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GUIDE
Putnam City North High School

Name ______________________________________ Teachers Name _____________________________

PCN Research Guide 2

Table of Contents
Research Terminology..................................................................3-4 PCN Library, Acceptable Use, and Databases...........................5-8 Works Cited Entries.....................................................................9-13 Web Site Evaluation....................................................................14-15 Creating Source Cards................................................................16-17 Highlighting and Slugging Sources..............................................18 Creating Note Cards......................................................................19 Essay Structure..............................................................................20 Generating a Thesis.......................................................................21 Organizing the Notes...................................................................22-23 Sample Working Outline............................................................24-25 Using Parenthetical Documentation..........................................26-28 Avoiding Plagiarism.......................................................................29 Integrating Source Material.......................................................30-31 Manuscript Form........................................................................31-32 Formatting the Paper......33-34 Using Noodletools........35-36 Using Turnitin.com....37 Sample Research Paper..............................................................38-39 Peer Revision...............................................................................40-42 Acknowledgements....43

PCN Research Guide 3

Research Terminology
expository writing: writing that explains an idea or teaches a process argumentative writing: writing that expresses a position or states an opinion with supporting evidence to prove that ones position is correct; be sure to ask your teacher if the paper should be expository or argumentative thesis statement: an arguable and defensible statement of the main idea of the writing; see p. 21 arguable: open to debate or questioning defensible: capable of being proven or justified summary: a brief restatement of the main idea of a passage, usually about 1/3 of the length of the original passage paraphrase: a restatement of an original passage in ones own words that stays true to the original ideas, tone, and general length; paraphrasing means not only using your own words but also using your own syntax quote: whenever possible, paraphrase information and reserve the use of direct quotations for instances when the authors original wording is important; be careful to correctly copy the quote; remember that, even when using a direct quote, you must still introduce and integrate the quotation into a sentence of your own; see p. for further guidance on integrating source material working/topic outline: a method of organizing the paper into (tentative)topics and subtopics without using complete sentences; the working outline should be prefaced with the thesis statement in order to help you maintain focus; be sure to find out if your teacher wants a working outline or a sentence outline; see p. 24 sentence/formal outline: some teachers may want you to create a formal outline of the final draft of your paper; a final outline uses complete sentences and follows the final draft exactly parenthetical documentation: the placement of citations or other documentation in parentheses within the text; see p. 27 citation: a term often used interchangeably with parenthetical documentation; to cite is to document a source, and a citation is parenthetical documentation plagiarism: academic dishonesty in using another persons ideas or information without giving credit to the author/source; intentional plagiarism involves passing off the work of others as your own; this academic dishonesty may result in anything from failure of an assignment to expulsion from a school; see p. 29 unintentional plagiarism: forgetting that material is borrowed or neglecting to paraphrase correctly; to avoid accidental plagiarism, be sure to clearly label your note cards as either a summary,

PCN Research Guide 4 paraphrase, or quote; see p. 29 of the packet for further guidance on paraphrasing adequately; this academic dishonesty may result in anything from failure of an assignment to expulsion from a school bibliography: a list of all sources consulted in the creation of the paper, whether those sources are cited in the paper or not annotated bibliography: a bibliography in which each entry is followed by a brief summary of the information in the source works cited: a list of all sources cited in the paper and only those cited in the paper; see p. 39 MLA format: a style, created by the Modern Language Association, for acknowledging sources, creating a works cited page, and formatting the entire paper; while other styles exist (Chicago style, APA style, etc.), MLA is taught in high school because it is usually the most widely used for formatting a research paper the MLA Handbook: the authority on MLA style and the research process from start to finish; the handbook is organized by sections, topics, and subtopics; for example, sections dealing with writing and research begin with a 1 while sections dealing with works cited entries begin with a 5 Examples: 5.5. = section for works cited entries for books, 5.5.2 = a basic book 5.5.3. = an anthology 5.5.19 = a pamphlet 5.7 = section for entries for nonprint sources, 5.7.1 = a TV program 5.7.3 = a film/movie 5.7.7 = an interview internet/free web: information gathered from internet sites, sites which may or may not have been checked for accuracy, objectivity, credibility, or currency; most teachers will regulate or prohibit the use of internet sources database: databases are collections of machine readable information. Some of these materials were previously in print and digitized to a database. Others have been created only in digital form. It is important to note that the Internet is merely the medium by which these materials are retrieved and should not be confused with the free web; see p. 6

PCN Research Guide 5

PCN Library Media Center http://tinyurl.com/ydb58fm RESOURCES: 24000+ volumes in the library Follett Destiny Library Catalogprovides author, title, subject, or keyword access to the librarys print and AV collection Print periodicals plus access to thousands more through online databases Computer Network30 student stations, 80 wireless laptops Online databases featuring school and home access: EBSCOhostcomprehensive online collection of full text articles from magazines, newspapers, and reference books. Student Resource Center BronzeAllows users to access information from any of the Gale Research publications. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center--Articles on controversial issues, statistics, primary documents, links to websites. Requires a password from the Librarians. SIRS Researchercontains full-text of select magazine and newspaper articles, and government documents Literary Reference Centerincludes literary works, reviewed critical analysis, brief plot summaries, biographies, and author essays Grove Art Grove Music Oklahoma Career Information Systemcontains college and career information on colleges in the U.S. Letter and resume writer included. In-depth information on careers, including assessment tests. World Book Online Reference CenterOffers more than 25,000 encyclopedia articles which are updated daily. A Spanish-language version can be accessed with a single click. Noodletools-- Noodletools is used to generate an MLA Style bibliography or works cited page. Ask one of the Library Staff for the password. American National Biography--Information about men and women "whose lives have shaped the nation." Oklahoman ArchivesDatabase of the Oklahoman since the first day of publication accessible from school only InternetUse must pertain to curriculum related topics. POLICIES: Up to 6 items may be checked out at one time: Regular books2 weeks Overdue materials are subject to a fine of 5 cents per day for regular materials. STAFF: Library Media Specialist Library Media Specialist Student Aides LIBRARY HOURS: Monday--Thursday 8:00 a.m. until 4:15 p.m.

Late arrival Fridays 8:30 a.m. until 4:15 p.m.

