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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


The National conference on Recent Advances in Design, Applications and

Manufacturing systems (RADAMS `09) conducted by the Department of
Mechanical Engineering provides a forum for presenting the technical Expertise
and share the Knowledge on the recent developments in the field of Mechanical
Engineering. There is an overwhelming response for this conference and
altogether 150 papers were received from various institutions. Out of these 62
papers were selected for presentation. We are extremely thankful to the authors
of the papers, members of the organizing committee and volunteers for their
cooperation and support extended to conduct this conference.

We place on record our sincere thanks and gratitude to

Dr.P.Ramamoorthy, Principal and Dr.T.Christopher, Head and Professor of
Mechanical Engineering for their motivation, encouragement and support in
conducting the conference.

P.Praveen Raj
Organizing Secretaries

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09



I am indeed very happy to know that the Department of Mechanical

Engineering, of Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology, Vellore is
organizing a National Level Conference, RADAMS `09 on 17th April 2009. I
hope this conference will serve as a platform for the student community of
various engineering colleges to present their technical expertise and to share the
recent advancements and applications in their field of interest.

My hearty wishes for the success of the Conference, “RADAMS 09”.


Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


Professor and Head
Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engg


I am very much happy to know that the Department of Mechanical Engineering

of Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology, Vellore is conducting a
National Level Conference on Recent advances in Design, Applications
Manufacturing systems “RADAMS `09” on 17th April 2009. By organizing such
conferences students will be exposed to the latest technologies and provides a
platform to update their technical Knowledge.

I wish the conference a grant success.


Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


Radams ‘09 is organized as a technical meet among researchers and

postgraduate scholars to present their performance and share their research
experiences. It is my pleasure to appreciate the efforts taken by the organizers
and participants of the event to making it an effective forum to reach academic
excellence. There is no royal road to learning; it requires always hard work with
intelligence. I wish every one a grant success in all their efforts.


Professor (Mechanical Engg)
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Vellore - 632002

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


1. Dr. V. Ganesan ,
Professor, IITM, Chennai.

2. Dr. K. Jayachandran,
Professor (Retd), Anna University, Chennai.

3. Dr. C. Jebaraj,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.

4. Dr. S. Gowri,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.

5. Dr. G. Thanigaiarasu,
Professor, Anna University,Chennai.

6. Prof. G. Vedagiri,
Principal, SBC College of Engineering,Arni.

7. Dr. A. Elayaperumal,
Asst.Professor, Anna University,Chennai.

8. Dr. B. Nageswara Rao,

Senior Scientist, VSSC,Thiruvananthapuram.

9. Dr. K. Sankaranarayanasamy,
Professor & Head, NIT, Tiruchirappalli.

10. Dr. P.Vijian

Professor, A.C.College of Engg & Tech.,Karakudi

11. Dr. K.S. Amirthagadeswaran

Professor, Govt.College of Tech.,Coimbatore

12. Prof. K. Rajalingam, Professor, PSN College of Engg.,Dindigul

13. Dr.K. Sridhar,

Asso. Prof.,Thiygaraja College of Engg., Madurai.

14. Dr. T. Alwarsamy,

Asst.Prof.,Govt. College of Tech.,Coimbatore

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


PATRON & PRINCIPAL Dr. P. Ramamoorthy,

Principal, TPGIT.

CONVENOR Dr.T. Christopher.


Mr. A. Muralidhar, Sl.Gr.Lecturer

Mr. P. Praveen Raj, Sr.Lecturer

Mrs. M. Kantha Shoba, Sr.Lecturer

Mrs. A. Sujatha, Lecturer

ORGANISING MEMBERS Mrs. K. Anbukarasi, Lecturer

Mrs. P. Vijayalakshmi, Lecturer

Mrs. T. Suja, Lecturer

Mrs. R. Sarala, Lecturer

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09



The Government of Tamilnadu established Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of

Technology during the year 1990 keeping in mind the technical development students in and
around Vellore. It is one of the five government engineering colleges in Tamilnadu selected
under Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP) of the Government of
India. The college is affiliated to Anna University. Chennai and is the Zonal coordination
center for Zone5. It is one of the six government engineering Colleges and secured fourth
rank in the state during may 2008 Anna university examinations. The college campus is
situated in the government reserved area at Bagayam which is about 4Km from the heart of
the city. The campus consists of sophisticated class room and well equipped laboratories and
workshop. The college is facilitated with necessary infrastructures. It also had a large library
which had a large number of books on wide range of topics. Its vision is to provide high
quality learning environment through innovative teaching and promote research to produce
globally competitive engineers of excellent quality. At present the college is offering B.E. in
Mechanical Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Civil Engineering,
M.E. in Manufacturing Engineering, Applied Electronics, and M.C.A. It has extensive links
with the research Institutes and Industries.

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


The Department of Mechanical Engineering was established in the year 1990 since the
college was started. Right from its inception, the department has progressed with a vision and
a strong commitment in developing competent, carrier oriented programs and providing
excellent training to the students. The department of Mechanical Engineering offers the
following courses which are affiliated to Anna University.

 B. E. (Mechanical Engineering)
 B. E. (Mechanical Engineering, Part-time)
 M. E. (Manufacturing Engineering)

The Department has excellent Laboratory facilities for carrying out laboratory
experiments and research activities. The following are the laboratories under the Mechanical
Engineering Department:

 Special Machine Shop

 Thermal Engineering Laboratory and Heat Transfer Laboratory
 Lathe Shop and Basic Workshops
 Dynamics Laboratory & Metrology Laboratory
 CAD, CAM Laboratories
 Robotics Laboratory
 Mechatronics Laboratory

Extension Activities
The department organizes a number of activities like conducting Faculty Development
Programmes, national level workshops and conferences and regular departmental seminars for
the benefit of the staff and students.

Several leading companies are visiting the campus every year and recruited many of
our students. Some of the prominent companies that have already recruited our students are:
ELGI Equipments, UCAL Systems, Wipro Technologies, TCS, Infosys, Robert Bosch,
Renault-Nissan, CTS, Caparo, Titan and U.S Technologies etc.

Faculty Members

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

The department has excellent, experienced and highly qualified faculty members to
impart knowledge and training to the students and they have to their credit a record number of
publications in national and international journals and conference proceedings.



Director AU-FRG
Anna University, Chennai.

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


Dr.G.Subba Rao,

SCSVMV University

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09



Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Design and Fabrication of Low-Velocity Impact Tester

Sundar S1, Antony Arul Prakash D2, Mohan B3

ME Manufacturing, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet,

Chennai-600044, ssd_win@yahoo.co.in
Research Scholar, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet-44
Assistant Professor, Department of Production Technology, MIT, Chrompet-44

ABSTRACT by mechanical behavior that is strongly

dependent on the loading rate. In fact, they can
The impact response of sandwich panels have a ductile behavior in case of static loading,
can be investigated. In order to apply an but may have in a brittle manner and fail
impact load on sandwich structures, a fortunately when subjected to a wide spectrum
specific and Free Falling Weight (FFW) of impact loads during in-service use.
impact tester was designed and fabricated. A
FFW tester has been fabricated based on the An impact needs to be considered like in the
standard of the ASTM D5628 – 96. It has the civil transportation. It is of fundamental
capability to hold four different sizes of importance to protect the impact resistance of
specimens. It has the guide for the FFW. This candidate materials. Under low-velocity impact
vertical FFW tester is simple, compact, and loading, the composite face sheet damage is
inexpensive. The tester has been used to usually invisible to the naked eye and spreads
perform low-velocity impact on the over a larger region inside the plate. A low-
laminated composite plates. The testers can velocity impact (1 – 10m/s) usually implies that
the holding capability of four types of the impacted velocity is so low that the damage
specimen size, maximum height obtain was can be analyzed as a structure under a quasi-
2000mm, velocity was 1.98 – 6.26 m/s the static loading.
energy level of 1.98J – 23.18J.
Consider the special case of an interaction of
I. INTRODUCTION the system with its surroundings which is
carried out so slowly that remains arbitrarily
Composite sandwich structures are widely close to equilibrium at all times. Such a process
used in the aerospace, marine and automotive is said to be quasi-static for the system. In
industries because of their high bending practice, a quasi-static process must be carried
stiffness, corrosion resistance, tailor ability and out on a time-scale which is much longer than
stability. However they are also characterized the relaxation time of the system. Recall that the

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

relaxation time is the typical time-scale for the Specimen

system to return to equilibrium after being
• Size as per recommendation
suddenly disturbed.
• Thickness varied 0.5mm with the
In general there are three types of impact actual material going to use in
machines used in experiments, namely: drop- application.
weight impact rig or free falling weight impact
rig, pendulum impactor and gas-gun impactor. Number of Trials
• 20 trials are enough to predict the
The impactor tester is useful to determine result for mean failure energy known.
some important design parameters like energy • 30 trials are required predict the result
to produce incipient damage, peak impact force, for mean failure energy unknown.
energy perforation threshold and restitution
coefficient and also to study the effect that take Tup Details
place when varying some testing specifications
as: sample geometry, material properties, The Fig 1 shows the standard Tup or
stacking sequence, boundary conditions, nose Dart (Intender) recommended by the ASTM
impactor dimensions and weight and drop standard.
height, among others.


The object which has falling only by gravity

in vertically downward called low-velocity. The
velocity can either increase or decreased by
varying the height of falling.
Style – A
All other kinds of moving object either by
sudden load or projectile through gun these are
called High-velocity.


The Tester based on the standard of ASTM

D5628 - 96. According to the standard, the
basic requirements are as follows:

• Tup or dart Style – B
• Dead weight
• Self locking
• Guide path
• Rebound stopper
• Specimen holder
• Height adjustment
• Mass adjustment

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Table 2
Tup and Specimen holder Inner dimension
Dimensions in mm (in)
Sl. Geomet Specimen
No. ry Tup Holder Inside
Style – 15.86
1 78.0 (3.00)
A (0.625)
Style – 12.7
2 38.1 (1.50)
B (0.500)
Style –
Style – C 3 38.1 (1.5) 127.0 (5.00)
Style – 20.0
4 40.0 (1.57)
E (.787)

Terminology for Test Specimen

This test method covers the determination of
the relative ranking of materials according to
the energy required to crack or break flat, rigid
specimen under various specified conditions of
impact of a free falling dart (tup). To apply the
Style – D impact load following terminology
recommended by the ASTM standard. They are
Failure, Mean failure energy, Mean failure
Height and Mean failure Mass.

The presence of any crack or split, created by
the impact of the falling tup that can be seen by
the naked eye under normal laboratory lighting

Style – E Mean Failure energy

The energy required to produce 50% failure,
equal to the product of the constant drop height
Figure 1 Types of Dart and the mean-failure mass or the product of the
Table 1 constant mass and mean-failure height.
Specimen dimension
Specimen Dimensions in mm Mean failure height
Geometry (in)
No. The 50% of the failure cause on the test
Circular Rectangular
specimen, the height at which a standard mass,
1 Style – A 89 (3.5) 89 X 89 (3.5 X 3.5) when dropped on test specimen from a standard
2 Style – B 51 (2.0) 51 X 51 (2.0 X 2.0) mass.
140 140 X 140 (5.5 X
3 Style – C
(5.5) 5.5) Mean failure mass
4 Style – E 56 (2.3) 56 X 56 (2.3 X 2.3)

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

The mass of the dart that, when dropped on 1. Free-falling Weight

test specimens from a standard height, will 2. Guide Pipe
cause 50% failures on the test specimen. 3. Pillar
4. Table
Selection of Dart 5. Specimen Holder
The Style – A causes a moderate level of
Free Falling Weight (FFW)
stress concentrate and can be used for most
plastics. Style – B causes a greater stress The hold the tup in position the dead weight
concentration and results in failure of tough or was used. The dead weight was called as
thick specimens that do not fail with Style – C. Weight, falling of weight by gravity force. So
It is suitable for research and development the weight was called as Free Falling Weight
because of the smaller test area required. Style – (FFW). The material used was Mild steel. It has
C the test condition are the same as those of test the provision of one end to hold the tup and the
method Style – A. They have been used in opposite end provided with holding to the slider
specification for extruded sheeting. A limitation bed.
of this geometry is that considerable material is
required. Guide Pipe (GP)
To ensure the free-falling weight hit on the
It is not necessary to stick on the above
specimen in the specified place the GP has
selection method, the dart selection somewhat
arbitrary also. While any one of the dart provided. No provision provided to avoid the
geometries may be selected, knowledge of the bouncing of the free-falling weight. To hold
final or intended end-use application should be (hanging) the FFW to the SB the FFW was tied
considered. with the metal wire. The metal wire’s other end
III. FABRICATION tied with the drum. By rotating the drum FFW
DETAILS was automatically raised to the SB by the
Need of the Tester plunger mechanism it was automatically locked
in position. Fig. 2 shows the assembly of FFW
For research and laboratory use the machine
and Plunger. For free-falling the plunger was
which is available in the market, even though it
will gives the entire data costly tester pulled suddenly the FFW free fall through the
incorporated with computer and sensors so that GP and hit the specimen surface.
the required information can retrieve easily.
Cost wise it was very high. The developed
tester was fully manual, no data extraction
provided. After making the impact on the
specimen, using the Scanning Acoustic
Microscopy SAM the damage (crack,
deformation, depth, area etc) were studied.

Figure 2 Tup FFW and Plunger Assembly

1. Overall Dimensions : 0.6 X 0.91 X 3.1 m Slider Bed (SB)
2. Velocity Range : 1.98 – 6.26 m/s To adjust the free-falling weight in different
3. Energy Level : 2.35 – 39.18 J heights the FFW has attached to the slider bed.
The SB attached to the pillar. To move the SB
Major Components:

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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

up and down (to the required height) the metal From the raw material, to be use in the
wire with drum was provided. application the standard size of required
number should be make it ready.
The table must with stand the entire load as 2. Calculate the mean failure of the specimen
well as the weight. That was taken in account
to decide the no. of specimen to be test.
the table was constructed. It has a hollow box.
With door provided to accommodate all the
accessories. The bottoms of the table to leveling 3. Selection of trials
bolts are provided. Top of the table SH, pillar, When the approximate mean failure for a
GP were mounted. Inside the box all driving given sample is known, 20 specimens will
mechanism were incorporated. usually yield sufficiently precise results. If
not 30 specimens must be selected.
Specimen Holder (SH)
Specimen holder assembly shown in Fig 3 As 4. Selection of tup or intender
per standard each tup the specimen dimensions
The intender or tup selection depends upon
are varied. The SH which is the large in
dimension permanently mounted on the tester the application.
table. The remaining all the specimen holders
are kept as accessories. Depends upon the 5. Selection of specimen holder.
requirement the other specimen holder can Depends upon the tup selection the
directly attached to the SH. appropriate specimen holder must be
For easy clamping and unclamping between
the top and bottom specimen holder pen coil
helical spring was attached. It serves two 6. Calculation of energy level
purposes namely: top plate entire load cannot Energy level = mgh J (Nm)
transfer to the specimen, while unclamping the m=mass of the FFW (kg)
top plate move upward automatically without g=9.81m/s2
any external load. h=SB from the specimen top surface (m)
For ensure the accessories top specimen 7. The energy level can be adjusted by
holders the locaters are provided.
changing the mass, to change the velocity
the falling height should be adjusted.

8. Mark the details on the specimen.

9. Insert the specimen into the specimen

holder, tighten by the wing nut.

10. Release the plunger by pulling the wire.

Figure 3 Specimen Holder 11. Raise the FFW in its position by rotating the
drum until the FFW locked by the plunger.
1. Specimen preparation

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Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

12. Remove the specimen from the SH and plates subjected to drop weight impacts”,
insert the next specimen. Composites Science and Technology 66
(2006) 61–68
13. Repeat the step 6 to 9.
[3] Othman R and Barton D.C. (2007) ‘Failure
V. CONCLUSION initiation and propagation characteristics of
honeycomb sandwich composites’ Journal
The present fabricated tester itself by varying of Composite Structures.
the guide pipe diameter and the free falling
weight the energy level can be increased. [4] Richardson M.O.W. and Wisheart M.J.,
(1996) ‘Review of low-velocity impact
Using the fabricated tester impact load properties of composite materials’, Comp
applied to the specimen, the top surface Part A 27, pp. 1123–1131.
damages are absorbed by naked eye.
[5] Tomasz Lendze, Rafał Wojtyra, Laurent
The internal damages are inspecting by the Guillaumat, Christine Biateau’ (2006) ‘Low
Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM). Velocity Impact Damage In Glass/Polyester
Composite Sandwich Panels’ Advances In
VI. SCOPE Materials Science, Vol. 6, No. 1 (9).

In present condition of the tester was fully

manual. Do not have any data extraction. By
retrofitting the tester can be modified into the
following ways

• Data extraction.
• Increasing of Velocity.
• Increasing of Energy level
• Etc.


[1] ASTM D5628-99 ‘Standard Test Method

for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic
Specimens by Means of a Falling Dart (Tup
or Falling Mass)” American society for
testing and materials.

[2] Ramin Hosseinzadeh etal, “Damage

behavior of fiber reinforced composite

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Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Computer Aided Design of Geneva Mechanism for Shoulder Joint Motion

Raghvendra Mohan Bhargava

SRM University/Department of Mechanical, Chennai- 603203, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract In   the   non   technical   area   of 

This paper focuses on the design of applications,   exoskeleton   are   becoming 
an exoskeleton mechanism for the lateral important   in   assisting   elderly   or 
and frontal abduction. of the human upper physically weak people function without 
limb. It also gives a side motion of human
help,   in   rehabilitating   people   injured   in 
arm. Major consideration was placed on
the location of center of rotation of the accidents   or   in   war,   and   in   temporarily 
humerus with respect to the scapula. Here supporting people suffering form muscle 
the motion of the center of rotation of the atrophy. In  the  cases of  muscle atrophy 
shoulder joint with arm motion is obtained especially,   such   a   device   can   be   used 
using a Geneva mechanism. This design
together with physical therapy in order to 
has a two-degree of freedom. In this
mechanism four bar mechanism with accelerate the recovery process.
Geneva mechanism is used so this is also
kind of hybrid mechanism. In this project Among   the   human   joint,   the 
the main difficulty and time consuming shoulder   joint   is   an   important   one,   as 
process is modeling of Geneva mechanism.
many human motions require its use .On 
So for help in the modeling of this
mechanism a visual basic programming the   other   hand,   this   joint   is   one   of   the 
language is used and creating 3D model most  complex,   and   therefore   the   design 
with in solidworks environment. It is of   exoskeleton   device   for   the   shoulder 
expected that the mechanism under joint   is   quite   involved.Human   arm 
development will help people suffering
shoulder has 7 degree of freedom. Many 
from muscle atrophy or to accelerate
injured people recovery. of the mechanisms are already made but 
they   do   not   include   the   motion   of   the 
Keywords: Geneva mechanism, hybrid
mechanism, glenohumeral joint, center   of   rotation   of   the   humerus   with 
solidworks respect to the scapula.
Ref. [1] In the case of lateral and frontal 
I INTRODUCTION abduction of the human upper limb two 
Progress   in   robotics   and  mechanisms is famous
mechatronics, new lightweight and strong  1.  MB   exoskeleton   mechanism   for   U.S. 
materials and more capable and efficient  Air Force
actuators   give   a   new   thrust   to   the    2.  MULOS   (motorized   upper   limb 
proliferation of exoskeleton. Such devices  orthotic     system)
are mechanisms designed to be mount on  Ref.   [1]   in   these   mechanisms   they 
a person's body, capable of following the  preferred the motion of the hand not the 
person's motions and of applying forces  center   of   rotation   motion   so   only   the 
or torques on him or her. motion can be painful.
The   design   of   this   exoskeleton  holding   of   position   become   necessary 
mechanism   aims   to   follow   the   human  then we use the Geneva mechanism. The 
movement of the humerus with respect to  name Geneva mechanism originated from 
the   scapula.   Kazuo­kiguchi   and   his  the country Geneva. This mechanism was 
associates   provide   some   information   on  used   in   mechanical   watch   and   clock 
the motion of center of rotation. movement in the days when mechanical 
movement   were   dominant,   and 
In this exoskeleton mechanism two  Switzerland was the world center of the 
parts   are   important   first   Geneva  industry.   Geneva   mechanism   is   used   in 
mechanism and Four­bar mechanismSo it  this   hybrid   mechanism   due   to   its 
is   a   combination   of   the   Geneva  intermittent   motion   nature.   In   Geneva 
mechanism and four­bar mechanism so it  mechanism two parts are main important. 
is known as a Hybrid mechanism. Star   wheel   is   a   wheel   with   number   of 
slots. The numbers of slots generally vary 
A. Center Of Rotation
three   to   eight.  Crank   wheel   is   simple 
Ref.  [3][1]   In Fig.1 a human body at a 
wheel on which a pin becomes project.
shoulder   joint  we get the  two center  of 
rotation   of   the   humerus   head   rotation  II. WORKING OF GENEVA 
with respect to the scapula. The distance  MECHANISM
between these centers of rotation should 
In Geneva mechanism crank wheel 
be 3 to 4 mm. The side hand motion up to 
and   Geneva   wheel   are   placed   at 
30°  will   move   with   respect   to   CR1 
calculated distance. Crank wheel get the 
(center of rotation 1) then till 60°  it will 
rotary   motion   and   its   pin   enters   in   the 
shift to CR2 (center of rotation 2). At last 
Geneva wheel tangentially. The motion of 
the side hand motion will go up to 180°.
Geneva and  crank  wheel  will  be  in  the 
different direction.
Figure 1 center of Rotation
It is felt that the time has come for 
the   calculator   to   be   replaced   by   the 
computer.   In   these   days   in   the   field   of 
mechanical   for   modeling   to   simulation 
the   CAD/CAM   tools   do   analysis   and 
other process. In present time in the field 
of   medical   science   there   are   lot   of 
instrument   and   machines,   are   made   by 
the CAM/CAM tools. In this project the 
mechanism   modeling,   cad   tools   do 
B. Geneva Mechanism assembly   and   simulation   mainly.   The 
Ref. [2] Geneva mechanism is a type of a  present   work   of   modeling   the   parts   for 
intermittent   motion   mechanism.   When  project exoskeleton mechanism, assembly 
of the part of mechanism, simulation is 
done   with  programming  tools  Visual 
Basic   6.0  and  modeling  part   of 
mechanism,   simulation   is   done   with 
programming  tools  Visual Basic 6.0  and 
modeling   tool  solidworks   2005  for 
modeling, assembly and simulation.

PART Figure 2. Geneva Mechanism Parts

In   this   mechanism   three   parts   are 

important   for   the   limb   and   arm   motion 
Geneva   Mechanism   Connecting   Links, 
Hand Cover.
A   Modeling   of   Geneva  
In Fig.2 Geneva mechanism two parts are 
Crank wheel
Geneva wheel or Star wheel 
B. Modeling of Crank Wheel 
In   Fig.   3   There   are   four   inputs   for   the 
crank wheel
Crank radius
Crank depth
Pin distance
Pin depth. Figure 3. Crank wheel Inputs

C. Modeling of Geneva or Star Wheel 
In Fig. 4 Inputs for the Geneva wheel
Crank wheel radius
Crank wheel depth
Pin radius
Number of slots
Angle between the slots
the   reciprocator   option   is   needed   in 
animation controller

Figure 4. Star/Geneva Wheel inputs To see the simulation replay option 
is needed

V.ASSEMBLY AND SIMULATION OF  There should be  no mates  error   at 

MECHANISM the   time   of   simulation   otherwise   in 
For assembly we have to retract the  software, simulation will be possible but 
save   models   in   solidworks   modeling  in real it will not be possible
software   in   assembly   environment.   The  First   complete   the   assembly   then 
entire   model   as   Geneva   wheel,   crank  only try a simulation.
wheel, and hand cover, connecting links 
will   be   assembled.   It   got   the   suitable 
constraints to get the desire motion.
Simulation is only possible in assembly 
mode. For simulation we have to consider  The main weakness of the existing 
the main points equipment and mechanism are as

Check   all   the   constraints   if   there  1. They are not considering the center of 

will be an error then simulation will be  rotation   motion   of   Humerus   with 
fail. respect   to   the   scapula.   If   center   of 
rotation will not be considered then in 
Mechanism   part   should   not   be  upper   arm   lower   side   of   the   hand 
interacted   to   each   other   otherwise  Muscle pain will occur.
simulation will not be started.
2. In present method they are giving  a 
For   simulation   option   chooses  direct   motion   to   hand   some   time   it 
clockwise   direction for  the  crank wheel  can be shock full so it can be painful.
to shift the center of rotation of limb in 
upper side for lower motion chooses vice  3. The   complex   part   takes   time   for 
versa. modeling   as   in   this   kind   of 
mechanism. Modeling of the Geneva 
Take   the   short   time   step   in  mechanism is time consuming.
simulation to see the small changes at the 
time of motion of mechanism

Choose   only   crank   wheel   rotation 

for simulation because in actual condition 
crank wheel is rotated by motor. To see 
the upper and down motion of the limb 

Existing Mechanism New   Hybrid 

Many   of   the  This   mechanism 

mechanism   do   not  main   deal   with 
include   the   motion  motion   of   center 
of center of rotation. of   rotation   and 
step­by­step   arm 

No  use   of   pulley 
Evangelos,  for arm motion
Papadopoulos   and 
Georgios Patsianis 's 
mechanism  they  are 
using   a   pulley   to  No   chance   for 
Figure 5. Main Model
give a arm motion. pain   because 
there is a step­by­
Some   time   the  step   motion.   It 
motion   of   this  will   be   slow   in 
mechanism   can   be  motion
is very useful for side arm motion without 
painful for suffering 
pain   because   it   gives   a   step­by­step 
motion.   This   is   a   type   of   hybrid 
mechanism.   In   this   hybrid   mechanism 
The  developed mechanism is well suited  Geneva   mechanism   is   the   main   part   to 
to help people are suffering from muscle  give step­by­step motion. The modeling of 
atrophy   especially,  such  a  device   can  be  Geneva   mechanism   is   programmed   by 
used   together   with   physical   therapy   in  programming   tool   of   visual   basic   6.0 
order   to   accelerate   the   recovery   process.  interfacing   with   the   modeling   software 
In present time many existing equipment  solidworks   2005.The   simulation   this 
does not have a property to shift the center  mechanism   is   also   done   by   solidworks 
of rotation of limb. They directly give the  software   in   assembly   mode.   By   this 
side arm motion. This kind of mechanism  interfacing we can save time and reduce 
the complexity of Geneva mechanism. So  mechanism and four bar mechanism so it 
it   is   a   combination   of   the   Geneva  is known as a Hybrid mechanism.

[1]   Evangelos   Papadopoulos   and  [2]   Varadarajan   Vidya,   Palani 
Georgios   Patsianis   (2007)‘Design   of  Kumaresan   (2000),   ‘Design   of   a 
Mechanism   for   the   Shoulder   Joint’  Micromachined Geneva Wheel as a 
Nation   Technical   university,   Athens,  Mechanism   to   Obtain   Intermittent 
Greece. Motion   from   a   Contantly   Rotating 
Source’,   University   of   California, 
Motion Assist – Consideration of the 
[3] E.J.McCormick, Ed., ‘Human Factor  Effect   of   Bi­   Articular   Muscles’, 
Engineering’,   3rd  ed.   New   York:  Proceedings   of   IEEE   International 
McGraw­Hill, 1970. Conferenceon   Robotics   and 
Automation,New Orleans.
[4]   Kazuo   Kiguchi   Toshio   Fuduka,   ‘a 
3dof   Exoskeleton   for   Upper   Limb 

Computer Aided Design of Spur Gear Train

Babitha Kalla, MTech 2nd Yr CAD
School of Mechanical Engineering
SRM University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Email Id: babi.smile@gmail.com

Abstract process is carried out by visual basic.

This Study presents a new This work results in effective usage of
method of how the Spur Gear Train computer graphics and provides
can be designed and detailed with substantial saving in time and cost of
Computer Aided Design. The project production and even a beginner can
involves automated design of Spur use with ease.
Gear in Solidworks and Visual Basic. Keywords: Spur Gear,Design,
It creates 3D model of the gear easily Solidworks, Visual Basic 6.0.
when a designer inputs data such as
power transmission, speeds of driving I. INTRODUCTION
and driven shafts, center distance
between two gear shafts, pressure Computer Aided Design is the use
of computer systems to assist in the
angle, factor of safety. The design
creation, modification, analysis,
optimization, storing and strength of gear teeth has to improve to
communication of design information. meet increased loads, this is a design
The CAD system allows design problem, which will be dealtwith as
modifications to be performed easily Computer Aided Design software is
and sufficiently. The analysis and introduced to the design process of a gear
optimization phases of the design are system.
easily and accurately performed by the
computer while the designers find these The study is aimed at designing
tasks consuming and tedious without interactive computer graphic system
the use of computer. software which results in the following
The use of computers and the
development of Computer Aided • Generate data for use in design
Design techniques have resulted in process
significant reductions in design project
costs, working hours, inconsistencies • Produce accurate and efficient
and mistakes. The introduction of CAD design model as a result of
to engineering design has yielded interactive computer graphics.
economic bebefits. CAD system can
increase productivity in the drafting • Provide substantial saving in
function by roughly five times over time and cost of production.
manual drafting. [Reference 4].
• User friendly software.
Computer Aided Design is
becoming increasingly important today,
the analysis and design procedure for SOLIDWORKS
quite a number of machine parts are
standardized which make it possible to SolidWorks is a 3D mechanical
use standard computer programs. CAD program developed by
SolidWorks Corporation. It is currently
Jain (2001) defined the term gear one of the most popular products in the
system as a power transmission element 3D mechanical CAD market.
commonly used to transmit power or
rotary motion from one shaft to SolidWorks is a parasolid-based
another.Gears are machine elements that solid modeler, and utilizes a parametric
transmit motion by means of successively feature-based approach to create
engaging teeth. It is toothed wheel or models and assemblies. Parameters
cylinder used to transmit rotary or refer to constraints whose values
reciprocating motion from one part of a determine the shape or geometry of the
machine to another. Gears are used in model or assembly. Parameters can be
cutting machine tools, automobiles, either numeric parameters, such as line
tractors, hoisting and modern power lengths or circle diameters, or
transmission requirements for greater geometric parameters, such as tangent,
loads and higher speeds have demanded parallel, concentric, horizontal or
improvements in tooth form, cutting vertical, etc. Numeric parameters can
methods, materials. It is obvious that the be associated with each other through
the use of a relation, which allows them
to capture design intent.

SolidWorks also includes an

Application Programming Interface
(API) for macro and third party
III. VISUAL BASIC The gear nomenclature variable is passed
to the SolidWorks for Spur Gear train
model generation.
Visual Basic is the third-generation
event-driven programming language and
The Figure1 of Flowchart represents
integrated development environment
basic steps involved in designing and
from Microsoft for its COM
modeling of Spur Gear train in
programming model. Visual Basic is
Solidworks using Visual Basic.
considerably a relatively easy to learn
and use programming language, because V. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
of its graphical development features and
BASIC heritage. 1. Design of Spur Gear Nomenclature in
A programmer can put together an The software execution is explained
application using the components considering the following example:
provided with Visual Basic itself. a. Center distance between gear
Programs written in Visual Basic can also shafts = 1000mm
ude the Windows API, but doing so
requires external function declarations. b. Pinion speed = 250 rpm
c. Gear speed= 1000 rpm
d. Selection of material = C40
e. Power = 7.5KW
The design calculations are done in
f. Service factor = 1.5
Visual Basic.The database of material,
lewis factor, accuracy grade are stored in g. Selection of Grade = 10
Microsoft Excel.
h. Factor of Safety = 2

Enter the data in form 1 as shown in Fig 2.

Fig 2 : Visual Basic Window for Input Parametrs Fig3: Visual Basic form displaying Output

The set of instruction in Visual

Basic allows you to enter the input data,
process it and then display the data as in VI. CONCLUSION
Fig 3. This system permits proper
communication/interface with users
2. Creation of Geometric Model of Spur (user-friendliness) having a common
Gear Train in Solidworks input and output language familiar to
After obtaining the nomenclature, them. It generates accurate data used in
the output data are interlinked with design process.It generates precise Spur
solidworks for creation Spur Gear train as Gear Train model for visualization. It
shown in Figure 4. And the model is also store information which can be used
created automatically, when the user later.
clicks on output form. The model is Conclusively, it was observed that the
automatically saved in the default folder system developed will successfully
created. decrease the designing and modeling

[1] J. Argyris, M. De Donno, F.L. Litvin
(June 1999) “Computer program in
Visual Baisc language for simulation of
meshing and contact of gear drives and
its application for design of worm gear
drive” The University of Illinois at
Chicago, USA.

[2] V.B.Bhandari “Design of Machine

Elements”, Text Book.

[3] PSG Design Data Book.

Fig 4: Geometric Model of Spur Gear Train in [4] Farag, M.M., 987, Materials and
manufacturing Processes for Engineering
Design. Prentice Hall Publishers,
London, pp: 316-319.

[5] R.S.Kurmi, “Theory of Machines”

[6] Jain R.K, 2001, Production

Technology, Khanna Publishers, Nai
Sarak, Delhi, India.


The low heat-rejection engines(LHR
The subject of low heat-rejection
engines)has been given considerable
engines has been given considerable attention
attention recently as engine builders
recently as engines builders struggle to find
struggle to find remaining avenues to
remaining avenues to improve economy and
improve economy and lower emissions. The
lower emission. Cooling an engine is a
concept of air gap insulated piston has been
“necessary evil” which designer would gladly
explored by using bolted type piston. The
forego if it were possible. But local hot spots,
bolted air gap insulated piston provides
high cost of materials able to survive at
complete sealing of air gap necessary for
elevated temperatures, and lubrication
continued insulation. The design evolved
problems generally have prevented
provides high insulation combining
elimination of the cooling system. Beyond the
adequate durability. In order to provide
complication of a cooling system, there is the
high insulation and reliability, proper
knowledge that is sizable fraction of the
designing of the air gap piston has to be
energy input to the engine is simply being
ensured. The piston with air gap of various
thrown away. In today fuel economy
gap thicknesses are designed with two
conscious setting it is natural that ways are
different materials. The performance of the
being sought to affect a double benefit in
piston is studied through ansys.The
which cooling system can be dispensed with
performance study includes thermal stress
and at the same time more of the input energy
analysis and structural analysis on
put to work. Of the individual surface areas of
aluminum and stainless steel piston crown.
the combustion chamber of an engine, the
Air gap insulated piston designed for
piston offers an attractive area for insulation
reduced heat loss was evaluated by
because a large portion of the total
examining its influence on the coolant heat
combustion chamber surface heat transfer
rejection, engine performance and exhaust
occurs through this area. The study from
emissions of single cylinder direct injection
earlier research on the engine says about 50%
diesel engine. At 1500 RPM engine speed,
of heat rejection occurs in the liner cooling
use of the low-heat rejection (LHR) piston
zone to which the largest contributor is the
resulted in a reduction in total coolant heat
piston. Air gap insulated piston is generally
rejection ranging, reduction in
used in diesel engines to keep the combustion
hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide
chamber at optimum high temperature. The
emissions in an increase in oxides of
air gap in between piston crown and piston
nitrogen and smoke. It was estimated that
body has low thermal conductivity. Due to
lhr piston design reduced the piston crown
this the temperature in the piston crown is
surface heat transfer. The insulation
high when compared to conventional piston.
provides betterment in fuel consumption at
Due to this surface temperature of the
normal operating condition than a
combustion chamber is very high the inducted
conventional piston. This is because of the
into the combustion chamber is rapidly
reduction in delay period in diesel injection
exposed to high temperature and it is more
engine. Shortened delay period tends to
than the conventional piston. When the air is
reduce the emission levels of HC and CO.
induced to the combustion chamber its
The combustion rate is increased because
temperature is raised because of the average
of insulation and hence there is reduced
temperature of the combustion chamber is
vibration and noise level.
raised. Due to this the fuel which is injected
in to the combustion chamber attains the self other one is stainless steel. This piston model
ignition temperature quickly and so the which was created using pro/e and it is
combustion occurs smoothly. The pressure exported from pro/e to ansys with the
rise in the uncontrolled combustion is very extensions of iges.then the piston are analyzed
less and the maximum temperature of the for both structural and thermal analysis.
cycle is comparatively less. The complete Based on the result the specified air gap
burning of fuel occurs smoothly in the insulated piston was machined and tested in
controlled phase. Some of the merits by using the engine. By comparing the performance
air gap insulated piston are and emission result of both conventional and
air gap insulated piston the result was
Reduced Of Delay Period: concluded.
Due to the average temperature in
combustion chamber increases the air Modeling of piston
temperature which is inducted into the
chamber also increases which helps the fuel The three dimensional piston is to be
to attain self ignition temperature quickly and modeling by using the software of pro-e
mixes air readily and atomized easily. wildfire 3.0.the piston is to be model in both
conventional piston and air gap insulated
Reducing the Emission: piston. The both section of piston using 2D
As we know that if the delay period is and 3D modeling .after modeling of the piston
lowered the complete combustion occurs is converting in to IGES format is to be
smoothly which results in reduction of supported by using analyzing software.
emission. The overall combustion is
dominated by the controlled phases for
combustion. the premixed combustion
resulting from the shorter delay period lower
the CO,HC and smoke emission and even
reduces the particulates emissions.

Reduction In Noise Level:

It is clear that the overall combustion
is dominated by the controlled phases of
combustion. So the abnormal pressure rise
due to uncontrolled combustion is minimized
and the knocking is reduced. This helps
engine to run smoothly without noise.

Fuels With Higher Viscosity Can Be Used:

The air inducted during the suction
Fig.1 conventional piston
stroke is exposed to the walls of the
combustion chamber. This raises the air
temperature that helps the atomization and
mixing fuels. so, the fuels with high viscosity
can also be used.

