce gunshots over 160 decibels.[8] In testing, most of the suppressors reduced the volume to between 130 and 145 dB, with the quietest suppressors metering at 117 dB. The actual suppression of sound ranged from 14.3 to 43 dB, with most data points around the 30 dB mark. A notable example, the De Lisle carbine, a British, World War 2, supressed rifle used by special forces, was recorded at 85.5 dB in official firing tests.[9] Comparatively, ear protection commonly used while shooting provides 18 to 32 dB of sound reduction at the ear.[10] Further, chainsaws, rock concerts, rocket engines, pneumatic drills, small firecrackers, and ambulance sirens are rated at 100 to 140 dB.[11] While some consider the noise reduction of a suppressor significant enough to permit safe shooting without hearing protection ("hearing safe"), noise-induced hearing loss may occur at 85 time weighted average decibels or above if exposed for a prolonged period,[12] and suppressed gunshots regularly meter above 130 dB. However, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration uses 140 dB as the "safety cutoff" for impulsive noise, which has led most US manufacturers to advertise sub-140 dB suppressors as "hearing safe."

Limitations of dB meter effectiveness

dB testing measures only the peak sound "pressure" noise, not duration or frequency. Limitations of dB testing become apparent in a comparison of sound between a .308 caliber rifle and a .300 Winchester Magnum rifle. The dB meter will show that both rifles produce the same decibel level of noise. Upon firing these rifles, however, it is clear that the .300 Winchester Magnum sounds much louder. What the decibel meter does not show is that although both rifles produce the same peak sound pressure level (SPL), the .300 Winchester Magnum holds its peak duration longer. The .300 Winchester Magnum sound remains at full value longer, while the .308 goes to peak and falls off more quickly. dB meters fail in this and other regards when being used as the principal means to determine suppressor capability.[13]



Caliber versus volume

The caliber and power of the bullet/cartridge being suppressed is also an important factor. Generally, equal quality suppressors can quiet the report of a smaller caliber bullet more effectively than a larger caliber bullet. This is because the exhaust gases can move more quickly through the exit hole necessary for larger caliber bullets. Likewise, cartridges which produce higher pressures and more gases, such as those used in rifles, will also generally be louder than those which produce less pressure and fewer gases, such as handgun cartridges. In a gunshot, the sound of the report (the combination of the sonic boom, the vacuum release, and burn of powder) will almost always be louder than the sound of the action cycling of an auto-loading firearm. Alan C. Paulson, a renowned firearms specialist, claimed to have encountered an integrally suppressed .22 LR that had such a quiet report,[14] although this is somewhat uncommon. Because of the limited stopping power of less powerful cartridges,[15] movie scenes in which an attacker fires a near-silent shot that instantly kills the victim are generally unrealistic. Excepting headshots that admit the projectile directly into the cranial cavity and/or chest shots that hit the left ventricle or aorta.

Subsonic ammunition versus volume

In weapons firing supersonic bullets, the supersonic bullet itself produces a loud and very sharp sound as it leaves the muzzle in excess of the speed of sound and gradually reducing speed as it travels downrange. This is a small sonic boom, and is referred to in the firearm field as "ballistic crack". Subsonic ammunition reduces this sound, but at the cost of lower velocity, often resulting in decreased range and effectiveness on the target. Military marksmen and police units may use this ammunition to maximize the effectiveness of their silenced rifles. While the range may be decreased when using subsonic rounds, this may be acceptable for specialized situations, where the absolute minimum amount of noise is required.[16] However, the numeric effectiveness of subsonic rounds is, again, misrepresented by media. Independent testing of commercially available firearm suppressors with commercially available subsonic rounds has found that .308 subsonic rounds decreased the volume at the muzzle 10 to 12 dB when compared to the same caliber of suppressed supersonic ammunition.[8] When combined with suppressors, the subsonic .308 rounds metered between 121 and 137 dB. This ballistic crack depends on the speed of sound, which in turn depends mainly on air temperature. At sea level, an ambient temperature of 70 F (21 C), and under normal atmospheric conditions, the speed of sound is approximately 1140 feet (350m) per second (347m/s). Bullets that travel near the speed of sound are considered transonic, which means that the airflow over the surface of the bullet, which at points travels faster than the bullet itself, can break the speed of sound. Pointed bullets which gradually displace air can get closer to the speed of sound than round nosed bullets before becoming transonic. Because merely reducing the propellant in a cartridge to get a slower bullet would lead to less stopping power, special cartridges have been developed specifically to maximize the energy available when used with a suppressor. These cartridges use very heavy bullets to make up for the energy lost by keeping the bullet subsonic. A good example of this is the .300 Whisper cartridge, which is formed from a necked-up .221 Remington Fireball cartridge case. The subsonic .300 Whisper fires up to a 250 grain (16.2 g), .30 caliber bullet at about 980 feet (300m) per second (298m/s), generating about 533ftlbf (722 J) of energy at the muzzle. While this is similar to the energy available from the .45 ACP pistol cartridge, the reduced diameter and streamlined shape of the heavy .30 caliber bullet provides far better external ballistic performance, improving range substantially. 9x19mm Parabellum, a very popular caliber for suppressed shooting, can use almost any factory-loaded 147 gr (9.5 g) weight round to achieve subsonic performance. These 147 gr weight bullets typically have a velocity between 900 and 980 feet (300m) per second (275 and 300m/s), which is less than the common 1140ft/s speed of sound.