PCN Research Guide 6

PCN Library Internet Policies The internet is only one method of accessing information, and it is not necessarily the best method. Students should determine the best method of locating information for their topics and must comply with the district and media center policies when using the internet. Students must have a specific class assignment to use the internet. Students must comply with the Putnam City Public Schools district policy regarding acceptable network use (see PCNHS Student Handbook) Library computers may not be used for games, email, or chats. The district network is for educational, professional, and career development activities only.PC Network and Internet Acceptable Use Agreement Students are prohibited from downloading software, games, and music (MP3 files to the school server or any PC workstation. (PC Network and Internet Acceptable Use Agreement)

Unacceptable Online Use The PCNHS Media Center abides by the Putnam City Network and Internet Acceptable Use Agreement which is located in the PCNHS Student Handbook especially those sections relating to vandalism and inappropriate material.

PCN Research Guide 7

Online Databases Online databases such as EBSCOhost, Gale, and SIRS contain full-text information from a large selection of magazines, journals, newspapers, and reference books. These databases have remote access and may be accessed from home. Link to the databases from the PCN Library webpage (see p.4) link directly to them:

EBSCO http://search.epnet.com/login.asp

Userid: putnamn Password high

EBSCO Includes:

Gales Student Resource Center Bronze http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/okla32837

Password: okla32837

Gales Opposing Viewpoints

Password: okla32837

SIRS Researcher http://ars.sirs.com

Userid: ok0081 Password: 731662

Grove Art Online http://www.groveart.com

Userid: pcnorth Password: panthers

PCN Research Guide 8

Grove Music Online http://www.grovemusic.com

Userid: pcnorth Password: panthers

Oklahoma Career Information System http://okcis.intocareers.org

Userid: pcnorthhs Password: okcis302

World Book Online http://www.worldbookonline.com

Userid: putnamcity Password: pcschools

American National Biography http://anb.org

Userid: pcnorth Password: panthers

Accessible only from school

Noodletools http://www.noodletools.com

Userid: pcnorth Password: panthers

PCN Research Guide 9

Types of Works Cited Entries


NOTE: References to MLA style are from the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition.

BOOKS
LastName, FirstName. Title of the Book. Edition or Volume Used. Place of Publication: Publishing Company, Copyright Date. Publication Medium.

Book with one author (MLA 5. 5.2): Postman, Neil. The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School. New York: Knopf, 1995. Print. Book with two or three authors (MLA 5.5.4): Sahakian, William S. and Mabel Lewis Sahakian. John Locke. Boston: Twayne, 1975. Print. Book with more than three authors (MLA 5.5.4): Spiller, Robert, et al. Literary History of the United States. 6th ed. New York: MacMillan, 1960. Print. Book with an editor (MLA 5.5.3): Van Doren, Mark, ed. An Anthology of World Poetry. Vol. 5. New York: Harcourt, 1936. Print. Book with corporate (group) author (MLA 5.5.5): American Medical Association. Heart Disease. New York: Random, 1994. Print. Book in a commonly known reference book (general dictionaries and encyclopedias; if no author is given, begin with the entry title, MLA 5.5.7) Burns, John. Hypnosis. World Book Encyclopedia. 2008. Print. Book from a database (MLA 5.9.7): original works cited entry + (instead of Print) database name.) Web. Date of access. Haugen, David M. How Should the Government Regulate Outsourcing?. Opposing Viewpoints: Outsourcing. Ed. Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 23 Mar. 2010.

PCN Research Guide 10

PART OF A BOOK
LastName, FirstName. Title of the Article or Essay or Chapter. Title of the Entire Book. Editor or Author of the Entire Book. Volume or Issue or Part. Place of Publication: Publishing Company, Copyright Date. Pages of Book on Which the Section Appears. Publication Medium.

A part of a book (MLA 5.5.6): Cummins, Robert. What Can Be Learned from Brainstorms? Brain and Function: Essays in the Philosophy of the Mind. Ed. J.I. Biro and Robert Shahan. 1982. Norman, Oklahoma: U of Oklahoma, 1982. 83-92. Print.

A part of a book in a series, such as American Writers (MLA 5.5.6): Hibbard, Allen. Paul Bowles. American Writers. Ed. A. Walton Litz. Supp. IV Part 1. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1996. 79-99. Print. Article in a reference series that has been reprinted, such as Gales Literary Criticism Series (MLA 5.5.6): Roberts, Sheila. A Confined World: A Rereading of Pauline Smith. World Literature Written in English 24 (1984): 232-38. Rpt. in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit: Gale, 1988. 399-402. Print. A part of a book from a database (MLA 5.6.2): original works cited entry + (instead of Print) database name.) Web. Date of access. Haugen, David M. How Should the Government Regulate Outsourcing? Opposing Viewpoints: Outsourcing. Ed. Susan Musser. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2009. N. pag. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 23 Mar. 2010.

A part of a book from Literary Reference Center:

Edwards, Clifford. The Raven. Masterplots II: Poetry. Rev. ed. Pasadena: Salem, 2002. N. pag. Literary Reference Center. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.

PCN Research Guide 11

PERIODICAL JOURNAL/MAGAZINE
LastName, First Name. Title of the Article. Title of Journal VolumeNumber.Issue (Date): Pages of Periodical on Which the Article Appears. Publication Medium.

Journal article (MLA 5.4.2): Gibbs, Nancy, and Michael Duffy. Everyones Talking Trash. Journal of Communication 50.4 (1988): 66-69. Print.

Journal article from database (MLA 5.6.4) : The Flourishing Business of Slavery. Economist 34.5 (1996): 43. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.

Magazine article (MLA 5.7.9): Social Security: New Fixes for the Old System. Kenyon Review Oct. 2000: 62-64. Print.

Magazine article from database (MLA 5.6.4): DiConsiglio, John. Dying to Be Thin. Scholastic Choices Nov. 2000: 24-26. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 29 Mar. 2010.
SIRS Researcher: magazine article from SIRS:

Marshall, Joshua. Will Free Speech Get Tangled in the Net? American Prospect Jan.-Feb. 2006: 46-50. SIRS Researcher. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.

Proprietary (published for the first time in this database) article from Student Resource Center Bronze :

Maya Angelou. Discovering Collection. Gale, 2003. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.