Increase in Thermal Efficiency:

The conduction through the piston is
desirably reduced. This increases the thermal
efficiency of the cycle. Two materials are
used in the piston crown one is aluminum and
b. Modulus of elasticity=90x109Pa
c. Poisson ratio=0.33
d. Thermal conductivity=190W/m K
Stainless steel material
a. Density=7.8x103Kg/m3
b. Modulus of elasticity=200x109Pa
c. Poisson ratio=0.25
d. Thermal conductivity=55W/m K
Load input
a. Air temperature above the piston
b. Wall temperature of the piston=673⁰K
c. Pressure on upper part of

Fig.2 Air gap insulated piston

Introduction to Ansys

The ansys program has many finite

element analysis capabilities, ranging from a
simple, linear, static analysis to a complex,
nonlinear, transient dynamic analysis.
A typical ansys analysis has three distinct
1. Build the model.
2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.
3. Review the result.
This type of analysis was done by using the
Coupled Field Analysis. Fig.3 conventional piston
The ansys workbench 10.0 is used to
solve the problem both structural and thermal
analysis are find to compare the various result
on conventional and air gap insulated piston.
Type of processing was given below

1. Element type –solid 70 have been

2. Material properties-structural(linear)
3. Meshing-global mesh
4. Solution-von-misses stress, heat
5. Post processer-plot the result.
Input data
Fig.4 Air gap insulated piston
Aluminum material
a. Density=2.7x103Kg/m3
Time Total Brake
taken for Brake fuel mean Brake
L fuel Exhaust
s.no (10 cc) Torque powe consu effective Thermal
rpm oad consump temperatu
of fuel (t)nm r (bp) mption pressure efficiency
kg tion re c
consum kw (tfc)kg (bmep) bte %
ption sec /hr kpa
1 0 59 0 0 0.5369 0 0 182
2 3 53 4.44 0.697 0.5977 0.8575 83.34 9.54 226
3 6 49 8.89 1.396 0.6465 0.4631 166.92 17.66 260
4 9 45 13.34 2.095 0.7040 0.3360 250.51 24.34 290
5 12 41 17.80 2.796 0.7720 0.2761 334.33 29.63 315
Table 1 performance reading for conventional piston

Load(kg Hc No Smoke
s.no emission
) emission(ppm) emission(ppm) %
1 0 0.24 2797 77 2
2 3 0.18 2451 170 1
3 6 0.18 2310 236 1
4 9 0.15 2113 282 3
5 12 0.13 1995 322 4
Table 2 emission reading for conventional piston

taken Total Brake
for (10 Brake fuel mean Brake
L fuel Exhaust
cc) of Torque powe consup effective Thermal
s.no rpm oad consupt temperat
fuel (t)nm r (bp) tion(tf pressure efficiency
kg ion ure c
consum kw c)kg/h (bmep) bte %
ption r kpa
1 0 66 0 0 0.48 0 0 168
2 3 58 4.44 0.697 0.5462 0.7832 83.34 10.44 207
3 6 53 8.89 1.396 0.5977 0.4281 166.92 19.10 242
4 9 49 13.34 2.095 0.6405 0.3057 250.51 26.51 272
5 12 44 17.80 2.796 0.72 0.2575 334.33 31.77 306
Table 3 performance reading for air gap insulated piston
s.no Load(kg) Co emission % Hc emission(ppm) No emission(ppm) Smoke %

1 0 0.08 1964 153 5

2 3 0.08 1975 227 2
3 6 0.07 1998 279 2
4 9 0.07 1975 305 2
5 12 0.08 1941 321 2
Table 4 emission reading for air gap insulated piston

6. Increase in work conversion of 0.7

Conclusion KW for same heat input.
7. Higher exhaust temperature for same
The thermal analysis on air gap piston heat input.
shows, that the temperature is maintained
high above the crown with very less amount The future work of the project as follows
of heat getting transmitted down than a
conventional piston.futher analysis using 1. A plasma sprayed coating has to be
ansys software shows that by changing the carried in cylinder head, valve and on
material of piston crown will increases the the top of the air gap insulated piston.
insulation property of the air gap. The average 2. Welded and roll bonded air gap piston
temperature of the combustion chamber is has to be achieved for overcoming a
raised by 35.97% for stainless steel 32.09% problems of using bolted piston.
for aluminum piston based on the software 3. Providing a piston crown material
result than the conventional piston. the having a suitably low coefficient of
structural analysis on air gap insulated piston expansions, combined with adequate
is compared with the conventional piston and hot strength to resist the high
the result are satisfactory. even though the temperature created by the air gap
deviation is less it increases the rigidity of the insulation.
piston structure. An optimum air gap 4. To reduce the shear stress due to
thickness has been designed for maximum expansions arising from the inevitable
insulation without sacrificing the structural temperature differences, the deep air
rigidity. gap was introduced and is progressing
satisfactorily through its development
Replacing the standard aluminum piston programme.
with an air-gap insulated stainless steel piston 5. Different blended fuel has to be used
utilizing the following effects relative to the which will improve the performance
standard pistons. and emission characteristics.
6. References
1. Lower bSFC 7. 1.Beg.R.A,P.K.bose,jadavpur
2. Increase in brake thermal efficiency university and
about 2.86% B.B.ghoshi,T.Kr.banerjee and
3. Reduction in hydrocarbon (HC), A.Kr.ghosh,IIT
carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke kharagpur(1997)”EXPERIMENTAL
4. Increases in the oxides of nitrogen PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
5. Increase in work output for same heat CERAMIC COATING ON THE TOP
input. OF THE PISTON”SAE-970207
13. 7. Michael Winship and William
8. 2. R.M.Cole and A.C.akildas J.morgan (1993),”piston designs for
(1985),”EVALUATION OF AIR GAP the 90’S”.SAE-930273
DIVIDED CHAMBER DIESEL 14. 8. D.A.Parker and G.M.Donnison
ENGINE”.SAE-850359 (1987),”Development of air gap
insulated piston”.SAE-870652
9. 3.Dale R.Tree,Daniel C.Oren,Thomas
M.yonushonis and Paul 15. 9. Shoran.R.Frisch, Cummins engine
D.Wiezynski(1996),”Experimental co (1988)”Analysis of a heavy duty
Measurements On The effects of diesel piston including material, Air
insulated pistons on engine gap and thermal Barrier Coating
performances and heat transfer”SAE- Effects”.SAE-880671
16. 10. Venhash.A and C.Chen, university
10. 4.You Zhang Shanghai Jiao tong of Warwick (1995)”stress Analysis
university,Young Zhang and Bin and Design optimization of carbon
Gao(1998),”Structural Design And piston”.SAE-950935
Fea Of LHR Piston For Vehicle
Engines”.Sae-981488 17. 11. Design Data Book-P.S.G
11. 5. Sastri Y.B. and Kumarasekaran
(1994),”Thermal Stress Analysis of A 18. 12. Carl.T.F.Ross”Advanced applied
Novel Air Gap Insulated Piston”.SAE- Finite Element Methods”, Horwood
941069 publishing, Chichester in 1998
12. 6. Melvin Woods, Paul Glance and
Ernest Schwarz (1990),”Advanced 19. 13. Automotive Hand book, 5th
Insulated Titanium Piston for edition, MICO BOSCH, SAE -2000
Adiabatic Engine”.SAE-900623
20. 14. K.K.Ramalingam, Internal
Combustion Engines, SCI Tech
Publications (India) PT.Ltd.


Department of Automobile Engineering,
MIT Campus,
Anna University-Chennai.

ABSTRACT wheeler gear shifting is automated by using

a motor.
The existing two wheelers use
In this project, we have used a
manual gear shifting in which the shifting
motor, which is mechanically linked to the
of gears is by means of foot movements. In
gear box. The motor is controlled by touch
this project the manual gear shifting two-
of a micro switch. Motor rotates in both
wheeler is used which requires gear
clockwise and anticlockwise directions
shifting using foot movements. This two
enabling down stroke of gear shifting lever engine with manual transmission having
or upstroke of gear shifting lever. automated gear shifting.
The main core idea behind the The project uses a 4 a.h battery for the
automated manual transmission in two power requirement. Motor is controlled by the
wheelers is to help physically challenged use of 4 no s of relays used in pairs of two as
persons with a better fuel efficient vehicle, a combination.
which is achieved by fitting fuel efficient In this project the motor is selected by
engine with manual transmission having suitable calculations of torque requirement for
automated gear shifting. gear shifting lever by manual force and the
For this project, motor is selected by motor mounting bracket is designed based on
suitable calculations of torque requirement the forces developed during clockwise and
for gear shifting lever. The project was anti clockwise rotation of the motor occurring
practically made and all gear shifting during up gearing and down gearing
operations was checked and total system respectively .
succeeded in operation.
General arrangement
INTRODUCTION The motor shaft axis is parallel to the
The feeling of freedom and being one gear box gear shifting shaft. Here the L.H foot
with the nature comes only from riding a two rest is shifted towards rear to accommodate
wheeler. Indians prefer the two wheelers the motor space. The footrest is bent to an
because of their small manageable size, low angle of 28 degrees it is shown in fig. The
maintenance, and pricing. Indians streets are motor is mounted in the mounting bracket
full of people of all age groups riding a two which is welded to the footrest. The motor has
wheeler. got a pinion, which engages with the gear
The existing two wheelers use manual wheel fitted on the gear shifting shaft. The
gear shifting in which the shifting of gears is bracket is a sheet metal fabricated type of
by means of foot movements. in this project 3mm thickness.
the manual gear shifting two wheeler is used The wires of the motor are routed
which requires gear shifting using foot through the chassis frame of the bike .the
movements . This two wheeler gear shifting is wires go to the relay box which is fitted below
automated by using a motor. the bike seat near the oil tank.
In this project we have used a motor The bracket is welded using arc
which is mechanically linked to the gear box welding using a mild steel electrode .the
the motor is controlled by a touch of a micro bracket assembly is welded in such a way that
switch .motor rotates in both clockwise and in the motor is kept at a lower level than the axis
anticlockwise directions enabling down of the motor. The micro switches are soldered
stroke of gear shifting lever or up stroke of into a general purpose PCB and mounted in
gear shifting lever. the right hand side of the handle bar.
The two micro switches are arranged The relays four numbers are fixed in a
one below the other near right hand side of plastic box and mounted below the seat of the
the bike handle bar. The upper micros switch bike. The relays receive signal from micro
turns the gear shifting lever in anticlockwise switch through a pair of thin wires running
direction and the bottom micro switch turns through the chassis of bike.
the gear shifting lever in clockwise direction.
The main core idea behind the GEAR TRAIN AND GEAR SHIFTING
automated manual transmission in two The gear shift is the part of the gear
wheeler is to help physically challenged box which has the shift forks and allows the
persons with a better fuel efficient vehicle, contact from the driver to the synchronization
which is achieved by fitting fuel efficient .these are the parts for which it is possible to
make automation .further these parts can be
designed so compact so that it is possible to up shifting of the gear. Relays receive the
build a very modular transmission with less negative supply from chassis frame of the
weight .the benefit of the compact build of the vehicle.
shifting is not only the gain of modulation and Whenever the micro switch is pressed,
less weight but also the time during the the corresponding relay is energized and the
production and space in the whole drive train. supply is given to the motor .when the other
Depending on the space around the micro switch is pressed, the polarity changes
whole drive train and the type of vehicle ,for and the motor receive supply in reverse
automation a hydraulic ,pneumatic or electric polarity .when one relay pair is working; the
actuator can be used .for personal cars , a other relay is in OFF condition.
hydraulic or electric actuator can be used .for Motor is having a small pinion
personal cars , a hydraulic or electric actuator coupled with it .this motor pinion drives the
is most often used . Further, such a system gear wheel fitted in the gear shifting shaft
also needs an electronic application. .when the touch switch is pressed ,the motor
The motor cycle gear shift is on the rotates and the gear is shifted .
left hands side of the motor cycle just ahead
of the foot peg .the motor cycle gear shift
controls ratchet mechanisms that shifts the MOTOR APPLICATION
Hence it is a tedious process of Application the starter motor is designed
shifting gears mechanically. for this purpose
For two wheelers up tp 50 cc engine capacity
we use a automated manual transmission .the
bigger gear having 48 teeth is fixed on the
gear shifting shaft and the small pinion is
System polarity: 12v
fixed on the motor shaft .the small pinion has
teeth of 22 which rotate the bigger gear and Polarity: - earth
gives a torque increase of 2.18 times .
Rotation: anticlockwise
WORKING PRINCIPLE Power output: 12 v with 4 ah
The power from the battery goes to
Load torque: .014 kg m at 10.6v, 40 amps
the relays. Four relays are used for the
purpose of changing the polarity of the motor Weight: .6 kg
.the positive and the negative of battery are
Rating: 30 seconds.
given to the two relays .the output is
connected to the motor.
In switch wiring circuit two relays are TORQUE CALCULATION
grouped for anticlockwise rotation .amongst
each group, one relay controls the positive Average force required by leg for gear
and other controls the negative of the motor shifting in kilograms force when measured by
respectively. spring balance in different bikes = 350
The power supply also goes to the
clutch switch which is generally in normally
open condition .when the clutch lever is
pressed ,the clutch switch closes the contact Average force in Newton = .350*9.81
and gives 12 volts to the two micro switches .
Each micro switch is used to control pair of Average force = 3.43 N
relays giving positive and negative output
respectively. Torque requirement = force *distance
One micro switch is used for down
shifting the gears and other one is used for the Torque requirement = 3.43 *.110
Torque requirement = .37 Nm This project is a concept is a concept
modal for aiding the physically challenged
Torque on gear shift lever = .14 *2.18 persons for the purpose of getting good
mileage in their two wheeler having manual
The required torque .37 Nm is within the limit
gear shifting mechanism converted to a three
wheeler consisting of automated manual gear
The project was tested for more than a
The project automated manual transmission in month by using the touch switch for gear
two wheeler was successfully made and shifting. The results of project are very
practical demo is shown in TVS Suzuki max encouraging .the gear shifting is very smooth
100 r bikes successfully. and noiseless


D.Sreekala, II M.Tech CAD
S.Karppuddiyan, Sr.Lecturer
Dr.Kingsley Jeba Singh, Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, S.R.M.University, Kattankulathur-603203
Kancheepuram Dist. TamilNadu.
E-Mail: srkl_dgt@yahoo.co.in

Slider crank mechanism is a well was tested on a no: of numerical examples,
known application in an engine which is some of them are outlined in this work.
widely used to convert reciprocating to
rotary motion and composed of three Keywords: Computer Aided design, Crank,
important parts i.e., crank is a rotating Slider, Connecting Rod, Visual Basic 6.0,
disc, slider which slides inside the tube and Solid works.
connecting rod which joins the parts
together.The best examples of crank slider INTRODUCTION
–Mechanism are steam train and cylinder Modern trends in the design of
of an internal combustion engine. mechanisms emphasize economical design
Computer Aided Design software is By means of computer aided design
developed for generating slider crank – techniques .Computer-aided design (CAD)
mechanism by inputting configuration is the use of a wide range of computer-based
values using object oriented programming tools that assist engineers and other design
approach of visual basic and visualizing the professionals in their design activities. This
model in 3D modeling software[Solid has however over the last 20 years been
Works]. overtaken by 3D parametric feature based
modeling. Components are created using
The software graphical features Solid modeling are assembled into a 3D
were used to give a visual interpretation of representation of the final product, this is
the solutions. The software effectiveness called as Bottom-up Design.
Mechanism is the arrangement of [c]. Diameter of the piston Dp
connected parts in a machine in order to
accomplish desired force and motion DESIGN CALCULATIONS:
transmission, which is considered to be an [a]. length of the connecting rod :
assembly of mechanical items designed to Lc = 4.5* Dc
achieve a specific purpose with in a machine. [b]. Diameter of the crank pin:
There are clearly an infinite number of Dcp = 0.5* Dc
mechanisms available, but concentrated on [c]. Diameter of the large boss:
specific one is slider- crank mechanism. The Dlb = 1.8 *Dc
piston, cylinder, crank and connecting rod [d]. Diameter of the small boss:
combination is known as a Slider-Crank Dsb = 0.9*Dc
Mechanism.The purpose of this is to convert [e].Diameter of the big end of
the linear motion of the piston to rotational the connecting rod :
motion of the crankshaft. One common Dbc = 1.5* Dlb
application of the mechanism is in IC [f]. Diameter of the small end of
Engines. The connecting rod :
Dsmc = 0.45* Dbc
A. MECHANISM DESIGN: The creation of a [g]. Diameter of the wrist pin:
scheme for the assembly of a machine. His Dwp = 0.5*Dsmc
involves [h]. Diameter of the cylinder:
1. Conception of an arrangement of dc = 2*Dp
components or elements or parts which will
accomplish the desired purpose. SLIDER CRANK MODEL
2. Definition of the geometry of each part.
3. Processing Visual basic is the event – driven
programming language and integrated
Slider-crank mechanism, (a) Mechanism, development environment from
(b) Graph of mechanism. R = pin joint; P = Microsoft for its COM programming model,
sliding joint which is also considered a relatively easy to
In this slider crank linkage learn and use Programming language.
mechanism, the crank is in pure rotation and
the piston is In pure translation [which moves INTERFACING VB WITH SOLIDWORKS:
back and forth in a straight line] Automation via the SolidWorks
Principal parts of slider-crank mechanism Simulation API can greatly enhance
productivity and help designers and
This watermark does not appear in the Engineer’s quickly pre-process or post-
registered version - process information external to the user-
http://www.clicktoconvert.com interface capabilities.
Simple software package can be designed that
MECHANISM DESIGN allows this type of mechanism design. Such a
package would require a simple user front end
The components of mechanism Crank, and easy to understand API. Users should be
Connecting rod, Piston, wrist pin and allowed to fully integrate the
Cylinders are designed using relevant design Software package into their own code with
equations. the ability to either choose to specify an input
This watermark does not appear in the
INPUT PARAMETERS: registered version -
[a]. Diameter of the crank shaft Dc http://www.clicktoconvert.com
[b]. Radius of the crank Rc
ACKNOWLEDGMENT DESIGN Hall * Holomenko A.R, Laughtin
I, sreekala.D wish to thank Dr. Kingsley Jeba
Thanks to S. Karppudiayan, Sr. Lecturer. higley Je, Mischke CR, 6th Edu.New York,
McGraw Hill 2001
REFERENCES Help for Visual basic6.0
l. nordon

Design Optimization of Gerotor Oil Pump

T.Saravanakumar1, G.Devaradjane2
PG Student, 2 Professor
Department of Automobile Engineering,
MIT Campus, Anna University-Chennai
Email: saravana_kumar_t@yahoo.co.in

Abstract rotor lobes and distance between these lobes

This paper aims at design centers to rotor center. Formulation was
optimization by theoretical study and done in MATLAB software for the chamber
mathematical prediction of flow area calculation and numerically derived
performance in gerotor type of lubricating flow rate values were found matching with
oil pumps that is used in automobiles. The the experimental results of the specific pump.
work was performed at three levels namely This formulation provides a platform to
basic geometry of gears, flow simulation and design and optimize the gerotor pumps.
experimental validation. An extensive study
was carried out in the design of gears.
Geometry of the gears was studied with the
design parameters. Design optimization of a Index Terms—Gerotor, Integral Derivative,
specific oil pump gears was considered. Derivative Integral, Chamber
Mathematical formulation for the design of
gears was done. Outer gear is designed I. Introduction
initially and inner gear is designed conjugate
to that. With the assumptions of lubricant as In the modern scenario, automobile industries
incompressible and maximum volumetric demand simulation prior to fabrication of all major
efficiency, flow calculations were performed systems and ancillary systems for cost reduction and to
based on the geometry of the gears. In the improve the performance. In this context the
flow simulation, two approaches were simulation of lubricating pumps is being carried out.
carried out for the calculation of chamber Gerotor pump consists of two gears made up of
volume namely Integral Derivative and trochoidal curves. Both gears are placed eccentric, and
Derivative Integral. With the volume the outer gear consists of one tooth excess than that of
variation of the chambers, delivery flow rate inner gear. As both the gears are in mesh they are
for different speeds of crank shaft were designed conjugate to each other. Outer gear teeth are
estimated. Optimum design of rotors, which always in sliding contact with the inner gear teeth thus
best suits the performance requirement was developing sealed pockets known as chambers in
achieved by varying the number of outer between the gears. During rotation, this chamber
volume varies. Gears unmesh in the inlet duct all points of contact, pass through a fixed point located
increases the chamber volume in between the gears,
on the line of centers”.
thus creating suction effect from inlet duct to
chambers. Gears mesh in the delivery duct reduces
chamber volume, creating pumping effect from
chambers to delivery duct as delivery flow.

The basic geometry of the gears is as shown in fig.1.

In fig.1 O1 and O2 represents the center of outer and
inner gears respectively and placed at a distance of ‘e’
termed as eccentricity. O3 is the center of outer gear
teeth, which is circular curve of radius ‘S’. N is the
number of outer lobes. K is the distance between outer
gear center and outer gear lobe center. R1 and R2 is the
pitch circle radius of outer gear and inner gear
respectively. C is the pitch point i.e intersection of
pitch circles.
Figure 2. Contact line
During rotation, contact point (P) traces the contact
line. At any point of rotation, contact points lie in the
contact line. α is the rotational angle of outer gear.
Equation that describes the contact line can be
summarized as follows,
S 
X (α) =Kcosα- (R1 +Kcosα) 
m 
 (1)
Y(α) =Ksinα- (Ksinα) 
m 

where m is distance between the pitch point and

centers of outer gear lobe centers and can be calculated
Fig.1 Gear Geometry as,
m= R12 +K 2 +2R1Kcosα (2)
II. Gear profile design
Equation (1) & (2) is a function of outer gear
The design of outer profile of inner gear and
rotational angle.
inner profile of outer gear is critical in the
design of oil pump. These profiles dictate the B. Outer gear profile
performance characteristics of the pump.

A. Contact line
Inner and outer gear is always in contact through
contact points (P). The number of contact points equal
to the number of outer lobes.

Law of Gearing: As gear profiles are conjugate they

should satisfy Law of gearing. Gerotor design is based
on law of gearing, which states that, “At any point of
rotation, normal to the profiles of mating teeth must, at
Figure 3. Outer gear tooth
Outer gear profile consists of N teeth. Each tooth A complete rotation of outer gear, traces a single tooth
consists of three different curves namely ab, bc & of cd.inner gear. To generate a complete profile of inner
Equations were derived for each curves separately profile, α value should vary from 0 to 2 ( N  1) .
with specific angle limits. Equations for outer gear can III. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW
be summarized as,
X o ( )  K cos   S cos(     ) 
A mathematical formulation is developed to predict the
 0      flow performance with the gear design discussed in the
Yo ( )  K sin   S sin(     ) 
earlier chapters. Numerical simulation of gerotor pump
X o ( )  G cos(    ) 
Yo ( )  G sin(   ) 
        (3) constitutes of applying rotation formula, identifying
contact points and angles, chamber volume estimation
X o ( )  K cos       S cos          
 0      and chamber volume variation calculation which lead
Yo ( )  K sin       S sin          
to delivery flow rate estimation.
where, the basic terminologies can be found as, A. Contact points
K 2  G2  S 2
x0  Contact points can be calculated by using equation
(1). Contact point angle can be calculated as,
y0  G 2  x0 2
 y0    a  0  if X  0, Y  0
   - tan -1   X   
      tan 1
 a *  ,   a  1 if X  0
 - x0 
K  Y    (5)
  
 
2   a  2  if X  0, Y  0
Set Λ = i.∆α, where i represents the teeth number Further contact points can be calculated by just adding
(i=0,1,2,3, . . .,N-1) Δα to the α value. And it can be denoted as,
Equation (3) describes a single tooth. By varying,  j  i   1    j 1   (6)
value appropriately complete profile of outer gear can
r    X     Y  
2 2
be arrived.
rj     r1    j 1   (7)
C. Inner gear profile
Equation (7) represents the radius of contact points.
Inner gear profile is generated conjugate to the outer
gear profile by using contact line equation. Equation
for the inner gear can be summarized as, B. Rotational formula
    N  S      N    As gears rotate with respect to its respective centers,
X  K cos   e cos  -  K cos   R cos  
i ( )
 N 1   N 1  m   N 1 
 N 1    coordinate points of gear profiles will vary with

Y   sin 
i ( )
  
 e sin 
 N  S 
  K sin 
  
 R sin 
 N   
rotation angle of outer gear (α). It is necessary to find
 N 1   N 1  m   N 1   N 1    out these profile coordinates at any point of rotation.
The following equation can be used for finding
But for further calculations it is necessary to have both coordinate points after rotation for both inner and outer
the equations with reference to same center. So inner gears.
gear equation is changes with reference to outer gear
 N   N  
center as, X i    X i cos   Yi sin  
 N 1   N 1  
     N   S     N   

X i ( )  K cos   e  cos   1  K cos   R1 cos    N   N  
 N 1   N 1   N 1   N 1    Yi     X i sin   Yi cos  
  m
  N 1   N  1   (6)
    N  S      N   
Yi ( )   sin   e sin    K sin   R1 sin 
 N 1   N 1  m   N 1 
 N 1   

X o    X e cos   Ye sin  
 
Yo    X e sin   Ye cos  
By substituting    N  1 ,
X i ( )  K cos     e  cos  N    1 
 K cos     R1 cos  N    
 (4)
Yi ( )   sin     e sin  N   
 K sin     R1 sin  N    
Figure 4. Rotational formula
Figure 6. Chamber area
C. Chamber Area
The chamber area can be calculated by using
Chambers are formed between the gear profiles circularof sector area as given below.
inner and outer gear limited by contact points. This

chamber area dictates the delivery flow rate of the A   r 2 d

1 
pump. This area can be found out by two methods The chamber area can be calculated as,
namely Integral Derivative method and Derivative
1  1 
Integral method. But derivative integrative method V1( )  H  re2 d  H  ri 2 d
2 2

needs usage of integral derivative method to find

2 
1 1 2  (7)
V j ( )  V1   ( j 1)  
initial chamber area.
The angles ψ1 & ψ2 shown in fig. 6 define the contact
Integral Derivative method: In integral derivativepoints, and r is the radius of the profile coordinate. dψ
method, volumes of the chambers are initially is the included angle of the circular sector in radians. A
calculated, and then the derivative is used to find program
the was written in MATLAB for chamber area
variation in the chamber volume. Numerical calculation by this method.
integration of circular sector volumes leads to the
volume of the chamber. Derivative Integral method: Derivative Integral
method yields directly the variation in chamber
volume, and then accumulation of these derivatives
along with initial volume yields exact chamber volume
at any angle of rotation. The variation in volume can
be determined through analysis of two control volumes
as shown in figure 4.6.
Figure 5. Integral Derivative Method
The area associated with outer gear and inner gear is
calculated and the difference yields the chamber area.
The area is calculated by considering the coordinate
points as circular sectors as shown in fig. 6.

Figure 7. Control Volumes

• Volume Vi relative to inner gear and
bounded by polyline AO2B and line of
contacts. Two vector rays ri1 & ri2 are
associated with inner gear, originated at O2 dVi 

H ri 22  ri12 d  (8)
and ends at contact points A & B. 2

• Volume Ve relative to outer gear and

bounded by arc CD, line of contacts
comprised between contact points A & B,
and two segments AD & BC. Two vector
rays re1 & rei2 are associated with outer gear,
originated at O1 and ends at contact points A
& B.

By calculating the volume variation in these control

volumes, chamber volume variation can be found out.

Figure 9. Outer gear volume variation

Considering again the rotation of dα for the outer
gear, the vector ray re1 rotates to an angle dψe1. The
variation in the control volume in one side will be

 H G 2  re21 d
 , negative sign indicates the volume
leaving the control volume. Similarly, the vector ray
rei2 rotates to an angle dψe21 and the control volume
variation is H  G 2  re22  d . The total variation in outer
Figure 8. Inner gear Volume variation gear control volume dVe is calculated as given in
equation (9).
Consider a infinitesimal rotation dα 1 1
angle of outer gear, for which the inner gear 
dVe   H G 2  re21 d  H G 2  re22 d
2 2
  
will rotate for d 
N 1
d angle. Now, the 2

dVe  H re1  re 2 d
 (9)
contact point A & B rotates to angles dψ1 &
dψ2 as shown in figure. Points A’’’ & B’’’ shows The summation of volume variation in both the
the position of older contact points A & B after gears accounts to the variation in the chamber
rotation, whereas A’’ & B’’ represents the new volume. So, total chamber volume variation
contact points after rotation. It can be seen that will be,
in inner gear, gear rotates faster than contact dVc  dVi  dVe
1  2
points (dφ > dψ). As an approximation due to dVc  
H  ri 2  ri12
2 
N 1

 re21  re22    d (10)
rotation the change in vector rays length is
dVc 1  2
neglected considering the rotation angle to be 
 H  ri 2  ri12
d 2 
N 1

 re21  re22   
considered is very less. Now the vector ray ri1
1 2
will seep a volume of Hri1 d , which leaves the
The exact chamber volume for any angle of
control volume and has to be considered as
rotation can be found out by numerically
negative. Similarly vector ray ri2 will seep a
1 2 integrating the total volume variation and
volume of Hri 2 d , which now enters into the summing it up with the initial volume V0. The
control volume Vi associated with the inner exact chamber volume V(α) at angle α can be
gear. So the net volume variation associated calculated as,
 dVc
with inner gear will be, V    V 0    d
1 1
0 d
dVi   Hri12 d  Hri 22 d (11)
2 2
D. Delivery flow estimation from O1
In gerotor assembly, port plates are situated in Radius of circle to complete
such a way that chambers with increasing size G mm 36.5
outer gear
overlaps the inlet port and the chambers
decreasing in size overlaps the outlet port. The Radius of circular arc for
S mm 9.495
previous section supplies all the geometrical outer gear tooth
elements necessary for the calculation of the Eccentricity e mm 4
instantaneous flow rate produced by the rotors.
Chamber area in between the rotors dictates the
delivery flow rate, when the volume increases it
sucks fluid and make a negative contribution to Table I shows the values of the design parameters
the flow rate. When the chamber area increases that was used in the calculation. A commercially
it pumps out the fluid and make positive available oil pump sample was considered for
contribution towards the flow rate. The optimization process. Design parameters were
assumptions made in the flow calculation are, measured from the actual sample and were tabled as
• Volumetric efficiency is assumed to be given in above table.
equal to 100%.
• Lubricant is incompressible fluid. IV. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION
The instantaneous flow rate of individual
chamber is nothing but the volume variation it
produces during rotation. For dα rotation of
outer rotor it contributes to the flow as,
dV j
Qj  d , j  1, 2,...N (12)

The delivery flow rate of pump can be calculated by

the summation of these volume variations contributing
to the delivery flow.
N dV j N dAj
Qj   d  H  d (13)
j 1 d j 1 d
Figure 10. Test rig Layout

The delivery flow rate per revolution of outer The sample was tested in the standard performance
rotor can be expressed as, test rig and tested for flow performance at different
 N
dV j speeds. Fig. 10 shows the layout of the test rig.
QN   d d
0 j 1


E. Design Parameters
Table I
Design Parameters
Description Symbol Unit values
Number of teeth in outer
N - 8
Radial distance ofK the mm 37.5105
centers of outer gear teeth
V. RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS shows the variation in chamber area calculated by
Derivative Integral method

Figure 14.Flow pulse of individual chambers

Figure 11. Gerotor Assembly The amount of volume contributed by each
Fig. 11 shows the output of the MATLAB program chambers on rotation to the delivery flow is depicted
for design of gears with inputs as given in table.I. in fig. 14. Flow ripple produced by the pump is shown
in fig. 15. The number of flow ripples produced is
equal to the number of teeth in outer gear.

Figure 12. Chamber area

Figure 15.Delivery flow ripples

Figure 13.Derivative of Chamber area

Fig. 12 shows the chamber area for a complete Figure 16.Performance results comparison
rotation of outer gear. This was calculated by integral
Numerically arrived performance results were
derivative method. The amount of chamber area is
compared with results obtained from
maximum and minimum when the rotation angle
experimental validation of actual sample and
coincides with the line joining gear centers. Fig 13
the results are matching within 6% as shown in
fig. 16.
A mathematical based tool was developed to
predict the flow performance and other flow
performance indexes like flow irregularity and specific
flow rate for any variation in the design parameters
and was validated with a commercially available oil
pump sample. With this as a tool, provided the initial
design parameters were known, then it can be
modified to optimize the performance with the use of
this mathematical tool.
Authors acknowledge Mr.S.Govindarajan,
Chief-R&D, UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd-R&D for giving
permission to experimentally validate the sample.
[1] Colbourne.J.R, “Gear Shape and Theoretical [5] Sang-Yeol Kim, Yun-Joo Nam, Myeong-
Flow rate in Internal Gear pumps” CSME, Kwan Park, “Design of Port plate in Gerotor
Vol. 3, No. 4, pp 215-223, 1975. Pump for Reduction of Pressure Pulsation”,
[2] Fabiani.M, Manco.S, Nervegna.N, Journal of Mechanical Science and
Rundo.M, Armenio.G, Pachetti.C, Technology, Vol. 20, No. 10, pp.
Trichilo.Rl, “Modelling and Simulation of 1626~1637, 2006
Gerotor Gearing in Lubricating Oil Pumps” [6] Gamez-Monteroa.P.J., Castillaa.R,
SAE 99P-464, 1999. Khamashtab.M, Codinaa.E, “Contact
[3] Manco.S, Nervegna.N, Rundo.M, problems of a trochoidal-gear pump,”
Armenio.G, Pachetti.C, Trichilo., “Gerotor International Journal of Mechanical
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109~121, 1997.

FEA on Stress Concentration and Crack Propagation

1ME (Manufacturing engineering), Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044
2Professor & Head, Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai-600044

This paper presents the results of attempt to explain why a component has failed
investigations carriedout to study the stress during operation. However, the more important
concentration and crack propagation in aspect of studying fracture mechanics is to be
pressure vessel steel. Finite element method able to accurately predict service life of a part,
is used to calculate fracture parameters and so that disastrous failures can be prevented.
crack propagation. This paper includes, Fracture Mechanics is proving to be a powerful
study on stress distribution during crack and important tool for both defects assessment
propagation. FEA package and the fracture-safe design of components and
ABAQUS is used to study the crack structures.
This is particularly true for situations
KEYWARDS: FEA, Fracture mechanics, Stress where unscheduled plant breakdown cannot be
Concentration & Crack propagation. tolerated or where the potential hazard of a
failure is such that the highest possible
INTRODUCTION standards of structural integrity are required.
Such areas include electrical power generation,
Fracture mechanics is the study of flaws by fossil fuel or nuclear means military
in engineering materials. This involves projects, where high design stresses are used to
characterizing a material’s ability to resist crack maximize performance
onset and propagation, as well as understanding
how propagation occurs. The important aspect STRESS CONCENTRATION
of this field is failure analysis, where engineers
If there is a geometrical discontinuity in pressure vessel steel (STE 460) and it is
a body, such as a hole or a crack, results in non- assumed to be isotropic with elastic plastic
uniform stress distribution at the vicinity of the behavior. Chemical Composition are given in
discontinuity. The stress near the discontinuity the Table 1
will be higher than the average stress and drops
off rapidly with distance away from the TABLE 1 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
discontinuity (Inglis, 1913).
C 0.20
Stress concentration plays major role in Mn 1.70
initiation of crack in many of the structural and Si 0.80
engineeringcomponents. Many methods are P 0.025
available for experimental and analytical S 0.015
estimation of stress concentration factor. Cr 1.50
Though experimental methods provide actual Ni 2.50
Values, they are expensive and time consuming. Mo 0.70
Few analytical equations have been evaluated Nbc 0.06
on the basis of Linear Elastic Fracture Tic 0.05
Mechanics (LEFM) and semi empirical Vc 0.12
approach. These equations predict the stress Zrc 0.15
concentration with acceptable accuracy level
(i.e., with a variation of ± 10%) In recent years The properties of the material are:
Finite Element Method (FEM) has emerged as Young’s modulus (E): 2.1 X 105 N/mm2
one of the accurate and reliable numerical tools Poisson’s Ratio (υ): 0.3
in stress analysis. Hence stress concentrations Stress-strain data for isotropic plastic behavior
could be reliable and accurately estimated using are given in the Table 2
FEM In this juncture the present study aims at TABLE 2 STRESS – STRAIN DATA
investigating the stress distribution during crack
Propagation. True Stress (MPa) True Strain


The Specimen with crack is shown in 472.810 0.0187
Figs. 1Fig. 1 Specimen with crack 521.390 0.0280
The geometric dimensions considered for plate 628.960 0.0590
containing circular hole is; 736.306 0.1245
837.413 0.2970
Plate width: 10 mm 905.831 0.5756
Plate Height: 10 mm 1208.000 1.9942
Crack length (Initial): 2 mm
Since the problem considered in the Numerical method has been developed
present investigation is axi-symmetric and has a to solve almost all types of practical problems.
horizontal plane of symmetry the top half The two Common numerical methods used to
portion is considered for analysis (Fig.1) solve the governing equations of practical
problems are Numerical integration and finite
MATERIAL PROPERTIES element technique.
In crack propagation problems, the
plastic deformation is so large at the crack tip
and there is
Negligible deformation in the remaining areas. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION
The material considered in the current study is
Numerical method has been developed The simulation, which normally is run
to solve almost all types of practical problems. as a background process, is the stage in which
The two common numerical methods used to ABAQUS/Standard solves the numerical
solve the governing equations of practical problem defined in the input file.
problems are numerical integration and finite Postprocessing (ABAQUS/Viewer)
element technique. Numerical integration In this stage the results can be evaluated after
methods such as Runge-Kutta, Miline’s method the simulation is completed and the
etc adopt averaging of slopes of given function displacements, stresses, or other fundamental
at the given initial values. variables have been calculated. The evaluation
is generally done interactively using
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD ABAQUS/Viewer or another postprocessor.
Finite element method (FEM) has
emerged out to be powerful method for all ELEMENT TYPE USED
kinds of practical problems. In this method the Regular, rectangular meshes give the
solution region is considered to be built up of best results in crack propagation analyses.
many small interconnected sub regions, called Results with nonlinear materials are more
finite elements. These elements are applied with sensitive to meshing than results with small-
an interpolation model, which is simplified strain linear elasticity. First-order elements
version of substitute to the governing equation (CPE4, CAX4, etc.) Generally work best for
of the material continuum property. The crack propagation analysis. Hence First-order
stiffness matrices obtained for these elements elements “CPE4” are used in this analysis.
are assembled together and the boundary
conditions of the actual problems are satisfied CRITICAL CRACK OPENING
to obtain the solution all over the body or DISPLACEMENT CRITERION
region FEM is well suited for computer The crack opening displacement
programming. criterion, the crack-tip node debonds when the
crack opening displacement at a specified
3 ABAQUS PACKAGE distance behind the crack tip reaches a critical
ABAQUS is a general purpose value. This criterion is typically used for crack
interactive graphics finite element based propagation in ductile materials. The critical
software package. User can use it to simulate crack opening displacement criterion is shown
structural, mechanical, thermal, electro in Fig. 3
magnetic problems. A complete
ABAQUS/Standard analysis usually consists of Fig.3 The critical crack opening
three distinct stages: preprocessing, simulation, displacement criterion
and postprocessing. These three stages are The crack opening displacement
linked together by files as shown in Fig. 2 criterion is defined as where, is the measured
value of crack opening displacement and is the
critical value of the crack opening displacement
Fig.2 Three stages of ABAQUS (user-specified). The crack-tip node debonds
Preprocessing (ABAQUS/CAE) In this when the fracture criterion reaches the value
stage the model of the physical problem is to be 1.0. The user must supply crack opening
defined and an ABAQUS input file can be displacement versus cumulative crack length
created. The model is usually created data (n). In ABAQUS/Standard the cumulative
graphically using ABAQUS/CAE or another crack length is defined as the distance between
preprocessor, lthough the ABAQUS input file the initial crack tip and the current crack tip
for a simple analysis can be created directly measured along the slave surface in the current
using a text editor. Simulation configuration. The crack opening displacement
(ABAQUS/Standard) is defined as the normal distance separating the
two faces of the crack at the given distance
4. CRACK PROPAGATION Concentration and crack propagation is as
In the symmetry model the top half of a follows,
singleedge notch plate is modeled with a mesh • Stress at crack tip after Debond the first node
of CPE4 elements. The lower surface of the is 7.911e+03
bottom row of elements defines the slave • Stress at crack tip after Debond the second
surface of the partially bonded contact pair, and node is 9.336e+03
the master surface is defined by an analytical • Stress at crack tip after Debond the third
rigid surface. The master surface also lies along node is 1.014+04
the symmetry plane. Nonzero displacement • Stress at crack tip after Debond the fourth
boundary conditions are applied at two nodes node is 1.015+04
remote from the symmetry plane. The crack
opening displacement at a distance behind the CONCLUSION
crack tip is used to specify the data for the COD The finite element method is used to
criterion. The crack propagation capability analysie the problem and thereby calculating
allows quasi-static crack growth along the fracture parameter stress concentration has
predefined paths been developed. Stress distribution during crack
propagation is calculated by numerical method.
FINITE ELEMENT MODEL: Maximum stress is obtained at tip of the crack
and the stress is increases, when the crack
Fig.4 Finite Element Model length is increases.
The Meshed Finite Element Model with
boundary, load conditions is shown in Fig.4 REFERENCES
Master surface : 1. Anderson. T. L (2003) “Fracture Mechanics
Slave surface : Fundamentals and Applications”, CRC Press,
Element type : CPE4 (4 Nodes Quad Element) Texas.
Boundary condition : Node at the bottom is
restricted to move in X & Y direction Load : 2. George E. Dieter (1988), “Mechanical
Non Zero Displacement in Y direction is Metallurgy” SI
applied at two nodes remote from the symmetry metric edition, Mc-Graw-Hill Book Co.
plane Crack path : The virtual crack extension
direction, , can be specified directly by Contour 3. Griffith A. A. (1920), “The Phenomena of
integrals as shown in Fig.5 Rupture and
Fig.5 Virtual crack extension direction Flow in Solids” Philosophical Transactions,
RESULTS A,Vol.221,pp,163–198
FEA on stress concentration and crack
propagation are performed by numerical 4. Inglis (1913), C. E., Trans. Inst. Nav. Archit.,
methods. The pt. 1, pp.
stress distribution at the crack tip, during crack 219 -230.
propagation are shown Figs. 6 to 9.
5. Kunecke G, Klingbeil D, and Schicker J,
Fig. 6 Stress at crack tip after Debond the (1993)
first node “Rißfortschrittssimulation mit der ABAQUS-
Fig. 7 Stress at crack tip after Debond the option
2nd node DEBOND am Beispiel einer statisch belasteten
Fig. 8 Stress at crack tip after Debond the Kerbschlagbiegeprobe,” presented at the
3rd node ABAQUS
Fig. 9 Stress at crack tip after Debond the German Fracture Mechanics group meeting in
4th node Stuttgart.
The findings from the FEA predictions of stress
Foldable Frame
N.Venkatesh1, K.Arunachalam 2
Madras Institute of Technology /Automobile Engg Department, Chennai, India
Email: ervenkateshn@yahoo.co.in

With the increase in number of
For the urban transportation and to tackle the
vehicles on road, there is shortage of parking
parking problem the foldable frame is used in the
space anticipated in the near future even
vehicle. The parking space is much reduced by using
inside educational and other organizational
these foldable frame vehicles. The wheel base is much
campuses. Changing the vehicle wheel track
reduced as the parking space needed for each vehicle
according to the vehicle speed increases the
is reduced. Thus each vehicle contributes to the lesser
vehicle performance.
space for parking. The wheel track is also much
reduced for contribution of allotting less problem to
I wish to propose a solution to this by
parking. Thus this concept is much suitable for the city
introducing a concept of “foldable vehicle”. In this
car. The overall size of the vehicle can also be reduced
vehicle the wheel track and wheel base can be changed
for stalking more number of cars.
in addition to the vehicle height.
Micro mobility vehicle is designed to use
This “Foldable Frame Vehicle” (FFV), is a
inside the educational centre, research centre,
three wheeler with electric propulsion through a hub
hospitals, and production assembly units for easy
motor. This product is designed to specifically address
mobility. The ground clearance of the vehicle is low
the problems related to parking space requirements.
.For this reason the vehicle speed is set to maximum of
With this concept, the effective reduction in parking
30KMPH.The desired maximum speed is sufficient to
space (occupying volume) is expected to be around
use them in the campus. The mentioned speed satisfied
80% in comparison to a conventional 100 cc to 250 cc
the requirement to use in the industries as the preferred
motor bikes in the Indian market. Similarly in
speed of vehicles inside the industries is less than
comparison to a human powered bicycle, the expected
reduction is around 86% With this, I wish to introduce
the concept of “stacked parking”
For the easy transportation with less movable
parts the electrical drive is preferred. The battery is
The frame has been designed with optimal
used as the power source. The maintenance free
cross section for strength to weight ratio. The material
battery is used for this purpose. The vehicle speed
used selected is standard aluminum alloy used in
control is by the rheostat control placed in the handle
design of bicycle frames. The weight of the FFV is
bar. The power variation is send to the hub motor.
kept in a range such that it can be carried around after
Thus the speed of the motor is controlled and hence
the vehicle speed. Battery is placed in the handle
section so that during folding process the battery falls
The vehicle stalking box is designed to use the
on the base plate. Thus the battery finds the better
parking volume efficiently. The stalk box can be
place in between two folding component .the analysis
designed for various number of vehicle requirement.
is made on the frame considering battery weight.
The vehicle folding factor plays a vital role in using
the stalking board more efficiently.
As the vehicle is run by electric power the
vehicle is eco friendly. This makes the vehicle well
Other features have also been considered for safe and
suit to use in the research centre and eligible for
“emission free” (on site) operation. The design is as
pollution free transportation in the campus.
per the vehicle safety regulation.
The various methods of parking are
• Conventional parking in ground for that operation also. Finally, it's a good idea to tow
the bike on the trailer at a variety of speeds and over
• Stalking the cars by reducing their sizes different surfaces to understand how the trailer
while parking handles.