Suppressor Russian 9x39mm ammo had a high subsonic Ballistic coefficient, high retained downrange energy, high Sectional density, and moderate recoil. All elements combined make this a very attractive choice for Close Quarters Combat firearms. Instead of using subsonic ammunition, one can also lower the muzzle velocity of a supersonic bullet before it leaves the barrel. Some suppressor designs, referred to as "integrals", do this by allowing gas to bleed off along the length of the barrel before the projectile exits. The MP5SD is the best example of this with holes right after the chamber of the barrel used to reduce a regular 115 or 124 gr ammo to subsonic velocities.


Aside from reductions in volume, suppressors also tend to alter the sound to something that is not identifiable as a gunshot. This reduces or eliminates attention drawn to the shooter (hence the Finnish expression: "A silencer does not make a marksman silent, but it does make him invisible"). This is especially true in cases where there are other sources of ambient noise, such as in an urban environment. Suppressors are particularly useful in enclosed spaces where the sound, flash and pressure effects of a weapon being fired are amplified. Such effects may disorient the shooter, affecting situational awareness, concentration and accuracy, and can permanently damage hearing very quickly. As the suppressed sound of firing is overshadowed by ballistic crack, observers can be deceived as to the location of the shooter, often from 90 to 180 degrees from his actual location. However, counter-sniper tactics can include Gunshot Location Detection Systems, where sensitive microphones are coupled to computer algorithms, and use the ballistic crack to detect and localize the origin of the shot. The U.S. Boomerang system is currently the only deployed example.

Rear of a suppressor with the Nielsen device protruding (completely assembled).

Retaining ring unscrewed and Nielsen device partially removed.

Nielsen device completely removed and disassembled.

Rear of suppressor showing the rotational indexing system incorporated into some Nielsen devices.

Other advantages
There are many advantages in using a suppressor that are not related to the sound. Hunters using centerfire rifles find suppressors bring various important benefits that outweigh the extra weight and resulting change in the firearm's center of gravity. The most important advantage of a suppressor is the hearing protection for the shooter as well as his/her companions. There are many hunters who have suffered permanent hearing damage due to someone else firing a high-caliber gun too closely without a warning. By reducing noise, recoil and muzzle-blast, it also enables the firer to follow through calmly on his first shot and fire a further carefully aimed shot without delay if necessary. Wildlife of all kinds are often confused as to the direction of the source of a well-suppressed shot. In the field, however, the comparatively large size of a centerfire rifle suppressor can cause unwanted noise if it bumps or rubs against vegetation or rocks, and many users cover them with neoprene sleeves. Suppressors reduce firing recoil significantly, primarily by diverting and trapping the propellant gas. Propellant mass is generally a fraction of the projectile mass, but it exits the muzzle at multiples of the projectile velocity, and since recoil energy is a function of mass times velocity squared the elimination of the propellant recoil can be significant.