PCN Research Guide 12

Magazine Article (Reprint) example from Opposing Viewpoints

Sailes, Gary. Are Athletes Good Role Models? Are Athletes Good Role Models? Ed. Geoff Griffin. N.p.: Greenhaven, 2005. N. pag. Rpt. of Professional Athletes: Cultural Icons or Social Anomalies? USA Today Magazine 11 Sept. 2001: 56. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 1 Sept. 2009.

Viewpoints Essay (Reprint) from Opposing Viewpoints:

LaBudde, Nathan. Antisubmarine Sonar Threatens Marine Mammals. Opposing Viewpoints: Endangered Oceans. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. N.p.: Greenhaven, 2003. N. pag. Rpt. of U.S. Navy Plans Ocean Assault. Earth Island Journal 41 (1999): 18. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Web. 31 Aug. 2009.

PERIODICAL -- NEWSPAPER
LastName, FirstName. Title of the Article. Title of the Newspaper Date: Pages.

Newspaper article (5.7.5): Fallows, James. The Early-Decision Racket. New York Times 13 July 2005: A13+. Print. Newspaper article from database (MLA 5.7.9): Fat-O-Onomics: Paying the Fat Taxes. Dallas Times 27 Aug. 2008: n. pag. Student Resource Center Bronze. Web. 31 Mar. 2010.

Example from The Oklahoman Archives: Lowry, Joan. Uniforms Dress Schools Problems with Violence and Learning. Daily Oklahoman [Oklahoma City] 9 Sept. 1998: 10. The Oklahoman Archives. Web. 23 Feb. 2006.

INTERVIEW

PCN Research Guide 13

LastName, FirstName. Type of Interview. Date. Publication Medium.

Interview (MLA 5.7.7): Henry, Brad. E-mail interview. 19 Oct. 2004. Web. (*Note: no publication medium is needed for a personal interview.)

INTERNET

LastName, FirstName. Title of the Publication. Title of Overall Website. Date of copyright or last update. Organization Responsible for Webpage. Publication Medium. Date of Access.

Internet site (5.9.1): Kaylyn, Jo. Rosa Parks. Biography.com. A. & E., Feb. 2005. Web. 5 Mar. 2005.

Picture or graphic from internet (5.): Shakespeare. N.d. FotoSearch.com. Publitek, 16 Feb. 2006. Web. 26 Apr. 2010.

VISUAL MEDIA
A cartoon or comic strip (MLA 5.7.9): Adams, Scott. Dilbert and the Way of the Weasel. New York: Harper, 2002. Print. A film or video recording (MLA 5.7.3): Its a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film. Example from Grove Art Online [(painting) MLA 5.6.2d]: Kahlo, Frida. Self Portrait With Cropped Hair. 1940. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Grove Art Online. 2005. Web. 16 Feb. 2006.

PCN Research Guide 14 Important Note: Because technology evolves too quickly for print sources to keep up with changing formats, we recommend that you search the web for updates and additional information. Make sure the website uses the MLA 7th edition. Try one of the following helpful sites: Modern Language Association http://www.mla.org/main_stl.htm Purdue University Online Writing Lab - http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html

Web Site Evaluation


When accessing the internet for research, it is particularly important to evaluate the information to make sure it is accurate and reliable. Consider the following when assessing the validity of a web site:

Authority. Because anyone can publish on the web, determining authority for web sources is frequently difficult. Look for the sites author and his or her credentials to determine if the page is from a reliable source. Look for the name of the sponsoring organization and information about the organization. You might find authority information from links labeled About Us or About the Project. Accuracy. Many web resources are not verified by editors and/or fact checkers. Many of the steps that exist in the print publishing process to ensure accuracy do not exist in web publishing. A government agency (.gov) or an educational institution (.edu) will be more likely to be accurate in its publishing. However, beware of student papers published on an educational website; these are often noted by a tilde (~) before the name at the end of the address. Objectivity. It is often difficult to assess the legitimacy of the group or organization that disseminates the information on a website. Frequently the goals of the persons or groups presenting the material are not clearly stated. Beware of information that is one-sided or extreme in its presentation. Currency. Dates are not always included on web pages, and if a date is included, it may have various meanings. The date may indicate when the material was first written, when the information was placed on the server, or the date the information was last revised. Look for a copyright date pertaining to the material presented. Coverage. If a source is also published in print form, the web coverage may differ from the print coverage, with no clear indication give of the differences. Be sure you properly document whether your information came from the print version or the online version.

PCN Research Guide 15

To help determine whether or not online information is valid, complete the Website Evaluation form (an example is provided on the following page). If you cannot find the information needed to adequately complete the form, chances are, you information is not reliable. The Website Evaluation form must be completed for any site used in order for the source to be approved for your research paper.

Website Evaluation Form


This form must be complete and attached to any website (NOT an online database) used as a source for your assignment. 1. Find and print the home page for your source. 2. Find the information needed to evaluate the web site. Information Providers. o Is the page clearly labeled with the authors name or the sponsoring organization? Yes No o Provide the name of the organization: _______________________________________________________________ o Can you find evidence of the authors credentials, background, education or authority? Yes No o What special training or education qualifies the author to create this page? _______________________________________________________________ o Is a contact person with email address provided? Yes No o List the name and email address: _______________________________________________________________ Information Currency. o Is a copyright date given? Yes No o What is the copyright date? ________________________ o Does the page state when it was last updated? Yes No o When was the page last updated? ____________________ Information Quality.

PCN Research Guide 16 o What appears to be the purpose of this site? (circle one) to persuade to inform o How will this site help you in writing your paper? (circle one) provide background expand on information you already have provide a different viewpoint from what you have so far o Does the content seem to be free of bias? Yes No o Do grammar and spelling seem to be correct? Yes No How to Locate Source Card Information As soon as you find possible sources for your research paper, create a bibliography card for each source using the publication information for the book, journal, or database you use. The purpose for the bibliography cards is twofold: first, the information on the bibliography card is necessary if you need to relocate your source; second, the information on the bibliography card is necessary to create your works cited page and properly cite your sources to avoid plagiarism. The format for the source cards is the same as the format for your works cited page. See pages -----for specific examples. In general, you will need the call number of the book, the authors name, the title of the source, the city of publication, the name of the publishing company, and the copyright date. The call number is affixed to the spine of the book and shows its location in the library. The publication information for your bibliography card is generally located on the front and back of the title page for your source.