• Multi floor building for parking of The work is coordinated and supervised by
vehicle in corresponding floor Professor William J. Mitchell says the foldable vehicle
should be parked in a certain manner, so that if one
• Parking at any convenient floor(shopping vehicle is driven out the next vehicle should fill the
maal) same place. The "City Car" project is collaboration
between the MIT Media Laboratory and the new MIT
Design Lab Massachusetts Institute of Technology had
There are various possibilities to fold the vehicle proposed the same.

• Reducing the wheel track III.FOLDABLE FRAME VEHICLE

Micro mobility vehicle is design to use inside
• Reducing wheel base campus. They are designed for less ground clearance.
Design is aimed at easy transportation inside the
• Reducing the vehicle height organization. Their speed is comparatively low to
conventional vehicle as these are used to travel
betweens each units or blocks. The passenger can take
Various possibility of using foldable vehicle this small vehicle with easy driving schedule. As these
vehicles are concentrated to use inside campus, vehicle
• Use of light weight material can lift should not produce more pollution. This should be
vehicle end to occupy less space eco-friendly as many organization aim at pollution free
environment. If these micro mobility vehicles are
• Using tandem tubular or rectangular lesser weight it takes be easily carried inside the rooms
frame so that the length can be reduced and taken out for any tours.
For meeting the above requirement vehicle
• The stalk box is designed to store the should have
entire micro mobility vehicle to stalk in
a 5 feet space. The design layout is • Foldable frame
proposed for this need
• Lighter weight materials
The foldable frame fabrication is carried out as per
the requirement of vehicle norms of commercial • Pollution free driving source
purpose. The TIG welding is used in the vehicle
fabrication .The tubular and oval frames are used in • Smaller size vehicle
the vehicle fabrication.
• Easy driving control
FOLDABLE FRAME • Lesser movable parts
The most important advice based on
• Less maintenance cost
researchers experience, is before order a folding
trailer, make sure first try to assemble it to see how • Electrical power source is preferred
long it takes and how many people are required. Also
then determine how long it takes to load the bike and • Lesser ground clearance
the complexities involved. Remember to try and tie
down the bike and determine many people are required
IV.COMPONENTS OF MICROMOBILITY • loads due to road camber, side wind,
VEHICLE cornering force while taking a turn,
which results in lateral bending of
The components of the vehicle are, side members
• Foldable base frame
• Front wheel assembly (tandem type)

• Electric rear hub motor (1 HP) The wheel track of the vehicle can be varied as
per the requirement. In additional to the foldable
• Front wheel assembly components the wheel track (distance between the
front wheels) can be changed as per the requirement.
• Electrical control module Distance between Wheels can be arranged and placed
in the position. The tandem tubular frame paves the
• Lithium battery way for easy variation in the wheel track. These
arrangements are possible only in the vehicle rest
• Side stand for parking condition. The wheel base (the distance between the
front and rear wheel) can also changed as per the
design. The base frame has the clamp to hold the two
IV. LOADS ON FRAMES base frame segments of various sizes.

• Weight of the vehicle and passengers The specification for the vehicle is given in a
commercial vehicle format. The battery details are
• vertical loads when the vehicle comes taken out from the manufacturer. The hub motor is of
across a bump or hollow, which results diameter10 inch and 3 inch tyre width. Drum brake
in longitudinal torsion due to one lifted assembly unit is attached to the wheel.
(or lowered) with the other wheels at the
usual road level

Fig 2. Analysis of Vehicle Frames

Fig: 1 3D model of micro mobility vehicle components
The tubular frames are much prefer in which the the approximating function is formed by
material selection to with stand the twisting forceconnecting
in simple functions which are defined over
the frame. The length contraction is easier as the larger
small regions called elements.
diameter tubes houses the smaller diameter tubes
inside it thus the tubular circular frame is much COMPONENTCHOSEN FOR ANALYSIS
suitable in folding arrangements.
Battery, transmission and passenger load
VI.FINITE ELEMENT METHOD are acting vertically on their mounting points.
Finite element method is defined as Except a passenger all other are fixed loads.
numerical method of piecewise approximation in


The stalking rack is designed to store the VIII. STALK BOX
vehicles in the foldable form. The rack is of This result shows the analysis assuming the
1500mm length and 1900 mm height. This is load is uniformly distributed load. The thickness of the
split in to 20 racks. The vehicle in unfold plate is assumed as the constant. The material assumed
condition is 4 feet x3feet x1feet.the stalk box is is mild steel. The details of analysis are shown in
5 feetx6 feetx1 feet. Only 2 vehicles can be appendix. The analysis shows the stalk box as the safer
parked in the stalk box with out folding. If the design the vehicles to arrange in the rack. The analysis
vehicle is folded 20 vehicles can be parked in is carried out for the various materials and the
that same place... This can be modified based displacement can be found out
on the number of the vehicle to be stalked.

Fig. 3 Stalk Box

IX. CONCLUSION for the vehicle for ensuring the safer design.
The foldable frame for the micro The light weight material can be used for
mobility vehicle is designed as per the handling the vehicle and folding in the stalking
requirement. The electric vehicle gives the free box is proposed for stalking the vehicle if it is
operation even in case of the fossil fuel used in large number.
shortage. The static structural analysis is done
X.SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORKS Vehicle Parking System”, National Central
In my design the foldable parts are very University, Taiwan.
less as two third of vehicle side is reduced. This [9] Katherine L. Eveleth - EDS Corp,“Parking
can be improved by using a different design Management Systems –The City of
concept to further reduced size. The lighter Chicago:a Case Study” Document Number:
materials like aluminum, fiber reinforcement 941007.
can be preferred. The frame has been [10] Terry D. Day,J. Travis Garvey,Engineering
structurally analyzed for static conditions with Dynamics Corporation ‘Applications and
sequential loading. This can be done for Limitations of 3-Dimensional Vehicle
dynamic conditions. The suggestion of Rollover Simulation’
modification to reduce resonance can be given. [11] United states patent ‘Foldable Handle Bar
References Stem of a Skate Board’
[8] Li-Der Chou, Chun-Cheng Sheu, Home-
Way Chen,“Design and Prototype,
Implementation of A Novel Automatic


ABSTRACT intercept method and proportionality
Failure criteria have been developed constant dn found out. The values obtained
to explain strength failures of load-bearing in FEA software are documented in order to
structures which can be classified roughly as establish or to determine further
ductile at one extreme and brittle at another. relationships between the parameters.
Linear elastic Fracture Mechanics very well
predicts the situation of the crack growth. Index Terms— CTOD, CMOD, J Integral,
But ductile materials exhibit stability while Stress Intensity factor
crack extension. Hence one needs EPFM to
assess the situation. INTRODUCTION
Crack growth leads to instability that It is must to introduce a design
usually happens at higher load than at which philosophy for which fracture mechanics
crack is initiated. So, Fracture Mechanics studies could help us. Catastrophic fracture is
based analysis is being done in order to due to unstable propagation of a crack from a
characterize the stable crack growth. pre existing defect. It is impractical for the
Here, we have used Aluminum 6061 fracture to be prevented by constructing
grade with an angular notch in it. A three structure that has no defects. So in order to
point bend test is carried out on a develop safe design of structures, we should
rectangular bar numerically using FEA proceed along two lines: Either the safe
software packages ANSYS and ABAQUS. operating load should be determined for a crack
In this investigation the relationship of a prescribed size assumed to exist in fracture;
between load and J- integral and also stress Or for the given operating load, the size of the
intensity factor are found out. Also CMOD is crack that is created in structure should be
studied considering a Single edge notched determined.
bends Specimen using finite element analysis. So efforts have been taken to stabilize the crack
The Magnitude of CTOD is estimated by 90 growth that occurs prior to failure. The critical
value of the fracture toughness, expresses the concentration which decreases the maximum
ability of the material to resist fracture in the load the component can sustain and may
presence of cracks. generate a crack or lead to early crack initiation.
Hence, a criterion to evaluate the maximum
Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics load that a component with a notch can sustain
(EPFM) is the domain of fracture analysis, is of paramount importance. V-notches are one
which considers extensive plastic deformation of the simplest and most frequent geometries
ahead of crack tips prior to fracture. It is well that appear in testing samples, and the search
known that J integral and Crack Tip opening for a fracture criterion of V-notched
Displacement (CTOD) is the fracture components has stimulated researchers for
parameters for analysis of fracture parameters many years.
for analysis of fracture problems under EPFM. We are in need of experimental data to
Thus it is essential to examine relation between characterize fracture ahead of V notches. So, we
J and δ. The general relation between J and δ are finding out the fracture parameters through
[9] three point bend test on Aluminum 6061
J = m σy δ (1) specimen with various notch angles at different
loading conditions using FEA software
Where, σy is the yield stress of the material, m- packages ANSYS [13] and ABAQUS.
constant. Earlier ref [8] indicated that the load
intensity measured in terms of J-integral as a TEST SPECIMEN
single parameter alone does not describe the The test specimen is a rectangular bar with an
strain field ahead of the crack-tip uniquely and angular notch at its middle. The dimensions of
accurately. Hence, there is a necessity of the rectangular bar are, 150 mm in length and
introducing a second parameter with J, which is 20 mm width. Its thickness is 10 mm. Three
required to characterize the crack-tip fields. The different angles are selected for the notch; they
factor m in relation between J and δ given in Eq are 30, 45 and 60 degrees. The specimen is of
(1) is known to be constrain dependent [2] thus aluminum material.
m serve as a parameter to characterize
constraints therefore study of m in relationship TEST CONDITION:
between J and δ is important in EPFM analysis. The rectangular specimen is simply
Shih [8] has shown that the relationship supported and a point load is applied at the
between J and δ can be obtained theoretically midpoint. This is a basic condition where the
by Rice-Rosengren stress field equation [8-7] as crack starts to initiate and propagate easily. In
σy = dn(J/ σy) (2) this investigation, 6061 Grade aluminum flat
specimens were used. All the specimens were
Where dn is a constant which depend on fabricated from the same plate with dimensions
Ramberg-osgood constant N of the material. 20 X 10 X 500 mm flat plate. Table 1 provides
From Eq.1 and Eq.2 the relation between m and the composition for the plate used.
dn as dn= 1/m (3)

Shih has also shown that dn usually varies Table 1: Composition of the specimen
between0.4 to 0.8 for elastic perfectly plastic
materials (N=∞) dn=1, which is obtained by Specimens were fabricated with three
extrapolation. It is required to examine the different notch angles, viz. 30◦, 45◦ and 60◦. The
effect of the specimen geometry and a/W ratio specimens, shown in Fig. 1, had the design
on the factor dn, which can address in plain recommended by ASTM Standard E399-05 for
constrain effects. three-point-bend specimens, except that they
We have taken a rectangular bar with contained a straight-face notch terminated by a
angular notch, since [16]notches in structural semicircular tip instead of a sharp crack. The
components give rise to localized stress ratio of notch depth to specimen width[15] (a /
W) was more than 0.45 for all specimens. The independent of specimen configuration and
other actual dimensions match the nominal ones crack length.
to within the accuracy of the measurements CMOD is found out for various loads of
(0.03 mm). 30º notch angled specimen and it is given.

Table 2 Pre Cracking details Table 3: Force Vs CMOD

Specim V Pre Total
en no angle(degree) crack crack Load( CMOD ( in
mm length in N) mm)
(mm) 0 0
1 30 3.24 9.94 500 0.34503
2 45 3.06 9.76 1000 0.71956
3 60 2.7 9.4 1500 1.03507
This test method involves the 2000 1.38010
determination of the plane strain fracture 2500 1.79891
toughness (Kc)[15] of metals by increasing load 3000 4.7282
tests of fatigue precracked specimens
Graph 1: Load Vs CMOD

Crack mouth opening displacement

under conditions where significant plastic
deformation precedes fracture, the stresses
around the crack tip reach the critical value and
therefore fracture is controlled by the amount of
plastic strain. Crack extension takes place by
void growth and coalescence with the original
crack tip, a mechanism for which the crack-tip
strain is responsible. A measure of the amount
of crack tip plastic strain is the separation of the
crack faces or crack opening displacement
(COD)[4,11], especially very close to the crack The above mentioned values are found
tip. It is thus expected that crack extension will out from ANSYS[13] for a 30º notch angled
begin when the crack opening displacement specimen and it is being mentioned in table and
reaches some critical value which is as a graph.
characteristic of the material at a given The objective of the COD design curve
is to establish a relationship between the crack
Cu Si Mg Mn Fe opening displacement and the applied load and
0.35 0 0.75 0.22 0.38 crack length.
.43 Knowing the critical crack opening
temperature, plate thickness, strain rate and displacement we can determine the maximum
environmental conditions. The criterion [12] permissible stress, or the maximum allowable
crack length, in a structure.
δ = δc (4) All the above found values are for 30
degree angular notched specimen. Similarly, the
takes the form where δ is the crack opening same values are found for 45 and 60 degree
displacement and δc, is its critical value. It is specimen. CMOD data estimated by FEA is
assumed that δc, is a material constant
used to compute the CTOD values from which J We have found out J integral values are
integral can be found out. found out from ABAQUS software package. A
number of investigators have proposed the
CRACK TIP OPENING DISPLACEMENT. mathematical formulation of elastostatic
conservation laws as path independent integrals
The magnitudes of CTOD for various
of some functional of the elastic field over the
load steps have been computed by 90 degree
bounding surface of a closed region. For notch
intercept method [6,10]. Now J integral is found
problems, [5,3,1]Rice introduced the two-
out from this CTOD values. According to this
dimensional version of the conservation law, a
method an 45◦ line drawn from the crack-tip
path independent line integral, known as the J-
with the crank flank displacement plot is
integral.the magnitude of J-integral is also been
considered as half part of CTOD.
evaluated for a path at a specific loading
Graph 2: DISTANCE ALONG CRACK FLANK condition using the expression suggested

Where, W= strain energy density, Ti= traction

vector, ui=displacement vectors= element of arc
length along contour. The present section is
devoted to the theoretical foundation of the path
independent J-integral and its use as a fracture
criterion. The critical value of the opening of
the crack faces near the crack tip is also
introduced as a fracture criterion. Here we have
presented the J-integral in two-dimensional
The graph 2 shows the distance along crack problems and its physical interpretation in
crack flank and displacement along Y direction. terms of the rate of change of potential energy
From the above graph CTOD value can be with respect to an incremental extension of the
found out using 90º intercept method. It is to crack.
draw a 45º line in the graph which can be
The path independent [1-5] nature of the
helpful in finding out CTOD. This is just
integral allows the integration path to be taken
another method to find out CTOD and to insist
close or far away from the crack tip. Although
that only the CTOD value depends and varies
the J-integral is based on purely elastic (linear
upon the method we are using to finding out.
or nonlinear) analysis, its use for plasticity-type
materials has been supported by
experimentation or numerical analysis. We have
limited our discussion to numeric analysis.
Table 4: J integral various notched specimen
Graph 3: Load Vs J integral for various notched specimen

J integral (in KN/mm)

SI no N 30º specimen 45º 60º
specimen specimen
1. 500 0.00405 0.03 0.00146

2. 1000 0.0165 0.115 0.0058

3. 1500 0.0365 0.3 0.0132

4. 2000 0.065 0.52 0.0235

5. 2500 0.1015 0.8 0.036

6. 3000 0.146 1.2 0.053

Various load steps have been applied on

the specimen with a/W=0.5 to study the stress
distribution in the specimen analysis. At each
step magnitude of J-integral is calculated. The
value of CMOD is estimated by FEA are plotted
against J-integral.the difference on CMOD
between both the specimen is found to increase
as loading parameter J-increases.the results
shows that the relationship between J and
CTOD is geometry dependent.

Graph 4: J integral Vs CMOD

Where σc is the stress at crack growth (here
The magnitude of CTOD calculated is peak stress for the given initial crack length),
plotted against J/ σy .the graph shows variation and Kc obtained experiment (based on the
of CTOD against J/ σy is linear. The constant reasonable crack length for the purpose).
between the J/ σy and CTOD is found by the
slopes of the results shown in graph. Table 5: Stress Intensity variations for various specimen

Graph 6: stress intensity various Vs load

Graph 5: CTOD Vs J-integral

It is found that dn value is less than 1.

Further, investigation shows that conversion of RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:
J to CTOD may be associated with some error
depending on the magnitude of dn. The finite element analysis is done for
three types of aluminium 6061 T651 specimen.
Various Finite element methods and techniques
The resistance to fracture may be were followed while carrying the analysis and
characterized by the stress intensity at fracture results are recorded. So, these numerical
Kc, called the fracture toughness. The analysis are very much helpful in future work in
relationship between the stress intensity K and Elasto Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM),
the load P applied on a Centered crack panel where we will be establishing results in
can be defined as follow [14] between the fracture toughness parameters
which will be significant in fracture based

J integral values are found out and they

are plotted in graph against the load applied.
Also CTOD is determined where they are found
out from 90 degree intercept method. Then
Where a is half the crack length, w is half the CMOD values are also found out and they
width, and B is the thickness. At onset of crack plotted against the load applied. Finally Stress
growth the stress intensity factor, K, equals the intensity factors are found out. Thus almost all
fracture toughness Kc. the needed fracture parameters are found out
Therefore, the linear elastic fracture mechanics which would be helpful in establishing
limiting stress is given by[14-15] relationships in future and which can be
significant in fracture based studies.

These were found out the from the

fracture mechanics based analysis of aluminum
bend specimen done numerically Technology, November 1983, 105: 299-
• CMOD and J integral have 4. Jacques H. Giovanola, Steven W.
almost linear relation where a Kirkpatrick, James E. Crocker, Fracture
new formula can be established
of Geometrically Scaled, Notched
between these parameters
Three-Point-Bend Bars of High Strength
• J integral is found greater at 45º Steel, Engineering Fracture Mechanics
specimen, where crack can be 62 (1999) : 291- 310.
developed 5. Merkle J.G., Corten H.T., J-Integral
Analysis for the Compact Specimen
• J integral results show that at
Considering Axial Force as well as
30º and 60º notched specimen,
the stress are relatively less Bending Effects, Journal of Pressure
Vessel Technology, Trans ASME
• Linear relationship can be 1974;96.
established in between Load Vs 6. ASTM 1290-99, 1999. Standard Test
Stress Intensity factor Method for Crack Tip Opening
• The relation between J and Displacement (CTOD) fracture
CMOD strongly depends on the toughness measurement, Philadelphia.
method of estimation of ,crack 7. Kudari.S.K. and Kodancha. K.G., On
tip opening displacement, the Relationship between J – Integral
specimen geometry and a/W and CTOD for CT and SENB
ratio of the specimen Specimens, Frattura ed Integrita’
Strutturale, 6(2008), 3-10.
Results of ANSYS and ABAQUS needs to be
compared. 8. Shih CF. Relationship between the J-
Stress Intensity Factor KIC, 106
SI no Load(in N) Pa√m
1. 500 510 480 470
The authors would like to acknowledge
the support of Arunai Engineering College, 2. 1000 1000 975 950
Tiruvannamalai, and Anna University Chennai.
3. 1500 1520 1450 1400

REFERENCES 4. 2000 2040 1950 1840

1. Rice, J.R., “A Path Independent Integral 5. 2500 2600 2400 2320

and Approximation Analysis of Strain 6. 3000 3100 2920 2800

Concentration by Notches and Cracks”,
integral and the crack tip opening
ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics,
displacement for stationary and
June 1968, 379-396.
extending cracks, Journal of Mechanics
2. H j schinder, Facta universities,
and Physics of Solids 1981, 29: 305-26.
Mechanics,automatic control and
9. T.L Aderson,”fracture mechanics
fundamental and application”,CRC
3. Derbalin.G, “J-integral Estimation
Procedures”, Journal of Pressure Vessel
10. Barsom J.M.(1994) Fracture Mechanics Research Report No
analysis of Fatigue Crack Initiation and 2004:05,School of Engineering
Growth. The International Conference Blekinge Institute of Technology
on Fatigue, Toronto,Canada 15. ASTM E399.18900-05Standard
11. F.Berto, University of Padova, Italy. Test Method for Linear-Elastic
,Relationships between J-Integral and Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness
the strain energy evaluated in a finite KIc of Metallic Materials1.
volume surrounding the tip of sharp and 16. Fracture of components with V-
blunt V notches shaped notches F.J. Gomez, M.
12. Solid mechanics and its application by Elices *Departamento de
E.E. Gdoutos Democritus University of Ciencia de Materiales,
Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. Universidad Polit_ecnica de
13.ANSYS TUTORIAL 2-D Fracture Madrid, E.T.S. Ingenieros de
Analysis ANSYS Release 7.0Dr. Caminos, 28040 Madrid, Spain
A.-V. Phan, University of South Received 25July 2002; received
Alabama. in revised form 6 January 2003;
14. Fracture Toughness Testing of accepted 8 January 2003
Non Standard Specimens,

Frequency Response Analysis of An Automotive Oil Filter Housing

R.Gopinathan1 , ME ( CAD)
Mahendra engineering college, Thiruchengode.
Email: ragopinathan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT is converted into Ansys template file (*.prp file).

Then the analysis is carried out in Ansys10.0. The
In today’s world the automotive analysis part includes modal and Frequency
components are the most sensible and to response analysis. The modal analysis aims in
stand in the diminishing market it is finding out the natural frequencies of the system
required to be updated frequently. The oil and also to find whether the meshing of the
filter housing assembly is the part of the component is correct i.e. nodal connectivity
lubrication system of an automobile and between parts exists or not. The Frequency
since it is located near to the engine, the Response Analysis aims in finding out whether the
vibrations are enormous. So it is more system has the chances of undergoing any
appropriate to do the analysis on the oil resonance due to the forced frequencies.
Filter Housing assembly of an automobile
This project effectively deals with the meshing ofSYSTEM [A]
the oil filter housing components. It is meshed with Nearly all multi cylinder engines used in
tetrahedral elements using Hypermesh 8.0. The automotive, construction, and material-handling
meshing is done with the given quality criterias and
equipment use a liquid-cooled system. Any out of the top outlet of the engine and
liquid used in this type of system is called a into the top tank of the radiator.
coolant. • As the coolant is cooled in the radiator,
A simple lubricating system consists of it again becomes more dense and
a radiator, coolant pump, piping, fan, heavier. This causes the coolant to settle
thermostat, and a system of water jackets and to the bottom tank of the radiator.
passages in the cylinder head and block through • The heating in the engine and the
which the coolant circulates. Some vehicles are cooling in the radiator therefore create a
equipped with a coolant distribution tube inside natural circulation that aids the water
the cooling passages that directs additional pump.
coolant to the points where temperatures are The amount of engine heat that must be
highest. Cooling of the engine parts is removed by the cooling system is much greater
accomplished by keeping the coolant than is generally realized. To handle this heat
circulating and in contact with the metal load, it may be necessary for the cooling system
surfaces to be cooled. The operation of a liquid- in some engine to circulate 18,000 to 45,000
cooled system is as follows: LITERS of coolant per hour. The water
passages, the size of the pump and radiator, and
other details are so designed as to maintain the
working parts of the engine at the most efficient
temperature within the limitation imposed by
the coolant.



Fig. 1.1- Typical Lubrication System [A] 2.1 THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

• The pump draws the coolant from the 2.1.1 Introduction

bottom of the radiator, forcing the If the geometry of the given system is
coolant through the water jackets and complex, it seems that the domain can be
passages, and ejects it into the upper represented as an assembly of geometrical
radiator tank. simple sub domains for which the construction
• The coolant then passes through a set of of approximate function s become feasible. The
tubes to the bottom of the radiator from FEM is based on these ideas.
which the cooling cycle begins. In the FEM, a given domain is discredited
• The radiator is situated in front of a fan by a collection of geometrical simple sub
that is driven either by the water pump domains called Finite Elements and for each
or an electric motor. The fan ensures element of the collection, the element equations
airflow through the radiator at times are derived using any one of the variational
when there is no vehicle motion. principles. The approximation of field variables,
• The downward flow of coolant through now on each element, are systematically
the radiator creates what is known as a generated. The elements are connected together
thermo siphon action. This simply by imposing the continuity of field variables not
means that as the coolant is heated in the only at their nodes but also across the inter
jackets of the engine, it expands. As it element boundaries.
expands, it becomes less dense and
therefore lighter. This causes it to flow
Basic Steps Of Finite Element Analysis engineers to analyze product design
• Discretization of the given domain using performance in a highly interactive and visual
finite element of different types, shapes and environment. HyperMesh's user-interface is
orders. easy to learn and supports much CAD geometry
• Approximation of field variable(s) over and finite element model files - increasing
interoperability and efficiency. Advanced
each element domain
functionality within Hypermesh allows users to
• Element matrix generation.
efficiently mesh high fidelity models.
• Assembly of element Matrices. This functionality includes user defined
• Imposition of boundary and constraint quality criteria and controls, morphing
condition. technology to update existing meshes to new
• Solution of global matrix equations design proposals, and automatic mid-surface
• Post processing of the results. generation for complex designs with of varying
wall thicknesses. Automated tetra-meshing and
2.2 INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS [2] hexa-meshing minimizes meshing time while
Ansys is a general purpose FEM Pack batch meshing enables large scale meshing of
for numerically solving a wide variety of parts with no model clean up and minimal user
mechanical problems. These problems include input.
static/ dynamic structural analysis, Heat
Transfer and fluid problems, as well as acoustic 3.1 PROBLEM
and electronic problems. The superior STATEMENT
performance of Ansys is not based on any
The problem
single product feature alone. It is a combination
statement for this project is stated as
of proven, leading edge tech in all elements of
“Frequency Response Analysis of An
the software that provides accuracy, reliability,
Automotive Oil Filter Housing Assembly”.
speed and flexibility that companies trust to
make them successful.
This project involves in finding out the
natural Frequencies of the system and to find
The superior Technology includes
whether the assembly can successfully
• Advanced coupled multigrid linear overcome resonance due to the forced
solver technology. frequencies. The following are the main
• Unmatched meshing flexibility objectives of this project.
• Superb parallel efficiency 1. FE modeling with Tetrahedral
• Excellent pre and post processing Elements.
capabilities. 2. Modal Analysis of the Assembly
3. Frequency Response Analysis.

Super Technology delivers 4. FE MODELING

• Quick and accurate results 4.1 MESHING THE MODEL
• Intuitive setup The IGES file of the oil filter housing is
• Wider applicability and fewer required imported to the Altair Hypermesh 7.0. After
resources. importing, the geometric cleanup of the
component is done. In the geometric cleanup
2.3 INTRODUCTION TO process, free edges if any found are removed.
HYPERMESH[C] This clean up ensured that there is no defects in
geometry, like free-edges, non-manifold edges,
Altair Hypermesh is a high-performance missing surfaces, etc.
finite element pre- and postprocessor for
popular finite element solvers - allowing
are then used for the meshing of the mating
Fig. 4.1- Small Fillet component.
regions and
Suppressed edges 4.1.2 3D Mesh
After correcting the failed elements and
Then some of the edges which where free edges of the 2D mesh, the 3D tetrahedral
forming small surfaces are suppressed .Thus the mesh is created using tetra4 element. Since the
elements created in these areas don’t fail. The nodal connectivity is given in 2D elements, 3D
Global edge length of the element is fixed as 3, elements will also have connectivity. The
which is set in Global. elements created are then checked with the
quality criteria’s shown in the below table.
Total number of 3D tetra4 elements created is
4.1.1 2D Mesh
1,62,423 & number of nodes found are 48,382
The different parts of the assembly kept
in different collectors, are meshed separately for No. Of % Of
each part. First the component is meshed with
2-D tria3 elements. The required quality Type Limit Elements Elements
criteria’s for the mesh is maintained through Failed Failed
out. After meshing, the element connectivity is Skew > 60 371 0
checked. Equivalence, if any present is given
Tet <
with tolerance 0.01. Then the qualities of the 0 0
elements are been checked. The following table collapse 0.15
gives the quality criteria’s maintained for tria3 Minimum
elements. < 15 100 0
Total number of tria3 elements created
in the model is 85,409. > 135 54 0
Table 4.2 – Quality Criteria’s for 3D elements
Type Limit No. Of % Of
Elements Elements
The meshed components of the
Failed Failed assembly are shown below
Warpage >5 0 0
>5 0 0
Skew > 60 42 0
Jacobian < 0.7 0 0
< 15 0 0
> 135 9 0
Angle Fig.4.2 - Main Housing
Table 4.1 – Quality Criteria’s for 2D elements

The nodal connectivities between the parts are

given in the 2D mesh itself. For giving this
connectivity, the elements of one of the mating
parts are projected on the other. These elements
Creation of Rigids
After meshing all the parts with the nodal
connectivity between the parts, the bolted
locations of the assembly are given rigid
elements. First temporary nodes are created at
the center of the hole, both in the top and
bottom surfaces of the hole. Then the Rigids are
Fig. 4.3 - Secondary Filter
created by selecting the center node as the
independent node (master node) and the
remaining nodes as the dependent node (slave
node). The element type for the rigids is given

Fig. 4.4 - Base Plate

Fig. 4.7 Assembled Finite Element Model

Fig. 4.8 – Nodal Connectivity Between Parts



5.1.1 Definition of Modal Analysis

We use modal analysis to determine the
vibration characteristics (natural frequencies
and mode shapes) of a structure or a machine
Fig. 4.5 -Primary and secondary oil filter cap component while it is being designed. It also
can be a starting point for another, more
detailed, dynamic analysis, such as a transient
dynamic analysis, a harmonic response option with hourglass control is available. A
analysis, or a spectrum analysis. similar element with anisotropic properties is
SOLID64. A higher-order version of the
SOLID45 element is SOLID95.
5.1.2 Uses of Modal Analysis
We use modal analysis to determine the
natural frequencies and mode shapes of a
structure. The natural frequencies and mode
shapes are important parameters in the design
of a structure for dynamic loading conditions.
They are also required if we want to do a
spectrum analysis or a mode superposition The component is made up of two materials.
harmonic or transient analysis. One is of Aluminium and the other is plastic.
We can do modal analysis on a
prestressed structure, such as a spinning turbine Material Property 1 – Aluminium
blade. Another useful feature is modal cyclic
symmetry, which allows us to review the mode Property Value
shapes of a cyclically symmetric structure by Mass 2.74e-6
modeling just a sector of it. Density (ρ) kg/mm3
Modal analysis in the ANSYS family of Young’s 71705
products is a linear analysis. Any non-linearity, Modulus (E) mPa
such as plasticity and contact (gap) elements, Poisson’s
are ignored even if they are defined. We can 0.33
choose from several mode extraction methods:
Block Lanczos (default), subspace, Power Table 5.1 – Aluminium Material Property
Dynamics, reduced, asymmetric, damped, and
QR damped. The damped and QR damped Material Property 1 – Plastic
methods allow you to include damping in the
structure. Property Value
Mass Density 1.3
(ρ) gm/cm3
5.1.3 Overview of Steps in a Modal
Young’s 3450
Modulus (E) mPa
The procedure for a modal analysis consists of Poisson’s
four main steps: 0.3
 Build the model. (Or import the
geometry) Table 5.2 – Plastic Material Property
 Apply loads and obtain the solution.
 Expand the modes. USED
 Review the results.
5.2 SOLID45 ELEMENT DESCRIPTION Block Lanczos Method
SOLID45 is used for the 3-D modeling The Block Lanczos method is used for
of solid structures. The element is defined by large symmetric eigen value problems. We can
three nodes having three degrees of freedom at use this method for the same types of problems
each node: translations in the nodal x, y, and z for which we use the subspace method, but we
directions. achieve a faster convergence rate. The Block
The element has plasticity, creep, Lanczos method uses the sparse matrix solver,
swelling, stress stiffening, large deflection, and overriding any solver specified via the EQSLV
large strain capabilities. A reduced integration command.
1 352.34 1 1
First modal analysis on the assembly is
made without applying any boundary 2 456.31 1 2
conditions. This is done to know whether nodal 3 1096.4 1 3
connectivity is there between the parts. This is
ensured by seeing the first six set values, which 4 1222.2 1 4
will be zero. No damping effects included. The 5 1427.5 1 5
following table gives the natural frequencies of
6 1447.5 1 6
the assembly with out any boundary condition.
The first 15 modes are been extracted and the 7 1892.7 1 7
values are given below. 8 2050.7 1 8
Extracted Natural
9 2057.9 1 9
Modes Frequency (Hz)
10 2065.2 1 10
1 0
11 2097.1 1 11
2 0
3 0 12 2282.3 1 12

4 0 13 2438.8 1 13
5 0 14 2744.1 1 14
6 0 15 2790.4 1 15
7 0.53195E-03
Table 5.4 – Natural Frequency Values
8 0.98903E-03
9 0.25534E-02
10 0.36218E-02 The different mode shapes obtained are given
11 37669E-02
12 0.71921E-02
13 83.369
14 85.776
15 439.10
Table 5.3 – Free- Free Modal frequency values
After completing the free-free modal
analysis, the forced model analysis is done.
Here the boundary conditions are given. Bolted
holes are arrested in all degree of freedom. And
an acceleration of 10 g is been provided. And Fig. 5.1 – 1st Mode shape (Frequency 352.343Hz)
then the modal analysis is done. The following
table gives the different frequencies of the
system. Since the working range is from 40 Hz,
the frequencies are also obtained above 40Hz.
The results and the mode shapes obtained are
given in the following pages.
Fig. 5.2 – 6th Mode shape (Frequency 1447 Hz)


5.6.1 Definition Of Harmonic Response

Any sustained cyclic load will produce a
sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response)
in a structural system. Harmonic response
analysis gives us the ability to predict the
sustained dynamic behavior of structures, thus
enabling us to verify whether the designs will
successfully overcome resonance, fatigue, and
Fig. 5.3 – 10th Mode shape (Frequency 2065 Hz) other harmful effects of forced vibrations.

5.6.2 Uses of Harmonic Response

Harmonic response analysis is a
technique used to determine the steady-state
response of a linear structure to loads that vary
sinusoidally (harmonically) with time. The idea
is to calculate the structure's response at several
frequencies and obtain a graph of some
response quantity (usually displacements)
versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then
identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at
those peak frequencies.
Fig. 5.4 – 13th Mode shape (Frequency 2439 Hz)
Three harmonic response analysis methods are
• Full method,
• Reduced method, and
• Mode superposition method.

The Full Method is used for this analysis.

5.7 FULL METHOD as 40 – 500 Hz and the number of sub steps is
The full method is the easiest of the three given as 15.
methods. It uses the full system matrices to
calculate the harmonic response (no matrix The following are the results obtained for
reduction). The matrices may be symmetric or the harmonic analysis. The graphs are plotted
unsymmetric. The advantages of the full between the frequency and amplitude and
method are: another between frequency and Von mises
• It is easy to use, because you don't have stress.
to worry about choosing master degrees
of freedom or mode shapes.
• It uses full matrices, so no mass matrix
approximation is involved.
• It allows unsymmetric matrices, which
are typical of such applications as
acoustics and bearing problems.
• It calculates all displacements and
stresses in a single pass.
• It accepts all types of loads: nodal
forces, imposed (nonzero)
displacements, and element loads Fig. 5.6 – Frequency Vs Amplitude Plot
(pressures and temperatures). In the Graph, there are two peaks
• It allows effective use of solid-model obtained. This indicates the coincidence of the
loads. natural and forced frequencies. The Peak
amplitudes obtained are at 348 Hz and at 470
The disadvantage is that this method usually Hz. The maximum amplitude obtained is 0.6
is more expensive than either of the other mm.
methods when we use the frontal solver.
However, when we use the JCG solver or the
ICCG solver, the full method can be very



For a harmonic analysis, Both Young's

modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and
density (DENS) (or mass in some form) must
be defined. Material properties may be linear,
isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or Fig. 5.7 – Frequency Vs Von Mises Stress Plot
temperature-dependent. Nonlinear material
properties, if any, are ignored. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
On the same model with the same material In the graphs obtained we are getting
properties, the harmonic frequency response two peak amplitudes at the frequencies 347 and
analysis is been done with the Full Method. The 465 Hz. The maximum displacement obtained
boundary conditions are applied with all bolted is 0.6 mm. The maximum stress obtained is 3.9
holes arrested in all degree of freedom and an e-2 N/mm2. These two maximum frequencies
acceleration of 10 g is been provided. In the are approximately matching with that of the
load step options the frequency range is given natural frequencies 352 Hz and 456 Hz and this
is the reason for the sudden peak in amplitude. I extend my special thanks to Asst.Prof.
So when the forced frequency of a system JAIKUMAR, ME, in Department of
matches with that of the natural frequency, then Mechanical Engineering, for giving me
there is a sure chance of resonance in the valuable suggestions and guidance in bringing
system. So if the system works in this given out this project successfully.
range then, definitely the system is going to fail
due to resonance. Finally, I express my gratitude to
all the faculty members of Mechanical
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Engineering Department, my parents and
friends, who have given me their kind
In any endeavor, more than one person
cooperation and help in completing this project
is responsible for carrying the task to
completion. The efforts resulting in this project
are no exception. Many people have contributed
to the success of this project, either directly or REFERENCES
indirectly. [1] Benson H. Tongue, Principles of Vibration,
I wish to express my profuse thanks to 2nd edn., Oxford university press,NY,2002.
our beloved Principal, who gave us the [2] Thomson, W.T.- ‘Theory of Vibration with
necessary support throughout the course of Applications’, CBS Publishers and Distributors,
study. New delhi, 1990.
I am very much indebted to Department [3] Rao,S.S., ‘Mechanical Vibrations,’ Addison
of Mechanical Engineering, for their timely Wesley longman,1995.
help and support throughout the course of the [4] Srinivasan P.’Mechanical Vibration
project. Analysis’ Tata McGraw Hill,Publishing
company ltd,New Delhi, 1982.
I express my whole hearted thanks to
my project coordinator and Head of the [5] Cook, R.D., Malkus, D.S., Plesha, M.E.,
Department, Department of Mechanical "Concepts and Applications of Finite Element
Engineering, for his valuable guidance, support, Analysis", 3rd ed, 1989.
and encouragement, which helped me in [6] The Finite Element Method, Thomas
accomplishing this project. J.R.Hughes.
[7] Goddard, P.L., (2000), "Software FMEA
techniques", 2000

Improving the Performance of the Active Suspension System using Zero

Power Magnetic Suspension Spring
K.Prabu1, D.Easu2, and Dr.K.Arunachalam3
M.I.T Anna University Chennai /Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India.
M.I.T Anna University Chennai /Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India.
Abstract and it is connected in parallel with the passive
This paper is concerned with the suspension system.
design and implementation of a hybrid
magnet system to reduce the vibration of II. Suspension System Dynamics
suspension system actively. The objective of
the work is to produce excellent spring mass Three types of suspension system are
isolation (i.e. ride quality) and small rattle presently used in vehicle suspensions. They are
space frequency and good road holding passive semi active and active suspension
ability. Two degrees of freedom quarter car systems.
model of a passive suspension system with a
cylindrical type hybrid magnet A. Passive suspension
(electromagnet and permanent magnet) is
considered for the analysis. A laboratory The Passive suspension system contains
scale physical test rig of a quarter car model springs to store the energy and damper to
is developed and interfaced with a suitable dissipate the energy. A spring and damper both
data acquisition card via personal computer fixed between the wheel supporting structure
as the main controller. The results obtained and the vehicle body. However the compromise
from Matlab /Simulink model are compared between three conflicting demand has been
with the experimental results. fixed and it is not possible to enhance the
overall performance at all loads, roads and
I. INTRODUCTION speed condition.