Suppressor Paulson et al., discussing low-velocity pistol calibers, suggest the recoil reduction is around 15%.[1] With high-velocity calibers recoil reduction runs in the range of 20-30%.[17] The added weight of the suppressor normally 300 to 500grams also contributes to the reduction of the recoil. Further, the pressure against the face of each baffle is higher than the pressure on its reverse side, making each baffle a miniature "pneumatic ram" which pulls the suppressor forward on the weapon, contributing a counter recoil force. A suppressor also cools the hot gases coming out of the barrel enough that most of the lead-laced vapor that leaves the barrel condenses inside the suppressor, reducing the amount of lead that might be inhaled by the shooter and others around them. However, in auto-loading actions this might be offset by increased back pressure which results in propellant gas blowing back into a shooter's face through the chamber during case ejection.


Legal regulation of suppressors varies widely around the world. In some nations, such as Finland, Norway and France, some or all types of suppressor are essentially unregulated and may be bought "over the counter" in retail stores or by mail-order, as they are considered a great help, along with hearing protection, to preserve the hearing of the user and any onlookers.

In Thailand, sound suppressors of any kind are allowed to be used only by law enforcement units or military personnel in operation. In Hong Kong, "any accessory to such arms designed or adapted to diminish the noise or flash" is within the definition of 'arms' under the Firearms and Ammunition Ordinance (HK Laws. Chap 238). As such, a permit is required (as with firearms and ammunition) for possession which would otherwise be illegal and carries penalties up to a fine of HK$100,000 and 14 years in jail. In Turkey, civilian purchase, sale or possession of suppressors are strictly prohibited, with possible jail terms of up to 25 years if convicted. Suppressors can only be purchased by military personnel when approved by the officer in charge of the base armory. Individual law enforcement officers are not eligible to purchase or possess suppressors unless these are issued by a local agency, in which case these would be registered to the General Directorate of Security in Ankara.

In Austria, the purchase or possession of a suppressor is prohibited according to 17 of the Austrian Weapons Law. In the Czech Republic suppressors are, according to 4 of Weapons and Ammunition Law, considered an A-class weapon, which means a special exception is needed to possess them. This makes suppressors illegal for any practical purpose. In Norway, suppressors can be bought by anyone. In Denmark, the Danish Weapons And Explosives Law makes the unlicensed possession of a suppressor illegal. A permit may be acquired from the local police, but permission is almost always denied. Only police and hunters with special permission for the emergency slaughtering of livestock inside buildings are allowed to use them. In Germany suppressors are to be handled in the same way as the guns they are intended to be equipped with. That is, if a firearm requires a specific permit, the corresponding suppressor requires the identical permit as well. For example, suppressors for freely available airguns are also freely available. Firearm suppressors require a "legal need" to own them, just like the firearms they are designed for, but it is nigh on impossible to legally prove that you need a suppressor, with the exception of large city and graveyard pest control. Italy prohibits the purchase or possession of a suppressor except for military personnel.

Suppressor In Sweden, suppressors for specified calibers are legal for hunting purposes. A license is required, but is normally always granted. In Finland, suppressors are not classified as "weapon parts". Therefore, they are completely legal in all calibers, requiring no registration or permit. As a somewhat generalized rule of thumb, Finnish gun law classifies only parts subject to firing pressure directly involved with firing the cartridge as weapon parts; barrels, bolts, and any part with a chamber. These are restricted to owners with a valid permit. All other parts and accessories are not weapon parts under this classification. This would include parts like magazines, various sights and scopes, and also suppressors. In Hungary, the purchase or possession of a suppressor is prohibited for civilians. In Poland, suppressors are not classified as "important weapon parts". Therefore, they are completely legal in all calibers, requiring no registration or permit. However using suppressors (even installing) with a firearm is prohibited. Only police and military are allowed to use them. In the United Kingdom, sales of suppressors fall into four categories of use. For replica and air weapons, the purchase of a suppressor requires no license and in most cases, no identification requirement. For shotguns, these will probably require the presentation of the buyer's shotgun certificate but will not be recorded. If the shotgun is classified as a firearm (where capacity exceeds 3 cartridges) the firearm certificate (FAC) will need to show permission for the purchase of a suppressor. For a small- or full-bore rifle, the firearm certificate (FAC) will need to show permission for the purchase of a suppressor and also the gun for which it is intended. All firearms certificates have the firearm and caliber approved by the police and annotated to the document before a suppressor may be purchased. Police forces usually approve applications for a suppressor for hunting and target shooters, as the risks of litigation for personal injury, especially high-tone deafness resulting from shooting-induced hearing loss, are significant; and noise pollution in general is a problem for shooting sports. In the Netherlands suppressors are only legal if used for airguns. All other civilian use and ownership is prohibited by law. In Russian Federation, usage of firearm suppressors (legally defined as "devices for noiseless shooting") by civilians is prohibited, and the dealers are prohibited from selling them, but there is no penalty for purchasing or possession of such devices. Also the law lacks any straight definition of what a "device for noiseless shooting" is, or what decibel level is considered to be "noiseless", therefore it is completely up to the expert investigating the device whether it would be considered a "device for noiseless shooting" or not. That concerns not only specifically designed sound suppressors, but also such devices as muzzle compensators and flash suppressors. Sound moderators are very often used for airguns.