Title

America Since 1920


Daniel Snowman
Author

Date

Publisher

1817

Harper & Row, Publishers


New York and Evanston
City

PCN Research Guide 17

Creating Source Cards


General Notes: *Please note that traditionally underlined titles (books, magazines, and newspapers) MUST be indicated with italics. *Use the following abbreviations when information is missing from sources: n.d. no date of publication N.p. no place of publication, publisher, or sponsor of the website n. pag. no pagination *Often internet and databases do not capitalize correctly but you must. Correct their capitalization! Examples of Source Cards:
BOOK SOURCE CARD MAGAZINE SOURCE CARD

1 Willis, Meredith Sue. Blazing Pencils: A Guide to Writing Fiction and Essays. Los Angeles: Teachers & Writers Collaborative, 1990. Print. Spears, Laura. ACT to Include Written Portion. Newsweek 23 August 2000: 22-23. Print.

INTERNET SOURCE CARD

DATABASE SOURCE CARD

2 Knox, Mary. About Willa Cather. Willa Cather. Pioneer Memorial and Educational Foundation. 12 Mar. 2004. Web. 31 Nov. 2007. Gates, David. "Becoming Marilyn." Newsweek 12 Aug. 2002: 54. Student Resource Center Bronze. Web. 29 Nov. 2007.

Using the above cards as examples, create your source cards on the smaller (3 X 5) cards. Reminders: The first line goes against the edge of the card; the subsequent lines are indented Use quotation marks for article titles; underline titles when handwritten) and names of databases End each card with a period Number the source cards 1-10 (later we will use these numbers to match notes with the sources that the notes came from)

PCN Research Guide 18 Bind your source cards together as your teacher has instructed and be prepared to turn them in at the end of the block on _____________________________.

Highlighting and Slugging Sources


You must have general ideas about your topic before you begin highlighting your sources. In highlighting and slugging your sources, you must photocopy the pages you are using from books and articles from reference books or print the articles from online databases. Once you have a hard copy, read through it and highlight information that is pertinent to your topic and which might be useful in your research. Highlight the material you plan to either quote verbatim or paraphrase. Slug the highlighted material by writing a descriptive subject key word next to the information you have selected. The slug is the word that keys/matches the highlighted material to a subject area in your working outline. Slugging is NOT paraphrasing the highlighted material.

PCN Research Guide 19 NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW No. CCCXCI JUNE, 1889. WEALTH BY ANDREW CARNEGIE. The problem of our age is the proper administration of wealth, so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship. The conditions of human life have not only been changed, but revolutionized, within the past few hundred years. In former days there was little difference between the dwelling, dress, food, and environment of the chief and those of his retainers. The Indians are to-day where civilized man then was. When visiting the Sioux, I was led to the wigwam of the chief. It was just like the others in external appearance, and even within the difference was trifling between it and those of the poorest of his braves. The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the laborer with us to-day measures the change which has come with civilization. philanthropy Thus is the problem of Rich and Poor to be solved. The laws of accumulation will be left free; the laws of distribution free. Individualism will continue, but the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor; intrusted for a season with a great part of the increased wealth of the community, but administering it for the community far better than it could or would have done for itself. The best minds will thus have reached a stage in the development of the race iii which it is clearly seen that there is no mode of disposing of surplus wealth creditable to thoughtful and earnest men into whose hands it flows save by using it year by year for the general good. This day already dawns. But a little while, and although, without incurring the pity of their fellows, men may die sharers in great business enterprises from which their capital cannot be or has not been withdrawn, and is left chiefly at death for public uses, yet the man who dies leaving behind many millions of available wealth, which was his to administer during life, will pass away " unwept, unhonored, and unsung," no matter to what uses he leaves the dross which he cannot take with him. Of such as these the public verdict will then be : "The man who dies thus rich dies disgraced." Such, in my opinion, is the true Gospel concerning Wealth, obedience to which is destined some day to solve the problem of the Rich and the Poor, and to bring ' Peace on earth, among men Good-Will." Prepared in HTML by : Robert Bannister (rbannis1@cc.swarthmore.edu) on 6/27/95. Not responsible for errors.

philanthropy

PCN Research Guide 20

Creating Note Cards


Before you begin to take notes, alphabetize and check to see if you numbered each source card in the upper right-hand corner of the card. Circle the number. Numbering each source card will save time later when you take notes from that source.

How to take notes:


Notes are generally paraphrased, summarized, or quoted. Quoted material is accompanied by quotation marks and must be copied exactly as it was in the source. See p. 29 and 30 for summarizing, paraphrasing, & quoting. Inserting an ellipsis (. . . ) indicates that you have omitted or left something out. Use the brackets to indicate any alteration you have made to the quote. To summarize or paraphrase information, read the source several times and then write a version that restates the ideas in your own words. 1. 2. 3. 4. SLUG LINE the slug line a description of the note card's contents a number referring to the source card for this information the noteparaphrased, summarized, or quoted the exact page or pages where you found the information included in this note

Contents of a note card:

Sample Note Card


Hawthorne's attitudeabout the past Hawthorne had ". . . an imagination intent on securing the future by reduplicating the past. He saw the past as a reservoir of ideas, rich in benefit for the future. In contrast to his some of his contemporaries, he did not see the past as a regrettable series of nave errors." 286
PAGE on which the information is found. If no page number is given, write n. pag.,

SOURCE CARD NUMBER

NOTE

PCN Research Guide 21

Essay Structure
I. Introduction Paragraph Hook: get readers attention with an interesting and relevant quote, question, anecdote, analogy, or startling fact Background/Bridge: What does the reader need to know about the topic? What background information is relevant? What needs to be said to lead into the thesis statement? Thesis Statement: identify the topic + your arguable claim (your take) on that topic II.IV. (or more) Body Paragraphs Topic Sentence: identify the subtopic + signal the method of organization you plan to use multiple chunks of evidence + commentary Concluding Sentence: review of subtopic + tie this subtopic to the thesis VI. Conclusion Paragraph Review: go over each subtopic Draw a final conclusion: What relevance does your main point have in the readers life today? So what? Give a sense of completion: refer back to the hook used in the introduction paragraph