The primary function of vehicle B. Semi active suspension

suspension is to isolate the vehicle body and the
passenger from the road irregularities and Semi active suspension is a variable
produce a continuous road wheel contact. At damper it has the ability to change the damping
present three type of vehicle suspensions are characteristics according to the body motion
used, passive, semi active and active. All the through mechanically changing orifice or fluid
systems implemented in automobiles are based with adjustable velocity. The control algorithm
on hydraulic or pneumatic operation. However is used in the design governs the amount of
it is verified that these solutions cannot solve damping on the type of the vehicle, a damper
the vehicles’ oscillation problems satisfactorily chosen to make the vehicle performance the
or they are expensive and contribute to the best. The damper will be set in the soft damping
increase of energy vehicle consumption. characteristics to have the maximum comfort
while traveling in the straight road and it will be
This analysis is carried out to find the set to be hard while cornering for better stability
possibility of implementing the suspension however no energy is induced in the system.
system using electromagnetic actuators, in order
to improve the performance of the suspension C. Active suspension
system without increasing the energy
consumption and the cost. A reduction of sprung mass vertical
acceleration is achieved with the use of an
This study presents a novel approach to active suspension system Additionally actuator
the problem of active suspension using is placed in between the sprung mass and
levitation principle. In this approach zero power unsprung mass in the passive suspension
control has been used which enhance the power system. The actuator is actuated by hydraulic or
saving. Both the permanent magnet and magnetic, and it is controlled by different type
electromagnet are acting as a magnetic spring of controllers.
Where Fa – is the actuator force produced by the
Low bandwidth active suspension hybrid magnet. When we change the coil
system is known as flow active or band limited current in the electromagnet, the actuator force
system, in this actuator is placed parallel or in will vary accordingly. The external force is
series with convention system. In high obtained by attaching a magnetic actuator to the
bandwidth system actuator alone is placed in system. The equation 3.1 re-written as follows
between the vehicle body and wheel supporting
structure. The entire weight of the car is acting
on the actuator, so that the actuator required Where Kx represents position stiffness and Ki
developing large force to support the car. represents coil stiffness. To maintain 24mm air
gap between permanent magnet and electro
III Suspension model magnet the bias current of the coil current is set
to 0.8A. The characteristics of electro magnetic
A two degree of freedom quarter car system depend on the input current frequency.
model is used for the analysis. The frequency
response of the model has been analyzed. The B. Theoretical analysis
hybrid magnetic actuator has been developed
and the air gap is maintained between the two The parameter of two degree of quarter
magnets. car model taken for the analysis are Ms-18.2kg
Mu- 7.25kg, Ks- 1570N/m and Kt- 4850N/m..
The Frequency response curve is obtain from
MATLAB simulation

Figure 1 Quarter car model

The Figure 1 represents a quarter car model in

which ms represents the sprung mass of the Figure.2 Comparison of spring mass
vehicle, mu represents the unsprung mass of one acceleration
wheel with suspension, ks is the spring stiffness,
Kt is the tire stiffness and C is the damping
coefficient of the damper.

A. Equation of motion

The dynamic behavior of one wheel suspension

system expressed by the following differential

Figure.3 Theoretical Frequency response curve

C. Experimental setup and analysis
V. Conclusion
A laboratory type of two degree of
quarter car model has shown in figure has been In this paper, the mathematical
developed. In this system the passive modeling of suspension system, magnetic
suspension model spring and the damper placed actuator, power amplifier and springs are
parallel to each other. The hybrid magnetic designed and a laboratory scale model of
actuator is placed in between the vehicle body quarter car suspension is developed and tested.
(sprung mass) and wheel supporting structure The results of theoretical simulations are carried
(unsprung mass). Linear bearing and stainless out using MATLAB/simulink tool. MATLAB
steel rod are used to guide the vertical simulation results are compared with the
movement of the mass plates. Electromagnet is experimental results. From this result, we have
fixed on the unsprung mass plate. Permanent concluded that the magnetic actuator for active
magnet is mounted on the sprung mass plate. suspension system gives good sprung mass
The air gap of 24mm is provided to get a isolation, small rattle space frequency and road
maximum magnetic force of 250N. holding ability.


1. Takeshi Mizuno, Masaya Takasaki, Daisuke

Kishita, Keiichiro Hirakawa ‘Vibration
isolation system combining zero power
magnetic suspension with springs’- control
Engineering Practice, 2007 Volume 15, pp
2. Yahaya Md.Sam, Johari H.S.Osman,
M.Ruddin, Ghani ‘A Class of Proportional-
Figure 4 Experimental Frequency response Integral Sliding Mode Control with
curve Application to Active Suspension System.
Systems and control letters’, 2006 Volume
51, pp 217-223
IV. Result and discussions 3. A.G.Thomson and B.R.Davis ‘Optimal
active suspension design using a frequency
In this study a theoretical and shaping PID filter’, Vehicle system
experimental analysis of steady state response Dynamics, 1992 Volume 21, pp.19-37
of conventional suspension system with and 4. Chen-Sheng Ting, Tzuu-HsengS.LI and
without magnetic actuator is carried out. From Fan- Chu Kung ‘Design of Fuzzy controller
the theoretical response curve it is shown that for Active suspension system’ 1995 Volume
the amplitude of vibration of the sprung mass of 5, pp 365-383
the vehicle is considerably reduced under the 5. Haiping Du, Nong Zhang ‘H∞ Control of
action of magnetic damper. active suspensions with actuator time delay’,
The proposed hybrid magnet system shows the Journal of sound and vibration, 2007 Volume
effectiveness of suspension and vibration 301, pp 236-252
reduction in various conditions. One of the 6. D.Hrovat ‘Survey of advanced suspension
remaining problems for application to a real developments and related optimal control
vehicle is the preparation of enough power. In applications’Automatica, 1997 Volume.33,
future if the vehicle uses electrical power pp 1781-1817
source such as a fuel cell or condensed battery, 7. D.A.Crolla and A.M.A.Abouel Nour ’Power
the hybrid magnet system could be considered losses in active and passive suspensions of
as a good vibration reduction system.
off-road vehicles’, Journal of
Terramechanics, 1992 Volume.29, pp 83-93
8. H.Tobbata, K.Fukuyama, T.Kimura
‘Advanced control methods of active
suspension system’- Vehicle system
Dynamics, 1993 Volume 22, pp.347-358
9. M.B.A.Abdel Hady ,’Active suspension
with preview control ‘Vehicle system
Dynamics-, 2002 Volume 21, pp.21-37
10. Rajesh Rajamani ‘Vehicle dynamics and
control’ Springer, University of Minnesota,
USA, 2006.
11. A.Nagoorkani ’Advance control theory’
Second edition, RBA publication, Chennai
Determination Of Price, Warranty presented to describe the solution
procedure for static demand
Period And Product Quantity For distribution.
Free Replacement Policy Under
Static Demand Keywords: Free Replacement warranty,
Profit maximization, static demand.
B. Kishore Goud1 K.Jeyakumar2
1. Introduction
T.Paul Robert3
1 Warranty is an important
P.G Scholar, Department of Industrial
Engineering, CEG, Anna University, Chennai -600 element of marketing new products, as
025. better warranty signals higher product
Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engg., quality and provides greater assurance to
Francis Xavier Engineering College, Tirunelveli - customer. In the purchase decision of a
3. product, buyers typically compare
Asst. Professor, Department of Industrial characteristics of comparable models of
Engineering, CEG, Anna University Chennai- 600 competing brands. When competing
025. brands are nearly identical, it is very
Corresponding Authors: kish.ece@gmail.com , difficult in many instances to choose a
jeyakitcha@yahoomail.com particular product solely on the basis of the
product related characteristics such as
product price, special features, perceived
ABSTRACT product quality and reliability, financing
offered by the manufacturer and so on. In
Now a days post sale factors like such situations, post-sale factors like
warranty, parts availability, warranty, parts availability and cost,
maintenance, service and cost plays a service, maintenance, and so forth take on
vital role in sale of a product. As better added importance in product choice ( Lele
warranty signals higher product quality and Karmarkar [1], and Ritchken et al.
and provides greater assurance to [3]). Of these, warranty is one that is
customers, warranty plays an important known (or at least potentially known) to
factor in marketing new products. the buyer at the time of purchase.
Literature review on various research
contributions in the area of warranty As a result, product warranty
models is carried out. This paper plays an increasingly important role in
proposes a profit maximization model consumer and commercial transactions.
based on short run life cycle for the The use of warranties is widespread and
producer’s works under static demand they serve many purposes. These include
market to determine the optimal price, protection for manufacturer and buyer,
warranty period and product quantity. signaling of product quality, an important
The Free Replacement warranty policy element of marketing strategy, assuring
is considered under which failed buyers against items which do not perform
products are replaced before the end of as promised and play an important role in
warranty period at no cost to the the dispute resolution between buyer and
consumers. The expected number of manufacturer.
renewals based on warranty length is For the same class of products
derived for lognormal distributed in the market, lower price usually tends to
products. The decision variables in the enhance sales volume, but leads to a
model are the price of the product, decrease in the unit profit. Pricing must be
quantity and length of warranty period based on cost to create profit; meanwhile,
throughout which manufacturer is the price of a product should not be too
responsible for service. Results are high to dissuade consumers from
purchasing. Therefore, producers have to many government transactions that involve
treat product pricing as a competitive tool product purchases. The buyer individual,
in their marketing strategy.In addition to corporation, or government agency) point
price, consumers may predict the quality of view of a warranty is different from that
of a product based on its warranty, which of the manufacturer (or distributor, retailer,
is considered as the assurance that the and so forth).
producer provides after evaluating the 2.1 Buyers point of view:
strength of products [2]. For promotion,
warranty can be considered as a marketing From the buyer’s point of view,
tool to differentiate from competitors [3,4], the main role of a warranty in these
since a satisfactory warranty policy will transactions is protectional – it provides a
certainly enhance consumers’ purchase means of redress if the item, when
willingness. If the producer promises to properly used, fails to perform as intended
renew or repair products when failures or as specified by the seller. Specifically,
occur, the commitment length of warranty the warranty assures the buyer that a faulty
and the reliability of the product, which is item will either be repaired or replaced at
related to its lifetime distribution, play a no cost or at reduced cost. A second role is
key role on determining the total cost of informational. Many buyers infer that a
product. A producer must strive to obtain product with a relatively longer warranty
maximum profit in the long run which period is more reliable and long lasting
depends not only on the marketing policy than one with a shorter warranty period.
(i.e. price and warranty length) but also 2.2 Manufactures Point of view:
product quantity. One of the main roles of
In the present paper, we deal warranty from the manufacturer’s point of
with the problem of determining the view is also protectional. The
optimal price, warranty period and product manufacturer may be provided further
quantity with a lognormal distribution in protection by specification of requirements
the static demand market such that the for care and maintenance of the product. A
present value of product profit may be second important purpose of warranties for
maximized. We consider the free renewal the manufacturer is promotional. Since
Warranty policy under which the failed buyers often infer a more reliable product
products are renewed before the end of when a long warranty is offered, this has
warranty length at no cost to consumers. been used as an effective advertising tool.
Moreover, the demand function of the This is often particularly important when
static market, and the cost function will be marketing new and innovative products,
discussed. A profit optimization model which may be viewed with a degree of
with price, warranty length and product uncertainty.
quantity is developed, and the solution
approach will be described in detail. 3. Literature Review
Finally interpretation is done for the
proposed model and some conclusions is There has been an increased
drawn based on the proposed model and research attention on warranty models.
discussions. Glickman and Berger (1976) proposed an
early model for this important research
2. Concept Of Warranty area. They assumed that the customers
were homogeneous, with their demand
Warranty is a contractual determined by an exponential function of
agreement incurred by a manufacturer price and warranty length. The optimal
(vendor or seller) in connection with the price and warranty length were obtained
sale of a product. Warranties are an by maximizing the manufacturer’s profit
integral part of nearly all commercial and
function. The expected sales volume, or Pei -Chun Lin, Li-Yen Shue (2005)His
demand, is represented by a displaced log- study investigates optimal policies for
linear function of the form q(p,w) = k1 p -a determining price and warranty length
(w+k2) . when free replacement of defective items
Mesak(1996) presented diffusion is the business policy and the demand is
models to derive the optimal pricing policy dependent on price, warranty, and
and warranty period for a monopolist cumulative sales. We apply optimal
selling new products. Based on the control theory to a profit-maximization
assumption that the demand depends on model that takes into consideration the
the product price, warranty period, and expected warranty cost per item. Chin-
cumulative number of adopters. Chun Wu, Pei-Chun Lin,Chao-Yu Chou
Teng and Thompson (1996) (2009)In this paper, a decision model is
developed a general framework to presented for manufacturing firms to
determine the optimal price and quality determine the optimal price and warranty
policies of new products for a length to maximize profits based on the
monopolistic manufacturer during a pre determined lifecycle. We consider the
planning period. In the proposed free renewal warranty policy under which
framework, they considered the learning failed items are renewed free of charge
effects on the supply (manufacturer) side until a specified total operating time has
and the diffusion and saturation effects on been achieved. A sensitivity analysis is
the demand (customers) side. The model conducted to evaluate the effect of model
deal with the dynamics between price and parameters on the optimal solution.
quality on new product. RueySheng- Kwei Tang(2008) In this paper the main
TsaingTseng(2000) objective is to determine a joint dynamic
considers the optimal production length pricing and warranty policy for the
for deteriating production system in which lifetime of the product, which maximizes
the products are sold with free minimal the manufacturer’s expected profit. It is
repair warranty. The deteriating process of assumed that customers are heterogeneous
system is characterized by a two state with respect to risk aversion toward
continuous time markov chain. uncertain repair costs after the warranty
Jayaprakash G.Patnakar(1990)The paper expires.
develops a methodology to aid the 4.Problem Formulation
manufacturer in selecting the price and The profit maximization model
warranty time of its products. The model consider price, warranty length and
considers the case where the products are product quantity as the decision variables
assumed to be complements of each other. that are to be determined dynamically to
A multi-objective model is formulated maximize the overall profit. We referred to
where it is assumed that the decision models presented by Glickman and Berger
maker is able to prioritize his goals. A goal (1976) and Teng and Thomson (1996) in
programming approach is used and the investigating the maximum market value
effects of the chosen parameters on the of products. Thus, in particular , utilize the
optimal solution. Log Normal Distribution .Because it is one
Surajith Pal and D.K Manna of the most widely used lifetime
(2003) deals with a marketing decision distribution. Thus demand function as
problem in the classical single period being related to, not only price and
stochastic inventory model, where the warranty, but also quantity to be produced.
level of marketing effort decides on the Total expected Profit , π, as a function of
extent of demand. Specially it is assumed the unit price( p), quantity (q) ,and the
that demand is an increasing concave length of the warranty period( t), may be
function of the level of marketing effort. expressed by multiplying the expected
profit derived from the sales of each unit E[x] = exp( µ + σ 2 /2)
by number of units sold. The expression
for unit profit will be formulated in a ln(x)=c+a*lnp+b*ln (t+ δ ) + e ----------(3)
general fashion as an expectation in order Where, µ = c+a*ln p +b* ln(t+ δ ) ----(4)
for the model to be applicable to products
requiring random, possibly multiple a<-1, 0<b<1 , δ > 0 e~N ( µ ,σ 2 )
repairs under warranty ,where the cost per
repair is constant. Fx (x) = φ[(ln x − µ ) / σ ]
(ln x − µ ) / σ
4.1 Notations and Assumptions
P = Unit selling price = ∫1 /
2π e(-u2/2) du
T = Warranty length
Q = Quantity produced Where, u= (lnx-µ)/ σ
Cq = Unit manufacturing
cost 5. Proposed Objective Function
w = Warranty repair
cost/failure Consider a product with an effective lifetime
ρ (t) = Expected no. of from 0 to T
warranty failures
Given X=x, total Profit is given by
per unit
= ( λt)β Π(q,p,t/x)=
x = quantity of demand
(sold) px +ν (q - x) - cq - λtwq if x < q
= x (p, t)  ---(5)
px - cq - λ twq if x ≥ q
fx(.) = Probability density
function of x Then total expected Profit as,
υ = Unit salvage price

E[Л(q,p,t)] = ∫ ∏ (q, p, t \ x) fX(x) dx
4.2 Assumptions 0
 Units salvage are also covered by q
warranty of length ‘t’. = ∫ [ px + ν (q − x) − cq − λtwq ] fx(x) dx +
 Cq = c (independent of q) ∞

 ρ (t) = λt, (β=1) ∫ [ pq − cq − λtwq] fx(x) dx

 Follows Log normal distribution. q
=(p-ν ) ∫ x fx(x)dx+
Let X ~Log Normal (µ, σ 2) , 0
Then fX (x) = 1/ σ x 2π exp [-1((lnq-µ)/ (ν − c − λtw)q Φ[(ln q − µ ) / σ ]
σ x ) 2/2], x ≥ 0 ----------------(1) + (p-c- λ tw)q Φ[(ln q − µ ) / σ ]
The objective function wish to maximize
Where µ ,σ are parameters is,
Such that -∞<µ<∞ and σ > 0
q П( p, t, q) =( p – c – λtw ) q + ( p-υ)
Fx= Φ [(ln q − µ / σ )] = ∫ (1 / σ 2π ) exp [-1((lnq-µ)/ σ x
[eμ+σ2/2 Ф[(lnq – μ – σ2)/σ] – q Ф [(lnq –
0 μ)/σ) ]--------------------------------------(6)
) 2/2] dx----------------------------(2)
6. Interpretation and Discussions
Where Φ (.) = cdf Of N(0,1) We assumed that demand is static but it in
Mean of log normal distribution function is real case it can be influenced by marketing
effort. It is natural that demand is likely to [2] Murthy, D.N.P.,(1990): “Optimal reliability
grow with an increase in marketing effort choice in product design”,Engineering
with a diminishing rate. The relation optimization, Vol. 15,pp.281-294.
between the mean demand and marketing
effort is shown in the figure. Here
marketing effort is a function of (p, t) , Say [3] Ritchken P.H, Chandramohan.J(1989):
‘m’. It will be more when value of price “C.STapiero, Servicing,quality design
decreases and warranty period increases. andcontrol”,IIE ansactions,Vol.21,pp.213-
Interpretations may be done with various 220.
cases on p, q and t is to be substituted in
our proposed profit maximization [4]Teng,J.T.,&Thomson,L.(1996): “Optimal
expression to maximize the manufacture’s
Strategies for general Price quality decision
models of new products with learning
Figure 1 Relationship between production”,European Journal of Operational
marketing effort and mean demand Research, 93(3),pp. 476-489.
7. Conclusion and Future Scope
When noticing the limitations of previous [5] Murthy, D.N.P., Djamaludin,I.,(2002):
research, this study adds to the literature by “Product warranty :A review”, International
identifying the problem of optimal journal of production Economics, Vol. 79, pp.
determination of profit of unique products 231-260
fewer than two dimensional FRW policies.
Optimality, in the present context, refers to
[6] Menezes, M.A.J. and Currim, I.S. (1992):
maximization of manufacture’s profit that has
been measured by price, warranty length and “An approach for determination warranty ,
quantity. In future work, the objective function length”,International Journal of Research i
can be optimized by using one of the Meta Marketing, Vol. 9,pp.177-95.
heuristic techniques to maximize
manufacture’s profit. In our work we consider [7] Glickman, T.S. ,& Berger , P.D.(1976):
only FRW policy but the future work can be “Optimal price and protection Period
extended to PRW and combination of FRW/
decisions for a product under warranty”,
PRW. The static market is considered in the
present paper. Future work may be on the Management science, Vol.22, pp.1381-1389.
discussion of the effect of the market dynamics [8] Wu.C.C., Lin.P.C,Chou, C.Y(2006):
to model. This type of model is suitable for “Determination price and warranty
durable products which obey the diffusion length for normal lifetime distributed
effect. This situation characterizes the case product”, International Journal of
where word of mouth effect is very important, Production Economics, Vol.102, pp.95-107.
In addition, future study can also be extended
to explore the effects of various warranty
policies and market variables. [9] Pei -Chun Lin, Li-Yen Shue(2005):
“Application Of Optimal Control
REFERENCES Theory to Product Pricing and
[1] Lele M.M, Karmarkar U.S.(1983): Warranty With Free Replacement
“ Good product support smart marketing”, under influence Of Basic Life time
Harvard Business Review,Vol. 61,pp124-132 Distribution” ,Computers and
Industrial Engineering,Vol 48, pp.69-82.

[10] Kwei Tang and Yanjun Li(2008):

“Dynamic pricing and warranty”, Tsaing Tseng(2000): “Optimal
European Journal Of Operational Production run Length for products
Research,Vol.116, pp. 259-273 sold with warranty”, European Journal
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[11] Chin-Chun Wu, Pei-Chun Lin,Chao-Yu pp.575-582.
Chou (2009): “Determination Of Price
and Warranty Length For a Normal [13] Surajith Pal and D.K Manna(2003):
Lifetime distributed Product”, “A Marketing Decision Problem in
International Journal Of Production Single Period Stochastic Inventory
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of India, Vol 40,No.3.
[12] Ruey Huei Yeh,Wen-Tsung Ho,Sheng-

Emerging Trends -A new generation Tractor Protection Valve: Re-design and

computational simulation of concept
Hariharan.S1, Dr.G.Devaradjane2
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: hari_mechizen@yahoo.co.in
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: deva@mitindia.edu

Abstract thermodynamic modeling of the valve

functionality using fundamental equations.
Tractor Protection Valve is a very Structural Analysis is carried out based on
important valve in the braking Circuit of a valve requirement in extreme conditions of
“Towing” vehicle. The purpose of it is to operation.
isolate the tractor braking circuit from the Flow simulation is considered with
trailer circuit in case of a leak or all the elements in the form of springs,
disconnection between tractor and trailer, dampers, constant pressure reservoir,
thereby protecting both Tractor and trailer. source signal and orifice with their
Trailer is protected by spring Brakes which respective physical parameters.
apply the instant, the air from compressor All 3D modeling is carried out in
(Trailer Supply) falls below a threshold Pro-Engineer, Structural Analysis in
valve. The tractor retains full braking ANSYS WORKBENCH 10 FEM software
functionality with driver’s signals. In this and flow simulation in AMEsim 7.0B
paper, we focus on re-design of this valve to package.
include multi-functionality including that
of Double check valves, Quick Release Index terms – Relay Valve, AMEsim
Valves and a solenoid controlled signal Analysis, Re-design, Response time,
option to include Anti Lock Braking Simulation
( ABS ) and Roll stability.
Detailed design of the structural I. VALVE DESCRIPTION:
functionality carried out based on The Tractor Protection Valve is located in
customer inputs. All calculations are the braking circuit of a Towing type of
carried out based on “Relay” valve vehicle as shown in Fig 2.1.
concept. Re- Design is started with basic
The inputs to the Tractor Protection Valve is reaches 0. 5 bar in that valve.(i.e. time taken
from the Push pull Valve (PP5 ) which acts as to reduce the 75% asymptotic pressure ).
a Tractor ON signal for the circuit to function. For brake application valves, the response
Another input is from the Foot Brake Valve time for one Relay Apply should be less than
( Dual), which gives as Primary and 0.23 seconds. The release time should be less
Secondary Signal. The third input is from the than 0.43 seconds. The valve manufactured
Hand Brake Valve. The final input is from the should satisfy this condition for real time
Primary and Secondary Reservoir. application in heavy vehicles.
The output of this valve is fed to Spring B Single orifice Concept:
Brake Valve SR5 namely the Trailer Service The valve is made of two relay valve
and another to R12, namely the Trailer in series with each other. Each relay valve is
Supply. modeled with simplest assumption as single
orifice to flow. It is considered as a flow from
an infinite volume to a constant volume.

Figure II Single orifice Analysis

With this flow process assumption, we arrive

at an equation to estimate the Equivalent flow
area required at the orifice section.
Mass flow rate through orifice = Rate of mass
accumulated in chamber 2.
Using compressible flow relations
Figure I Layout of Braking System
Mass flow through orifice =
1.42 1.72
VALVE m orifice = C D Aorifice   − 2
γ − 1 RT1  P1   P1 
A. Terms And Definitions: --------- (1)
Response time for apply
Response time in case of pneumatic valves By applying control volume analysis to the
can be defined as per International Standards chamber 2
as the time elapsing between the moment the By differentiating the perfect gas equation
valve begins actuated to the moment the p V
pressure in the least efficiently reaches 75% m2 = 2 2 with respect to time and
R T2
of the asymptotic pressure in that valve. (i.e.,
converting the dT/dt term into dP/dt, we get
time to take pressure rise from 0 bar to 75%
The rate of mass accumulated in chamber 2 is
of signal pressure.)
Response time for release
According to assumption (1) = (2)
This is the time elapsing between the
moments the valve begins released to the
moment the pressure in the least efficiently
Using these formulae, the theoretical value of
area required for Application and Release of
valve is estimated. The results are shown in
table 2.1
For our application,
1. The required volume of filling is 4
brake chambers, contributing to 50 x 4
= 200 cc
2. The operating signal pressure is 135
-----------(3) psi gauge for apply
3. The signal pressure is 105 psi for
Where release
1− n 4. The reservoir is first in atmospheric
Coeff. Discharge = C D =
7 * [ n 2 / γ − n] pressure – 0 bar gauge
5. The atmospheric temperature is taken
as 300K
6. (Operating temperature is 290 to 310
When 7. The co-efficient of discharge is
calculated from standard pipe friction
charts which correspond to 0.60 for
apply and 0.98 for release.
8. The rate of pressure rise is calculated
1− n
Cd = 1/ γ
as the ratio of increase in pressure from
7 * [ncrit − ncrit ] + ncrit − n P2 to P1 within a time interval
On simplifying equation 3 with specific For apply – we take as 0.25 second
values, we obtain the equation below which For release –we take as 0.60second
can be directly used for our estimation.

F Equi-
Where, dP/d valent
V2 – Destination Volume to be filled, m3 P1 P2 Cd low
t flow
R – Gas Constant, K / kg/K area
Path Dia.
T 2 – Temperature of the destination volume, <no
Ba bar/ mm
m3 Bar unit 2 mm
r sec
dP / dt – rate of pressure change bar/ sec >
γ – Gas Constant for medium (1.4 for air) Apply 10.1 1 36 0.65 55.5 8.41
P1 – Signal Pressure, bar Releas 1.
7.5 11.6 0.95 94.5 10.95
With pipe friction also considered as standard e 3
Aeffetive Our valve is considered as two Relay Valves
Cd =
Ageometrical in Series for “Apply” path and in “Release”
The ratio is obtained from standard Pipe path, it is just one Valve.
In dynamic analysis of flow through a
valve, we consider the orifices as equivalent The observed Values in actual column
to Resistors in electrical circuit. To estimate denote values found out by experimental
the resistance to flow path, we create an observations of the model under standard
equivalent flow diameter to the system which testing conditions. With this comparison, we
is calculated as below. By this approach, we conclude that the formula has concurrence
assume the whole flow path as an equivalent within 10 % of the experimental value.
to a circular pipe with diameter equivalent to Hence, re-design process can be carried out
equivalent flow diameter. based on the value calculated by the formula.
1/Aeq3 = 1 / A13 +1 / A23 +1 / A33 +….. By accounting for same amount of errors,
we started re-designing the component for the
Where new corrected Equivalent flow diameters.
A1 - Area at the first cross section
A2 - Area at the second cross section TABLE IV
A3 - Area at the first cross section COMPARISON OF VALUES OF

III DESIGN OF THE NEW MODEL: Theoretical Modificatio Actual

With data from theoretical analysis, the Flow diameter n with error Value in
modeling of whole valve is carried out with path required accounted the Model
mm mm mm
help of Pro Engineer and it is modeled in 6
Apply 8.41 9.17 9.47
different layers to suit the customer
requirement. Releas 11.44
10.95 10.78
The various layers are: e
• Top Cover
• Top Block
• Middle Block
• Relay block
• Bottom Block
• Bottom Cover
A modular design is adopted here to ensure
that design is robust and low cost.
The calculated Value of the equivalent flow
diameter is compared with the flow diameters
of an existing sample prototype.
Figure III Cut section of the new model
TABLE SHOWING RESULTS OBTAINED This cut section shows both the relay valves
ON PHYSICAL TESTING OF THE in sectional view. The yellow and Green path
SAMPLE denotes a control Signal. The red path shows
the path of travel of high volume air flow.
Observe Equivalent flow The mounting bolt holes are shown, which
Conditio d Diameter Error retain the same distances as that of the
n Timing Actu Theoretic existing model.
Second mm mm % The Top Cover is the Top-most block which
Apply 1.44 has input connections from the tractor.
0.89 8.86 8.99
5 The second layer is called the Top Block
Release .564 6.11 5.60 9.15 which contains the air flow circuits forming
the Double check Valves for signals and
another Non Return valve for the flow from
The third layer is called the Middle Block,
which contains the pneumatic flow paths to
service and supply relay actuation.
The fourth layer is called the Relay block. It
is the region which has both the relays.
The fifth layer is called the Bottom Block. It
contains the provisions for the bonded valves
and also the air route to outlets and exhaust.
The bottom cover is the bottom-most block,
which acts as a common exhaust for both
release phases and also the Output ports to Loading Condition:
The layers are sealed using gaskets which
employ sealing similar to “O” rings.
All the layers are held together by 2 sets of
bolts with 6 each from the Top Cover and the
Bottom Cover fastening to the Relay Block.


Two Critical layers of the model are

subjected to FEM analysis for Structural
Strength namely the Bottom block and the
Relay block. Figure IV Loading of Bottom Block

A. BOTTOM BLOCK Overall Pressure load of 0.9 MPa

Material Properties All bolt faces are fixed

TABLE V Estimated Equivalent Stress:


Material Nylon 6 with 30 % Glass filling

Young’s 2800 Mpa
Fatigue Stress 39 Mpa
Poisson’s ratio 0.35
Density 1110 Kg/ m3

Element Used for Meshing:

Figure V Stress plot of Bottom Block

Max Equivalent Stress 10.627 Mpa

Fatigue Stress 39 MPa
Min. Factor of Safety 3.67
Estimated Displacement: Bolt Faces Fixed
Mounting Bolt Faces Fixed
Air pressure 0.9 MPa

Estimated Equivalent Stress:

Figure VI Displacement plot of Bottom Block

Max Displacement 0.18mm

Figure VIII Stress plot of Relay block

Max Equivalent Stress 26.672 MPa

Fatigue Stress 114 MPa
Min. Factor of Safety 4.27
Material Properties
TABLE VI Estimated Displacement:

Material Aluminum Alloy – SCMATL

Young’s Modulus 0.71x 105 MPa
Minimum Yield 152 MPa
Minimum tensile 190 MPa
Minimum endurance 114 MPa
Figure IX Displacment plot of Relay Block
Poisson’s ratio 0.33
Density 2750 Kg/ m3 Max. Displacement 0.010 mm
Element Used for Meshing: V FLOW ANALYSIS USING AMESIM

In AMEsim pneumatic package, the whole

working circuit is modeled giving the same
working parameters, the response time is
First Simulation circuit is for Trailer Service
with apply mode of operation. We select
Loading Condition: Trailer Service because, it is most important
in our application. This circuit involves the
operation of both relays.
Figure VII Loading of Relay Block
Tractor Supply with Apply and release


It has been found from the thermodynamic
equations, that the equivalent flow area plays
a major role in the response time of a relay
valve. Based on these Calculations, an
existing Tractor Valve design is modified.
From Structural analysis using FEM
software ANSYS WORKBENCH 10, we can
find that the design is safe structurally on
application of gas loads and bolt force.
The flow simulation using AMEsim shows
Figure X : Simulation circuit for Trailer that the constructed model of the relay valve
Service Apply is almost accurate with errors up to a
maximum of almost 10 %.


Observ Respon New

Specific ed se time model
Condi ation Respo from Respo
tion nse AMEsi nse
Secon m time
Second Second
Figure XI : Response time Curve for trailer d d
Service Apply – Existing model Apply 0.34 0.564 0.51 0.31
0.82 0.89 0.82 0.74

The model is used to predict the

performance of the new design is based on
same Working circuit with change in values
of the areas at critical sections show that
response time specifications can be met by
incorporating the new design.
Thus the new design will be capable of
operating with the required Specifications.


The model constructed has the co-efficient
Figure XII : Response time Curve for trailer of discharge values taken from standard pipe
Service Apply – New model flow charts. Further work can be done in
resizing the flow areas to reduce the flow
Similarly, the circuits are constructed for restriction if any on the sections to correct the
Trailer Service with Release configuration,
minor errors of less than 10 % observed in the


1. S.V.Natarajan, S.C.Subramanian,
S.Darbha, K.R.Rajagopal, “A Model of
Relay Valve Used in an Air Brake
System,” Nonlinear analysis: Hybrid
systems 1 (2007) 430-442.
2. Acarman T. and Ozguner U. (2000)
‘Pneumatic brake system modeling for
systems analysis,’ SAE Paper 2000-01-
3. W.B. Browner, Jr., E. Eisler,” On the
compressible flow through an orifice”,
Journal of Fluid Engineering, Vol
115,December 1993 pp 660 -664.
4. Khan Y., Kulkarni P. and Youcef-Toumi
K. (1994) ‘Modeling, experimentation and
simulation of a brake apply system,
Journal of Dynamic Systems,
Measurement and Control, vol. 116, pp.
5. Yahya S.M. (2004) ‘Fundamentals of
Compressible Flow’, New Age
International Publishers
6. Krishna Chaitanaya. S, “Theoretical and
Experimental Analysis for prediction of
response time in Air Brake Valves”, Anna
Univerity M.E. Thesis , 2007.
7. Kumaravel.B, “Modeling and Simulation
of a Relay Valve in Air Brake Circuit”,
Anna Univerity M.E. Thesis, 2008.
8. Various Design Guidelines of Wabco Tvs
India Limited, Chennai
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Experimental studies on the vibration control of a cantilever beam using

Active Piezoelectric Damping Treatment (APDT) with comparison of
different setups
M.Arun Kumar1, G.Balasubramanian 2 and S.Dinesh Kumar3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.
E-Mail: tamilpriyanarun@gmail.com
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.
E-Mail: balagb@yahoo.co.in
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engg College, Perundurai, Erode- 638052, India.

ABSTRACT not. The performance of the

uncontrolled and controlled system is
A new type of structural damping analyzed at various operating
treatments is introduced. This is a type conditions using sensitivity analysis.
of Active piezoelectric damping During the vibration of the beam,
treatment (APDT) which relies its while top layer is contracted bottom
operation on the viscoelastic damping will be expanded and vice versa. Here
layer sandwiched between the two an attempt has been made to constrain
piezoelectric layers. In this study a both top and bottom layers using
viscoelastic damping layer is APDT. Based on the time sensitivity
sandwiched between two piezoelectric analysis of these systems, It is shown
damping layers and two set of these that best performance is obtained
patches are placed on either side of the using hybrid configuration wherein
beam. Experimental analysis has been two patches of the APDT are placed on
carried out using aluminum beams both sides of the beam.
with APDT patches. The test beam is
subjected to sinusoidal excitations and Keyword: Constrained layer damping,
its response is analyzed when the piezoelectric materials, and active vibration
piezoelectric layers are activated or control.

1.0 INTRODUCTION way. Recently the emphasis has been placed on

combining the attractive attributes of the active
The active control of structural vibration using and passive damping approaches to develop a
induced strain actuators has been the subject of wide variety of light-weight and high-damping
many studies in the last decade. It has been hybrid treatments. Examples of these hybrid
shown that significant reductions in the vibration treatments include: shunted piezoelectric
levels of beams and plates can be achieved in this networks (SPN) [1], active constrained layer
damping (ACLD) [2–4], and hybrid damping [5].
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Therefore, in the three hybrid damping these patches in response to the structural
treatments described, three distinct damping vibration deforms the viscoelastic damping layer
augmentation mechanisms were analyzed. In the across its thickness and dissipates the vibration
SPN, the augmentation results from the energy energy in the form of heat. Here two varities of
dissipation in the shunted electric circuitry APDT has been shown.APDT-1 consists of a
whereas in the ACLD treatments, the viscoelastic layer and piezoelectric layer.APDT-2
augmentation is attributed to the enhanced shear consists of two piezoelectric layer and one
and Compressional deformations of the visco- viscoelastic layer.
elastic layers, respectively.
In this paper, we introduce a new class of
hybrid damping treatments which is the Active
piezoelectric damping treatment (APDT). The
APDT is a modified active version of the
magnetic constrained layer damping (MCLD)
treatment [6]. In the APDT, the compression Fig 1 APDT-1
damping of the visco-elastic layer is controlled
using piezoelectric actuators which have high
control authority as compared to that of the
piezoelectric fibers used in the APDC treatment.
Therefore, the APDT could present a viable and
practical means for controlling high amplitudes of
vibration of massive structures. The proposed
Fig 1a APDT-2
APDT is also an active version of the passive
Compressional damping treatment that has been
successfully employed and analyzed by Douglas 3.0 PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVE
and Yang [7], In the passive Compressional PIEZOELECTRIC DAMPING TREATMENT
damping treatment, the viscoelastic layer is
In this section, the experimental
sandwiched between the base structure and an
performance of the APDT has been determined.
elastic layer. Damping is generated by virtue of
The performance of the APDT configurations are
the relative transverse deflection between the
determined at different control gains. The
base structure and the elastic layer. Liu and Wang
obtained characteristics are compared with those
[8] proposed the use of a hybrid constraining
of conventional passive constrained layer
layer viz., partly active _PZT_ and partly passive
damping (PCLD) treatments which are APDT
(Al2O3). It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper
with zero control gain or APDT operating in their
is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the APDT
open-loop mode.
by analyzing the layer thickness variation and
optimum placement position of APDT patch as an Five systems have been studied (Fig. 2) viz.
active Compressional damping treatment in System 1: Beam
controlling the vibration of beams experimentally. System 2a: Beam-single APDT-1
2.0 CONCEPT OF APDT System 2b: Beam-double APDT-1
The concept of the APDT can best be System 3: Beam-single APDT-2
understood by considering the configuration System 4: Beam-double APDT-2
shown in Fig. 1. In this configuration, a
viscoelastic damping layer is sandwiched 4.0 BEAM PROPERTIES
between two piezoelectric patches. Activation of
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Four aluminum beams are used as test articles in actuator are listed in Table 1.Both of the APDT
this study same as used by A Baz [2]. The first patches are placed near the fixed end of the beam
beam is tested as bare beam. The second beam is with an offset of 0.0047 m (3/16 in).
provided with a piezoelectric+VEM patch at the
top of the beam. The third beam is provided with
single APDT at the top .The fourth beam is
provided with two APDT.The properties of the
beam, VEM damping polymer, and piezoelectric


Property Beam Vicoelastic Constraining Piezoelectric
layer actuators
Material Aluminum 3M ISD 112* Aluminium SP-5H***
Cross section(mm) 25x3 25x2 25x0.5 25x0.4
Density(kg/m3) 2700 1230 2700 7500
Modulus of elasticity(N/m2) 70x109 0.01x109 70x109 62x109

*ISD 112 is visco elastic manufactured by the amplitude and frequency content of the
Cephas Medical Private Ltd Company, Chennai vibrations. The sensor signal is utilized also to
(http://www.tradeindia.com) generate the necessary control action using a
**SP-5H is manufactured by sparkler ceramics derivative controller. The resulting output
PvtLtd.India(http://www.sparklerceramics.com signal is sent to activate the piezoelectric layer
). The viscoelastic damping layer sheet has of the APDT patch. Figure 3a shows p the
density=1230 kg/m3. The elastic modulus of the experimental set up.
viscoelastic material is represented by a
complex number: E=E’ (1+iη) where E’ is the
storage modulus, η is the loss factor of the
material and i= .


The experimental set-up to be used for
monitoring the dynamics of the beam/APDT
system is shown in Fig. 3. The test beam is
excited by an electromechanical shaker driven
by the function generator and a power
amplifier. The amplitude of vibration of the
free end of the beam is monitored by a laser
sensor. The output signal of the sensor is
sampled by a spectrum analyzer to determine
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09

Fig 2 Layout of different system investigated

Fig 3 Experimental set up

Figure 3a.experimental set up

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


Gain 10 20 30
System 2a 2b 3 4 2a 2b 3 4 2a 2b 3 4
Tip Before 1.7 1. 1. 1.4 1.6 1.6 1. 1. 2 1.4 1. 1.1
displacement control 6 8 4 2 2
at resonance After 1.1 0. 0. 0.4 1.0 0.9 0. 0. 1. 0.8 0. 0.7
(mm) Control 8 6 7 3 4 6
% 35.2 50 66 7 3 43.7 50 75 30 42.8 50 36.36
Reduction 9 1.4 7.5 5 5



Active Control of Forced Vibration


Here the parameters used for

comparative study of various systems with the
system1 are the amplitude of vibration before
the Active Piezo electric Damping
Treatment (APDT) is switched on and the
controlled amplitude of vibration APDT is
turned on. Typical responses are compared in
Fig-4(a).Comparison of system-2a
the following figures. Time t=0 on the x axis with system-1
indicates the instant when APDT is switched
It is observed from Table 2 that the
lowest resonant amplitude occurs for system
4.System 4C is observed to exhibit
significantly low resonant amplitudes with
marginal change in the system fundamental
frequency. The effectiveness of control, as
reflected in the percentage reduction of
resonant amplitude, is the best for system 4.
Where two APDT are directly mounted on the
beam. The following figures show the
reduction of amplitudes in the various systems
Fig-4(b).Comparison of system-2b
with system-1

Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Recent Advances in Design, Application & Manufacturing Systems RADAMS ‘09


[1] Orsagh, R., and Ghoneim, H., 1999,

‘‘Experimental Investigation of
Electromechanical Surface Damping,’’ Smart
Mater. Struct. Conf. Pass. Damp. 3672, pp.