North America
In Canada, a device to muffle or stop the sound of a firearm is a "prohibited device" under the Criminal Code.[18] A prohibited device is not inherently illegal in Canada but it does require an uncommon and very specific prohibited device license for its possession, use, and transport. Suppressors cannot be imported into the country by civilians;[19] special licensing is required for businesses to import and sell suppressors, and they are typically only available to law enforcement, conservation agencies and the military. In the United States, taxes and strict regulations affect the manufacture and sale of suppressors under the National Firearms Act. They are legal for individuals to possess and use for lawful purposes in thirty nine of the fifty states.[20] However, a prospective user must go through an application process administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), which requires a Federal tax payment of USD 200.00 and a thorough criminal background check. The USD 200.00 buys a tax stamp, which is the legal document allowing possession of a suppressor. The market for used suppressors in the U.S. is consequently very poor, which has driven innovations in the field (buyers want the height of technology, because they are basically "stuck" with the purchase). Suppressors are available in other countries for under USD 40,[21] but they can be of crude construction, using cheap materials and baffle designs. The following states have explicitly banned any civilian from possessing a suppressor:

Suppressor California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. The Federal legal requirements to manufacture a suppressor in the United States are enumerated in Title 26, Chapter 53 of the United States Code.[22] The individual states and several municipalities also have their specific requirements.


Suppressors are banned in all Australian states. New Zealand has no restrictions on the manufacture, sale, possession, or use of suppressors.

While suppressors are also referred to as "silencers", the latter is misleading because no firearm can be made completely silent, as the term "silencer" implies.[1] Functionally, a suppressor is meant to diminish the report of a discharged round, or make its sound unrecognizable. Other sounds emanating from the weapon remain unchanged. Even subsonic bullets make distinct sounds by their passage through the air and striking targets, and supersonic bullets produce a small sonic boom, resulting in a "ballistic crack". Semi- and fully automatic firearms also make distinct noises as their actions cycle, ejecting the fired cartridge case and loading a new round. Despite being misleading, the term "silencer" is still widespread. Both the United States Department of Justice and the ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosive) refer to these devices as "silencers".[23]