PCN Research Guide 22

Generating a Thesis
Thesis Statement = topic + arguable/defensible claim (see p. 3 for arguable and defensible) Thesis statements with no arguable claims BAD! o Bungee jumping can be dangerous. o Ebenezer Scrooge is forced to remember events of the past. Thesis statements with arguable claims GOOD! o Bungee jumping stretches safety beyond the limits of sanity. o Scrooges encounters with the ghosts show the transformative power of memory. o In Great Expectations the hands motif indicates Pips location in the journey toward maturity. o Both Belle Boyd for the Confederacy and Emma Edmonds for the Union served their causes bravely, but each was unique in her reasons for being a spy and her methods.

o Dickens repeats images of hands throughout the novel.

o Belle Boyd and Emma Edmonds used different methods in their spying missions.

More Examples: Because of steady growth in numbers, an ever-changing pool of jobs, and an evolving public persona, women can now foresee a future that promised military equality. Automobile safety has been, is, and will continue to be of primary concern to the automobile industry. Due to its versatility, the laser will play a major role in the future in the medical, manufacturing, and military industries. The study of birth order helps to identify and determine a childs personality, job aptitude, lifelong ambitions, and ability to relate to others.

PCN Research Guide 23

Organizing the Note Cards


After a thesis has been generated, it is time to organize your note cards into a framework or outline: Step 1: First, spread your note cards out in stacks, using the slug lines as guides. Decide how your research might be arranged into three or four sections. Each stack at this point may represent a Roman numeral on the working outline. Step 2: Deciding on the main points of your paper, organize the stacks in the order they are to be used. Then record each section on the Roman numerals on the matrix that follows this page. Step 3: Check and see does your thesis match the sections of your paper? Step 4: Further divide the stacks and create the actual paragraphs of the paper. Record the topics of stacks in the letters on the matrix Step 5: The individual note cards in the stacks represent the actual evidence used in each paragraph. Step 6: Now would be a good time to check and see if each paragraph has enough evidence. Which paragraphs will need more evidence? Research paper writing is a recursive process, and you may need to return to the library for additional information. Step 7: For the matrix that follows, Roman numeral I is the introduction, and VI is the conclusion. When you have the matrix filled out, the working outline is much easier to put together.

PCN Research Guide 24

Matrix
II. A. 1. III. A. 1. IV. A. 1.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

3.

B.

1.

B.

1.

B.

1.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

3.

C.

1.

C.

1.

C.

1.

2.

2.

2.

3.

3.

3.

PCN Research Guide 25

Sample Working Outline

Beth Catlin Professor Elaine Bassett English IV 8 May 2009 Andrew Carnegie THESIS: Andrew Carnegie embodied the American Dream and became the father of middle-class America. I. Introduction II. Carnegies character A. His upbringing 1. working class 2. making up for parents loss B. Personality 1. proverb 2. proverb 3. industrial utopia C. Work history 1. factory 2. Pennsylvania Railroad III. Carnegies business philosophy A. Social Darwinism 1. Herbert Spencer 2. competition B. Treatment of Labor 1. Unions and middle class a. quote on poverty strengthening people b. quote on not taking anothers job c. as an agency of reform 2. Upward mobility 3. Not typical capitalist a. Homestead crisis b. criticized Frick

PCN Research Guide 26

IV. Formation of middle class A. More efficient production 1. white-collar jobs 2. Carnegie hires B. Steel Revolution 1. Cheaper commodity a. Carnegie predicted b. reduced prices c. needed for manufacturing d. the automobile 2. Consumer society IV. Philanthropy A. Means of forgiveness a. quote on charity b. Americans forgive the generous B. Libraries library quote C. Carnegie Corporation a.. compensation for the injured/killed b. various charities c. gave away most his fortune V. Conclusion

PCN Research Guide 27 Works Cited and General Parenthetical Citations The following section demonstrates citation format for various sources you may encounter when researching. An example of the works cited form is given first, followed by the parenthetical citation form. The purpose of the parenthetical citation is to refer your reader to the source information on your works cited page at the end of your paper; therefore, every item cited parenthetically in your paper must be listed on your works cited page and vice versa. The following list shows most of the possible components of a book entry and the order in which they are normally arranged: Authors name (Note: If no author is given, begin with the name of the editor, translator, or compiler followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed.. If there is neither an author nor an editor, translator, or compiler, begin with the next item) Title of a part of the book (name of article, section, or chapter) Title of the book Name of the editor, translator, or compiler (preceded by the abbreviation Ed., Trans., or Comp.) Edition used Number of the volume used Name of the series Place of publication Name of the publisher (do not include words like press, publishers, inc.; abbreviate University Press as UP) Date of publication Page numbers Remember, the works cited format is the same format you use for your bibliography cards. See page 39. Helpful hints when creating your source cards or works cited entries: If more than one city is listed for the publisher, use only the first one. If the work has had several printings, use the original copyright date. Underlining may be substituted for italics only if the entries are handwritten.

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Using Parenthetical Documentation


Use the following guide to document your sources according to MLA style: 1. If your source is a work by one author, in parentheses document the authors last name and page number from which your information was taken. Example: Rauschenberg likes to mix items and styles that are very different from one another, sometimes using objects from junk stores or attics (Alloway 58). 2. If you use the authors name while introducing your information, you may simply document the page number in parentheses. Example: Of early criticism of Pop art, Robert Rosenblum has said, As usual, the art in question was seldom looked at very closely (53). 3. If your source is a work by two authors, in parentheses document both authors last names and a page reference. Example: The Pop art movement of the Sixties was reflective of the production and mass communication in modern society (Smith and Chen 91). 4. If your Works Cited page contains two or more works by the same author, include in your documentation a short version of the title of the work. Example: Andy Warhol frequently talked about his admiration for machines (Warhol Gentry 117). 5. If your source is a magazine article, newspaper article, or Internet site with no author named, use a shortened version of the title of the article with the page reference. Example: Lifestyles of the Pop art leaders were in many ways affected by the rapid changes in the techniques of the new movement (Pop Artists in the 1960s 74). 6. If your source is an unsigned article from a general reference work, in parentheses document the title of the article. No page number is needed for encyclopedias. Example: Some critics say Pop art grew out of Dada art (Pop Art Movement). 7. If a source contains a quotation that you would like to use in your paper, you should first try to look up the original source of the quotation. If this is not possible use the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) to indicate that you took the quotation from a secondary source. Example: Marshall McLuhan has said that today art is anything you can get away with (qtd. in Schmidt 49).