[2] J. Oh S. Poh M. Ruzzene A. Baz July

2000“Vibration Control of Beams Using
Electro-Magnetic Compressional Damping
Treatment”, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics,
122, pp 235-243
Fig-4(c).Comparison of system-3
with system-1 [3] Baz, A., and Ro, J., March 1994, ‘‘the
Concept and Performance of Active
Constrained Layer Damping Treatments,’’
Sound Vib. Mag., 28, No. 3, pp. 18–21.

[4] Baz, A., 1996, ‘‘Active Constrained Layer

Damping,’’ U.S. Patent #5,485,053, Jan.
[5] Shen, I. Y., 1994, “Hybrid Damping
through Intelligent Constrained Layer
Treatments,” ASME J. Vibr. Acoust.,
116_3_, pp. 341–349.

[6] Ruzzene, M., Oh, J., and Baz, A., 2000,

‘‘Finite Element Modeling of Magnetic
Fig-4(a).Comparison of system-4
Constrained Layer Damping,’’ J. Sound Vib.
with system-1
[7] Douglas, B., and Yang, J., 1978,
‘‘Transverse Compressional Damping in the
5.0 CONCLUSION vibratory esponse of Elastic-Viscoelastic-
Adding the APDT on the both sides of Elastic Beams,’’ AIAA J., 20, No. 9, pp. 1284–
the beam greatly reduces the amplitude of the 1290.
vibration of the beam. Through a systematic
experimental investigation on five systems
(viz., bare beam, two variants of single APDT-
1, and two variants of APDT-2), it has been
attempted to identify the best configuration.
Overall, a hybrid damping treatment wherein
system with two APDT-2 gives the best
performance characterized by significant
passive damping, very good active damping.
Organized By the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Thanthai Periyar Government Institute of Technology
Reduction of Dazzling Effect in Four Wheelers
Department of Automobile Engineering, MIT Campus, Anna University-Chennai

A vehicle driving on highway is

always enjoyable during day time and till .INTRODUCTION
dusk. As darkness approaches problem Driving an automobile is primarily
starts, because of dazzling head light, a visual task. By one estimate, as much as
blinding the eyes leading to accidents, 90% of the information that drivers gather
pedestrian and collision of vehicle to is received visually and whatever the
prevent such accidents and save the loss of actual percentage may be, the importance
life it is became necessary to provide some of the visual percentage may be, the
means of overcome dazzling head light. importance of the visual system to driving
This report provides some following cannot be doubted. However, in order for
methods to control dazzling effect. the visual system to detect, attend o, and
recognize information, there must be
1) Reducing the intensity of the dazzling adequate lighting. Drivers require enought
source lighting at night to see a variety of objects
2) Reducing the illumination reaching the on the highway, including traffic control
driver's eyes devices, lane lines, vehicles, pedestrians,
3) Increasing the dazzling angle; and animals, and other potentially hazardous
4) Indirectly minimizing the effects of objects. However, too much light or
dazzling improper lighting can result in dazzling,
And recent developments. which can be a major problem both in
Automatic sensor are fitted so has to dim terms of the ability to see and visual
to head light automatically on approaching comfort.
a high intensity, high beam head light There are only two practical
head of it. methods of lighting the highway system at
By incorporating this automatic night; fixed overhead, lighting and vehicle
head light dimmer we can reduce the head lighting. While the fraction of roads
accident rate of zero, and this can be with fixed overhead lighting increases
proposed to be automobile manufactures to significantly each year, this form of
incorporate as an original equipment (O.E) lighting is expensive and cannot be relied
and can be recommended to the upon as the only means of providing for
government to make it mandatory to the night visibility. Head lighting, from its
vehicle. inception, has involved a compromise
This project designed suitable for any between providing sufficient lighting for
vehicle without major modification and drivers to see and avoiding excessive light
also can be operated without any that might produce dazzling. These two
hindrance. goals have been translated into standards
So I have come out with innovative in the form of minimum requirements to
method of curbing these dangers provide visibility and maximum
permanently by using this project. limitations to control dazzling.
Progressive improvements in head
lighting and new technologies have
increased night visibility and reduced the provide a conductive path to the signal
impact of dazzling, but any changes should switch through control section.
be carefully considered before
implementation. Changes in headlamp 4. Signal Switch
designs that affect light intensity, beam Single switch consists of transistor
pattern and aiming have significantly “SL100” transistor is a device which
improved night vision on the highway. works as a Switch, this switch control with
high current with the help of low current.
AUTOMATIC HEAD LIGHT A transistor is a three terminal device
DIMMER consisting of collector, base and emitter.

COMPARISON 5. Power Switch

A 10 Amps / 12 VDC 2 change
1. MANUAL SWITCHING over relay consisting a pole, normally
2. AUTOMATIC SWITCHING close and open contacts, to drive the head
light cut out which in turn control the high
1. Manual Switching and low filaments of the head light bulb.
The driver may or may not switch
to low beam because of negligence, this WORKING PRINCIPLE
may create trouble to the on coming This is the Simple Automatic
vehicle and blinding the oncoming vehicle Headlamp Circuit built with most famous
driver, and that may lead to an accident. NE 5551C. This circuit constructed with
2. Automatic Switching commonly available components in the
This method over comes the above market like NE 555, S1100, 7812 and
mentioned problems totally. LDR.
555 IC can be used as stable
DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS multivibrator, monostable multivibrator
and bystable multivibrator. It can be used
1. Regulator for other applications also like pulse
Regulator is used to provide a generator. Smoke detector, rain alarm,
stable voltage to the control circuit for clock pulse generator and etc.
proper function of component we have This circuit will help drivers at
used 7812 a commonly used three terminal vehicles from high beam disturbances of
fixed voltage regulator. opposite vehicles their circuit should be in
the two vehicles. When the high beam of
2. Control Section opposite vehicles, reaches the sensor,
Control provides various supply automatically, our vehicle headlight
voltage using resistors, capacitor we have becomes dip. If the circuit in the opposite
used OWE 47 kQ / ½ watt fixed resistor vehicle, effect will be the same.
and one 27kQ/ ½ watt fixed resistor in
Parallel and one 5kQ preset variable This circuit built with monostable
resistor 0 in series with fixed resistor to multivibrator. When triggering input pin
achieve fine tuning for controlling the No.2 of IC 555 triggered the o/p pin 3 will
sensitiveness of the circuit. be high. This will drive the transistor TI
(SL 100) via R4.
3. Sensor When the vehicle is running, the
A sensor (LDR) is a device which battery voltage will be 13-13. 8V.IC 7812
conducts when lights falls on it. This Regulator IC regulates the supply voltage.
phenomenon is used in this circuit to It gives 12V constantly.
OPERA 3. When the opposite vehicle upreaching
TION driving vehicle at a distance of 40
meter automatic Buzzer on a driving
Switch on S1 Switch, IC 7812 regulates vehicle will alert the driving vehicle
the power supply and gives 12V regulated. driver that the head light lower beam is
When the sensor is in dark resistance of brought in to activation.
LDR will be high. IC 555 will no be t
triggered output of IC 555 will be low.
Relay RL, Remains in off. Head lamp
will be bright.When the sensor gets light, REFERENCES
resistance of LDR will be low IC 555 will
be triggered at pin 2. Output of IC 555 will 1. AASHTO (1994). A policy on
be high. Relay will be energized by TI geometric design of highways and
S1100. Head lamp will be Capacitor C3 steets, American Assocition of
will give some delay between dim to dip. State Highway and Transportation
The delay time can be extended S7 Officials, Washington, DC pp.136-
increasing the value of C3. 137.

CONTROL BOX 2. Adler, B. and Lunenfeld, H.

(1973). “Three-beam headlight
evaluation”. Report No.HS-238-
LED 1 LED 2 LED 411-1, Airborne Instruments
O 0 3 Laboratory, Deer Park, NY.
3. Adrian, W.K. (1975). “Grundlagen
POWER MANUAL DIM der physiologischen und
O O OFF O psychologischen Blendung und
ON AUTO DIP ihre numerische Darstellung”
S1 S2 S3 (Fundamentals of disability and
discomfort dazzling and their
numerical representation).
LED – 1 Power on led to control panel Lichttechnik 27,312-319.
LED – 2 DIM dim/dip
LED – 3 DIP dim/dip
4. Adrian, W.K.(1979). “Ueber eine
This control box should be kept in neuartige Blendschutzbrille” (On a
front of the driver. This panel has all new anti-dazzling spectacle). 30.
options. Sonderderuck der WVAO, Mainz.
die Fachvortrage des WVAO –
1. Main power on switch will help to Jajres Kongresser 1979 in
switch on the entire head lamp circuit. Karlsruhe (ISSN 0171-6417),
2. (S2) Manual and Auto selector switch : 5. Adrian, W.K.(1991a). “Transient
When the switch in Auto, our modified adaptation process: A model to
circuit will take care of everything. predict its effects on vision”. CIE
When S2 in manual, the driver should 22nd Session, 2,121,-133. CIE
operate dim/dip switch (S3). transactions of the International
commission on Illumination, 22nd
session. Melbourne 1991,
9. Alexander, G.J. and Lunenfeld, H.
6. Adrian, W.K.(1991b) “Comparison (1990). “A users’ guide positive
between the CBE and the CIE guidance, third ed”. Report
dazzling mark formula and earlier No.FHWA-SA-90-017, U.S.
discomfort dazzling descriptions”. Department of Transportation,
Orlando, Florida, pp.155-164. Federal Highway Administration,
Washington, DC pp.1-39.

10. Allen, M.J.(1985). “Vision of the

7. Adrian, W. (1997). “A method to older driver: implications for
predict visual function and visual vehicle and highway design and for
performance in mesopic lighting driver testing”. 55+,1-7
levels”. University of Waterloo,
Ontario, Canada. 11. Anderson, R.M.(1983). “Visual
perceptions and observations of an
8. Adrian, W. and Bhanji, A.(1991). aphakic surgeon”. Perceptual and
“Fundamentals of disability Motor Skills, 57, 1211-1218.
dazzling. A formula to describe
stray light in the eye as a function 12. Applegate, R.A.(1991). “Acuities
of the dazzling angle and age”. through annular and central pupils
Proceedings of the First after radial keratotomy (RK)”.
International symposium on Optometry and Vision Science, 68,
dazzling. Orlando, Florida, 584-590

Three-Dimensional Analyses By Finite Element Method Of A Spur

Gear: Effect Of Cracks In The Teeth Foot While Meshing
R.Somraj M.E., CAD/CAM
Thiruvalluvar College of Engineering & Technology, Vandavasi
Email: somraj7@rediffmail.com
In this paper, a finite element effect of gear rotation speed on the crack
method with a three-dimensional survey propagation direction.
is taken. The embedded model integrated a
The effect of crack dimension and physical based model of the gearbox and a
the direction of crack propagation, in parametric representation, in the form of
the teeth foot, while meshing are truncated Fourier series, of meshing
studied. stiffness.
For spur gears, the mesh stiffness is Finite element method used in three
affected in a meaningful manner by the dimensional analysis and it gives accurate
presence of a foot crack of one or more results.
teeth. 3-D models are very easy to
This study is an attempt to estimate understanding when compare to 2-D
the effect of crack size, position, and models, Bending stress analysis 3-D model
direction on the spectrum of the gear are used for simulation
mesh stiffness. A large number of degree of freedom in
this 3-D model takes a long time and larger
INTRODUCTION computer memory space is necessary but
its gives a perfect results
Gears are often used in mechanical The most common 3 Dimensional
construction and serve to transmit a elements tetrahedral, and hexahedral
rotational motion from the driving shaft to element these elements are used for 3
the driven shaft. dimensional stress analysis problem.
Gears are generally designed according If your paper is intended for a
to standards [1–3] that define the two conference, please contact your conference
typical types of damage that occur in these editor concerning acceptable word
components: pitting and fatigue fracture. processor formats for your particular
The gears must support, in addition to conference.
the imperfections from fabrication and
installation, defects that are generated
during working such as spalling and
pitting [4].
Cracks and fissures that may occur and
cause rupture of the tooth by propagation
are of special concern.
The phenomenon of crack propagation
in foot of gear teeth was the center of
interest for much research concerning the
mechanical and dynamic behavior of
Some two-directional (2D) analytical
and experimental studies have determined
the vibratory behavior resulting from gear
tooth crack propagation. Figure 1. Illustration Of One
This analysis uses fracture mechanics Complete Tooth Meshing Cycle
with linear elasticity. A triangular finite
element is used in the crack tip to II. FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
represent the singularity of the constraint.
The stress intensity factor is estimated Finite element method is numerical
and used to predict the crack propagation method for solving problems of
direction. More recently, analyzed the engineering and mathematical physics.
In finite element method instead of The copying gear machining method is
solving the problem for the entire body for used for milling, fly-cutting, shear-speed
one operation, we formulate the equation cutting, broaching, and form grinding.
for each finite element and combine them The tool profile is identical or very
to obtain the solution of whole body. close to the space profile between
Discretization is the basis of finite neighboring teeth (for milling and fly-
element method. The art of sub dividing a cutting) or the space around all gear teeth
structural into a convenient number of (for shear-speed cutting and broaching).
smaller components is known as
discretization. IV. PROBLEM DEFINITION
A small unit have definite shape of The tensile and compressive stresses
geometry and node is called finite element. due to bending of the tooth.
Each kind of finite element has a specific The bending stress is cyclic as it occurs
structural shape and is inter connected once per revolution of the gear and will,
with adjacent element by nodal point or thus, lead to a potential fatigue failure.
node. At each node degree of freedom is We have a contact stress situation as the
located. The force will act only at node not two gears meshes approximately
at any other place in the element. cylindrical to surfaces roll and slide on
each other during tooth contact. This stress
may lead to a surface fatigue of the tooth.
Pitting surface fatigue failure due to many
repetition of high contact stress which
occurred gear tooth surface when a pair of
teeth is transmitting power.
Pitting is phenomena in which small
particles are removed from the surface of
the tooth due to high contact stress that
are present between mating teeth.

Figure 2 Fem Model of The Gear Tooth

Pair In Contact


The gear manufacturing process drives
the tool design first of all.
The most common gear manufacturing Figure 3. Tooth Profile
processes are gear machining and gear
The gear machining process uses the
copying or generating methods.

[1] Townsend, D.P. Dudley’s Gear

Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1991.
[2] Kapelevich, A.L., and R.E. Kleiss.
“Direct Gear
Design for Spur and Helical Gears,”
Gear Technology, September/October
2002, pp. 29–35.
[3] ANSI/AGMA 1006-A97—Tooth
Proportions for Plastic Gears,
Figure 4.Fatigue Failure Of The Tooth
Appendix F: “Generating Gear
Surface Geometry without Racks,” AGMA,
V. PROBLEM SOLUTION Alexandria, VA, 1997.
The tool pressure angle is selected to [4] Pulley, F.T., M.W. Kipling, G.A.
provide desirable machining conditions. Matson, D.L.
The tensile and compressive stresses due Thurman and B.W. Avery. “Method
to bending of the tooth is reduced by for producing and controlling a fillet
reducing the load time. In order to avoid on a gear,” US Patent #6164880, 2000.
bending failure the module and face with [5] Kapelevich, A.L. “Geometry and
of the gear is adjusted so that beam design of involute spur gears with
strength is greater then the dynamic load. asymmetric teeth,” Mechanism and
Reducing the bending stress per revolution Machine Theory, 2000, Issue 35, pp.
of the gear In order to avoid pitting the 117–130.
dynamic load betwee the gear tooth should [6] Litvin, F.L., Q. Lian and A.L.
be less than the wear strength of the gear Kapelevich.
tooth. We have to reduce the contact stress “Asymmetric modified gear drives:
when the two gears meshes approximately reduction of noise, localization of
cylindrical to surfaces roll and slide on contact, simulation of meshing and
each other during tooth contact. Hardness stress analysis,” Computer Methods in
is the primary property of the gear tooth Applied Mechanics and Engineering,
that provide resistance to pitting. 2000, Issue 188, pp. 363–390.

Cost Effective Design of Front Axle through

Value Engineering
R.Anbuchelvan1, A.Jhothilingam2
1ME (Manufacturing engineering), Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai.
Email: anbucha99@yahoo.co.in
2Asst Professor, Department of Production Technology
Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai.

I. ABSTRACT cost.” Value engineering can be applied

during any stage of a project’s
Value engineering (VE) is “A development cycle, although the greatest
systematic approach to analysing benefit and resource savings are
functional requirements of products or typically achieved early in development
services for the purposes of achieving during the conceptual stages. It may be
the essential functions at the lowest total applied as a quick response study to
address a problem or as an integral part is also referred to as "value management"
of an overall organizational effort to or "value methodology" (VM), and "value
stimulate innovation and improve analysis"(VA). VE is above all a structured
performance characteristics. This also problem solving process based on function
enhances an organization’s quality analysis understanding something with
programs, new product development such clarity that it can be described in two
activities, manufacturing processes, and words, the active verb and measurable
architectural and engineering design. noun abridgement.
This paper deals how to reduce the cost
of the front axle without affecting its B. BRIEF HISTORY OF VALUE
functional requirements and to attain a ENGINEERING
customer friendly, trouble free front C.WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING?
axle for the end user and service, by Value engineering may be described as a
applying the systematic process of value structured, analytical process for
engineering on front axle developing innovative, holistic solutions to
complex problems. Value engineering has
KEYWORDS: Value engineering, Value the following key characteristics:
Methodology, Function Analysis, FAST, • A specific methodology
Job Plan. • Based upon a creative problem solving
II. INTRODUCTION • Involves key stakeholders in a managed
Value engineering (VE) is “A systematic • Focus on function ie. What it must do,
approach to not what it is
analysing functional requirements of • Focus on achieving value-added
products or services for the purposes of solutions
achieving the essential functions at the • Based upon on integration
lowest total cost.” • Focus on project learning
The greatest gains of Value engineering
i.e:-The “value” of goods and services by have been shown when it is directed
using an examination of function. towards obtaining maximum value from a
- Value, as defined, is the ratio of function total system. The examination of function
to cost. remains fundamental, however this occurs
- Value can therefore be increased by within the system. It is the systematic
either improving the function or reducing analysis of functions, which sets Value
the cost. It is a primary tenet of value engineering apart from other approaches to
engineering that basic functions be improving value.
preserved and not be reduced as a
consequence of pursuing value II.OVERVIEW
improvements. Value engineering is The value engineering is a systematic
sometimes taught within the project process used to improve the value of a
management or industrial engineering project through the analysis of its
body of knowledge as a technique in functions. Value is defined as a fair return
which the value of a system’s outputs is or equivalent in goods, services, or money
optimized by crafting a mix of for something exchanged. Value is
performance (function) and costs. In most commonly represented by the relationship:
cases this practice identifies and removes Value ≈ Function/Resources , where
unnecessary expenditures, thereby function is measured by the performance
increasing the value for the manufacturer requirements of the customer and
and/or their customers. Value engineering resources are measured in materials,
labour, price, time, etc. required to its functional requirements and to attain a
accomplish that function. Value customer friendly, trouble free front axle
engineering focuses on improving value by for the end user and service, by applying
identifying alternate ways to reliably the systematic process of value
accomplishing a function that meets the engineering on front axle.
performance expectations of the customer.
Function Analysis is the foundation of
value engineering and is the key activity
that differentiates this from other problem-
solving or improvement practices. IV. METHODOLOGY

During the Function Analysis, Phase of the The following steps are involved in
Job Plan function is identified that the implementation of Value Engineering
describes the work being performed within shown in Figure 3.1
the scope of the project under study. Figure 3.1 Steps involved in
These functions are described using two Implementation of VE
words, active verb/measurable noun
pairings, for example one function of a V. CHOOSING A PRODUCT (OR)
hammer is to apply force. Function PRODUCT FAMILY
analysis can be enhanced through the use Engineering components with
of a graphical mapping tool known as the optimum use of material, easy
Function Analysis System Technique manufacturability and customer
(FAST) The value engineering is applied satisfaction is a direction where Value
using a process known as the “Job Plan.” Engineering is found to be very useful. It
The purpose of the Job Plan is to guide us would be highly creditable to implement
through the process of identifying and the concept of value engineering in the
focusing on key project functions in order front axle Front axle of the vehicle is one
to create new ideas that will result in value of the major and very important
improvements component and needs good robust design
as this part experiences the worst loading
A.STAGES INVOLVED conditions of the whole vehicle. The
A value study generally encompasses three current design of the front axle which has
stages shown in Figure 1.1 no failures at the field has been decided to
1. Pre – Study activity take up through value engineering
2. Execution Job Plan Technique methodology for achieving cost effective
3. Documentation and Implementation robust front axle without affecting its
Figure 1.1 Value Engineering Process function and aesthetics.
Flow Diagram
Job Plan process flow illustrated in Figure VI. INFORMATION PHASE
1.1.Each of the Job Plan phases must be As a first step it is necessary to obtain all
performed in sequence because each phase available information regarding the
provides information and understanding existing front axle. Get all pertinent
necessary for the successful execution of information on costs, quantities, technical
the next phase. As the team gains drawings, specification, operation sheets,
additional knowledge about the project, a marketing surveys, reliability and warranty
previous phase may be revisited. information, manufacturing methods and a
set of parts (or) pre assembly.
The Objective of this project is to reduce A.Study of Current Design
the cost of the front axle without affecting
The study of current design to be done on The first step is to begin to develop the
the following characteristics, Type of the two word technique, which is difficult
front axle, Volue, Wheel track, Wheel enough. For this Figure 3.2 shows the
base, Front axle weight, Total vehicle Details of front axle its function, cost Part
weight, Kingpin inclination, castor and Name: Front Axle Present cost: Rs. 2500/
camber angle, Turning circle radius and Unit
steering type used Operation and Performance:
Front axle supports the front end of
B.Bench Marking the vehicle along with front tyres and the
Bench marketing is usually called steering in connection which can steer and
competitive analysis. This should be a way gives stability to the entire vehicle. The
to measure our standing Vs competition Front axle consists of 12 types of
and to identify short comings. Every components (22) Figure 3.2 Details of
designer should be familiar with Front axle Start the function definition
competitive products, design, operation process by looking at the functions of the
and cost. The Table 3.2 explains the entire assembly and then define the
comparison between existing design and functions of each piece in the assembly.
other leading manufacturers front axle The functions of the front axle assembly
assembly. From the comparison chart we are screened in Table 3.4 to eliminate the
found that existing design is superior to all duplication Table 3.4 Function
other manufacturer when compared in Identification of front axle
weight and section modulus (ie: based on
front axle section type). It also gives the DETERMINE SCOPE – IDENTIFY
comparative inputs from customer and FUNCTIONS
service aspects of the front axle. From the Assembly / Components name: FRONT
study advantages and disadvantages of the AXLE
existing design of front axle given below. What does the product do? What is the
level of the function?
Advantages: Support the front end & to steer the
- Better front end stability vehicle
- Suitable for heavier haulage loading SL.NO. FUNCTIONS ORDER REF.
- Increased ground clearance REMARKS
- Lesser turning circle which leads to fuel 1. Maintain stability BASIC
saving & time saving 2. Allow articulation SECONDARY
- Easy serviceability 3. mount front tyres SECONDARY
4. maintain balance (on uneven surface)
Disadvantages: SECONDARY
- Less gap between tyre and front axle 5. Ensure manuverability BASIC
leads to 6. Adequate track width SECONDARY
stone struck or mud struck 7. Guide spindles SECONDARY
8. control toe - out SECONDARY
C.Function Identification 9.controlcamber/caster/KPI
The next phase is to define the functions of SECONDARY
the product. This is quite difficult because 10.Support front weight platform
it requires an indepth analysis of what the SECONDARY
product does rather than what it is. For 11. Resist corrosion SECONDARY
successful product improvement a 12. protect center pin SECONDARY
“function” must be carefully defined from 13. support FES SECONDARY
the aspect of total life cycle cost, so that 14. Control wheel base SECONDARY
associated costs can be properly assigned.
15. Maintain high ground clearance ask WHY that function is performed. This
SECONDARY line of logic is read from right to left. A
16. lesser turning SECONDARY FAST model, reading
17. Reduce tyre ware SECONDARY from left to right, starts with the goal, and
18.Support steering geometry ends at the beginning of the “system” that
SECONDARY will achieve that goal. model “which
19. Aesthetics Good BASIC gives process of creating model. The
20. control rigidity ( vehicle ) customer sensitivity functions can be
SECONDARY identified as well as opportunities for
21. visibility Good SECONDARY significant cost improvements in design
22. Absorb thrust SECONDARY and manufacturing process
23. Easy steering SECONDARY
24.sealing avoid mud entry SECONDARY E.Cost Function Worth Analysis
25. ensure steering stopper SECONDARY From cost details provided for the
26. Prevent lifting SECONDARY individual components, for arriving the
27.Maintain center of gravity cost function worthiness the educated
SECONDARY opinion must be used. In some cases data
28.Support front end loader may be available to help in the decision or
SECONDARY team members may analyze the cost
29 Support front dozer SECONDARY function worthiness of each item for
30 Support front reaper SECONDARY arriving the value gap. For example In the
31 support toe hook SECONDARY front axle, - the cup spindle can be
32 Support front transfer box integrated with spindle housing (Intricacy
SECONDARY forging ) - Stopper can be integrated with
After the function screening, find the basic cup spindle (Simple forging) In option I ie
function, the basic function is the one upon the integration of parts cup spindle and
which all other functions depend. Read spindle housing the cost may go up in
down the list and put “Basic” in the order view of forging cost. When we go for
reference column. In the case of front axle option II integration of cup spindle with
three are basic functions and rests of them stopper the cost will come down in view of
are secondary functions. All the secondary the savings through forging. (minor
functions are subject to modification or component) Likewise the team analyzed
elimination depending on their cost and the each component assembly. After
value. Secondary function makes the basic identifying the desired functions of each
function work better. item, the team established the worth
components, depending on its essential
D.Construction of Function Analysis function. While establishing the
System Technique worthiness, the definition of value ie., the
Model lowest price one has to pay for reliable
The FAST model has a horizontal function was used as the basis.
directional orientation described as the
HOW – WHY dimension. This dimension VII. CREATIVE PHASE
is described in this manner because HOW One outcome of a value study is a
and WHY questions are asked to structure “shopping list” of alternative ideas to
the logic of the systems function. Starting achieve value improvement. Lateral
with a function, we ask HOW that function thinking is encouraged during this phase to
is performed to develop a more specific produce as many ideas as possible, even
approach. This line of questioning and those ideas that may seem unworkable or
thinking is read from left to right. To unreasonable. Generating ideas and
abstract the problem to a higher level, we
options is encouraged by Asking the analysed functions for its worthiness on
following questions while doing the brain the basic of function and cost wise. The
storming: creative phase generated a broad array of
- How else may the required function be ideas that provide a wide variety of
performed? possible alternative ways to perform the
- What else will perform the required function to improve the value of the front
function? axle assembly. Further FEA analysis to be
- What will the alternatives cost? done on the alternate ideas in comparison
There are several ways to structure the with existing design, a focused list of
study to facilitate idea generation. The concepts that warrant quality, time to
method depends upon the study and the develop into value based solutions that can
nature of the project. In project terms be implemented in to the front axle design
various parts of the project will need to be for its enhanced performance in the field.
specifically targeted for idea generation.
Front axle assembly is a single product REFERENCES
that is being considered, then the front axle [1] Bharat .R (1994) “Value engineering
will need to be analysed component-by- -A new concept in reducing cost of burn
comonent or aspect-by-aspect. During this care.” Department of burns and plastic
phase , the hidden cost areas, identified survey.
earlier ,were subjected to brainstorming, to
find but alternative ways of accomplishing [2] Jim Dimsey (2002) “QFD to Direct
the functions. Criticisms and evaluation Value Engineering in the Design of a
are avoided and even wild ideas were Brake System” Hayes Brake, LLC
noted down in line with basic VE
principles. During this session, a large [3] Jun Matsuo (1968) “Value engineering
number of ideas were generated for each for manufacture of
item to perform the same function. Help large products,” for forgings and castings
was taken from the experts in the similar engineering
design and vendors were contacted to
contribute alternative ideas. In all 42 ideas section. Japan steel works, Muroran plant.
were generated for items of front axle [4] Kimio Ogawa (1965) “An approach to
assembly, further evaluation of ideas. product planning through value
engineering-Value engineering that creates
VIII. CONCLUSION the worthwhile product” Victor Company
Value engineering study on front axle of Japan.
assembly done after studying the existing
design in detail. From the characteristics of [5] Richard Park (1999) “Value
existing two design the value engineering engineering – a plan for invention”,
done on the more volume and widely R.J.Park and associates Inc, Birmingham,
accepted robust look design and this has Michigan
been bench marked against some
manufacturers for its characteristics [6] Ross Edward Bates & Catherine
customer and service inputs which gives a Simpson (2001) “Value Engineering of
clear cut picture of where the existing Car Park Ventilation Systems” Building
design of front axle stands . During the Simulation Ltd
function identification & analysis phase
provides a more comprehensive [7] Theodore C. Fowler, CVS (1976) “24
understanding of the front axle by Principles that guarantee an effective value
focussing on what the front axle does or program- Function analysis system
must do rather than what it is, also technique for product and services.”
A Study on Failure Analysis of Knee Replacement
M.E (CAD/CAM), Department of Mechanical Engineering.,
Arunai Engineering College, Tiruvannamalai -606603.

Abstract clinical evaluation must be carried out

before applying knee prosthesis to ensure
In this paper it has been optimal outcomes from surgical operations
investigated the influence of and to reduce the probability of having
malalignment and overweight on total long-term problems. Useful information
knee replacements using an finite can be inferred from estimation of the
element method. Finite element (FE) stress acting on the bone-prosthesis system
models of fixed implants have been of the knee joint.
created and analyzed; stress analysis
has been performed on the fixed 2.0 The Knee
implants for contact pressure
distribution in the tibio-femoral contact 2.1 Anatomy of the knee
surfaces. An FE model of an implanted
knee joint has been developed using Knee is the largest joint in the body
FEA software (ANSYS). Serious stress and it is also one of the most complex
shielding and more bone loss appear in joints. The knee joint is made up of four
case of overweight. The increase of bone bones: femur, tibia, fibula and patella. The
loss rate and stress in the distal femur articulation of these bones forms the knee
with increase of body weight will result joint, and is shown in
in a higher risk of migration of femoral Fig.1. The two major articulations within
component after total knee replacement. the knee are the tibio-femoral and patello-
femoral joints.
Keywords: Total Knee Replacement
(TKR), Malalignment, FEA 2.1.1 Tibio-femoral joint

In the knee, the distal end of the

1.0 Introduction femur has a curved articular surface that is
shaped like a ‘horseshoe’ with the bend of
It has been reported that the total the ‘horseshoe’ in the front of the femur.
knee replacement failures are due to The two ends of the femur extend
loosening, tibial femoral instability and backward, and are called the medial and
fatigue failure of tibial tray. It is also lateral condyles. These surfaces articulate
influenced by contact loads and surface with the medial and lateral tibial condyles,
kinematics. The contact pressure and areas forming the tibio-femoral joint, which
depend on the degree of conformity and flexes and extends the knee. Two fibro-
operative techniques including mechanical cartilaginous discs (meniscus) lie between
alignment and fixation of the components. the tibial and femoral condyles to
Wear can also lead to malalignment or compensate for the incongruence of the
instability of the knee joint. In surgical articulating bones.
knee replacement, the knee is replaced
with artificial prosthesis. An accurate
ACL is its opposite, the Posterior Cruciate
Ligament (PCL). The PCL prevents the
tibia from sliding to the rear.

Fig.1 Knee Anatomy Fig.2 Ligament

2.1.2 Patello-femoral joint 2.1.4 Mechanical axis

The patella, or what we call the The mechanical axis is a static
kneecap, glides up and down on the front weight bearing axis which can be drawn
surface of the femur bone as the knee on a radiographic image of the limb. The
flexes and extends. Articulations of patella mechanical axis is defined in the frontal
and femur form the patello-femoral joint. plane and the sagittal plane. The
The patella is held in the front of patella- anatomical planes of the human body are
femoral joint. The quadriceps muscle defined in Fig.3. The mid-sagittal plane
which is located in the front of the thigh is divides the body into right and left halves.
used to extend (straighten) the leg. Frontal (coronal) planes are drawn
perpendicular to the sagittal lines and
2.1.3 Ligament divide the body into anterior and posterior
sections. Horizontal (transverse) planes
The stability of the knee joint is divide the body into upper (superior) and
achieved by a clever system of ligaments, lower (inferior) sections. The mechanical
strong muscles, and by a strong but elastic axis of the lower limb in the frontal plane
joint capsule. There are four ligaments is defined as a line drawn from the centre
connecting the femur and tibia as shown in of the femoral head to the centre of the
Fig.2. On the sides of the joint lie the ankle joint. In the sagittal plane, the
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and normal mechanical axis runs from the
the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL), centre of gravity to the centre of the ankle
which serve as stabilizers for the side-to- joint. This line is practically perpendicular
side stability of the joint. The MCL is a to the ground. It therefore runs just behind
broader ligament that is actually made up the femoral head and just in front of the
of two ligament structures, the deep and knee as shown in Fig.4.
superficial components. The LCL, on the
other hand, is a distinct cord-like structure.
In the front part of the centre of the joint is
the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL).
This ligament is a very important stabilizer
of the femur on the tibia and serves to
prevent the tibia from rotating and sliding
forward during agility, jumping, and
deceleration activities. Directly behind the
The patella does not lie symmetrically in
its groove. The surgeon must restore the
mechanical axis of the knee joint during
the total knee replacement surgery, i.e. the
new knee joint must be put in such a
position that the mechanical axis passes
through the middle of the new knee joint.
It is called ‘realigning of the total knee
joint’. In this ‘realigned’ position, the
patella once again glides symmetrically in
Fig.3 Anatomical Planes of Human Body its groove. A total knee prosthesis put in a
badly aligned knee joint will be
overloaded; the patella (or its prosthesis)
will dislocate and eventually the whole
total knee joint will loosen or break down.

Fig.4 Mechanical Axis of Knee Joint

2.1.5 Malalignment of knee joint

Deformity in the limb may occur in

any plane, not just the anatomical sagittal Fig.5 Malalignment
or frontal planes. The common situation is
for deformity to occur among these 3.0 Components of total knee prostheses
anatomical planes. In other words, angular
deformity or malalignment may occur in There are three primary
any direction; medial or lateral, anterior components in total knee implants. These
and posterior or anywhere in between. In a include the femoral, tibial and patellar
healthy, well-aligned knee joint, the components as shown in Fig.6. The
mechanical axis passes through the middle femoral component is typically made of a
of the knee in the frontal plane. In metal called Cobalt-Chrome alloy (CoCr).
condition of abnormal alignment, the CoCr is a very hard and durable material,
mechanical axis does not pass through the allowing it to withstand the massive loads
centre of the knee joint. The tibia abducted and cycles a knee endures on a daily basis.
with respect to the femur is defined as The other advantage of this metal is its
varus malalignment; the tibia abducted ability to wear a highly polished surface
with respect to the femur is defined as that is durable. The tibial component is
valgus malalignment in Fig. 5. usually made up of two main pieces, the
tibial tray and the tibial bearing
In many knee joint diseases, the component. The tibial tray is typically
mechanical axis is disturbed and does not made of Titanium or Cobalt-Chrome. The
pass through the centre of the joint. This tibial bearing component is the bearing
disturbance results in overload of distinct between the femoral and tibial
areas of the knee joint leading to damage. components. The bearing is made of a
plastic called ultra high molecular weight radius RPF; RPT, posterior radius, tibial;
polyethylene (UHMWPE) and is fixed to RAT, anterior radius, tibial. The two
or allowed to rotate in the tibial tray. frontal geometries shown have very
different mechanical functions. In Fregly’s
model, the tibiofemoral surface geometry
was described by five radii: RFF, frontal
radius, femoral; RFT, frontal radius, tibial;
RSDF, sagittal distal radius, femoral;
RSPF, sagittal posterior radius, femoral;
RST, sagittal radius, tibia as shown in

Fig.6 Components of Total Knee Prosthesis

4.0 Geometry of total knee prosthesis

The geometry of knee prosthesis

will influence the kinematics of the knee
joint after TKR operation. The location of
the knee joint contact point, which is
decided by the geometry of the knee
prostheses, directly affects the lever arm of
the quadriceps, which determines the force
that needs to be generated for a given Fig.8 Schematic of geometry of knee
external moment. To explain the geometry implant
and function of condylar TKR, a
parametric description of geometry of
conventional condylar replacement was 5.0 Normal gait cycle
defined in Fig 7. Gait is the way locomotion
achieved using human limbs. Determining
the accurate motions of the knee
throughout one walking cycle has been the
difficult goal. The gait cycle is defined as
the period from heel contact of one foot to
the next heel contact of the same foot. This
cycle is broken into two parts, stance and
swing phase. On average, the gait cycle is
about one second in duration with 60% in
Fig.7 Definition of the geometry of condylar stance and 40% in swing. The stance phase
replacements in (a) the frontal plane and (b) is further divided into an initial double
the sagittal plane stance, followed by a period of single
In Fig.7 ROF, represents outer stance and then a final period of double
radius, femoral; RIF, inner radius, femoral; stance. Double stance indicates that both
ROT, outer radius, tibial; RIT, inner radius, feet are in contact with the ground; single
tibial; BS, bearing spacing; RDF, radius at stance is the period when only one foot is
the distal part of the femur; RPF, radius in in contact with the ground. The walking
the posterior part of the femur; RPSF, gait cycle is illustrated in Fig.9 & 10.
radius at the posterior-superior part of the
femur; PDTA, posterior-distal transition
angle, where the large distal anterior radius
RDF meets the smaller distal-posterior
Fig.9 Normal Gait Cycle

Fig.11 Dynamic model of fixed-bearing

In the model of the fixed-bearing
implant, contact was defined between the
femoral component and the tibial bearing
component. The tibial bearing component
and tibial tray were fixed together. In the
Fig.10 Variation of angle as percentage of model, the contact friction coefficient was
gait cycle 0.04. Four linear elastic springs and a
torsion spring were used in both models to
6.0 Description of dynamic model restrain the AP motion and IE rotation of
Dynamic model of fixed-bearing the tibial tray.
implants were developed in Ansys. The The four AP restraint springs were
boundary conditions were applied to the applied through a dummy part connected
model. The dynamic models have six with the tibial tray to ensure no torsion
degrees of freedom, three translations and was applied through these springs. The
three rotations of the knee joint. The dummy part has only translational freedom
femoral component was allowed to move and the tibial tray can rotate relative to the
vertically in the inferior-superior direction, dummy part. The rotation between the
to rotate about a frontal axis to simulate tibial tray and the dummy part was
valgus and varus rotation and to rotate restrained by the torsion spring. The total
about a transverse axis to simulate flexion AP translation restraint spring stiffness
and extension. The tibial components were was 30 N/mm and the IE rotation restraint
allowed to translate in the AP and ML was 0.6 Nm per degree.
direction and rotate about a fixed vertical Finite element models of fixed-
axis located in the middle of the tibial bearing implants were developed in Ansys.
condyles to simulate internal and external In these models, the femoral component
rotation. and the tibial tray were modelled as rigid
A complete gait cycle was bodies. The tibial bearing component was
simulated for 1 second. The gait cycle modelled as a deformable body. The
loads are shown in Fig.15. The vertical material of the tibial bearing component
axial load and the flexion-extension angle was defined. Fig shows the finite element
were applied to the femoral component. models of the tibial bearing component of
The vertical load was offset by 5 mm from fixed- and mobile-bearing implants.
the centre towards the medial side to
simulate varus in the normal intact knee.
The anterior-posterior force and the
internal-external rotational torque were
applied on the tibial tray.
7.1 Contact traces on tibial components
Fig.13 shows the distribution of the
contact points on the tibial components
during a simulated gait cycle. From the
figure, the contact points on the surface of
the fixed-bearing implant are distributed
over a smaller area.