[1] Paulson, Alan C (1996). Silencer History and Performance, Vol 1: Sporting And Tactical Silencers. Paladin Press. ISBN0873649095. [2] Paulson, Alan C; Kokalis, Peter G., and Parker, N.R. (2002). Silencer History and Performance, Vol 2: CQB, Assault Rifle, and Sniper Technology. Paladin Press. ISBN1-58160-323-1. [3] "Title 18, United States Code, Chapter 44, Section () 921 (a)(3)(C) - Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School" (http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ 18/ usc_sec_18_00000921----000-. html). Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. 1994-09-13. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [4] Stanley Lovell, Of Spies and Stratagems, 1963. [5] "Reflex Suppressor for Barrett M82A1 - BR Reflex Suppressors (Finland)" (http:/ / www. guns. connect. fi/ rs/ btxgraaf. html). Guns.connect.fi. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [6] 22Sparrow monolithic core baffle type (http:/ / www. silencerco. com/ ?section=Products& page=Sparrow) [7] Silencer Talk forum (http:/ / www. silencertalk. com/ forum/ ) [8] Silvers, Robert (2005). "Results" (http:/ / silencertalk. com/ results. htm). . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [9] Rome, Robert (June 1984). "WWII Silent Killer Still Lives" (http:/ / www. valkyriearms. com/ delisle. pdf). Gung Ho: 29. . [10] "Firearms and Hearing Protection | March 2007 | The Hearing Industry Resource" (http:/ / www. hearingreview. com/ issues/ articles/ 2007-03_06. asp). Hearingreview.com. 2007-02-12. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [11] "2.7: Decibels" (http:/ / campus. murraystate. edu/ tsm/ tsm118/ Ch2/ Ch2_7/ Ch2_7. htm). Campus.murraystate.edu. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [12] "nihl" (http:/ / www. hearinglossweb. com/ Medical/ Causes/ nihl/ nihlfs. htm). Hearinglossweb.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [13] dB in Principle and Practice, AWC Systems Technology April 2010 [14] Silencer: History and Performance, Volume 1 by Alan C. Paulson [15] http:/ / www. abaris. net/ info/ ballistics/ hatcher-table. htm [16] "Modern sniper rifles" (http:/ / world. guns. ru/ sniper/ sn00-e. htm). world.guns.ru. 2001-01-26. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [17] White, Mark (1998). "The Use of Sound Suppressors on High-Powered Rifles" (http:/ / guns. connect. fi/ gow/ highpow. html). Small Arms Review Vol. 1 No 7-9. . [18] "Criminal Code of Canada, Part III Firearms and other Weapons" (http:/ / laws. justice. gc. ca/ en/ showdoc/ cs/ C-46/ bo-ga:l_III/ / en#anchorbo-ga:l_III). . Retrieved 2008-06-11. [19] "Importing a Firearm or Weapon Into Canada" (http:/ / www. cbsa-asfc. gc. ca/ publications/ pub/ bsf5044-eng. html). Canadian Border Services Agency. . Retrieved 2008-06-11. [20] "NFA Gun Trust Lawyer Blog" (http:/ / www. guntrustlawyer. com). . Retrieved 2009-12-29.

[21] "Husssh Sound Moderators" (http:/ / www. husssh. co. nz/ details. html). Husssh.co.nz. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [22] "Title 26, United States Code, Chapter 53 - Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School" (http:/ / www. law. cornell. edu/ uscode/ html/ uscode26/ usc_sup_01_26_10_E_20_53. html). Law.cornell.edu. 2008-09-24. . Retrieved 2009-03-09. [23] "Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, Silencer FAQ" (http:/ / www. atf. gov/ firearms/ faq/ firearms-technology. html). . Retrieved 2011-3-22.


External links
Howstuffworks article - How does a gun silencer work? (http://people.howstuffworks.com/question112.htm)

Tactical light
A tactical light is a flashlight used in conjunction with a firearm to aid low light target identification, allowing the marksman to simultaneously aim and illuminate the target. Tactical lights can be handheld or mounted to the weapon with the light beam parallel to the bore. Tactical lights also serve a role as a method of non-lethal force, used to temporarily blind and disorient targets.[1] [2]

Handheld lights
Handheld lights are generally restricted to use with handguns, as long guns require two hands to operate. While just about any handheld flashlight can serve in the role of tactical light with the proper technique, some features are more readily adapted to the role. Some manufacturers sell lights specifically designed for use as handheld tactical lights. Police training programs in shooting while holding a flashlight date back to at least the 1930s.[3] To use a handheld light as a tactical light, the handgun is held in one hand, and the light in the other. There are a variety of positions that can be used to allow the light and handgun to be held parallel and provide mutual support, or the light can be held off to the side of the body to present a false target to a potential Alert (top) and Ready (bottom) positions of two assailant.[4] Since the weapon and light are not attached to each different flashlight holds for use with handguns, from MCRP 3-01B section 10 other, the light may be used to illuminate areas that may or may not contain a target, without pointing the weapon at the area. If a target is detected, the handgun can quickly be brought into line to cover the target[5] . A flashlight intended to be used in this way will have provisions for ease of use when used with a handgun. Some models will have a narrow body and a ring designed to fit through the fingers, allowing the light to be used in a tight two handed grip on a handgun, with the switch controlled by pulling back with the fingers on the ring.[6] More traditional models can be used as well, but a push button switch mounted where it can easily be manipulated while in the firing position is best.[7] This way the light can be turned off to minimize the ability of an assailant to locate the user, and turned on as needed to quickly locate and engage a target. Some flashlights feature a momentary on switch so that the light is quickly turned off by releasing finger pressure on the button. Another useful feature is the ability to attach a lanyard to the light, allowing the light to be secured to the hand holding it; this allows the light to be dropped if the hand is needed (for a magazine change, for example) and quickly retrieved. Police often use large flashlights like the classic D cell Maglite which, when held correctly, can double as a club and as a tactical light. The flashlight is held in the weak hand, with the back of the flashlight extending past the thumb. This allows the light to quickly be reversed, swinging the back end of the light forward to strike the target or block a