PCN Research Guide 29 8. For quotes that are more than five of more lines, the quotation should be set off from the regular text with a colon. Indent the quotation ten spaces (two tabs) and do not put quotation marks around it. The parenthetical documentation is placed two spaces after the period or last ellipsis point. Example: A leading curator of contemporary art gave the following opinion: Pop artists turned all of the deeper values of the previous generation inside out: for personal sensibility and commitment, they substituted impersonality and detachment; for dead seriousness, they substituted deadpanning. . . The continually enquiring mind of Warhol has sought to extend steadily the imaginative boundaries of art. (Moffett 32) 9. If you get information in a single reference from two or more sources, document them as you would individually, but separate them with a semicolon. Example: Both Warhol and Lichtenstein said that they wanted their paintings to look as though they were done by a machine (Warhol Gentry 117; Gruen 42).

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Avoiding Plagiarism
If you present someone elses words or ideas as if they are your own, you are guilty of plagiarism. If you had to look the information up to use it, it should probably be cited. Direct quotes need parenthetical citations, but so does summarized and paraphrased information. Substituting synonyms for some of the words in a passage is not correct paraphrasing. You must use your own sentence structure as well as your own wording. Even if you cite your source, your paper will still include plagiarism if it resembles the original source too closely in wording or sentence structure.
Original source: Transportation did not deter crime in England or even slow it down. The criminal class was not eliminated by transportation, and could not be, because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime. The Fatal Shore by Robert Hughes Student Version A: Transportation did not stop crime in England or even slow it down. Criminals were not eliminated by transportation because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime.

Version A is plagiarism. Because the writer of Version A does not indicate in a parenthetical citation that the words and ideas belong to Hughes, the reader will believe the words belong to the student. The student has stolen the words and attempted to cover it up by changing or omitting an occasional word. Student Version B: One source points out that the transportation did not deter crime in England or even slow it down. The criminal element was not eliminated by transportation, and could not be, because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime (Hughes 168).

Even though parenthetical citation has been included, Version B is also plagiarism. The writer has essentially copied Hughes words but has not quoted passages that were taken directly from the text. There is no sense that Version B is the students own words. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether or not the writer actually understands the material. Student Version C: Robert Hughes argues that transporting criminals from England to Australia did not stop crime. How could it? Simply moving the criminals from one place to another would not rehabilitate them or change their behavior in any positive way (168).

Version C is not plagiarism. It contains a parenthetical citation that gives credit to the source. In addition, instead of altering a word here or these, the student was able to paraphrase the ideas into his or her words.

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Integrating Source Material into Your Writing


1. Use quotations sparingly: Most of the paper should be in your own words. . . with documentation at the end of the sentence. Quotations should not appear one after another without any of your own explanation and elaboration in between. 2. Introduce quotations: Introduce a direct quotation with a form of the verb say or write. For example, Educational researcher David Spener claims that . . . David Spener, an educational researcher, makes the following observation . . . Try substituting these verbs when appropriate: acknowledge, argue, assert, believe, claim, comment, contend, declare, deny, emphasize, insist, note, suggest. Quotation introduced and integrated: What is learned in the family and at school determines what type of slot in society and in the job market we will be prepared to fill. Educational researcher David Spener points out how social stratification results when some individuals must be socialized to occupy high-status positions, while others must be socialized or adapted to fill low-status positions (134). 3. Wrap the evidence with your own commentary. Commentary Signals or shows where your thoughts are headed Evidence Paraphrase/quote from the text (& page) Commentary Links the evidence to your thoughts (See, I was right! )

Example: Original: The Christmas dinner scene at Bob Cratchits that Scrooge observes depicts the ideal family. Mrs. Cratchit is dressed in ribbons, which are cheap and make a goodly show for sixpence (77). Commentary before and after : The Christmas dinner scene at Bob Cratchits that Scrooge observes depicts the ideal family, a family that celebrates despite ill fortune, that encourages all its members to share in responsibility, that practices acts of selflessness. For example, despite their poverty, Mrs. Cratchit is dressed in ribbons, which are cheap and make a goodly show for sixpence, showing that she is able to express joy and celebration within their economic means (77).

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Words for Introduction of Quotations


acknowledged acquiesced added admitted addressed advised affirmed agreed alleged announced answered argued articulated asked assented imparted implored indicated inferred informed inquired insisted insinuated interrogated interjected intimated lamented lectured lied maintained mentioned narrated objected assured attested avowed begged boasted bragged called chided claimed commanded commented complained conceded concluded concurred observed ordered petitioned pleaded pointed out prayed preached proclaimed pronounced proposed protested proved queried questioned quibbled quipped quoted read confessed confided contended contested continued contradicted counseled debated decided declared decreed demanded denied denounced described reasoned rebutted recited recognized recounted refuted regretted reiterated rejoined related remarked reminded remonstrated repeated reported replied reprimanded requested directed disclosed divulged elaborated enjoined entreated equivocated exclaimed exhorted explained granted held hesitated hinted responded revealed ruled stated stipulated suggested supplicated supposed swore talked testified thought told urged uttered vowed warned

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Manuscript Form
Besides being carefully proofread, there are certain expectations made for pieces of formal writing. These conventions are sometimes called manuscript form. Paper: white, unlined 8 X 11 Font: Times New Roman, 12-point, plain font Margins: one inch Spacing: Double-space the entire paper. Do NOT skip extra lines between titles, paragraphs, etc. Heading: double-spaced/ first page only/ upper right hand corner Name Mrs. Shakespeare English IV 25 November 2010 Pagination: One-half inch from the top edge of the paper/ upper left hand corner LastName # Number the pages of the paper and the Works Cited list continuously. Do NOT use page or any abbreviation of it, such as p., or pg. Title: On the line below the due date, center the title of your paper. Use plain font and uppercase and lowercase letters, NOT all capitals. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in between in titles. Do not capitalize conjunctions, articles, or prepositions of fewer than five letters unless they begin the title. Eliminate shortcuts: Spell out contractions and numbers one through ninety-nine. Spell out any numbers that begin sentences. Do NOT use abbreviations. Acronyms (like FBI or NASA) may be used after they have been spelled out once.