Fig.14 Finite element model of tibial

bearing component of fixed-bearing implant
Fig.12 Axial Force and Flexion Angle as
percentage of gait cycle
7.2 Contact stress distribution in tibial
Table.1 Mechanical Properties of bearing component
femoral bone
A gait cycle was simulated in the The contact pressure distributions
finite element models. The motion of the during the gait cycle were obtained after
tibial tray obtained from dynamic model solving the finite element models. The
was applied to the tibial tray in the finite maximum contact pressures on the
element model; the axial force and flexion superior surface of the fixed-bearing
angle in Fig.15 were applied on the implant was found to be around 16.2 MPa
femoral component. (Fig.15).
Fig.15 Maximum tibio-femoral contact
7.0 Results
pressure in fixed-bearing implant during
Based on the dynamic models, the gait cycle
motion of the tibial components during the
gait cycle was predicted. Using finite
element models, the contact pressures in Young’s Modulus (MPa) 17,500
the tibial bearing components were then
sequentially generated with the gait cycle Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 133
load and corresponding knee positions.
These results were plotted Ultimate Compressive Strength 193

Fig.13 Contact Trace on tibial bearing of

fixed-bearing during gait cycle
tibio-femoral contact points were more
scattered on the superior contact surface of
the mobile-bearing implant compared to
those of the fixed-bearing implant. The
more scattered contact points in the
mobile-bearing implant are the result of
higher conformity in the contact area of
tibio-femoral joint. More conforming tibial
components increase contact area and thus
reduce contact stress.

9.0 References


and FOWLER, R. M. (1996) Fracture of
the metal tibial tray after kinematic total
knee replacement. A common cause of
early aseptic failure. Journal of Bone and
Joint Surgery (British), 78, pp. 220-225.


P. J. (2002) Simulation of a knee joint
replacement during a
gait cycle using explicit finite element
analysis. Journal of Biomechanics, 35(2),
pp. 267-275.


STONE, M. H. and FISHER, J. (1999) An
experimental model of tibial counter face
polyethylene wear in mobile bearing
knees: The influence of design and
kinematics. Bio-Medical Materials and
Fig.16 Contact pressure distribution in
Engineering, 9(3), pp. 189-196.
fixed-bearing implant at: (a) 0.03 s, (b) 0.15
s and (c) 0.41 s

8.0 Conclusion MORRISON, J. B. (1970) The mechanics

This paper compared the dynamic of the knee joint in relation to normal
structural performance of fixed-bearing walking,. Journal of Biomechanics, 3, pp.
implant at various time. In the dynamic 51-61
analysis of total knee replacement, the
Design and Development of Wireless Engine Data Management System
S. Robert Rajkumar1, C. Jegadheesan2, Dr. P. Somasundaram3
PG Scholar, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode.
Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode.
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KSR College of Technology, Thiruchengode.
Email: robertrks10@yahoo.com

In the modern automotive
I. Introduction
world, research in motor vehicle is an
ongoing process. The trend in general Nowadays the automobile field is
seems to be incremental improvements emerged and developed with the help of
of existing technology. However electronics control. Automobile manufacturers
electronic control is being introduced in continue to incorporate more and more
more areas of the vehicle. Since technological features into their automobiles. One
automobiles are getting several design such emerging feature is wireless access. The
changes in time to time manner, by this wireless communication used in automobile for
enormous development proper and various applications is referred by the name
continuous monitoring of engine “Auto Telematics” [1]. Telematics is a
parameter is necessary nowadays. For combination of telecommunication and
efficient monitoring of engine informatics. It often describes vehicle systems
parameter several methods are being that combine GPS and cellular technologies with
followed, in which the remote engine onboard electronics. They can include safety,
parameter monitoring is carried out by communication, vehicle diagnostic and
using wireless technologies. In this entertainment features. Telematics is typically not
paper various wireless communications an onboard autonomous navigation system and
used in automobile are discussed and AM/FM radio.
the system used for wireless engine data The parts of the Telematics are,
management system are described. In • Vehicle (cell phone, GPS, vehicle
this system, the parameters are data),Wireless interface,Back-office
continuously measured from the engine systems
with the help of sensors. The transmitter
Some of the services offered in Telematics are,
transmits the signals from various
• Automatic Notification of Air Bag
sensors to the remote receiver unit with
the help of GSM. At the receiver end the
graphical user interface (GUI) is to be • Stolen Vehicle Location Assistance -
developed by using VB programming to If your car is stolen, an advisor can
monitor the vehicle parameters. In this use the on-board GPS to track the
paper described about the wireless car.
engine data management system of
• Vehicle Diagnostics – It can receive
information about the status of
systems like the engine, air bag and
Index Terms— wireless communication, anti-lock brakes.
GSM, engine
• The module checks these systems
on a daily / weekly / monthly
basis,and then automatically sends a
message to Telematics System.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW There are several automotive
applications uses wireless
Today’s motor vehicles contain an
communications, that may be inter -
increasing number of microcontrollers
vehicle communication or vehicle to road
providing electronic control of a range of
side communication. Looking to in vehicle
systems, including engine management,
communication the application system
breaking, steering and airbag safety
uses GSM devices and computers. Based
systems. There are lots of research is going
on this previous literature collections, in
on in automotive electronics.
this paper described the problem and its
A. Automotive Diagnostic System solution methodology.
The automotive diagnostics system is III. problem description
build by utilizing a collection of wireless In this paper gives a solution methodology to
sensor nodes collecting data from the car. develop a wireless system that to be transmitting
All persons who interact with a vehicle various engine parameters from vehicle to remote
require a unique set of data about its station and remotely monitor the performance of
operations [5]. For example, drivers are the vehicle.
interested to know healthy of the car. On IV. solution methodology
the other hand mechanics are interested to
know about current operational state of The Solution methodology has various stages to
numerous components. develop a system. This is represented by the
block diagram at fig. 1.
B. Automobiles and wireless
The display of engine parameters and
their control has been implemented using a
bidirectional wireless system. Some of the
systems use wireless communication such
as Bluetooth (IEEE 802.15.1) [2], ZigBee
(IEEE 802.15.4), Ultra Wide Band
(UWB/IEEE 802.15.3a) and Wi-Fi (IEEE
802.11a/b/g) [2]. All these technologies are
used for wireless real-time control systems
found in automotive systems. The
comparison chart shown in Table 1 [2].
Table 1 Comparison between wireless
Fig. 1 Methodology
Range Mobility • Creating a data base having collection
Wi-Fi Up to 1000 <100 mph of sensor signals.
802.11p feet • The measured quantity of engine
Wi MAX Up to 30 <75-93 mph parameters to be transmitted through
802.16e miles GSM.
MBWA Up to 9 <155 mph
802.20 miles • Develop the graphical user interface
3G Typically 1- 310 mph at (GUI) to monitor the vehicle
parameters for received signal.
5 miles 144 Kbps
75 mph at 384 A. Parameters to be monitored:
Kbps • Engine Temperature
6 mph at 2
Mbps • Engine Speed
• Fuel Level
Engine Temperature: The resistance value is varied by a contact sliding
The engine coolant temperature will give the over a resistor.
engine temperature. Coolant temperature
measurement is carries out by a simple thermistor B. Data Acquisition Unit:
- in many cases the same sensor may be used for The signals from all sensors are
the operation of the temperature gauge and to collected through data acquisition circuit.
provide information to the fuel control system. The data acquisition unit consists of an
The temperature sensor is shown in fig. 2. analog to digital converter (ADC) and
The engine coolant temperature sensor is a microcontroller (8051). The output from
negative temperature coefficient (NTC) the data acquisition unit is connected to the
The connection between data
acquisition unit and GSM module is
established by a small interfacing circuit,
which is shown in fig. 4.
C. Data Transmission Through GSM:
The communication establishment
Fig. 2 Temperature Sensor between Personal Computer and server
thermistor. It is fitted in to the water jacket close
to the thermostat or bypass coolant circuit
passages. The sensor measures the engine coolant
temperature and provides a signal voltage to the
ECU. The normal running engine coolant
temperature is maintained at about 90 c, which
gives an engine temperature where clean
combustion is possible.
Engine Speed:
Crank shaft sensor is used to get information on Fig. 4. Interfacing Circuit with
engine speed. This will often be the same sensor side is carried out by GSM/GPRS module.
that is used for the speedometer. The inductive The GPRS services reflect the GSM
services with an exception that the GPRS
have a tremendous transmission rate.
Services such as the internet,
videoconferencing and on –line chatting is
smoothly possible. GPRS is a packet-
based data bearer service for GSM and
Fig. 3 Inductive speed TDMA networks, which provides both
speed sensor used in automobile is shown in fig. standards with a way to handle higher-data
3. speeds and transition to 3G. At the receiver
If not several types are available, the most end, the GSM module has a RS 232 port
common producing a pulsed signal the frequency through which, the module can be
of which is proportional to the vehicle speed. The connected to the personal computer.
signal from the sensing unit is counted by number D. Graphical User Interface:
of pulses. And it is divided by four to get the In the receiver end, the user interface is
speed in revolution per minute (RPM). to be developed through VB programming.
Fuel Level: It gives a representation of vehicle front
Fuel level is measured by using a variable resistor panel, showing vehicle parameters like
that is moved by a float. The position of the float sensor values. The fig 5 shows the main
is determined by how much fuel is in the tank.
page of vehicle information system. This • The automobile engine
page contains current sensor values. performance to be monitored,
when the vehicle is moving
The main page has a button for trend condition.
window. The trend window gives data • To prevent the accident.
value based on daily report and also • It helps the motor vehicle crash
weekly report. investigation.
• Easy to trace the vehicle position in
the globe.
• Mal practices in the vehicle can be
avoided. Such as fuel theft, etc..,


Connie Riberio, “Bringing wireless

access to the automobile”
Cottle. J. A, Edmunds R. A, Morris
T. D, Robson. S, Ross. K. W and
Benedikt. J, “Exploiting the Synergetic
Relationship between Automobiles and
V. conclusion Wireless Communications”.
This paper describes some wireless Erik Olin Peterson, 2007 university
technologies used in automobile and also of California, “An integrated
automotive diagnostics system that is
describes the system used for wireless customizable, low-cost, and non-
engine data management. From the system intrusive built on a wireless sensor
described in this paper, we can monitor the .
entire vehicle and engine parameters in Jeffrey. C, Cutajar. R and
remote location. Also, taking the system to Richardson. A, Centre for
Microsystems Research Engineering
its logical conclusion by allowing Department, Lancaster University, UK,
customization at run-time would be a Prosser. S and Lickess. M, TRW
Automotive, Technical Centre, UK,
valuable exercise. The system has more Micro Circuit Engineering, Exning
scopes in automobile field. Some of the Road, Newmarket, Suffolk,
features and scopes are,
Kongu Engineering college, erode, Tamilnadu.
ero.naga@gmail.com Contact No: 9994189874

ABSTRACT against nature also plays a major role in

The transport is the main important every increase of global warming. This
sector for our mankind. This tends us to can be avoided by using our renewable
depend upon the fissile fuels. This in energy completely which is available.
turn increases the global warming. The Renewable energy like solar, wind, etc.
mining and other illegal activities are well versed to us, we also know that
there vehicles available which works on INTRODUCTION:
the electric and this power can also be
Today the rate of increase of fossile
get by using solar radiation. fuels is so high. This makes increases a
dangerous monster called Global
But in that vehicles we use A.C series
warming.. This lets us to search for an
motor run the vehicle. This paper another way for the transport. This can be
avoided by using the electric vehicles. But
delivers you an innovation idea of
in that vehicles we use electric motors to
engine which works completely on run it. But this paper is an innovation idea
of running the engine completely with the
electromagnetic radiation. Here we
help of Electric power but not with the
discuss about the construction and fuel.
working of the electromagnetic engine CONSTRUCTION:
which is done as project in our college.
Since this paper also revels the problems
that are faced during this project work.
We will also discuss about the areas
which are to be concentrated during the
project work. Here the analytical
salvation is also done which is also be
discussed in this paper in further…

Sensing Unit:
1) Introduction Sensint unit senses the weight and
2) Construction sends the data to control unit. This may
consist of sensors, weighting machine.
3) Explanation of the components Control Unit:
4) Working of Electromagnetic This plays a major role in the working
of the car. This controls the working of
engine the engine. This selects and sends the
required initial current and voltage so that
5) Analytical salvation there is high torque initially. The voltage
6) Our project details and ampere can be changed by nob but the
initial voltage and ampere cannot be
7) Areas to be concentrated changed/lowered if same load is placed.
The required initial (V&A) can be selected
8) Ways to increase the efficiency from a microprocessor.
9) Problems to be solved Battery:
The battery is the heart of the setup.
10) Conclusion This supplies current to the whole setup.
11) Reference This must be charged frequently by putting
anything like flywheel,etc.
 When the supply is given to the
electromagnet-A side, then the
Electromagnatic engine: piston gets attracted towards it.
This is the working part in our project  When the supply is given to the
which is the reason for moving of the car. electromagnet-B side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
 But when one electromagnet is
working other is operated in off
 This gives a to and fro motion and
this can be used for any work.


Torque α B * I

Ns= 120*(f/p)

By this equation we can tell that by increasing the frequency of changing the poles we
can increase speed

B- magnetic flux
n- constant
µo- Permittivity – Constant


Thus we also know that

Force= B * I * L
L- Length of piston – constant
I – Current passing through the electromagnet

Force α B * I * L


Force α I^2

We know that
Torque = B * I * A

A- Area of piston – constant



Torque α I^2

Thus by increasing the current the torque can be increased and the graph will be as shown.

B α (µo * n * I)
can avoid some loss. Since the thickness
OUR PROJECT DETILS: of the wire plays a major role in the copper
 In our project we have constructed loss so by using the conductor of less
a relay circuit to give the supply thickness must be used.
manually. Control Unit:
This unit is so complicated because
 Then in a our engine we gave the the designing is not so simple. This is so
load as spring and piston weight. as the storage of data i.e the storage of
voltage and ampere for the initial moving.
 We constructed like that the piston This can be done successfully by
has to move against the spring and undertaking a testing based on weight for
the piston initially. So we are only the electromagnetic engine for which the
able to move with a very few circuit is to be designed. One must also be
length. careful in determining the maximum load
which is to be applied for that particular
 For this we need a battery or an electromagnetic engine.
autotransformer and rectifier
 Since we faced many problems The piston determines the speed of
during this project and all that is the vehicle however the power is supplied.
needed to this project is the proper The piston should be made of Mild steel
discussion and the way of doing. and it should be of light weight. We can
also use any magnetic material having less
Electro Magnet:
Here the magnet is very important WAYS TO INCREASE THE MAGNETIC
so the windings must be very FLUX:
sophisticated. The wire which are winded If you see the capacitor it will have an
must be coated with so insulin so that we oil paper. This arrangement is so used to
increase the storage. This can also be used
in the magnetic materials or The major role in this project is the
electromagnets to increase the magnetic concentration of losses during the
flux. So by implementing this oil paper or working. This can be minimized by
any oil material we can surely increase the adding some of the materials which
flux of the electromagnet. decreases the losses in the magnetic usage.


Friction: Thus I conclude that this engine will
While in operation the piston must surely play a major role in reducing the
move along the cylinder. However the global warming and it will increase the
piston and cylinder is so polished there technology of using the renewable energy.
will exist a friction which will affect the This may also be implemented in our cars
force of piston to their motion and any type of vehicles but depending
Sound: upon the load the engine configuration
The another problem to be solved is will vary. This can also be implemented
the sound which is produced during the by replacing the motors in the areas like
operation and this can be solved using any water pumping, etc.
soft material at the end of the stroke of the
engine. REFRENCE:
Since this is my won idea I only
Size: developed this and I referred so of the
The size plays a major problem in this webs and information in the internet
project. This problem can be solved by
using the technology application in the And I asked about the information
production of electromagnetic engine. about this work.

Losses: I also referred the 12th books for the

analytical solvation of this project.

Development of a Hybrid Electric Three wheeler

P.Karthikeyan1, J.Jancirani2
PG student, Department of Automobile Engineering,
Madras Institute of Technology - Anna University, Chennai- India.
Email: karthizone@gmail.com
Sr.Lecturer, Faculty of Automobile Engineering,
Madras Institute of Technology - Anna University, Chennai- India.

ABSTRACT electric vehicle, a three wheeler which is

This paper describes the constructed by parallel hybrid
development of a hybrid electric vehicle structure. This vehicle operates in three
especially hybrid auto rickshaw .It modes, namely battery mode, engine
consists of an Internal Combustion (IC) mode and battery charging mode.
engine, Permanent magnet DC electric Initially the vehicle operates in battery
motor, Micro controller and batteries. mode upto 20 kmph and then the
Modernization and Globalization have vehicle automatically turns to IC engine
increased the population of vehicles on mode with the help of Micro controller.
the road. The fuels to feed their needs The vehicle performance test,
are rapidly depleting and highly acceleration test, brake test and speed
polluting. A better alternative is hybrid
test are conducted in chassis electric motor coupled to an IC engine or
dynamometer. battery pack up. The motor is coupled to
differential, through which the power goes
Index Terms—PMDC motor, DC motor to rear wheels.
controller, Pb acid batteries, 2S gasoline
Engine, three wheeler, and Micro II. OBJECTIVE AND OUT LINE OF THE
Controller. PAPER

I. Introduction 1. When the vehicle reaches a

maximum speed of the battery
The three wheeler auto-rickshaw is
mode, the engine gets
commonly used in Indian cities as taxi
automatically started with help of
and for commercial transportation. It is an
micro controller by starter motor
old technology, very easy to repair and
and speed sensor.
very robust, but contributes largely to the
2. Reduce emission and fuel
known pollution problems in larger Indian
cities. Previous study shows that over
3. The selection of electric motor, the
72% of the pollution in New Delhi was
vehicle model and power drives are
caused by transportation, a large part of it
discussed, design options are
by the auto rickshaws and two wheelers,
discussed, result and discussion,
before the current anti-pollution
conclusion and feature work.
regulations came into force.
The shortcomings of the batteries
make the pure electric vehicle yet not ready
The following assumptions are to be
to overcome the market of conventional
considering for the selection of DC
vehicles. There is simply not enough
Electric motor.
energy supply for longer trips. The HEV
(Hybrid Electric Vehicles), however,
Vehicle speed : 20 kmph
combines the extended range of a
(or) 334 m/min
conventional vehicle with the
Vehicle weight and passenger : 375 kg
environmental benefits of an electrical
Diameter of wheel : 0.381 m
vehicle due to its possibilities to adjust its
For one revolution vehicle move: 1.197 m
working point of the engine. i.e. its torque
To move 20 Kmph : 279 rpm
and speed combination. The control law of
Speed required by road wheel:
the HEV forces the vehicle traction system
to choose an operation point that yields the
l drive
highest efficiency possible and/or the
lowest emissions. The results are a vehicle
Speed required by road wheel: 279*1.737
with improved fuel economy and lowered,
= 485 rpm
but not zero emissions.
Reduction ratio required :
1500 / 485
The current paper is an overview of the
= 3.09
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Which could
bridge the traditional power systems with
the future systems. In the current paper,
The input of the final drive should be run
design and fabricated which could be used
at 485 rpm for vehicle to run at 20 Kmph.
for parallel hybrid vehicle. The vehicle
chassis is a 3-wheeler with drive to rear
The selection of sprocket teeth deepens
wheels and steered by the single front
on reduction ratio (1:3.099) 20 teeth on
wheel. The vehicle is powered by an
motor sprocket and 62 teeth on big end transmission consists of a four speed
transmission side. manual gearbox with a reverse gear and a
wet clutch. The kerb mass of vehicle is
Resistance offered by the vehicle is R = 285 kg and maximum payload is 375 kg.
Ka*Af*V2 + Kr*W + W*sin α, Equating In table1 vehicle specification is listed.
force and Resistance and to calculate the
minimum torque require to move the TABLE 1 SPECIFICATION OF HYBRID THREE
Torque = F*effective wheel Radius =
45.96Nm, power required is 1.3 kW, the Engine Type Single cylinder,
motor 1.3kW used for minimum 2-stroke forced air cooler
requirement to drive the vehicle. Engine 145.45CC
IV. VEHICLE MODEL AND POWER Max. Power, Pe,max 7.00HP, 5.15 kW at 5000 rpm
DRIVES Max. Torque, 12.1 Nm at 3500 rpm
The design concept for three wheeled Transmission 4 forward and 1 reverse
vehicles is completely battery driven auto- (0.88.54, 0.34, 0.20 & 0.89)
rickshaw, which is called as Electric three Final drive ratio, 1:1.737
wheeler. The electric vehicle is a zero rd
emission range of 30–35 km (60%–80% Clutch type Wet multi-disc type
depth-of-discharge). The maximum speed DC motor 3hp, 48V PMDC motor
is 20 Kmph. The electric dc motor size is Battery 12V, 75AH, 4nos.
3hp and the battery pack consists of a 4
Alternator 13.5V, 75 Amps at 3500rpm
lead-acid batteries with a total capacity of
75 Ah with a package mass of 59.2kg and Turning radius 0.197 m
3hp, PWM drive of 60A capacity with Roll resistance, kr 0.015
over current and over voltage protection Air drag 0.031
assisted by regenerative compensation coefficient, ka
electric motor controller is used. Frontal surface 2.0 m2
area, Af
Fuel economy
Mileage within a 18 to 20 Km/liter (45mpg)
Mileage on the 25 Km/liter (60mpg)
Average traveled 40 to 60Km/day
Maximum speed 56 to 80 Km/h (35-50 mph)

Figure 1 Layout of Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A. Electric motor mode
M-PMDC motor, M.C-Motor Controller,
E-Engine, G-Gearbox, FT-Fuel Tank, and
When starting, by using a control device
keeps the gasoline engine stopped. The
electric motor alone transmits power via
In the fig 1 the vehicle is fitted with a two
the final drive reduction drive for moving
stroke 145.45 CC single cylinder SI engine
auto-rickshaw. The vehicle operates in
with a maximum power of 7hp. The
“Battery” mode up to 20 kmph to help in
fuel savings, during the initial period is Tv (t) = mv*g*cr*rw + 1/2 ρ*cd*Af *ωv (t)2*
high torque required. rw3
--------- (1)
B. Engine mode
With the wheel speed
When the electric motor drives auto- ωv (t) = v (t)/rw --------- (2)
rickshaw at maximum speeds, a control
device starts the gasoline engine. The The drive power demand becomes,
engine is accelerated to high speed by Pv (t) = Tv (t) ωv (t) --------- (3)
accelerating cable. Engine is start after few
minutes. It’s changed to engine mode for it VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND
connected 35 to 40 kmph. Engine normal DISCUSSIONS:
operating time CO2 emission is less
compare to starting, stopping and idling The hybrid electric auto rickshaw is
time. tested in chassis dynamometer, it is drive
by two mode namely battery mode and
C. Engine/charging mode engine mode. The vehicle performance
tests are conducted and plots Maximum
While auto-rickshaw is running at cruises speed, acceleration test by distance mode
speed 35 to 45 kmph alternator is engaged and speed mode.
in engine and the electric power is stored
in the battery controlled by a control
device. The vehicle runs at low speed the
electric motor is turn to generator function
by regenerative braking. At the same time,
the control device regulates the load of the
electric motor/generator according to the
state of the engine.


In auto-rickshaws in the traffic

conditions in inner-city areas run at only Figure 2 Experimental test of maximum
15–20 kmph. This cause severe emission speed test in engine and battery mode
pollution, since the conventional
powertrains are designed to run efficiently The engine mode maximum speed is 41
at 40–45kmph. Furthermore, the pollution kmph at elapsed time is 28sec and battery
is increased more by frequently starting mode maximum speed is 20kmph and
and stopping of the rickshaw in the dense elapsed time is 23.88sec.
traffic. Clearly, the drive cycle plays an
important role in the design of the hybrid
drive train, since it determines the
operations points of the power source.
Furthermore, on an average the auto-
rickshaws travel about 50–60 Km per day.
Using this drive cycle and the vehicle
parameters as listed in Table1, the vehicle
wheel torque can be calculated by
following equation.
Figure 3 Experimental test of acc. Test by
Figure 5 Vehicle speed Vs voltage supply
distance mode maximum in engine and
to the motor
battery mode
In Electric mode voltage supply to the
The battery mode reach 50m at 15.21sec
motor is directly propositional vehicle
and the engine mode 50m reach at 20.2sec
speed. The variable potential meter is used
the gear change take time.
change resistance Pulse with Modulator is
supply voltage to the Permanent Magnet
electric motor.


In this paper the design problem of a
three wheel auto-rickshaw and impact of
hybridization of CO2 reduction for this
vehicle is discussed. The final drive is
modified operate on both modes IC engine
as well as motor mode operation. Using
Figure 4 Experimental test of maximum chassis dynamometer the following tests
speed test in engine and battery mode
are conducted maximum speed test,
The battery mode 19.2kmph reach at acceleration test, and brake test. From the
17.71sec and engine mode reach 37kmph above result the optimal control strategy,
at 35.8 sec, when engine is start after technology choice and fuel economy and
30sec its change to engine mode CO2
emission is reduce at speed of 30kmph. vehicle performance (acceleration,
maximum speed and brake test) are
investigated. In future the vehicle
Performance test, Acceleration test, Brake
test and Speed test will conducted in
“Chassis Dynamometer” by simulating the
actual road conditions and Indian Driving
[1] M.Antonelli and L.Martorano, Electric Motor drive characteristics
“Optimization of an Internal for EV and HEV propulsion
Combustion Engine for an Hybrid
systems”, SAE technical paper
Scooter”, SAE transaction, 2006
[2] T.Hofman, “Development of a series 2001-01-3062
hybrid system for a three- wheeled [5] Rajvanshi.A, “Cycle rickshaws as a
motor taxi”, PhD-degree in sustainable transport system for
mechanical engineering. 2007, developing countries” Human
Eindhoven University of Power, Technical journal of the
Technology, Eindhoven. IHPVA no.49pp. 15-18, 2000.
[3] Mohammad Saad Alam, Thomas [6] Xiolan AL Terry Mohr and Scott
Moeller and Aziz Maly, Anderson, “An Electric
“Conversion of an Indian Three Mechanical infinitely Variable
Wheeler Scooter into Hybrid fuel speed transmission “, SAE
cell Ni-MH Battery Vehicle and transaction, 2001-01-0354
Validation of the Vehicle Model for [7] W.K.Yap and V.Karri, “Modeling
the Bajaj Three Wheeler”, 2006 and Simulation of a Hybrid
IEEE 0-7803-9794-0/06. Scooter”, PWASET volume 30 July
[4] Rahman.Z, Ehsani.M and 2008 ISSN 1307-6684.
Butler.K.L, “An investigation of


M.E. (CAD/CAM), II Year
Thiruvalluvar college of Engineering and Technology

AIM: to reveal that which is more feasible when

This project aims at compared to cast iron brake drum
analyzing following composite metals as using ANSYS.
alternate material for brake drum and
1. Aluminium metal matrix composite Static and temperature stress
with silicon carbide (SiC) as distribution in aluminum metal matrix
reinforcement. composite material and currently used
2. Aluminium metal matrix composite material (C.I.) are to be analyzed
with fly ash as reinforcement. using ANSYS. The results obtained are to
be compared and to be revealed that which
ABSTRACT of the following aluminum metal matrix
composite is more feasible for brake drum
Brakes are the most important when to compare to cast iron.
component of an automobile vehicle. 1. Aluminum metal matrix composite with
Brakes are mechanical device which is silicon carbide as reinforcement.
used to stop the vehicle within the 2. Aluminium metal matrix composite
minimum possible distance. When the with fly ash as reinforcement.
brakes are applied on a moving vehicle
the kinetic energy of the vehicle is
transformed into heat generated by the INTRODUCTION
friction between the brake lining and Automobile industry has been
brake drum. facing substantial technical challenges as it
An automobile brake drum is a seeks to improve fuel economy, reduce
part of the braking system that makes vehicle emission, increase styling options
contact with brake lining whenever and enhance performance.
brake is applied. Brake drum is mostly Advanced materials with improved
made up of cast iron which requires technology will be required to meet these
more attention because of its large challenges. The increased use of
weight and heavy wear in nature and composite materials is being given serious
poor heat distribution. Due to this considerations for the use in high
poor heat distribution, performance production and high volume application.
of the brake is affected. Metal matrix composites are found
to be one such material capable of meeting
To overcome the above problem these requirements for automotive
an attempt has been made in this application. MMCs are engineered
project to select an alternative material materials formed by the incorporation of
for brake drum. ceramic inclusions in metal alloy.
These inclusion s may be
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES continuous, discontinuous particulate or
whiskers. The development of MMC brake
Metal matrix composites (MMCs) drums favoured primarily over cast iron
are found to be one such material capable for their high wear resistance, high friction
of meeting this requirement for automobile coefficient, more thermal conductivity and
applications. low density.
MMCs are materials formed by the The application of MMCs to brake
incorporation of ceramic inclusions in components as new drum material has
metal alloy. The development of metal been receiving worldwide attention
matrix composite material brake drums because of their light weight, superior
favoured primarily over cast iron for mechanical properties, high thermal
their high wear resistance , high friction conductivity and specific heat and superior
coefficient , more thermal conductivity wear resistance.
and low density. The higher thermal conductivity
After modeling the brake drum and specific heat of MMCs provide
using Pro-E software,
additional advantages for the thermal
management in brake systems. PROE MODEL OF BRAKE DRUM

During braking the kinetic energy
of the moving vehicle is converted into
thermal energy through friction in the
brakes which results in increase of
temperature in brake components.
High temperature that generate
inside the drum induces thermal stresses
and brake fade and reduces the strength of
the drum. Hence thermal analysis of brake
drum becomes essential to study the
feasibility of using MMC brake drum

It is friction material fitted on the DIMENSIONS OF THE BRAKE DRUM
surface of the brake shoe. At the time of
braking the kinetic energy is transformed Outer diameter - 0.47 m
into heat energy. Brake liner absorbs the Inner diameter - 0.395 m
heat making it to wear. Depth - 0.187 m
Depth of rib - 0.048 m
Rib diameter - 0.486 m
Hole diameter - 0.022 m
Hub diameter - 0.223 m
Outer edge champher - 45 x 0.005 m
Inner edge champher - 45 x 0.01 m
Eight holes with centre
Distance - 0.115 m


MMC with fly

MMC with SiC
Input parameters Cast Iron ash as
as reinforcement

Density (kg/m3) 7228 2785 2300

Young s modulus 100 90 75

Specific heat 419 970 1170

(J/Kg K)
Thermal 48 104 140
conductiv ity

Over the past three decades the
composite industry has undergone many
developments in the processes and
applications. Some of the papers which
deal with composite materials and their
applications in automobile field are
reviewed below:
 High density , rigorous machining
N.NATARAJAN, S.VIJAYARANJAN and due to imprecise casting and
AND I.RAJENDRAN Manufactured and substantial production cycle times
tested a metal matrix composite brake
are few of the drawbacks in
drum and the thermal analysis under
single, continuous and repeated braking utilizing cast iron in brake drum.
conditions were carried out.
G.WITHERS, P.MURIE,  Hence composite materials are
R.ZHENG Developed low cost aluminium invaluable in eliminating such
matrix composite using fly ash micro shortcomings.
spheres by solidification processing. The
materials were successfully squeeze cast  Aluminium alloy composites are
into automotive brake drums that were becoming potential engineering
defect free and heat treatable. materials offering excellent
J.BIENIAS , M.WALCZAK , combination of properties such as
B.SUROWSKA Studied the
microstructure and corrosion behavior of  High specific strength, High
aluminium fly ash composites.
specific stiffness, Low coefficient
T.FUJITA,N.SUZUKI AND K.NIHARA of thermal expansion and wear
developed a metal matrix composite resistance.
reinforced with a new aluminium borate
whisker. This aluminium borate whisker COMPOSITE FABRICATION
has been established by a Japanese Composites are fabricated by adding
chemical company. ceramic particles to a molten aluminium
P.ROHATGI studied the various alloy and then casting that liquid metal
automotive applications of cast aluminium ceramic mixture into near-net-shape
matrix composites. The various components.
applications include drive shafts , disc After the ceramic was well distributed the
brake rotors, brake drums, brake calipers, composite alloy was poured into ingot
connecting rods, piston and engine block moulds and solidified.The ingots were
cylinder line for automotive and rail shipped to a casting plant.There they were
vehicle applications. remelted and squeezed cast to net shape
D.R.HERLING , G.J. GRANT AND component such as brake drum.
W.HUNT developed low cost aluminium
metal matrix composites. The stiffness, MATERIALS CONSIDERED IN THIS
wear resistance and temperature PROJECT
capabilities of the matrix alloys can be Two composite materials are
considerably increased by introducing considered in this project.
ceramic particles and this makes light 1. ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX
alloys such as aluminium and magnesium COMPOSITE WITH SILICON
most suitable candidates as metal matrices. CARBIDE(SiC) AS
 Cast iron has been utilized in brake
drum and rotors throughout the 2. ALUMINIUM METAL MATRIX
history of automobile COMPOSITE WITH FLY ASH AS
In the first composite SiC
acts are ceramic inclusions which are MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF
incorporated in the aluminium metal COMPOSITE MATERIALS
In the second composite ADVANTAGES OF COMPOSITE
fly ash acts as inclusions in aluminium MATERIALS
metal matrix.This composite has 1. Composite materials have density
higher stiffness , strength and wear compared to other ferrous
resistance. materials.
The fly ash particles are
obtained as by product of burning of 2. Composite materials have high
black coal in power stations and wear resistance and high thermal
therefore very low in cost. Fly ash is conductivity.
made up of tiny spheres and consists of
3. Composite materials have high
silicon, aluminium, iron and calcium
frictional coefficient .
oxides. The fly ash particles are
collected by electrostatic precipitator 4. Along the length of fiber the
from the exhaust gases in power composite have high strength and
stations. stiffness.
The fly ash particles were incorporated
into AL alloys by mechanical mixing
and casting.
with SiC
278 207 6 80
327 318 2.5 135
MODELING fly ash as

Finite element method is a technique the continuum is not known, let as assume
in which a given domain is represented as that the variation of field variable inside
a collection of simple domains, called the finite element can be approximated by
finite elements. The finite element method a simple function.
differs from the traditional variational These approximating functions (also
methods in the manner in which the called interpolation models) are defined in
approximation functions are constructed. terms of the field variables at the nodes.
In the finite element method, the When field equations for the whole
actual continuum of body of matter like continuum are written, the new unknowns
solid, liquid or gas is represented as an will be the nodal values of the fixed
assemblage of sub-divisions called finite variables. By solving the field equations,
elements of domains. These elements are which are generally in the form of matrix
considered to be interconnected at equations, the approximating functions
specified joints or nodal points. The nodes define the field variable throughout the
usually lie on the element boundaries assemblage of elements.
where adjacent elements are considered to 5.2 ANSYS PACKAGE
be connected. Since the actual variation of ANSYS is a general purpose
the field variables (like displacement, finite element modeling package for
temperature, pressure or velocity) inside numerically solving a wide variety of
mechanical problems. ANSYS – Finite
element analysis software enables specify a table of temperatures along with
engineers to perform the following tasks: the corresponding values of film
 Build compute models or coefficient at each temperature.
transfer CAD models of 5.4.1 TYPES OF THERMAL
structures, products, ANALYSIS
components or system ANSYS supports two types of
 Apply operating loads or thermal analysis:
other design performance 1. A steady-state thermal analysis
conditions. determines the temperature
 Study physical responses, distribution and other thermal
such as stress levels, quantities under steady-state
temperature distribution or loading conditions. A steady-
the impact of state loading condition is a
electromagnetic situation where heat storage
fields.Optimize a design effect varying over a period of
early in the design stage 5.3 time can be ignored.
TYPES OF ANALYSIS 2. A transient thermal analysis
The analysis types used in determines the temperature
ANSYS, whether the problem is linear or distribution and other thermal
nonlinear are: quantities under conditions that
 Static/dynamic structural vary over a period of time.
 Thermal analysis 5.4.2 TYPES OF THERMAL LOADS
1. Constant Temperature (TEMP)
 Fluid analysis
These are DOF constraints usually
 Acoustic and Electro- specified at model boundaries to
Magnetic analysis impose a known, fixed
5.4 THERMAL ANALYSIS temperature.
A thermal analysis calculates the 2. Heat flow rate
temperature distribution and related These are concentrated nodal loads,
thermal quantities in a system or used mainly in line-elements
component. Typical thermal quantities of models where we can not specify
interest are: convections and heat fluxes. A
 The temperature positive value of heat flow rate
distribution indicates heat flowing into the
 The amount of heat lost or node. If both TEMP and HEAT are
gained specified at a node, the temperature
 Thermal gradients constraint prevails.
 Thermal fluxes 3. Convection (CONV)
The ANSYS program handles all Convections are surface loads
the three primary modes of heat transfer: applied on exterior surfaces of the
conduction, convection and radiation. The model to account for the heat lost
convection effect can be incorporated as a to (or gained from) a surrounding
surface load on conducting solid elements medium. They are available only
or shell elements. The convection film for solids and shells.
coefficient and the bulk fluid temperature 4. Heat Fluxes
at a surface are to be specified; ANSYS Heat fluxes are also surface load.
then calculates the appropriate heat Used when the amount heat
transfer across the surface. If the film transfer across a surface is known,
coefficient depends upon temperature, you or is calculated through a
FLOTRAN CFD analysis. A Older cars and trucks have drum brakes at
positive value of heat flux indicates all four wheels. Newer vehicles using
heat flowing into the element. Heat drum brakes have them only in the rear.
flux is used only with solids and 5.7 DIMENSIONS OF THE BRAKE
shells. An element face may have DRUM
either CONV or HFLUX (but not Outer diameter - 0.47 m
both) specified as a surface load. If Inner diameter - 0.395 m
both are specified on the same Depth - 0.187 m
element face, ANSYS uses what Depth of rib - 0.048 m
was specified last. Rib diameter - 0.486 m
Hole diameter - 0.022 m
5. Heat Generation Rates (HGEN) Hub diameter - 0.223 m
Heat generation rates are applied as Outer edge champher - 45 x 0.005 m
“body loads” to represent heat Inner edge champher - 45 x 0.01 m
generation within an element, for Eight holes with center distance- 0.115m
example by a chemical reaction or
an electric current. Heat generation 5.8 MODELING OF THE BRAKE
rates have units of heat flow rate DRUM
per unit volume. Using the above dimensions,
5.5 FIELDS OF APPLICATION modeling of the brake drum is done. PRO-
 Aerospace E Wild fire.2 software is used in modeling
 Automotive industries of the brake drum. The modeling can also
 Biomedical be done using ANSYS.10 package, but its
 Bridges and buildings little difficult when compared to PRO-E.
 Heavy Equipments & The modeling of the brake drum is done as
Machinery a single unit i.e. there is no need for any
assembly of components.
 MEMS – Micro
Electromechanical Systems
 Sporting goods.


The drum brake has a
metal brake drum that encloses the brake
assembly at each wheel. Two brake shoes
expand outward to slow or stop the drum
which rotates with the wheel. The brake
assembly attaches to a steering knuckle,
axle housing, or strut-spindle assembly.
Figure.5.1 shows the three
dimensional model of the brake drum
modeled using PRO-E Wildfire.2. After
modeling, the model is imported in
ANSYS. For importing, the model is first
saved in IGES file format. Then in
ANSYS the IGES file is imported as a
solid feature without any distortion. After
importing, the analysis work is carried out.

Figure.5.1 Solid Model of the Brake Drum

Figure.5.2 Model imported in ansys
P = 7.6 * 105 N/m2
BRAKE DRUMS The steps involved in ANSYS can be
The primary components of a Preprocessing
hydraulic brake system are the master  Element type definition
cylinder, limit valve and wheel cylinders.
When the brake pedal is actuated, the  Material properties
pressure from the master cylinder is definition
transmitted to the wheel cylinders through
the limiter valve. The diameters of the  Building model
master cylinders and the wheel cylinders
 Meshing the model
are designed in such a way that the force is
multiplied. The wheel pistons force the Solution
friction lining against the rotating brake  Defining initial
drum. There exist a definite ratio between condition
the applied brake force and the frictional
force developed in the brake drum and is  Applying load
known as Brake Factor (BF).
The hydraulic pressure produced by the  Solving for results
pedal actuation is obtain as follows
P = F rL L / Amcp Post processing
Where F, rL, L and Amcp are pedal force,  reading result file
pedal lever ratio, pedal lever efficiency,
 viewing results
and area of the master cylinder,
respectively. This pressure value is applied 6.2.1 PREPROCESSING
as load in structural analysis of the brake Preprocessing involves the selection of
drum. type of element type and material
Two pedal forces are considered. One is properties and building up of model.
40N and another one is 80 N. The 40 N
pedal force corresponds to a brake line 6.2.2 ELEMENT TYPE
pressure of 4 bar and the 80 N pedal force For conducting structural analysis
corresponds to a brake line pressure of 8 the element type considered is SOLID
bar. For each of this pedal force, the 92.It has quadratic displacement behavior
hydraulic pressure produced at the brake and is well suited to model irregular
drum is determined. The other parameters mashes (such as produced from various
considered are CAD/CAM systems).
Pedal lever ratio = 5 The element is defined by ten
Pedal lever efficiency = 0.95 nodes having three degrees of freedom at
Area of the master cylinder= 500 mm2 each node: translation in the nodal x, y and
So for a pedal force of 40 N, the hydraulic z directions. The element also has
pressure is given as plasticity, creep, swelling, stress stiffening,
P = F rL L / Amcp large deflection, and large strain
P = 40 * 5 * 0.95 / 500 * 10-6
P = 3.8 * 105 N/m2 capabilities. See SOLID92 in the
ANSYS. Inc. Theory Reference for more
Similarly for a pedal force of 80 N we details about this element.
have the hydraulic pressure as
P = 80 * 5 * 0.95 / 500 * 10-6
element. Temperatures and fluences may
be input as element body loads at the
nodes. The node I temperature T (I)
defaults to TUNIF. If all other
temperatures are unspecified they default
to T (I). If all corner node temperatures are
specified, each midside node temperature
defaults to the average temperature of its
adjacent corner nodes. For any other input
temperature pattern, unspecified
Figure.6.1 SOLID 92 Element temperatures default to TUNIF. Similar
defaults occur to fluence except that zero
is used instead of TUNIF.