Tactical light blow. The strong hand can then be used to draw a sidearm, and place the hands back to back to provide support and illumination in the firing position.[8] Smaller tactical flashlights often have crown-like protrusions around the lens to enable its use as a weapon by hammerfist strike.


Weapon mounted lights

Gun-mounted flashlights for police use were described as early as 1956. [9] Weapon mounted lights (sometimes called "weaponlights") offer hands-free use, leaving the operator free to use both hands to control the weapon. Most models have an on/off switch mounted on a short wire. The switch is then mounted somewhere on the gun within easy reach of the firer's fingers. Weapon mounted lights are most commonly seen on rifles, shotguns, and submachine guns, but they are becoming more common on handguns as well. These lights are often much more expensive than the handheld lights, since they must be sufficiently robust to withstand the recoil of the firearm, and the dedicated mounting hardware also adds to the price. One downside of the weapon mounted light is that it is always aimed parallel to the bore, so illuminating an object means that it is also targeted. Because of this, weapon mounted lights may not be appropriate under some rules of engagement. Weapon mounted lights used to be specific to particular models of firearm, and to some extent that is still true; for example, SureFire A U.S. Navy sailor fires a Mossberg 590 riot [10] shotgun equipped with a tactical light integrated makes dedicated lights that replace the forends of the Mossberg 500 into the forearm and Benelli M3 shotguns, the Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun, and the M4 carbine. On the other hand, many modern firearms are incorporating Picatinny rail systems, allowing any appropriately sized Picatinny compatible system to be attached. Other mounting systems are simple clamps, designed to mount most cylindrical lights parallel to the barrel of most firearms[11] . A disadvantage of a weapon mounted light is that the beam of light will give away the location of its user[12] . Using an infrared light in conjunction with night vision goggles can mitigate this concern, so long as the target lacks night vision. Also partially mitigating this risk associated with a visible light tactical light is the ability of the tactical light user to temporarily disrupt the night vision of the target. For Police S.W.A.T. use, long-range weapon lights with exceptional range have always been a problem. Tactical weapon lighting companies such as ExtremeBeam for example have created small light duty lights which S.W.A.T. officers are able to mount to their modern weapons giving them an extended range out to beyond 300 meters (325+yards). This has allowed officer to blind suspects and protect officers closer at hand from being detected and thereby allowing for a better resolution of the situation with less lethal force.[13]

Lighting features
Since tactical lights are intended for use in situations where lethal force is likely to be used, reliability is important.

lithium battery are commonly used with tactical lights, such as SureFires, Streamlights, ExtremeBeams, and Pelican light models, due to the long shelf life and gradual voltage decay over the battery's lifetime. alkaline battery also provide long shelf life and the most favorable price/performance ratio of any primary cell in low current applications with respect to nominal cell capacity, despite a more rapid voltage drop-off compared to lithium batteries. The high

Tactical light internal resistance of alkaline cells results in decreasing effective capacity as the rate of discharge increases, since a greater proportion of the cells' power is wasted in resistive heating of the cells when the impedance of the load diminishes. Because of their low internal resistance, lithium batteries are often the primary cell of choice when a high rate of discharge relative to nominal capacity is required. Lithium cells will also perform in some extremely cold weather applications where alkalines won't, and, when manufactured at a high level of quality, are less prone to leakage of electrolyte than alkalines. In former years, rechargeable batteries, such as NiMH and Nicad, were the most economical options for lights with heavy usage. However, their rapid self-discharge in comparison to alkaline and lithium batteries limited their use. Today, with the advent of technologies such as the lithium-ion battery and low self-discharge NiMH battery, rechargeable battery efficiency and shelf life are at an all time high. As modern military companies such as ExtremeBeam, Streamlight, Pelican and Surefire become more readily available to the public, battery run-time, light efficiency, and overall output has made tactical lights a valuable asset to consumers looking for quality tool-grade lighting.[14]