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Formatting the Research Paper MLA format typically does not require a title page. In this case, you would place your last name and the page number in a header in the upper right corner of your paper. On the left side of the page type your name, hit Enter, type your teachers name, hit Enter, type the course name, hit Enter, type the date, hit Enter, and begin typing your paper. Always check with your teacher to determine which method he or she prefers. Setting up the header: Your last name and the page number go in the upper right hand corner of each page of your research paper. Use the following steps to set up your header: 1. 2. 3. 4. Go to View Header and Footer Right justification (click on the right alignment box in your toolbar) Type your last name and a space Click on Insert Page Number (the first icon with a # sign in the Header and Footer toolbar) DO NOT TYPE THE PAGE NUMBER; if you do, it will number every page as 1. 5. Click anywhere outside of the header to close the header and begin typing your paper. Your last name and the page number will now automatically appear on every page. Outline: Most teachers require a formal outline for the research paper. Follow the steps below to set up an outline. 1. Font size 12 2. Center justification (click on the center alignmernt box in your toolbar) 3. Go to FormatParagraphdrag line spacing to double click Okay 4. Type the word Outline (do not bold, italicize, or make larger) 5. Hit Enter 6. Left justification 7. Type Thesis: and your thesis statement 8. Hit Enter 9. Type I. (tab) and the first line of your outline 10. Hit Enter if II. appears, hit Backspace then Tab 11. Type A. (tab) and the second line of your outline 12. Hit Enter B. should automatically appear 13. Continue typing your outline. When you are ready to go to the next main heading (Roman numeral), hold down the Shift key and hit Tab.

PCN Research Guide 35 Works Cited: To prepare your works cited page, assemble your source cards in alphabetical order by the first word of the entry. Use the following steps to type your works cited page. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Font size 12 Center justification (click on the center alignment box in your toolbar) Go to FormatParagraphdrag line spacing to doubleclick Okay Type the words Works Cited (do not bold, italicize, or make larger) Hit Enter Left justification Go to FormatParagraphdrag Special to Hangingclick Okay Type your works cited entries and they will automatically wrap with a hanging indentation Double space throughout the works cited page. DO NOT TYPE EXTRA SPACES BETWEEN ENTRIES.

NOTE: As an alternative to the above, Noodletools will format your Works Cited page for you. See following page.

PCN Research Guide 36

NoodleTools 1. Go to: http://www.noodletools.com 2. To make a new account: a. Look at the top right side of the web site. Click on Current Users: Sign In b. Under Register or Sign In. Click on: Create a Personal ID c. Click on the first option: (An account linked to a school/library subscription or trial.) Then click on the Register button. d. School/Library User name: pcnorth School/Library Password: panthers

e. Click on the Sign In button. f. Choose I am a student or library patron. g. Choose a Personal ID and a password you will remember. Personal ID Password h. Under Easy Login Retrieval type in your initials. i. Phone type in 4 numbers you can remember. j. Click on Register. k. Your new account will be created. The next time you use NoodleTools, just click on the Current Users: Sign In and type in your UserId and Password. 3. Now you need to create a file to put your citations in: a. On the right, click on the Create a New List button. b. Choose the style and version. Unless told differently by your teacher click MLA Advanced. c. Next to Description type in your list name: Discription d. Example: Senior Paper

Click on the Create List button.

4. Under Works Cited, click on the down arrow and choose your source type; then click on Create Citation. 5. Follow the steps to create your citation. 6. When finished click Check for Errors. Any errors will show in red. Correct errors

PCN Research Guide 37 and click Update Citation. 7. You will now see a preview of your citation. Add more citations as needed for your sources. Repeat steps 3-6 for each source. 8. On the left side of the screen you will see several options. Use Open as Word Doc and follow directions for printing. Dont forget name and page number.

PCN Research Guide 38 Using Turnitin.com to Create an Originality Report 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Go to: www.turnitin.com Click on: New User Find the section: New Students Select: #2. Create a user profile Click on: Student You will need the: Class ID_______________________________________ And, Enrollment Password___________________________

7. Complete your personal profile; record your information below (we all forget) Password:____________________________________________________________ Secret Question:_______________________________________________________ Secret Answer:________________________________________________________ E-mail for logon:_______________________________________________________ 8. Log in to Turnitin.com 9. Click on: Class name 10. Click on: submit 11. Browse to find your paper 12. Click on: submit 13. Click on: light yellow box go to portfolio Printing an Originality Report (Keep in mind that checking your paper may take up to 24 hours) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Log in Click on: class name Click on: the originality report box with the percentage inside Click on: printer icon at the far right of the gray bar Click on: Print Click on: Done

PCN Research Guide 39


1 inch 1/2 inch Josephson 1 Laura Josephson Mrs. Shakespeare English IV 25 November 2008 Ellingtons Adventures in Music and Geography Indent 1/2 inch on paragraphs In studying the influence of Latin America, African, and Asian music on modern American composers, music historians tend to discuss such figures as Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Henry Cowell, Alan Hovhaness, and John Cage (Griffiths 104-39; Hitchcock 173-98). They usually overlook Duke Ellington, whom Gunther Schuller rightly calls "one of America's great composers" (318), probably because they are familiar only with Ellington's popular pieces, such as "Sophisticated Lady," "Mood Indigo," and "Solitude." Still little is known of the many ambitious orchestral suites Ellington composed, several of which, such as Black, Brown, and Beige (originally entitled The African Suite), The Liberian Suite, The Far East Suite, The Latin American Suite, and Afro-Eurasian Eclipse, explore his impressions of the people, places, and music of other countries (Haase 32). the world home to America. Not all music critics have ignored Ellington's excursions into longer musical forms which were widely influenced by the music of other cultures. Indent 1 inch for extended quotation In the 1950's, for example, while Ellington was still living, Duke Ellington brought the music of Center title horizontally

Raymond Horricks compared him with Ravel, Delius, and Debussy: The creativity displayed by Ellington . . . has sought to extend steadily the definitions of the musical genre

PCN Research Guide 40 (Manuscript Form example contd.)