Element loads are
described in Node and Element Loads.
Pressures may be input as surface loads on
the element faces as shown by the circled
numbers on Figure92.1: “SOLID92
Geometry”. Positive pressures act into the
Table 6.1 Material Properties
Input Parameters Cast iron MMC with SiC as MMC with Fly ash as
reinforcement reinforcement
Density ( kg/m^3) 7228 2785 2300
Youngs 100 90 75
Specific heat ( J/kg 419 970 1170
Thermal 48 104 140
conductivity (W/m


The model is build in PRO-E and
is imported in ANSYS for carrying out the
analysis work. SOLID 92 element is used
in meshing.

Figure.6.2 Meshed model of the brake drum

The results are obtained after the
initial and boundary are applied and load is
applied as pressure along the inner surface
of the brake drum. The solve command is
executed and the results are stored in files
for post processing.


Post processing is done after
the solve command is executed. Through
post processing the results can be
reviewed. In post processing we go in for
plot results option. In plot results we go for
nodal solutions and find the von misse
stresses so as to find the deflection static
stress induced in the brake drum.





PRESSURE OF 7.6*105 N/M2
The brake drum is a structural
component that converts the kinetic energy
of a moving vehicle into thermal energy in
the process of slowing down or stopping
of a vehicle. Cast iron is the dominant
FIG-6.5: STATIC STRESS INDUCED material normally found for this
DRUM WITH SILICON application. In vehicles, the drum is used
REINFORCEMENT in rear brakes and disc in front brakes. The
PRESSURE OF 7.6*105 researchers around the world are taking
constant effort towards the development of
a new brake system, brake design and
brake material. When the pedal is actuated,
the wheel cylinder piston forces the lining
against the rotating drum. Due to the
friction between the stationary lining and
the rotating drum, a drag force is
developed in a direction opposite to the
REINFORCEMENT FOR A direction of rotation. Therefore, the brake
HYDRAULIC PRESSURE OF power developed in brake drum can be
7.6*105 N/M2
expressed as follows.

BP = (p - po) Awc cBF (rd / RT) Vo

P = hydraulic pressure produced by pedal actuation
po = push out pressure
Awc = wheel cylinder area
c  wheel cylinder efficiency
BF = brake factor
rd = brake drum effective radius
RT = radius of tyre
Vo = initial velocity of the vehicle
The brake power is calculated as 1000 KW for a hydraulic pressure value of 3.8 * 10 5 N /
m2 and 2000 KW for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 105 N / m2.
7.2 THERMAL ANALYSIS OF BRAKE brake drum and dissipates by convection
DRUM and radiation from the outer surface of the
During braking, the kinetic energy drum. The heat transfer from inside the
of the moving vehicle is converted into drum to outside by conduction is
thermal energy through friction in the expressed as
brakes. When rapid deceleration produces qcond = K A (Td – To)
high heat generation in a single stop, the Where K, A, Td and To are thermal
braking time may be less than the time conductivity, surface area, inside
required for the heat to penetrate through temperature and outside temperature of
the drum and the shoe which will lead to brake drum respectively.
temperature rise at the interface. The 7.3 TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
increase in temperature in the brake drum CALCULATION
without ambient cooling is expressed Using the temperature difference
asTemperature difference = BP tb / d cd relation, the increase in temperature value
d for cast iron brake drum and metal matrix
Where t b, d, cd and d are composite brake drums are found out
braking time, density, specific heat and respectively. A braking time value of 5 sec
volume of brake drum, respectively. While is considered for calculation purpose. This
applying brakes, about 90% of the thermal value is substituted in the relation and the
energy is absorbed by the drum and the increase in temperature is found out
rest is dissipated into the brake shoe based In the case of cast iron brake drum, for a
on the thermal resistance of brake drum hydraulic pressure value of 3.8 * 105 N /
and shoe materials. This thermal energy m2 and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
diffuses through conduction inside the
T = BP tb / d cd d

BP = 1000 KW
d = 7228 Kg / m3
cd = 419 J / Kg K
d = 11137 cm3
T = 1000000 * 5 / 7228 * 419 * 0.011137=148.24 K= 150 K
Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 105 N / m2 (BP= 2000KW). We have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 7228 * 419 * 0.011137= 298 K

In the case of MMC brake drum with silicon carbide as reinforcement, for a hydraulic
pressure value of 3.8 * 105 N / m2 and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
T = BP tb / d cd d

BP = 1000 KW
d = 2785 Kg / m3
cd = 970 J / Kg K
d = 11137 cm3
T = 1000000 * 5 / 2785 * 970 * 0.011137= 165 K
Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 105 N / m2 (BP= 2000KW), we have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 2785 * 970 * 0.011137= 330 K
In the case of MMC brake drum with fly ash as reinforcement, for a hydraulic pressure
value of 3.8 * 105 N / m2 and a braking time of 5 sec, we have
T = BP tb / d cd d

BP = 1000 KW
d = 2300 Kg / m3
cd = 1170 J / Kg K
d = 11137 cm3
T = 1000000 * 5 / 2300 * 1170 * 0.011137= 168 K

Similarly for a hydraulic pressure value of 7.6 * 105 N / m2 (BP= 2000KW), we have
T = 2000000 * 5 / 2300 * 1170 * 0.011137= 337 K
Using the above temperature values, coupled field thermal analysis is carried out and
the thermal stresses induced in each of the three materials is found out. The reference
temperature is this case is taken as 273 K.








From structural analysis, the static stresses induced in the three brake drums namely
cast iron, silicon carbide and fly ash composite brake drums are found out.
Table.8.1 Deflection and static stress values for three materials for a hydraulic pressure
of 3.8 * 105 N/m2

Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement as reinforcement

0.473 * 10-5 0.338 *10-5 0.29 * 10-5

minimum(N/m2) 13391 13391 12334
maximum(N/m2) 0.259 * 107 0.259 * 107 0.239 107

Table.8.2 Deflection and static stress values for three materials for a hydraulic pressure
of 7.6 * 105 N/m2

Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement as reinforcement

105 *10-4 0.676 * 10-5 0.622 * 10-5
minimum(N/m2) 26782 26782 26430

maximum(N/m2) 0.519 * 107 0.519 * 107 0.512 * 107


Coupled field analysis is carried out to determine the thermal stresses induced in the
three brake drums.

Table.8.3 Deflection and Thermal stress values for three materials for a hydraulic
pressure of 3.8 * 105 N/m2

Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement as reinforcement
0.001121 0.001134 0.000462
Thermal stress
minimum(N/m2) 0.714 * 107 0.603 * 107 0.327 * 107
Thermal stress
Maximum(N/m2) 1.05 * 109 0.885 * 109 0.481 * 109

Table.8.4 Deflection and Thermal stress values for three materials for a hydraulic
pressure of 7.6 * 105 N/m2

Parameters Cast Iron MMC with Silicon Carbide MMC with Fly Ash
as reinforcement as reinforcement

0.002241 0.002262 0.000918
Thermal stress
minimum(N/m2) 0.143 * 108 0.12 * 108 0.0651 * 108
Thermal stress
Maximum(N/m2) 0.210 1010 0.176 * 1010 0.0955 * 1010

8.3 DISCUSSION values and the deflection due to the

thermal stresses are minimum for the Fly
From Table 8.1 it is found that that
ash composite material when compared to
the deflection of Fly ash composite
other two materials for a hydraulic
material is less compared to the other two
pressure of 3.8 * 105 N/m2. Similarly from
materials. Also the stress values are
Table 8.4 we find that the deflection and
smaller for Fly ash composite material
thermal stress values are minimum for Fly
when compared to, other two materials.
ash composite materials for a hydraulic
From Table 8.2 it is inferred that MMC
pressure value of 7.6 * 105 N/m2.
with Fly ash as reinforcement has superior
qualities such as smaller deflection and
smaller stress values when compared to
other two materials for the same hydraulic
pressure value.
Based on the discussion we
In case of Thermal analysis, from
conclude that the Metal Matrix Composite
Table 8.3 it is found that the thermal stress
with Fly ash as reinforcement is much
suitable material for the manufacturing of Fly ash composite material is also
brake drums as this material has less static of light weight and has high thermal
and thermal deflections when compared to conductivity and specific heat compared to
cast iron and silicon carbide composite the other two materials. So the suitable
material and also less static stress and material for the brake drum manufacturing
thermal stress induced in it, compared to is Metal Matrix Composite with fly ash as
the other two materials. reinforcement.

Heat transfer enhancement in cross flow heat exchanges using oval

tubes and multiple delta winglets
D.Mahendra1 and S.Rhanganath2
Email: mahendradumpa@gmail.com
Email: rhanganath@gmail.com
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sri Nandhanam College of Engineering and Technology, Tirupattur, Vellore (Dt)

Abstract small compared to the liquid side. In a

suggested strategy, oval tubes are used
A three-dimensional study of in place of circular tubes, and delta-
laminar flow and heat transfer in a winglet type vortex generators in
channel with built-in oval tube and delta various configurations are mounted on
winglets is carried out through the the fin-surface. The analysis is carried
solution of the complete Navier–Stokes out for different angles of attack of the
and energy equations using a finite- winglets to the incoming flow for the
volume method. The geometrical case of two winglet pairs. The structures
configuration represents an element of a of the velocity field and the heat transfer
gas–liquid fin–tube cross-flow heat characteristics have been presented. The
exchanger. The size of such heat results indicate that vortex generators in
exchangers can be reduced through conjunction with the oval tube show the
enhancement of transport coefficients improvement of fin–tube heat
on the air (gas) side, which are usually exchangers.

arrangement, the gas stream generally

flows between the plates and across the
1. Introduction tubes and the liquid flows inside the tubes.
The fins act as extended surfaces providing
Fin–tubes are commonly used in
many gas–liquid cross-flow heat
exchangers. The fins are a series of thin
parallel plates through which the tubes
pass perpendicularly. In such an
the bulk of the heat transfer surface area coefficients on the fins and the tube outer
for the gas side. Even with the extended surfaces without a large increase in
surfaces, the dominant thermal resistance pressure drop in the flow passage. The
is on the side of the gas. In order to numerical investigations of Biswas et al.
achieve significant heat transfer [1] and the experimental findings of
enhancement on the gas side, strategies Valencia et al. [2] reveal that effective
must be developed to increase heat transfer

utilization of vortex generators results in surface. The longitudinal vortices (also

an enhancement of heat transfer without a called streamwise vortices) have axes
significant additional penalty in the aligned in the direction of the main flow.
pressure drop. These vortices interact with an otherwise
two-dimensional boundary layer and
In the above investigations, the produce a three-dimensional swirling flow
enhancement of heat transfer from the fin that mixes near-wall fluid with the mid-
surfaces is achieved by placing delta- stream. This enhances the mixing of fluid
winglet type vortex generators on the flat from the periphery and the core regions of
fin surfaces in the neighbourhood of the the flow field. Thus the thermal boundary
tubes. Longitudinal vortices develop along layer is disrupted and heat transfer is
the side-edge of the delta-winglets due to enhanced. The additional pressure losses
the pressure difference between the front are modest because the form drag for such
surface (facing the flow) and the back winglet-type slender bodies is low.

In order to study the improvement of the tubes [3]. Vortex generators can be
heat exchanger surfaces, the present mounted in the fin–tube heat exchangers
numerical study investigates the use of using following two common
oval tubes in place of circular tubes, with configurations, (i) common-flow-down
delta-winglets mounted in front of the oval and (ii) common-flow-up, as proposed by
Pauley and Eaton [4]. Fig. 2 presents a in a common-flow-down configuration in
sectional view of the suggested front of the oval tube. It may be mentioned
arrangement with the delta-winglets placed that the study of low Reynolds number
simulations in the present work is not for often laminar and the Reynolds numbers in
computational simplification. Usually, the the passages are in the range of low and
fin spacing is so small and the mean moderate [5].
velocity range is such that the flows are

The complete Navier–Stokes equations Numerical simulation is carried out by

together with the energy equation have varying the angle β. Since heat transfer
been solved to obtain a detailed analysis of rates mainly depend up on the flow, the
the flow structure together with heat flow is disturbed by altering the winglet
transfer characteristics of the proposed angles.
configuration for the finned oval tube heat
exchangers. The three angles that are considered for the
analysis are 300, 350 and 400. The
2. Problem Description: Numerical simulation was carried out using validated
simulation was carried out on an elliptical commercial code FLUENT 6.3 version.
tube with winglets to understand the flow The plan view representation of the
and the heat transfer characteristics. computational domain is shown below.

Dimensional representation of the computational domain

The dimensions used are those of a Simulations were carried out and the heat
proposed design. The other winglet of the transfer rates, pressure drop and the flow
first winglet pair is placed symmetrically behavior were analyzed for each and every
about the centreline. case varying the orientation of the winglet.

3.Boundary Condition: 4. Numerical Analysis: The flow and the

 Working fluid is air which enters the heat transfer analysis were carried out by
domain with a velocity of 1m/sec. The solving the basic governing equation of
temperature of the air is 300K. fluid flow and heat transfer. Finite volume
discretization technique was used to
 No slip and no penetration boundary reduce the partial differential equations
conditions are implemented on the wall into discretized linear equations. The
of the channel and winglets. basic governing equations are
 Continuity Equation
 The top, bottom and the winglets are
maintained isothermally at a
temperature of 350K.
Microsoft Equation
 The side walls of the channel are
insulated. -4.1
Where the velocity vector
The outlet pressure is assumed to → ∧ ∧ ∧

be atmospheric with the gauge pressure set V = u i + v j+ w k

to zero.

 Navier Stokes Equation

Momentum Equation along X- direction

∂u ∂u ∂u ∂ P  ∂ 2u ∂ 2u ∂ 2u 
ρ ( u + v + w ) = − + µ  2 + 2 + 2  + ρ f x -4.2
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
Momentum Equation along Y-direction
∂v ∂v ∂v ∂ P  ∂ 2v ∂ 2v ∂ 2v 
ρ ( u + v + w ) = − + µ  2 + 2 + 2  + ρ f y -4.3
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
Momentum Equation along Z-direction
∂ w ∂ w ∂ w ∂ P  ∂ 2w ∂ 2w ∂ 2w 
ρ ( u + v + w ) = − + µ  2 + 2 + 2  + ρ f z -4.4
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
 Energy Equation:

∂T ∂T ∂T  ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T 
ρ C p ( u + v + w ) = k  2 + 2 + 2  + φ 1 -4.5
∂x ∂y ∂z  ∂x ∂y ∂z 
Body force term is neglected as the flow comes under forced convection. So fx, fy,
and fz are zero.

5. Results and Discussions: A three-dimensional grid-mesh is used for the

numerical study of flow and heat transfer in a channel with built-in oval tube and
delta-winglet type vortex generators. The present computations are carried out for
various configurations of the winglet pairs. In the configuration of Fig.3 different
axial positions of one delta winglet pair are considered for an angle of attack of
40∞. The investigations are carried out for three different angles of attack of 30∞,
35∞ and 40∞. The blockage ratio (of the minor diameter of oval tube to the width
of channel) is 0.26. The Reynolds number in the present study is 1000, based on
the incoming average fluid velocity and the channel height. The Nusselt number
based on the bulk-mean temperature has been used for comparing the heat transfer
performance. The flow past an oval tube gives rise to a steady state solution unlike
the time-periodic dynamic steady state response shown by a circular tube. This
lack of vortex shedding lowers the inlet–exit pressure drop for the oval tube case,

adding to its advantages.

Fig .4 Contours of velocity and temperatures for the one,two and three pair

The pressure drop and the average nusselts number for various configurations are
tabulated below.

1 pair in CFD Pressure drop(Static) Nusselts Number

300 0.6855 348.67

350 0.6988 361.84
400 0.72214 363.65
2 pairs in CFD
300 0.74546 364.82
350 0.78958 366.75
400 0.83601 368.51
3 pairs in CFD
300 0.8503 371.65
350 0.9239 374.77
400 1.0067 379.451
From the above results it’s clear that the increase for 400 orientation. But there
averaged Nusselts number on the surface of the is also considerable drop in the
tube increases when the number of delta pressure. The pressure drops are
winglets are increased. Comparing 1pair in 12.33% for 300 orientation, 15.2% for
CFD with 2 pair in CFD, there is 7.2% increase 350 orientation and 18.18% for 400
for 300 and for 350 orientations, and 8% orientations.
oval tubes, Proceedings of NHTC’00,
6. References: 34th National Heat Transfer
Conference Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
1. G. Biswas, N.K. Mitra and M. Fiebig, 2000
Heat transfer enhancement in fin–tube heat
exchangers by winglet-type vortex generators. 4. W.R. Pauley and J.K. Eaton,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 37 (1994), pp. 283– Experimental study of the development
291. of longitudinal vortex pairs embedded
in a turbulent boundary layer. AIAA J.
2. A. Valencia, M. Fiebig and N.K. Mitra, 26 (1988), pp. 816–823.
Heat transfer enhancement by longitudinal
vortices in fin–tube heat exchanger element 5. S. Kakac, R.K. Shah and A.E.
with flat tubes. J. Heat Transfer (ASME) 118 Bergles, Low Reynolds number flow
(1996), pp. 209–211. heat exchangers. , Hemisphere,
Washington DC, USA (1981).
3. J.E. O’Brien, M.S. Sohal, Local heat
transfer for finned-tube heat exchangers using

EMAIL ID: vijayspn12@gmail.com
EMAIL ID: raman.kongu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT when magnetized/demagnetized. This

effect has been observed for many years
The objective of this effort is to
and was used for cooling near absolute
determine the feasibility of designing,
zero. Recently, materials are being
fabricating and testing a sensor cooler,
developed which have sufficient
which uses solid materials as the
temperature and entropy change to make
refrigerant. These materials demonstrate
them useful for a wide range of
the unique property known as the
temperature applications. The proposed
magneto caloric effect, which means that
effort includes magneto caloric effect
they increase and decrease in temperature
material selection, analyses, design and chlorofluorocarbons/hydro
integration of components into a chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's).
preliminary design. Benefits of this design Potential commercial applications include
are lower cost, longer life, lower weight cooling of electronics, super conducting
and higher efficiency because it only components used in telecommunications
requires one moving part - the rotating equipment (cell phone base stations),
disk on which the magneto caloric home and commercial refrigerators, heat
material is mounted. The unit uses no gas pumps, air conditioning for homes, offices
compressor, no pumps, no working fluid, and automobiles, and virtually any place
no valves, and no ozone-destroying that refrigeration is needed.
Temperatures below this range can be
obtained only by the use of Non-
1.0 INTRODUCTION: Conventional refrigeration system.
1.1 Refrigeration: Magnetic refrigeration is the method of
Definition: Refrigeration is the refrigeration based on
process of reducing the temperature of MAGNETOCALORIC EFFECT,
any substance below that of the which is defined as the response of a
surrounding temperature using some solid to an applied magnetic field,
working medium called refrigerants. which is apparent as a change in its
Initially refrigeration was used temperature.
in the preservation of foodstuff by Instead of ozone-depleting
preventing bacterial action and this refrigerants and energy-consuming
technology was further developed and compressors found in conventional
extended its use in industrial vapor-cycle refrigerators, this new style
applications. For example cool cutting of refrigerator uses iron ammonium
oil helps in machining operations by alum that heats up when exposed to a
lowering the temperature of work piece magnetic field, then cools down when
to prevent overheating, Quenching the magnetic field is removed.
baths for heat treating operations,
pharmaceutical field, etc are some of 2.0NON-CONVENTIONAL
the industrial applications. REFRIGERATION :
1.2 Conventional Refrigeration Vs 1. Thermo Electric Refrigeration.
Non-conventional (Magnetic) 2. Acoustic Refrigeration.
Refrigeration : 3. Magnetic Refrigeration.
In conventional refrigeration 3.0MAGNETIC REFRIGERATION
system we need a medium for the 3.1 PRINCIPLE:
removal of heat from the refrigerator to Magnetic refrigerants heat up
the surrounding atmosphere. This when they are subjected to a magnetic
medium may be a solid, liquid or a gas. field because the second law of
Some of the refrigerants which were thermodynamics states that the entropy
used initially are ammonia (NH3), - or disorder - of a closed system must
carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide increase with time. This is because the
(SO2), etc. There are some drawbacks electron spins in the atoms of the
in the use of these refrigerants so material are aligned by the magnetic
refrigerants like F-11, F-12, F-22, F- field, which reduces entropy. To
113, etc are being used which are both compensate for this, the motion of the
economical as well as efficient. atoms becomes more random, and the
Minimum temperature that can material heats up. In a magnetic
be obtained by these refrigerants is refrigerator, this heat would be carried
0.71oK by boiling liquid helium under away by water or by air. When the
the smallest pressure obtainable.
magnetic field is turned off, the below that of its surroundings. This
electron spins become random again allows it to absorb more unwanted heat,
and the temperature of the material falls and the cycle begins again.

the magnetic ions to regain some of their

Producing very low temperature entropy at the expense of the lattice
through the process of adiabatic energy of the salt.
demagnetization can do refrigeration. The The iron ammonium alum
paramagnetic salt is suspended by a salt, originally in zero field (H=0,S=S1), is
thread in a tube containing a low pressure magnetized isothermally at the
of gaseous helium to provide thermal temperature T1, by increasing the
communication with the surrounding bath magnetic field to H=H1.This
of pumped helium. In operation the liquid magnetization, by orienting the magnetic
helium bath is cooled by pumping to the ions of the salt and thus decreasing their
lowest practical pressure, usually disorder, causes a reduction in entropy
achieving a temperature in the from S1 to S2. Now the salt is isothermally
neighborhood of 1oK. The temperature of isolated from its surroundings and thus
the paramagnetic salt approaches that of when the magnetic field is reduced to zero
the helium bath by conduction through the process follows the horizontal
the exchange gas. isentropic line and the temperature falls
Next the magnetic field is turned to 10K.The great decrease in temperature
on, causing heating of the salt and a and the close approach zero is a
decrease in entropy of the magnetic ions consequence of the peculiar shape of the
by virtue of their partial alignment in the entropy-temperature relation
direction of the applied field. The heat 3.2 WORKING
produced is conducted to the surrounding The process flow diagram for
bath of liquid helium so that the the Magnetic Refrigeration system is
temperature again approaches 1oK. If the show in the figure below. The
magnetic field is increased slowly the mixture of water andShaft
ethanol serves
heat can flow out, as it is generated-the as the heat transfer fluid for the
magnetization being almost isothermal. system. The fluid first passes
Next the exchange gas surrounding the through the hot heat exchanger,
sample is removed by pumping, and now, which uses air Magneto to transfer heat to
with the salt thermally isolated, the the atmosphere. caloric
The Bed fluid then
magnetic field is turned off. The passes through Plates the copper plates
temperature of the sample decreases attached to the non-magnetized
markedly as a consequence
Pump of the cooler MagnetoElectro caloric beds and
adiabatic demagnetization, which allows loses heat. magnets


Cold To
To Hot
Heat Fa
Atmosph Heat
Exchan n
ere Exchan
ger ger

A fan blows air past this cold fluid into caloric Beds, where it continues to
the freezer to keep the freezer cycle around the loop. However, the
temperature at approximately 0° Magneto caloric beds simultaneously
The heat transfer fluid then gets move up and down, into and out of
heated up to 80°F as it passes the magnetic field.
through the copper plates adjoined by
the magnetized warmer Magneto

Driving Shaft


c Bed

Pump Electro

Cold To
To Hot
Heat Fa
Atmosph Heat
Exchan n
ere Exchan
ger ger

Figure below, shows how the temperature of 0oF. Refrigerators
cold air from the freezer is maintain a temperature of 39oF. The
blown into the refrigerator by refrigerator will be insulated with
the freezer fan. The temperature of polyurethane foam, one of the most
the refrigerator section is kept around common forms of insulation
39°F. available. The refrigerator is kept
cool by forcing cold air from the
The typical household freezer into the refrigerator by using
refrigerator has an internal volume of a small fan. The control system for
21 cu.ft, where the freezer represents machining the desired internal
approximately 30% of this volume. temperatures consists of two
Freezers are designed to maintain a thermostats with on/off switches.
The freezer thermostat regulates the temperature by turning the
compressor off when the temperature gets below 0oF. A second thermostat
regulates the fan that cools the refrigerator to 39o



The above figure is an entropy- ABCDA. From A to B the

temperature diagram for iron ammonium working salt is magnetized
alum for various magnetic fields; on it is isothermally and heat is absorbed
super imposed the refrigeration cycle by the liquid alcohol-water bath.
From B to C the salt is demagnetized layer depletion.
isentropically, causing a substantial 4. Efficiency and compactness
decrease of temperature. From C to D the are increased where as power
salt is demagnetized isothermally, consumption is reduced.
extracting heat from the experimental 5. Larger temperature swings
region. From D to A the salt is that will allow the technology
remagnetized to starting condition. to provide the Cooling power
5.0 ADVANTAGES : required for specific markets,
such as home refrigerators,
1. Very low temperatures of the order of
air conditioning, electronics
001K can be obtained.
cooling, and fluid chilling can
2. Required pressures are obtained
be obtained.
without the aid of a compressor.
6. The unit runs virtually silent
3. Does not produce toxic gases and
and is vibration free.
chloro-fluoro carbons, thus reducing
7. The magnetic material in the 8. When a better magnetic
regenerator bed will ever need to be material is developed, the
replaced when changing refrigerant to refrigerator will not need to
achieve a different temperature range. be redesigned.

6.0 APPLICATIONS: 2. Magnetic refrigerator can be

utilized in actual engineering
1. It is used in large-scale refrigeration,
applications, such
food processing, heating& air-
as cooling sensitive
conditioning, liquor distilling, grain
electronics and optical devices on
drying, waste separation and treatment
board spacecraft.


1. A textbook on “CRYOGENIC ENGIMEERING” by V.J. Johnson.

2. “Refrigeration and Air-conditioning” by Arora & Domkundwar.

Optimization of Compression Rings to Reduce Oil Carry Over in

Automotive Air Brake Compressor
K.Mahendran1 and S.Arul Selvan.2
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: kkdiran@yahoo.co.in
Lecturer, Dept.of Automobile Engineering,Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai,India

Abstract compressor. Compression ring is an open-ended ring

that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of the
The Lubrication of piston ring is directly
piston. Piston ring seals the compression chamber and
related to blow by and oil carry over in reciprocating
regulates motor oil consumption. Piston ring is the
area of concern in any reciprocating system honing process, tangential tension of ring, ring
construction. The aim of the project is to reducegeometry.
blow- For the purpose of reducing
by and oil carry over past the ring-pack. The Project
compressor oil carry over, this project is
focuses on the development of a new profile initially
for focused on the mechanism of oil carry
compression rings. over through ring pack and finite element
The parameters affecting the performance of analysis
piston is used to analyze the stability of ring
rings i.e. blow-by and oil carry over are studied its
and in salability along the liner.
detail. These factors are: operation ring seal (pressure
A. Causes for oil carry over
balancing), Ring geometry, tangential tension of ring.
To reduce oil carry over and blow-by, a change The in the
causes for oil carry over for the
cross-section of the compression ring reciprocating was compressor are as follows
recommended. The concepts of reverse torsion ring,
torsion ring and micro-Napier were implemented 1. Reduction
in of Ring sealing ability
this project. The proposed cross-sections were • Inertia force & Air load
analyzed for ring-twist during installation and •at Different kinds of loads changing over
operating conditions using Ansys. The cross-sections time
with minimum ring twist are taken up for • Thermal stress of the ring
performance testing in lab.The proposed cross-sections • Geometrical condition of upper and
were tested in lab and a Design of Experiments was lower surface of ring groove
performed to assess the effect of certain parameters •on Frictional force of ring against liner.
ring performance. The ring-pack combination2.that Bore distortion
provides optimized low oil carry and blow-by over is
• Clamping torque applied during
considered for endurance testing and field testing.
assembly of cylinder head with block
I. Introduction
• Air Pressure developed inside the
The ring-pack plays an important role in a block
reciprocating compressor. Its primary function non-Uniform temperature distribution on
is to provide a moving seal between the piston Cylinder wall
and liner, which prevents the air leakage form 3. Ring Running edges wear.
compression chamber to the crankcase, and at • Tangential tension of ring
the same time minimizes the oil transport in the • Running Face angle of ring
opposite direction .The lubrication occurring in 4. Evaporation of oil from the liner wall
the interface between the ring running –face
and cylinder liner surface greatly influences the 5. Suction Pressure
ring sealing performance. In a single-acting
reciprocating compressor, lubrication of the
P Piston
cylinder is usually carried out by oil splash. Oil L1
consumption through the clearance between
rings and liner is not easily controlled. As a Ring Pb
result, a large amount of oil is carried into the
compressed air. This not only gives rise to an Po
excessive waste of lubricating oil, but also P

causes carbon deposits in the discharge system Oil film

of the compressor and increase maintenances.
Developing capabilities to understand the ring-
PL1, PL2: Land Pressure
pack lubrication has always been an active
Po: Oil Pressure
subject in reciprocating compressor research.
Pe: Surface Pressure
The main attributes for oil carry over are bore
Pb: Back Pressure
distortion, Rings instability along the liner,
evaporation of oil, surface roughness of liner,
Fig.1 Schematic of pressure in radial direction completion of experiments. Around the CTDC
acting on the taper faced ring where the oil film thickness of second ring
starts increasing, values of Fo and Fi become
B.Phenomena of Ring Collapse closest to each other and face load of ring
becomes lowest. The value of Fo may become
The ring pushed into its groove and the loss of greater locally according to the circumferential
sealing function on the circumference, caused
by the difference in pressure between
inner/outer circumferences of ring is called
RING COLLAPSE [1].It is shown in Fl
Fig.1.When the piston is moving from BDC to Fb
TDC, ring in such state is subjected to a force
Fn m
pushing the ring against the liner due the Fm n
pressure (Pb) applied to the back of the ring and
the surface pressure (Pe) of the ring caused by
the tangential force of ring itself. While piston
is near to top dead center, at the same time
second land pressure and third land pressure Fl = P2 x l,Fm= (PL1+PL2)x m/2, Fn= PL2 x n
pull off the ring from liner. If the PL1,PL2 Fo = Fl +Fm+ Fn , Fl=h (Pe+Pb)
exceeds than Pb,Pe,the second ring –liner
Fig.2 Modal of pressure
contact force is liable to be reduced and the
distribution in radial direction
second ring oil film thickness becomes thicker
by that amount, resulting in a smaller oil
scrapping effect of the second ring and greater direction of ring. Hence oil film thickness
oil consumption. The second ring oil film increases around such a portion. Calculated
thickness suddenly become very thick for a values of Fo and Fi is shown in the fig.3
short period of time starting from a point Balance of forces in axial direction
immediately before CTDC due to large
clearance between the second ring and liner For determination of state of contact between
detected. The lower edge of top ring becomes the ring upper surface and the ring ring groove
flooded, down ward scraping of oil occurs near CTDC, the forces applied to the ring in the
during suction stoke. Some of oil enters the top axial direction are calculated where the ring is
ring groove, it move further up to crown land touching the upper surface as shown in fig.. The
and easily contribute oil carry over. force to push down the ring is calculated on the
assumption that a pressure that varies linearly
from pL1 to Pb is applied to the ring upper
C.Theoretical analysis of Ring collapse for surface. The force to push the ring up is
compression ring calculated from the force applied to the ring
Balance of force in radial direction lower surface caused by Pl2 is equal to the value
When the force (Fo) to push the ring into the of Pb.The frictional force between the ring and
groove becomes greater than the force (Fl) to cylinder is ignored.
push the ring against the cylinder wall, the ring Fig. Shows the calculated values of Fup and Fdown
collapse may occur and the blow by may blow at 3000 rpm.The calculation is done within the
through the clearance between the ring sliding crank angle in which the second ring is
surface and the liner. The values Fo and Fl are touching the groove upper surface. It is found
calculated in relation to the pressure distribution that the Fdown becomes greater than Fup around
in the radial direction, using the model as Compression top dead center, and the ring may
shown in figure.2.The values of l, m and n here go away from the groove upper surface at that
are obtained by measuring the ring sliding time. It is showed the second ring oil film
surface with a surface roughness gauge after the suddenly becomes very thick for a short period
of time starting from a point immediately condition. Napier ring experiences both positive
before the compression top dead center. as well as negative twist along the ring cross-
Calculation of upward & Downward Force of First Ring
Plain ring does not exhibit any twist pattern
except for some points. Proposed shape 1 has a
positive twist, which is desirable. Proposed
shape 2 experiences positive twist that can be
efficient in sealing the compression chamber.
Force( N)

500 Proposed shape 3 conforms to the twist pattern

0 of plain ring. However, it has higher twist
-500 values than plain ring.
-180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Crank angle (degree)

Ring Twist (Degree)

Fig.3 Fup and Fdown

0.4 Napier ring


Ring twist (Degrees)



Force Down Plain ring


PL1 0 50
100 150 200

Piston -0.1
Angle along the ring (Degrees)

Pb Angle along the ring (Degree) Napier Plain Proposed shape1

Proposed shape 2 Proposed shape 3

a Fig.5 Ring deformation
d Analysis of compression ring under operating
conditions was carried out to find out the twist
of the ring at operating conditions i.e. at
Oil Film pressure conditions, compression ring shapes
Up Force were analyzed individually as well as in
assembled condition. The results of Assembly
analysis indicate that displacement of ring also
F Down = π. d.a. (P2+Pb)/2 occurs due to piston load acting on it. All types
FUp = π.d. a. Pb +Fi of compression rings were modeled with an
allowable initial twist of 0.65º within the
groove and were subjected to the pressure load.
Fig.4 Modal of pressure distribution in The results obtained are as follows: All
radial direction compression rings exhibit positive twist during
compression and negative twist during suction
II. ANALYSIS OF RING DEFORMATION stroke. Napier ring exhibits maximum twist
BEHAVIOR USING FEA value than any other cross-section during
Different compression ring cross- compression stroke. The twist values of
sections were analyzed for ring-twist during proposed cross-sections is below the twist value
installation and at operating conditions and the of Napier ring but greater than that of plain
cross-sections with twist less than the existing ring.
cross-section were considered for Prototype
development and experimentation. Fig shows
the twisting behavior under installation III. DOE FOR COMPRESSION RING
The Taguchi method of experimental design N ±2N
is used during initial design and prototype
2nd Ring :17.35 ± 2nd ring : 13
testing to determine optimal settings for the
product and process parameters. Considering 2.3 N ±2N
the results of the experimental design the
products are then designed to minimize any
detrimental effect. The proper choice in the
design phase of parameter settings for both the
product and process can reduce costs and
improve quality. There are several advantages Interactions to be estimated
to experimental design, they are as follows: Taper Angle Tangential tension
1. Identifying the key decision variables
that control the process
2. Development of a new process for Table 2 Control Factors
which historical data is unavailable. Factors Value Factors Value
3. Identifying important factors and their Compressor Manual Compressor 1500 rpm
associated levels that maximize yield Assembly throughout speed
and reduce overall cost.
4. Reduces lead time between design and
manufacturing. experiment
Compressor Same Loading 780sloading
To assess the effect of piston ring parameters
such as Running face taper angle, tangential body cycle /30s
tension, bevel angle and bevel height on blow- unloading
by. Thereby a DOE is performed to assess the
significance of these factors on blow-by of the Linear Graph
compressor. Designs of Experiments were
formulated such that Process would be simpler
and contain correlating factors. Therefore two
DOE were performed using L4 orthogonal
array. AXB

A. DOE on Running face taper angle and

Tangential tension to assess the effect on oil
carry and blowby Variation

Response: Oil carry over and Blow-by Orthogonal Array (No: of replications
Factors and levels
planned: 2)
Table 1 Factors and levels
Table.3 Mean response plot

Factors/ Level I Level II

Factor Interaction Two replications were done with the four
Treatment Factor1º
A 3º
No. combinations and the Results, Mean
1 1 1 1
Tangential Existing Reduced Response plot and Annova table are as
2 1 2 2
3 specification
2 1 Tension
2 follows.
4 2 ring : 20 2± 2 Top 1ring :15
Table 3 Annova Results

Table 4.Mean Response plot 1.00

Table 5. Annova Results
Factor Factor Interaction 0.70
A B AXB 1 2

Oil carry over (g/h)

over (g/h)

1 1 1 6.8 7 0.50

1 2 2 5.9 5.4 0.40

2 1 2 9.6 10.2

Oil carry
Q table Target
2 2 1 9 9.4 0.20


0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
From the mean response plot and Annova
Duration Duration (h)
results the following can be inferred:
Fig.6 Oil Carry Over
Factor A i.e. Running face taper angle is the
most significant factor affecting blow-by The oil carry over trend is well within the Q-
variation. Factor B i.e. Tangential tension has
Table limit. Average Oil carry over 0.02 g/h
significant influence on blow-by variation. No
interaction exists between Running face taper
angle and tangential tension. The running face
taper angle value for a ring-pack should be
optimized such that it yields low blow-by. The 6.2

optimized value is found to be 1º for first ring

Blow-by litres/minute

and 3º for second ring, this configuration is 5.8

used for the proposed ring-pack. 5.6

Blow by (liters/min)

5.3 5.3
5.26 5.26


Considering the results obtained from 4.8

validation tests on different cross-sections and 41h 50

2h 285
3 h 645
4 h 836
5 h

Duration (hours)
Design of Experiments a ring-pack with low
blow-by and optimum configuration of running
face taper angle and tangential tension was Fig 7. Blowby
selected for endurance testing. Observed blow-by is within the project limit of
6 litres/ minute

as mentioned gives low blow-by and oil

carry over. The proposed ring pack was
evaluated for blow-by and oil carry over in
compression ring bedding-in (worn out)
condition and the results are observed to
V. CONCLUSION be within the project limit. The effect of
ring parameters like running face taper
According to the Analysis, Experimental
angle, Tangential tension, on oil carry over
and Field results, the proposed ring pack
variation were confirmed using Design of [2] SAE Paper “Contact Pressure
Distribution of Piston Rings” by
Michio Okamoto and Itsuro Sakai,
Teikoku Piston Ring Co., Ltd.
SAE Paper “Effect of Contact pressure on
Piston ring Twist” by V.Dunaevsky and
[1] Piston ring Manual by Geotze India


Christy V Vazhappilly and 2P.Sathiamurthi
PG Scholor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai,
Professor in Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode-638052.
Tamilnadu, India.
Email: Christy.xty@gmail.com

Abstract connecting rod material can be replaced

The main objective of this study is with a new composite material, the fracture
to explore weight and cost reduction crack ability feature, facilitates separation
opportunities in the design and production of cap from rod without additional
of a connecting rod. This can be achieved machining of the mating surfaces. Also the
by performing a detailed load analysis. A same performance can be expected in
study is performed on a steel connecting terms of component durability.
rod. Reduction in machining operations, Index Terms - Connecting rod, Weight
achieved by change in material, is a reduction, Fatigue strength, Better
significant factor in manufacturing cost machinability.
reduction. This paper
deals with the study of weight reduction i. Introduction
performed under two cyclic loads
comprising dynamic tensile and static The connecting rod is the connection
compressive as the two extreme loads. The between the piston and the crankshaft. It joins
fatigue strength is the most significant the piston pin with the crankpin; small end of
factor in the process. The study analysis the connecting rod is connected to the piston
includes the determination of loads acting and big end to the crank pin. The function of
on the connecting rod as a function of time the connecting rod is to convert linear motion
for finding out the minimum stress area to of the piston into rotary motion of the
remove the material. The connecting rod crankshaft.
can be designed and analysis under a load The lighter connecting rod and the
ranging from tensile load, corresponding to piston greater than resulting power and less
various degree crank angle at the the vibration because of the reciprocating
maximum engine speed as one extreme weight is less. The connecting rod carries the
load, and compressive load corresponding power thrust from piston to the crank pin and
to the peak gas pressure as the other hence it must be very strong, rigid and also as
extreme load. Furthermore, the existing light as possible. There are two types of small
end and big end bearings. Connecting rods are
subjected to fatigue due to alternating loads.
In the case of four stroke engines,
during compression and power strokes the
connecting rod is subjected to compressive
loads and during the last part of the exhaust
and the beginning of the suction strokes, to
tensile loads. In double acting steam engines,
during the forward stroke the connecting rod
is subjected to compressive load and during
the return stroke, to tensile load. Connecting
rod materials must have good fatigue and
shock resistances.