Bulbs are chosen based on the desired light output and battery life. Generally, high performance bulbs are used, such as xenon bulbs or high power LED lights. LEDs provide maximum battery life due to their energy efficiency, and recent technology has greatly increased the light output of LEDs. At one time, xenon bulbs offered the brightest light levels. But recent high-power LEDs are not only 3500% more efficient, but are now generally up to five times brighter than their old xenon counterparts from just three years ago. Most importantly, LED bulbs are not subject to filament breakage due to the shot recoil of a firearm. Recent advances in high-lux, high-efficiency white LEDs have led to a wave of brighter and more energy-efficient tactical lights. The same technology which was originally used in tactical lighting is now finding its way into daily life more and more, having proven itself a durable and efficient replacement for incandescent and xenon predecessors.[14]

Illumination types
Tactical lights can be fitted with lenses to produce certain colors, Colored lights or filters provide flexibility for different purposes. Red lights are best for preserving night vision due to their minimal impact on the rod cells in the eye, while blue light provides high contrast for detecting blood.[14] Light in the infrared spectrum is only visible through night vision devices, allowing the operator to see clearly while reducing the visibility to those not equipped with night vision equipment. Tactical lights are also sometimes combined with a laser to form a multifunction unit, able to provide low light targeting, illumination, or both.

Review of DORCY 6 WATT Luxeon K2 tactical flashlight [15] Tactical light#Weapon mounted lights
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] The Martialist: The Magazine For Those Who Fight Unfairly (http:/ / www. themartialist. com/ 1203/ fightwithlight. htm) How to Choose a Tactical Flashlight from SureFire (http:/ / www. surefire. com/ maxexp/ main/ co_disp/ displ/ pgrfnbr/ 555/ sesent/ 00) Ed McGivern. Fast and Fancy Revolver Shooting. pp.322328. ISBN0-8329-0557-7. McGivern, p. 322 United States Marine Corps Reference Publication 3-01B section 10 "Review of SureFire M3 tactical flashlight" (http:/ / flashlightreviews. com/ reviews/ surefire_m3. htm). . "S. P. Wenger's Defensive Use of Firearms: Shooting with Flashlights" (http:/ / www. spw-duf. info/ flashlight. html). . David Feldman, Kassie Schwan. Do Elephants Jump?. Harper Collins. pp.3032. ISBN0060539135. http:/ / www. google. com/ patents?id=2OReAAAAEBAJ& printsec=abstract& source=gbs_overview_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q& f=false US patent 2,769,895 retrieved 2011 Aug 14

[10] SureFire (http:/ / www. surefire. com/ maxexp/ main/ co_disp/ displ/ carfnbr/ 122/ prrfnbr/ 851) forend replacement for Mossberg 500/590 shotguns [11] TacStar (http:/ / tacstar. com/ tacstar/ lightsys. htm) offers a variety of tactical lights and generic weapon mounts [12] Discussion of tactical accessories (http:/ / www. learnaboutguns. com/ 2008/ 05/ 11/ home-defense-shotgun-accessories/ )

Tactical light
[13] Borelli, Frank (13 April 2010). "Extreme Beam TAC24" (http:/ / www. newamericantruth. com/ reviews/ lights/ exbeamtac24. htm). New American Truth Magazine. . Retrieved 27 December 2010. [14] Flashlight Buyer's Guide (http:/ / www. flashlightreviews. com/ features/ buyers_guide. htm) [15] http:/ / www. flashlightreviews. info/ dorcy-6-watt-luxeon-k2-41-4297


External links
U. S. Marine Corps MCRP 3-01B (http://stevespages.com/zip/united_states_marine_mcrp_3-01b 25_november_2003.zip), Pistol Marksmanship, Chapter 10, Low Light and Darkness Techniques

Article Sources and Contributors


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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