Double space entire page from Works Cited title on down. 1/2 inch 1 inch Josephson 15

Works Cited Bridle, Reginald Smith. "The Search Outwards: The Orient, Jazz, Indent 1/2 inch on second, third, etc., lines of each entry. Archaisms." The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945. New York: Oxford UP, 1975. 133-45. Print. Burnett, James. "Ellington's Place as a Composer." Gammond 141-55. Print. Ellington, Duke. Afro-Eurasian Eclipse. 1971. Fantasy, 1991. CD. ---. Black, Brown, and Beige. 1945. RCA Bluebird, 1988. LP. ---. The Far East Suite. LP. RCA. 1965.LP. Three hyphens indicate that the author is the same. ---. The Latin American Suite. 1969. Fantasy, 1990.CD. ---. The Liberian Suite. LP. Philips. 1947.LP. ---. Music Is My Mistress. 1973. New York: Da Capo, 1976.LP. Gammond, Peter, ed. Duke Ellington: His Life and Music. 1958. New York: Da Capo, 1977. Print. Griffiths, Paul. A Concise History of Avant-Garde Music: From Debussy to Boules. New York: Oxford UP, 1978. Print. Haase, John Edward. Beyond Category: The Life and Genius of Duke Ellington. Fwd. Wynton Marsalis. New York: Simon, 1993. Print. 1 inch margin Hitchcock, H. Wiley. Music in the United States: An Introduction. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1974. Print. Horricks, Raymond. "The Orchestral Suites." Gammond 122-31. Print. Rattenbury, Ken. Duke Ellington, Jazz Composer. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Print. 1 inch margin 1 inch margin

** NOTICE THAT THE ENTRIES ARE ALPHABETIZED ACCORDING TO WHATEVER IS FIRST ON THE SOURCE CARD ENTRY (authors last name or title if there is no author). ** THE ENTIRE PAGE IS DOUBLE-SPACED NO EXTRA LINES BETWEEN ENTRIES.

PCN Research Guide 41

Peer Revision Activity


Reader: ______________________________ Writer: ______________________________

The First Reading


Evaluate the introduction: Does the essay have an intriguing opener? Suggest another opening sentence for the paper:

Imagine that the reader of the essay doesn't know anything about this topic. What background needs to be added to the introduction? What would be a thesis that outlines or gives a sneak preview of the body paragraphs? ____________________________________ (main idea) ______________________________ (body paragraph) ______________________________ (body paragraph) ______________________________ (body paragraph) Thesis statement: Evaluate each paragraph: Does each paragraph have a topic sentence? Highlight or underline the topic sentence of each body paragraph. Offer one suggestion for re-wording one of the topic sentences: Place a check by each concrete detail (example, quotation, proof, etc.) that the writer uses to back up his or her topic sentence. Mark any sentence that is not relevant to the topic sentence. Make a note in the margin next to any paragraph that has too many ideas. Make a note in the margin next to any paragraph that does not seem to have a main idea. Evaluate the conclusion: Does the conclusion have one sentence to summarize each paragraph? Suggest one summarizing sentence for a body paragraph: Does the final sentence leave the reader with one thought to take away from the paper? Or does the final sentence give the reader a sense of closure by referring back to the opening of the paper? (Why not?!)

PCN Research Guide 42 Offer one suggestion for strengthening the conclusion:

The Second Read


Evaluate the organization: How does the writer organize his or her paper? How would you recommend reordering sections of the paper? How would you recommend cutting/adding any sections? Does the writer lead the reader clearly from one point to the next? Make notes in the margin in places where you feel lost or where you do not see the relevance of a point. Evaluate the ideas/content: Where could the writer explain more thoroughly to help the reader understand? Place question marks in the margin next to any places where the writing is confusing. . . or simply unclear. What can the writer do to make the paper more interesting? Evaluate word choice & sentence fluency: Is the word choice appropriate? (Not dull, but not thesaurus-happy either) Circle at least three words that could be livened up. Circle any words that are repetitive. Circle any BLAH words: very, great, thing, stuff, a lot. . . Put awk (awkward) in any places where the sentences get confusing or hard to sort out.

PCN Research Guide 43

The Final Read


Evaluate parenthetical documentation: Mark any quotations that could be just as easily written in the writers own words. Mark any quotations that need to be introduced. Circle any citations that dont look like this: (Smith 23). (author & page #) OR this: (145). (just the page # when the author is still the same) OR this: ("King James" 1). (title of web page and assigned page #) OR this: ("Queen Elizabeth"). (topic from an encyclopedia) Mark any places where the writer refers to information but does not include parenthetical citation. Evaluate the usage/mechanics: Mark any sentences boundary problems (fragments or run-on sentences). Mark any errors in agreement. Mark any capitalization, punctuation, spelling errors. Evaluate manuscript form: Is the paper at least four paragraphs? Is the paper double-spaced? Is the paper typed with 12-point Times New Roman plain font? Is the correct heading double-spaced? Name Mrs. Shakespeare Block X 21 November 2005 Is the title centered? Does the title follow this format? General Topic: Specific Aspect The entire page is (boringly) plain font and double-spaced. Mark out any additional spaces between sections and circle any bold font. Are all contractions and abbreviations spelled out? (doesn't = does not) Circle any contractions or abbreviations that need to be spelled out. Are the numbers that can be written as one word spelled out? (three, twenty-one, seventysix, 1776. . .) Circle any one-word numbers that need to be spelled out. Has the writer been too obvious in referring to the paper? (In conclusion, this paper will discuss, next I will talk about, this paper is about. . .) Circle any phrases or sentences that refer to the paper.

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Acknowledgements to:

PC North English Deparment Edmond Memorial Library (Nicci Francis and Brenda Price), Edmond Oklahoma PC North Library PC West Library PC High School Elizabeth Bailey, English Coordinator, Putnam City Schools And special thanks to Bettie Estes-Rickner