File:Rifle AK-47.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rifle_AK-47.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Alex07 File:Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:AKMS and AK-47 DD-ST-85-01270.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AKMS_and_AK-47_DD-ST-85-01270.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:AK-47 type II Part DM-ST-89-01131.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AK-47_type_II_Part_DM-ST-89-01131.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Albanian soldier with AK47.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Albanian_soldier_with_AK47.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: File:Afghan AKS-47.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Afghan_AKS-47.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Staff Sgt. Michael Bracken File:Chinese type 56 AK47.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chinese_type_56_AK47.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: KVDP File:AK 47.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AK_47.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: File:AK-47 and Type 56 DD-ST-85-01269.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AK-47_and_Type_56_DD-ST-85-01269.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Cambodian AK-47.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cambodian_AK-47.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Namvang at en.wikipedia File:Flag of Mozambique.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mozambique.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Nightstallion File:MP Inspects Captured AK-47 Vietnam.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MP_Inspects_Captured_AK-47_Vietnam.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Army Heritage and Education Center File:Afrimil-ethiopiansoldier.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Afrimil-ethiopiansoldier.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Enriquecardova at en.wikipedia File:Flag of Afghanistan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Afghanistan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Flag of Albania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Albania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn File:Flag of Algeria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Algeria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: This graphic was originaly drawn by User:SKopp. File:Flag of Angola.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Angola.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Armenia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Armenia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Bangladesh.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp File:Flag of Benin.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Benin.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe File:Flag of Botswana.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Botswana.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Gabbe, User:Madden, User:SKopp File:Flag of Bulgaria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: SKopp File:Flag of Cambodia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cambodia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Open Clip Art Library, first uploaded by Nightstallion; redraw the towers of Angkor Wat by User:Xiengyod. 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R. L. KUGLER JR. 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Ernest Brooks File:Argentine POWs guarded by 2 Para.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentine_POWs_guarded_by_2_Para.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Griffiths911 at en.wikipedia (Original text : Kenneth Ian Griffiths) File:BritishPatrolHelmand01.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BritishPatrolHelmand01.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Spc. Daniel Love File:Land Rover Defender 110 patrol vehicles.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Land_Rover_Defender_110_patrol_vehicles.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:1ukdiv.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1ukdiv.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Derfel73; User:Ldopa File:British 2nd Infantry Division.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:British_2nd_Infantry_Division.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Derfel73 File:British 3rd Infantry Division2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:British_3rd_Infantry_Division2.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Fallschirmjger File:4th_UK_Infantry_Division.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:4th_UK_Infantry_Division.svg License: Creative Commons Zero Contributors: Anomie File:5th UK Infantry Division.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:5th_UK_Infantry_Division.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jan Baykara File:uk-sas.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Uk-sas.svg License: unknown Contributors: British Army Image:Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bermuda_Regiment_Warrant_Officers.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Original uploader was Aodhdubh at en.wikipedia File:Bermuda Regiment PNCO Cadre Promotion Parade.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bermuda_Regiment_PNCO_Cadre_Promotion_Parade.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Aodhdubh at en.wikipedia File:Queens birthday.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Queens_birthday.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Joe Vinent File:Challenger II.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Challenger_II.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors: File:Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Warrior_Infantry_Fighting_Vehicle.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pud File:Westland apache wah-64d longbow zj206 arp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Westland_apache_wah-64d_longbow_zj206_arp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:SA-80 rifle 1996.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SA-80_rifle_1996.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: LANCE CPL. R. L. KUGLER JR. File:Queens.guard.buck.palace.arp.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Queens.guard.buck.palace.arp.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: -


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File:Oldcollegesandhurst2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oldcollegesandhurst2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom_(3-5).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original code by Stefan-Xp with modifications to ratio by Yaddah. 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3.0 Germany Contributors: Lange File:Bundeswehr1960.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehr1960.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:Germany Army.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Germany_Army.png License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Contributors: Noclador Image:Bundeswehr Kreuz.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehr_Kreuz.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Bundeswehr_Heer.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehr_Heer.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Bundeswehr Luftwaffe.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehr_Luftwaffe.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Image:Bundeswehr_Marine.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bundeswehr_Marine.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: File:DA-ST-96-01288.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DA-ST-96-01288.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: STAFF SGT. 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