Connecting rods for automotive

applications are typically manufactured by
forging from either wrought steel or
powdered metal. They could also be cast.
However, castings could have blow-holes
which are detrimental from durability and
fatigue points of view. The fact that forgings
produce blow-hole-free and better rods gives
them an advantage over cast rods. Between
the forging processes, powder forged or drop
forged, each process has its own pros and
cons. Powder metal manufactured blanks
have the advantage of being near net shape,
reducing material waste. However, the cost of
the blank is high due to the high material cost Fig.1 Connecting rod nomenclature
and sophisticated manufacturing techniques.
With steel forging, the material is inexpensive II. LITERATURE SURVEY
and the rough part manufacturing process is The connecting rod is subjected to a
cost effective. Bringing the part to final complex state of loading. It undergoes high
dimensions under the tight tolerance results in cyclic loads, which range from high
high expenditure for machining, as the blank compressive loads due to combustion, to high
usually contains more excess material. tensile loads due to inertia. Therefore,
durability of this component is of critical
importance. Due to these factors, the
Due to its large volume production, it is connecting rod has been the topic of research
only logical that optimization of the on various aspects such as production
connecting rod for its weight or volume will technology, materials, performance
result in large-scale savings. It can also simulation, fatigue, etc. For the current study,
achieve the objective of reducing the weight it is necessary to investigate finite element
of the engine component, thus reducing modelling techniques, optimization
inertia loads, reducing engine weight and techniques, developments in production
improving engine performance and fuel technology, new materials, fatigue modelling,
economy. and manufacturing cost analysis. This brief
literature survey reviews some of these
For their optimization study, Serag et threads obtained from this analysis with the
al. (1989) developed approximate endurance limits obtained from specimen
mathematical formulae to define connecting fatigue tests, the adequacy of a new design
rod weight and cost as objective functions and was checked. Load cycling was also used in
also the constraints. The optimization was inelastic FEA to obtain steady state situation.
achieved using a Geometric Programming Hippoliti (1993) reported design
technique. Constraints were imposed on the methodology in use at Piaggio for connecting
compression stress, the bearing pressure at the rod design, which incorporates an
crank and the piston pin ends. Fatigue was not optimization session. However, neither the
addressed. The cost function was expressed in details of optimization nor the load under
some exponential form with the geometric which optimization was performed were
parameters. discussed. Two parametric FE procedures
Webster et al. (1983) performed three using 2D plane stress and 3D approach
dimensional finite element analysis of a high- developed by the author were compared with
speed diesel engine connecting rod. For this experimental results and shown to have good
analysis they used the maximum compressive agreements. The optimization procedure they
load which was measured experimentally, and developed was based on the 2D approach.
the maximum tensile load which is essentially Park et al. (2003) investigated micro
the inertia load of the piston assembly mass. structural behavior at various forging
The load distributions on the piston pin end conditions and recommend fast cooling for
and crank end were determined finer grain size and lower network ferrite
experimentally. They modelled the connecting content. From their research they concluded
rod cap separately, and also modelled the bolt that laser notching exhibited best fracture
pretension using beam elements and multi splitting results, when compared with
point constraint equations. broached and wire cut notches. They
While investigating a connecting rod optimized the fracture splitting parameters
failure that led to a disastrous failure of an such as, applied hydraulic pressure, jig set up
engine, Rabb (1996) performed a detailed and geometry of cracking cylinder based on
FEA of the connecting rod. He modelled the delay time, difference in cracking forces and
threads of the connecting rod, the threads of roundness. They compared fracture splitting
connecting rod screws, the prestress in the high carbon micro-alloyed steel (0.7% C)
screws, the diametric interference between the with carbon steel (0.48% C) using rotary
bearing sleeve and the crank end of the bending fatigue test and concluded that the
connecting rod, the diametric clearance former has the same or better fatigue strength
between the crank and the crank bearing, the than the later. From a comparison of the
inertia load acting on the connecting rod, and fracture splitting high carbon micro-alloyed
the combustion pressure. The analysis clearly steel and powder metal, based on tension-
indicated the failure location at the thread root compression fatigue test they noticed that
of the connecting rod, caused by improper fatigue strength of the former was 18% higher
screw thread profile. The connecting rod than the later.
failed at the location indicated by the FEA. Sarihan and Song (1990), for the
An axis symmetric model was initially used optimization of the wrist pin end, used a
to obtain the stress concentration factors at fatigue load cycle consisting of compressive
the thread root. These were used to obtain gas load corresponding to maximum torque
nominal mean and alternating stresses in the and tensile load corresponding to maximum
screw. A detailed FEA including all the inertia load. Evidently, they used the
factors mentioned above performed, also maximum loads in the whole operating range
including a plasticity model and strain of the engine. To design for fatigue, modified
hardening. Based on the comparison of the Goodman equation with alternating
mean stress and stress amplitude at the octahedral shear stress and mean octahedral
shear stress was used. For optimization, they determined using finite difference
generated an approximate design surface, and approximation with design sensitivity
performed optimization of this design surface. analysis. The author was able to reduce the
The objective and constraint functions were weight by 28%, when compared with the
updated to obtain precise values. This process original component.
was repeated till convergence was achieved. Yoo et al. (1984) used variational
They also included constraints to avoid equations of elasticity, material derivative
fretting fatigue. The mean and the alternating idea of continuum mechanics and an adjoint
components of the stress were calculated variable technique to calculate shape design
using maximum and minimum values of sensitivities of stress. The results were used in
octahedral shear stress. Their exercise an iterative optimization algorithm, steepest
reduced the connecting rod weight by nearly descent algorithm, to numerically solve an
27%. optimal design problem. The focus was on
Athavale and Sajanpawar (1991) shape design sensitivity analysis with
modeled the inertia load in their finite application to the example of a connecting
element model. An interface software was rod. The stress constraints were imposed on
developed to apply the acceleration load to principal stresses of inertia and firing loads.
elements on the connecting rod depending But fatigue strength was not addressed. The
upon their location, since acceleration varies other constraint was the one on thickness to
in magnitude and direction with location on bound it away from zero. They could obtain
the connecting rod. They fixed the ends of the 20% weight reduction in the neck region of
connecting rod, to determine the deflection the connecting rod.
and stresses. This, however, may not be In a published SAE case study (1997), a
representative of the pin joints that exist in the replacement connecting rod with 14% weight
connecting rod. The results of the detailed savings was designed by removing material
analysis were not discussed, rather, only the from areas that showed high factor of safety.
modeling technique was discussed. The Factor of safety with respect to fatigue
connecting rod was separately analyzed for strength was obtained by performing FEA
the tensile load due to the piston assembly with applied loads including bolt tightening
mass (piston inertia), and for the compressive load, piston pin interference load,
load due to the gas pressure. The effect of compressive gas load and tensile inertia load.
inertia load due to the connecting rod, The study lays down certain guidelines
mentioned above, was analyzed separately. regarding the use of the fatigue limit of the
Pai (1996) presented an approach to material and its reduction by a certain factor
optimize shape of connecting rod subjected to to account for the as-forged surface. The
a load cycle, consisting of the inertia load study also indicates that buckling and bending
deducted from gas load as one extreme and stiffness are important design factors that
peak inertia load exerted by the piston must be taken into account during the design
assembly mass as the other extreme, with process. On the basis of the stress and strain
fatigue life constraint. Fatigue life defined as measurements performed on the connecting
the sum of the crack initiation and crack rod, close agreement was found with loads
growth lives, was obtained using fracture predicted by inertia theory. The study also
mechanics principles. The approach used concludes that stresses due to bending loads
finite element routine to first calculate the are substantial and should always be taken
displacements and stresses in the rod; these into account during any design exercise.
were then used in a separate routine to As today’s engines, required to have
calculate the total life. The stresses and the higher speed and power, their connecting rods
life were used in an optimization routine to have higher strength and stiffness, but must
evaluate the objective function and be lighter in weight and size. In developing
constraints. The new search direction was power output engine, importance is placed on
the weight of the reciprocating and oscillating
parts such as piston, connecting rod, valve
trains etc. The overall performance of the
internal combustion engine is affected by
higher inertia forces, generated by the moving
parts of the engine. Therefore, it should
always be investigated to avoid any failure of
the engine in the long run.

As the speed increases, the maximum

tensile load (at 360∞ of crank revolution)
increases where as the maximum compressive
load decreases at the crank end. Quasi-
dynamic finite element analysis rather than
static finite element analysis is used in this
process, which can capture the actual Solid modelling tool is available to develop
structural behaviour of a connecting rod. the concepts and initial design of any
During quasi-dynamic finite element analysis mechanical components and systems that can
process, external calculated loads were also be analysed by using Finite Element
taken into interest to perform the elemental Technique is discussed in literatures.
calculations. The inertia and dynamic loads Occurring of unnoticed mistakes can be
were calculated and applied internally based avoided till the phase of prototype stage by
on these inputs. the use of above citied technique.
Of the 15 locations as shown in the Fig.,
at point 9, the maximum stress occurs at Since the connecting rod involves
360∞ crank angle, but the maximum stress several merging radii and surfaces, a classical
(i.e. Due to influence of bending stress) study into this complicated problem has
occurs at 348∞ crank angle at location 13 limitations and hence a finite element analysis
respectively. is more appropriate to study the effect of
combined loads due to gas pressure and
inertia of reciprocating and oscillating parts of
an engine.


reciprocating motion of the piston into angular
effort of the crank. The objective of this study
is to optimize connecting rod for its weight and
manufacturing costs, taking into account the
recent developments.

An optimized solution is the minimum

or the maximum value that an objective
function can take under a given set of
constraints. The optimization carried out here
is not true in mathematical sense, since while
reducing the mass, manufacturing feasibility
and cost reduction forms an integral part of
OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE: The load cycle that is used here
consists of compressive gas load
corresponding to maximum torque and
dynamic tensile load corresponding to
maximum inertia load. A finite element
routine is first used to calculate the
displacements and the stresses in the
connecting rod, which is further used in
another routine to calculate the total life. For
this optimization problem, high priority is
given to the weight of the connecting rod.
Change in the material, there by resulting in
significant reduction in the machining cost is
the key factor in the optimization process.
During optimization, weight and cost are
dealt separately.


1. Adila Afzal and Ali Fatemi, 2003, “A

Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior
and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and
PM Connecting Rods”, SAE International.
2. Adila Afzal and Pravardhan Shenoy,
2003, “Dynamic Load Analysis and
Fatigue Behavior of Forged Steel vs
Powder Metal Connecting Rods”,
American Iron and Steel Institute, October
3. Athavale, S. and Sajanpawar, P. R., 1991,
“Studies on Some Modelling Aspects in
III.Conclusions the Finite Element Analysis of Small
Gasoline Engine Components,” Small
A connecting rod forms a basic element of Engine Technology Conference
an internal combustion (IC) engine, which Proceedings, Society of Automotive
performs the function of converting the Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, PP. 379-389.
4. Augugliaro G. and Biancolini M.E., Steel Connecting Rods,” SAE Technical
“Optimisation of Fatigue Performance of Paper Series, Paper No. 2003-01-1309.
a Titanium Connecting Rod”, ISPESL,
12. R.J. Yang, D.L. Dewhirst, J.E. Allison and
A. Lee, 1992, “Shape optimization of
5. Farzin H. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi, connecting rod pin end using a generic
2008, “Optimization of a Forged Steel model”, Finite Elements in Analysis and
Crankshaft Subject to Dynamic Loading”, Design, No. 11, PP. 257-264.
SAE International.

6. Farzin h. Montazersadgh and Ali Fatemi,

2007, “Dynamic Load and Stress Analysis 13. Rabb, R., 1996, “Fatigue Failure of a
of a Crankshaft”, SAE International. Connecting Rod”, Engineering Failure
Analysis, Vol. 3, No. 1, PP. 13-28

14. Repgen, B., 1998, “Optimized Connecting

7. Giuseppe Sala, 2002, “Tecnology-Driven Rods to Enable Higher Engine
Design of MMC Squeeze Cast Performance and Cost Reduction”, SAE
Connecting Rods”, Science and Technical Paper Series, Paper No. 980882
Technology of Advanced Materials, No. 3,
PP. 45-57.

8. Hippoliti, R., 1993, “FEM Method For 15. Rice, R. C., ed., 1997, “SAE Fatigue
Design and Optimization of Connecting Design Handbook”, Society of
Rods for Small Two-Stroke Engines,” Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, 3rd
Small Engine Technology Conference, PP. Edition.
16. Sarihan, V. and Song, J., 1990,
“Optimization of the Wrist Pin End of an
Automobile Engine Connecting Rod With
9. James R. Dale, 2005, “Connecting Rod an Interference Fit”, Journal of
Evaluation”, Metal Powder Industries Mechanical Design, Transactions of the
Federation, January Edition. ASME, Vol. 112, PP. 406-412.

10. Pai, C. L., 1996, “The Shape Optimization

of a Connecting Rod with Fatigue Life
Constraint”, Int. J. of Materials and 17. Serag, S., Sevien, L., Sheha, G., and El-
Product Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5-6, PP. Beshtawi, I., 1989, “Optimal Design of
357-370. the Connecting Rod”, Modelling,

11. Park, H., Ko, Y. S., Jung, S. C., Song, B.

T., Jun, Y. H., Lee, B. C., and Lim, J. D.,
2003, “Development of Fracture Split
K.Sivakumar1, S. P. Babu Saravanan2
Department of Mechanical Engineering,Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of
Engineering,Vadamavandal,Near kanchipuram,Tamilnadu.India.
E-mail: sivakss25@yahoo.co.in, spbsme@gmail.com

2Fe + O2 → 2FeO
Abstract Due to corrosion forming cold end airpreheater
Generally in the sugar mills, they tubes are damaged with in few years. To avoid
are using bagasse as the fuel, to burn the corrosion, the atmosphere air is preheated by
bagasse primary and secondary air is the steam preheater from the exhaust steam.
supplied. Forced draught fan supply By increasing the temperature of the
primary air and sail air fan supply atmosphere air prevents the corrosion in air
secondary air. Primary air is sucked by preheater tubes, which is supplied to furnace.
forced draught fan and passed through the Installing the steam preheater in between FD
airpreheater to furnace. In airpreheater fan and APH for increasing the temperature of
the flue gases coming out of economizer are air at the same time pressure drop will occur
further utilized for preheating the due to the number of tubes available in the
atmosphere air before supplying to the steam preheater. To minimize the pressure
furnace. Atmosphere wet air enters into the drop in the steam preheater should increase the
airpreheater, reacts with the metal tubes area of flow between the tubes. Calculate the
causes corrosion. The main aim of this velocity of the atm air and mass flow rate of
project is to avoid the corrosion of cold end air supplied by the forced draught fan. Design
in airpreheater and increase temperature should be effective for above dew point
of the supply air to furnace. To resist the temperature (65∞) to avoid corrosion. The
corrosion, the atmosphere air temperature forced draught fan supply air heated by
is increases up to above dew point exhaust steam.To maintain the pressure of the
temperature (65°C). Air flow analysis takes supply air to furnace, air duct modify depends
place from FD fan to furnace using upon flow velocity.. In air preheater analysis
computational fluid dynamics. calculate the temperature of supply air before
Keywords: Airpreheater, corrosion, installating steam preheater. Boiler efficiency
dewpoint temperature, Computational
fluid dynamics. increases by increase the temperature of the
supply air. The air flow should be analysis
I. INTRODUCTION from forced draught to furnace using
computational fluid dynamics.
Wet air enter into the air preheater, reacts
with the metal tube causes corrosion. The II.FORCED DRAUGHT FAN
main aim of the
Project is to avoid the corrosion of cold end in Fan is to move a mass of gas or
air preheater and increase the temperature of vapour at the desired velocity by the action
the supply air to furnace. of rotor. For achieving this objective there
The principal reaction is is a slight increase in the gas pressure
across the fan rotor. However the main
purpose of fan is to move a gas without an
appreciable increase in its pressure. installed at inlet to the air-preheater.
Axial fan have higher capital cost. They handle cold air, so they have less
Axial fan handles the small volume of maintenance problem, consume less
air. In the centrifugal fan, gases are power capital and operating cost are
accelerated radially through curved or lower is the highest for backward
flat impeller blades from rotor to a curved and lowest for the forward
spiral or volute casing. FD fans are curved blades


Type : Centrifugal fan with backward curved blade

Diameter : 935 mm
Speed : 1475 rpm
Discharge : 13.4 m³/s
Pressure : 210 mm of WG
Temperature : 40∞C


Steam preheater is nothing but like a pressure. This superheated steam is

heat exchanger. The purpose of further used for the boiling house,
steam preheater in this work is from this some amount of steam
transfer the steam temperature to the will be utilized for heat the atm air
atmosphere air and increase the air in the steam preheater. When the heat
temperature. The steam temperature exchanger is to be designed for a
available at the sugar mill is 400∞C particular application, the following
and 42 kg/cm² pressure. This steam consideration almost always taken
is utilized for the power production into account. Here air temperature is
by rotates the turbine. After the increased above dew point
turbine steam leaving with temperature for reducing corrosion.
200∞C temperature and 1.5 kg/cm²
Steam inlet temp = 200∞C
Steam pressure = 1.5kgf/cm²
Mass flow rate = 0.833 kg/s
Specific heat capacity Cp = 4.4895 kJ/kg-K


Air inlet temp = 40∞C

Mass flow rate = 15.11 kg/s
Volume of air = 13.4 m³/s
Specific heat capacity Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg-K
Table I shows comparison between air and steam mass flow rate


Height of the exchanger = 2150mm

Width of the exchanger = 1390 mm
Diameter of the tubes = 21.3 mm
Breath of the exchanger = 1005 mm
Length of the exchanger = 1.255 mm
Number of tubes = 168

In steam preheater 3 tones per hour of mass of steam utilized for attain the dew
point temperature. Table II shows temperature difference with number of tons.

IV.AIR DUCT D4 = d fv2H cm water

The design of duct is a
compromise between first cost and V. ANALYSIS OF AIRPREHEATER
cost of energy loss friction. This
means compromise between cross The heat carried with the flue
sectional area and velocity. gas coming out of economizer is
Combustion requires oxygen and further utilized for preheating the air
their air, to move this air through the before supplying to the combustion
fuel bed and to produce a flow of the chamber. It has been found that an
gaseous products of combustion out increase of 20ºC in the air
of the furnace, then through the temperature increases the boiler
boiler, economizer etc., requires a efficiency by 1%. At such a high
difference of pressure equal to that temperature of exit gases the losses
necessary to accelerate the gasses to of energy with stack exhaust is high
their final velocities, plus friction and efficiency of the boiler will be
head losses. This difference of low. While flue gases enters the
pressure is called draft. Air ducts airpreheater at temperature varying
generally extend from the outlet of a between 325 ºC to 450ºC and are
forced draught fan to the combustion cooled to 135ºC to 180ºC, air is
chamber. Where air heaters are used heated from FD fan outlet
the air duct is necessarily in two temperature 60ºC to 400ºC and
sections, the cool selection, fan and some times still higher. The air
hot section. Normally all sugar mill heater not only considered in terms
air duct is bend section with long of boiler efficiency in modern power
radius. Due to bend and long radius plants, but also necessary equipment
of air duct pressure drop occurs in for supply hot air for drying the coal
the boiler. So to reduce the pressure in pulverized fuel system to facilitate
drop have to change the air duct in to grinding and satisfactory combustion
inclined position. In this position of fuel in furnace. In sugar mill, they
pressure drop is reduced and increase are using tubular type air preheater,
velocity of the flow. Air duct because of it gives the more contact
modification before and after is of time between air and flue gases.
shown in figure I. Dew point of the air lies in the region
The loss may be computed with the of 60 -65ºC, hence it may be
following equation supposed that the danger of
condensation on the walls of the most of the sugar mills bagasse is
heater. Atmosphere air is supply to used as a main fuel. Bagasse in India
air preheater by the FD fan with almost have the moisture content of
40ºC temperature. In this about 50% (ie) if we take 1 kg of
temperature limit tubes reacts with bagasse then it contains 0.5 kg of
air causes corrosion, that’s why water in it. If we decrease the
temperature increased above dew moisture content in the bagasse by
point temperature (65ºC). Table III simply increase the boiler
comparison of air duct before and efficiency.use of heat recovery
after modification apparatus such as air
A.BOILER EFFICIENCY etc.will also increase the boiler
efficiency. In the airpreheater the air
The present working pressure of the to the boiler is heated by the flue gas.
steam in sugar mills is 42 kg/cm3 at So the efficiency of the boiler
420ºC. If we increase the pressure of increases with the usage of the air
the steam, then the power production preheater. The efficiency of the
increases mean while the efficiency boiler is dependent upon the
of boiler is also increases. the present efficiency of combustion and the
water tube boiler has the capable of heat transfer within the boiler. Boiler
producing 64 tones of steam/hr. if we efficiency is calculated by heat loss
increase the steam production by method as
changing the design, then also Boiler efficiency = 100 -- various
increase boiler efficiency increase. In losses


Dry flue gas loss = 5.27%

Fuel moisture = 14.47%
Hydrogen moisture loss = 8.33%
Air moisture loss = 0.27%
Unburnt carbon loss = 2.00%
Ash sensible heat loss = 0.01%
Radiation & convection loss = 0.55%

Total losses = 30.90%

Present boiler efficiency = 100 – total various loss

= 100 – 30.90
Boiler efficiency = 69.10%

Boiler efficiency after modification of air duct with increasing combustion


1.Dry flue gas loss

= 100 x [C% + S% - C in ash] x 30.6 (T1- T2) / 12 (CO2 + CO)
T1 is temperature of the flue gases before air preheater
T2 is temperature of the flue gases after air preheater
Dry flue gas loss = 1.94%
2. Hydrogen moisture loss
= 9 x h {1.2(T1 – 25) + 2.442 + 2.99(25-T2)}
= 15.10%
3. Fuel moisture loss
= {1.2(T1 – 25) + 2.442 + 2.99(25-T2)}
= 9.43%
4. Moisture loss in air
= weight of the flue gas x moisture in air x 2 (T1- T2)
= 1.02%
5. Heat loss in fly ash = 0.983%
6. Ash sensible heat loss = 0.01%
7. Radiation & convection loss = 0.55%

Total losses = 27.03%

Boiler efficiency = 100 – 27.03
= 72.97%
If increase the combustion temperature, losses are reduced in the furnace and
increase the boiler efficiency.


Computational fluid
dynamics analysis takes place from
forced draught fan to furnace by
using fluent with Air duct is
modeled by gambit which is an
integral division of Fluent. After
modeling the air duct using the
given co-ordinates the model is
meshed using Gambit Mapped
mesh. Quadrilateral cells were
used for this simple geometry
because they can be stretched
easily to account for different size gradients in different
directions. The coupled solver is bases of any CFD problem are the
recommended when dealing with Navier-Stokes equations, which
applications involving high speed define any single-phase fluid flow.
flow. These equations can be simplified by
removing terms describing viscosity
A. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID to yield the Euler equations. These
DYNAMICS equations can be simplified by
removing terms describing viscosity
Computational fluid to yield the Euler equations. Further
dynamics (CFD) is one of the simplification, by removing terms
branches of fluid mechanics that uses describing vorticity yields the full
numerical methods and algorithms to potential equations. Finally, these
solve and analyze problems that equations can be linearized to yield
involve fluid flows. The fundamental the linearized potential equations.
The stability of the chosen
discretization is generally established
numerically rather than analytically
as with simple linear problems. The
Where Q is the vector of
Euler equations and Navier-Stokes
conserved variables, F is the vector
equations both admit shocks, and
of fluxes V is the cell volume, and
contact surfaces. The governing
is the cell surface area. After
equations are solved on discrete
modeling the air duct given co-
control volumes. FVM recasts the
ordinates the model is meshed using
PDE's of the N-S equation in the
Gambit Mapped mesh. Quadrilateral
conservative form and then discretize
cells were used for this simple
this equation. Moreover this method
geometry because they can be
is sensitive to distorted elements
stretched easily to account for
which can prevent convergence if
different size gradients in different
such elements are in critical flow
directions. The coupled solver is
regions. This integration approach
recommended when dealing with
yields a method that is inherently
applications involving high speed
conservative (i.e. quantities such as
flows. The Spalart-Allmaras model
density remain physically
was designed specially for aerospace
applications involving wall-bounded
has been shown to give good results
for boundary layers subjected to
adverse pressure gradients.




Before After
Content modification modification
of air duct of air duct
94 mm of 72 mm of

Mass flow 15.35 kg/sec 24 kg/sec

rate of air

115.3 ºC 147.7 ºC
e of APH

Efficiency 69.10 % 72.97 %

of boiler



Gases Mass flow Specific

rate(ms) heat(Cp)
Kg /s KJ / kg- k

Air 1.005

Steam 4.4895



No. No of tons Mass flow rate Temperature increased

Tons/hr Kg / s ∞c

1 1.5 0.416 41.5

2 2.0 0.555 46.3

3 2.5 0.694 52.8

4 3.0 0.833 68.2


VII. RESULT AND DISCUSSION this temperature tubes are protected
from corrosion forming. Figure III
Normally all the power plant and IV shows the velocity variation
FD fan air duct will always kept before and after modification of air
bend, but we have modified the air duct. Before modification of air duct
duct in to inclined position. In this velocity is gradually increased with
position pressure drop is reduced and distance of air preheater, but in the
heat transfer is increased in air after modification of air duct, with in
preheater. Table I shows the the small distance velocity is
comparison between air and steam increased. Figure V and VI shows the
mass flow rate and Table II shows exit velocity of air preheater, before
comparison of air duct before and modification velocity is increase and
after modification, efficiency of suddenly decreased but in the after
boiler is increased from 69.10% to modification velocity increase at the
72.29% and outlet temperature is end of whole distance of air
147ºC, pressure drop is reduced upto prehaeter.
72mm HG. Table III shows
temperature difference with number
of tones with mass flow rate of steam
0.833 and temperature is 68.2ºC. In


temperature is increased by 20∞C at

By analyzing the air duct the same time combustion
modification of inclined position temperature is increased by 1% and
gives the more performance than the efficiency also increased by 3%.
straight bend air duct. Steam
preheater increase the temperature ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
from 40∞C to 68∞C and supply air
The authors grateful to the Dynamics”, McGraw Hill
Management, Principal and Head of International., 1991
the Department of Mechanical
Engineering of A.M.A. College of [2.] Hand book of sugarcane
Engineering, Vadamavandal, Engineering by E.Hugot third
Kanchipuram, for granting edition.
[3.] Kiang,yen hsiung ‘predicting
dewpoints of acid gases, Chemical
REFERENCES Engineering feb 1989 p 127.

[4.] Perry R.H and Gilton G.H,

[1]. John D. Anderson., chemical Engineering Hand book
”Fundamental Of Aero
EMAIL ID: vijayspn12@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: analyses, design and integration of

components into a preliminary design.
The objective of this effort is to
Benefits of this design are lower cost,
determine the feasibility of designing,
longer life, lower weight and higher
fabricating and testing a sensor cooler,
efficiency because it only requires one
which uses solid materials as the
moving part - the rotating disk on
refrigerant. These materials
which the magneto caloric material is
demonstrate the unique property
mounted. The unit uses no gas
known as the magneto caloric effect,
compressor, no pumps, no working
which means that they increase and
fluid, no valves, and no ozone-
decrease in temperature when
destroying chlorofluorocarbons/hydro
magnetized/demagnetized. This effect
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's/HCFC's).
has been observed for many years and
Potential commercial applications
was used for cooling near absolute
include cooling of electronics, super
zero. Recently, materials are being
conducting components used in
developed which have sufficient
telecommunications equipment (cell
temperature and entropy change to
phone base stations), home and
make them useful for a wide range of
commercial refrigerators, heat pumps,
temperature applications. The
air conditioning for homes, offices and
proposed effort includes magneto
automobiles, and virtually any place
caloric effect material selection,
that refrigeration is needed.

1.0 INTRODUCTION: developed and extended its use in

1.1 Refrigeration: industrial applications. For example
Definition: Refrigeration is the cool cutting oil helps in machining
process of reducing the temperature operations by lowering the
of any substance below that of the temperature of work piece to
surrounding temperature using some prevent overheating, Quenching
working medium called refrigerants. baths for heat treating operations,
Initially refrigeration was pharmaceutical field, etc are some
used in the preservation of foodstuff of the industrial applications.
by preventing bacterial action and
this technology was further
1.2 Conventional Refrigeration liquid helium under the smallest
Vs Non-conventional (Magnetic) pressure obtainable. Temperatures
Refrigeration: below this range can be obtained
In conventional refrigeration only by the use of Non-
system we need a medium for the Conventional refrigeration
removal of heat from the system.
refrigerator to the surrounding Magnetic refrigeration is the method of
atmosphere. This medium may be a refrigeration based on
solid, liquid or a gas. Some of the MAGNETOCALORIC EFFECT,
refrigerants which were used which is defined as the response of a
initially are ammonia (NH3), carbon solid to an applied magnetic field,
dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide which is apparent as a change in its
(SO2), etc. There are some temperature.
drawbacks in the use of these Instead of ozone-depleting
refrigerants so refrigerants like F- refrigerants and energy-consuming
11, F-12, F-22, F-113, etc are being compressors found in conventional
used which are both economical as vapor-cycle refrigerators, this new style
well as efficient. of refrigerator uses iron ammonium
Minimum temperature that alum that heats up when exposed to a
can be obtained by these magnetic field, then cools down when
refrigerants is 0.71oK by boiling the magnetic field is removed.

field because the second law of

thermodynamics states that
2.0NON-CONVENTIONAL the entropy - or disorder - of a closed
system must increase with time. This is
REFRIGERATION: because the electron spins in the atoms
of the material are aligned by the
2.1 TYPES INCLUDE: magnetic field, which reduces entropy.
To compensate for this, the motion of
4. Thermo Electric Refrigeration. the atoms becomes more random, and
the material heats up. In a magnetic
5. Acoustic Refrigeration. refrigerator, this heat would be carried
away by water or by air. When the
6. Magnetic Refrigeration. magnetic field is turned off, the electron
spins become random again and the
temperature of the material falls below
3.0MAGNETIC EFRIGERATION: that of its surroundings. This allows it
3.1 PRINCIPLE: to absorb more unwanted heat, and the
Magnetic refrigerants heat up cycle begins again.
when they are subjected to a magnetic
Producing very low temperature ions to regain some of their entropy at the
through the process of adiabatic expense of the lattice energy of the salt.
demagnetization can do refrigeration. The The iron ammonium alum salt,
paramagnetic salt is suspended by a thread originally in zero field (H=0,S=S1), is
in a tube containing a low pressure of magnetized isothermally at the temperature
gaseous helium to provide thermal T1, by increasing the magnetic field to
communication with the surrounding bath H=H1.This magnetization, by orienting the
of pumped helium. In operation the liquid magnetic ions of the salt and thus
helium bath is cooled by pumping to the decreasing their disorder, causes a reduction
lowest practical pressure, usually achieving in entropy from S1 to S2. Now the salt is
a temperature in the neighborhood of 1oK. isothermally isolated from its surroundings
The temperature of the paramagnetic salt and thus when the magnetic field is reduced
approaches that of the helium bath by to zero the process follows the horizontal
conduction through the exchange gas. isentropic line and the temperature falls to
Next the magnetic field is 10K.The great decrease in temperature and
turned on, causing heating of the salt and a the close approach zero is a consequence of
decrease in entropy of the magnetic ions by the peculiar shape of the entropy-
virtue of their partial alignment in the temperature relation
direction of the applied field. The heat
produced is conducted to the surrounding 3.2 WORKING
bath of liquid helium so that the
temperature again approaches 1oK. If the The process flow diagram for the
magnetic field is increased slowly the heat Magnetic Refrigeration system is show in
can flow out, as it is generated-the the figure below. The mixture of water and
magnetization being almost isothermal. ethanol serves as the heat transfer fluid for
Next the exchange gas surrounding the the system. The fluid first passes through
sample is removed by pumping, and now, the hot heat exchanger, which uses air to
with the salt thermally isolated, the transfer heat to the atmosphere. The fluid
magnetic field is turned off. The then passes through the copper plates
temperature of the sample decreases attached to the non-magnetized cooler
markedly as a consequence of the adiabatic Magneto caloric beds and loses heat.
demagnetization, which allows the magnetic



A fan blows air past this cold fluid into the

freezer to keep the freezer temperature at
approximately 0∞F. The heat transfer fluid where it continues to cycle around the loop.
then gets heated up to 80∞F as it passes However, the Magneto caloric beds
through the copper plates adjoined by the simultaneously move up and down, into and
magnetized warmer Magneto caloric Beds, out of the magnetic field.


Driving Shaft

c Bed

Pump Electro

Cold To
To Hot
Heat Fa
Atmosph Heat
Exchan n
ere Exchan
ger ger


Figure below, shows how the cold air temperature of 39oF. The refrigerator
from the freezer is blown into the will be insulated with polyurethane
refrigerator by the freezer fan. The foam, one of the most common
temperature of the refrigerator forms of insulation available. The
section is kept around 39∞F. The refrigerator is kept cool by forcing
typical household refrigerator has an cold air from the freezer into the
internal volume of 21 cu.ft, where refrigerator by using a small fan. The
the freezer represents approximately control system for machining the
30% of this volume. Freezers are desired internal temperatures consists
designed to maintain a temperature of two thermostats with on/off
of 0oF. Refrigerators maintain a switches.

The freezer thermostat regulates the temperature by turning the

compressor off when the temperature gets below 0oF. A second thermostat
regulates the fan that cools the refrigerator to 39oF.



The above figure is an entropy-temperature diagram for iron
ammonium alum for various magnetic fields; on it is super imposed the
refrigeration cycle ABCDA. From A to B the working salt is magnetized
isothermally and heat is absorbed by the liquid alcohol-water bath. From B to
C the salt is demagnetized isentropically, causing a substantial decrease of
temperature. From C to D the salt is demagnetized isothermally, extracting
heat from the experimental region. From D to A the salt is remagnetized to
starting condition.

9. Very low temperatures of the order of reduced
10. 001K can be obtained.
11. Required pressures are obtained without the aid of a compressor.
12. Does not produce toxic gases and chloro-fluoro carbons, thus reducing
ozone layer depletion.
13. Efficiency and compactness are increased where as power consumption is
14. Larger temperature swings that will allow the technology to provide the
Cooling power required for specific markets, such as home refrigerators,
air conditioning, electronics cooling, and fluid chilling can be obtained.
15. The unit runs virtually silent and is vibration free.
16. The magnetic material in the regenerator bed will ever need to be replaced
when changing refrigerant to achieve a different temperature range.
17. When a better magnetic material is developed, the refrigerator will not
need to be redesigned.


1. It is used in large-scale refrigeration, food processing, heating& air-

conditioning, liquor distilling, grain drying, waste separation and treatment
2. Magnetic refrigerator can be utilized in actual engineering applications,
such as cooling sensitive electronics and optical devices on board spacecraft.

A textbook on “CRYOGENIC ENGIMEERING” by V.J. Johnson.
Refrigeration and Air-conditioning” by Arora & Domkundwar.

Kongu Engineering college, erode, Tamilnadu.
Contact No: 9994189874
ABSTRACT: which is also be discussed in this
The transport is the main paper in further….
important sector for our mankind.
This tends us to depend upon the CONTENTS:
10) Introduction
fissile fuels. This in turn increases
11) Construction
the global warming. The mining and 12) Explanation of the components
13) Working of Electromagnetic
other illegal activities against nature
also plays a major role in every 14) Analytical salvation
15) Our project details
increase of global warming. This
16) Areas to be concentrated
can be avoided by using our 17) Ways to increase the efficiency
18) Problems to be solved
renewable energy completely which
10) Conclusion
is available. Renewable energy like 11) Reference
solar, wind, etc. are well versed to us,
we also know that there vehicles Today the rate of increase of fossile
fuels is so high. This makes increases
available which works on the electric
a dangerous monster called Global
and this power can also be get by warming.. This lets us to search for an
another way for the transport. This can
using solar radiation.
be avoided by using the electric
But in that vehicles we use A.C vehicles. But in that vehicles we use
electric motors to run it. But this paper
series motor run the vehicle. This
is an innovation idea of running the
paper delivers you an innovation engine completely with the help of
Electric power but not with the fuel.
idea of engine which works
completely on electromagnetic
radiation. Here we discuss about the CONSTRUCTION:
construction and working of the
electromagnetic engine which is
done as project in our college. Since
this paper also revels the problems
that are faced during this project
work. We will also discuss about the
areas which are to be concentrated
during the project work. Here the
analytical salvation is also done EXPLANATION:
Sensing Unit: Electromagnatic engine:
Sensint unit senses the weight and This is the working part in our
sends the data to control unit. This project which is the reason for moving
may consist of sensors, weighting of the car.

Control Unit:
This plays a major role in the
working of the car. This controls the
working of the engine. This selects
and sends the required initial current
and voltage so that there is high torque
initially. The voltage and ampere can
be changed by nob but the initial
voltage and ampere cannot be
changed/lowered if same load is  When the supply is given to the
placed. The required initial (V&A) electromagnet-A side, then the
can be selected from a microprocessor. piston gets attracted towards it.
 When the supply is given to the
Battery: electromagnet-B side, then the
piston gets attracted towards it.
The battery is the heart of the
 But when one electromagnet is
setup. This supplies current to the
working other is operated in off
whole setup. This must be charged
frequently by putting anything like
flywheel,etc.  This gives a to and fro motion
and this can be used for any



By this equation we can tell that by increasing the frequency of changing the poles
B α (µo * n * we can increase speed
B- magnetic flux
n- constant
µo- Permittivity – Constant

Thus we also know that

Force= B * I * L
L- Length of piston – constant
I – Current passing through the electromagnet

Force α B * I * L


Force α I^2

We know that
Torque = B * I * A

B- Area of piston – constant

Torque α B *



Torque α I^2

Thus by increasing the current the torque can be increased and the graph will be as

 In our project we have constructed a relay circuit to give the supply manually.

 Then in a our engine we gave the load as spring and piston weight.

 We constructed like that the piston has to move against the spring and the
piston initially. So we are only able to move with a very few length.

 For this we need a battery or an autotransformer and rectifier

 Since we faced many problems during this project and all that is needed to this
project is the proper discussion and the way of doing.

AREAS TO BE CONCENTRATED: The piston should be made of Mild

steel and it should be of light weight.
Electro Magnet: We can also use any magnetic material
having less magnetic loss.
Here the magnet is very
important so the windings must be WAYS TO INCREASE THE
very sophisticated. The wire which are MAGNETIC FLUX:
winded must be coated with so insulin If you see the capacitor it will have
so that we can avoid some loss. Since an oil paper. This arrangement is so
the thickness of the wire plays a major used to increase the storage. This can
role in the copper loss so by using the also be used in the magnetic materials
conductor of less thickness must be or electromagnets to increase the
used. magnetic flux. So by implementing
this oil paper or any oil material we
Control Unit: can surely increase the flux of the
This unit is so complicated
because the designing is not so simple. PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED:
This is so as the storage of data i.e the Friction:
storage of voltage and ampere for the
initial moving. This can be done While in operation the piston
successfully by undertaking a testing must move along the cylinder.
based on weight for the However the piston and cylinder is so
electromagnetic engine for which the polished there will exist a friction
circuit is to be designed. One must which will affect the force of piston to
also be careful in determining the their motion
maximum load which is to be applied
for that particular electromagnetic Sound:
engine. The another problem to be
solved is the sound which is produced
Piston: during the operation and this can be
solved using any soft material at the
The piston determines the speed end of the stroke of the engine.
of the vehicle however the power is
supplied. Size:
The size plays a major problem
in this project. This problem can be CONCLUSION:
solved by using the technology
application in the production of Thus I conclude that this engine
electromagnetic engine. will surely play a major role in
reducing the global warming and it
Losses: will increase the technology of using
The major role in this project is the renewable energy. This may also
the concentration of losses during the be implemented in our cars and any
working. This can be minimized by type of vehicles but depending upon
adding some of the materials which the load the engine configuration will
decreases the losses in the magnetic vary. This can also be implemented by
usage. replacing the motors in the areas like
water pumping, etc.


Since this is my won idea I only developed this and I referred so of the webs and
information in the internet
And I asked about the information about this work.

I also referred the 12th books for the analytical solvation of this project.



ABSTRACT: type device consist of two or three

Savonius wind turbine is a type of scoops. For a two scoop machine,
vertical axis wind turbine is being used cross section would look like “S” in
for converting power of wind into shape. The differential drag causes the
torque on a rotating shaft. It is a drag Savonius turbine to spin. For this type
of “S” shape cross sectioned Savonius the power generation capacity, wind
wind turbine having the power alone accounts for a major chunk of
coefficient of 25 to 30% which is 4434 Mw. India stands fourth in the
comparatively less when compare to world after Germany, USA and Spain
other types of turbine. in wind power generation. India’s
This paper is aimed to enhance the potential for wind power has been
power coefficient of the turbine by assessed at 45,000 Mw assuming 3%
modifying the design of the existing of land available.
Savonius turbine. An eccentricity is The eccentric vertical axis wind
provided in the modified design that is mill which is a modified design of
gap between the two blades which Savonius wind machine. This eccentric
causes our turbine as dual impact vertical axis wind mill consists of two
turbine. Instead of “S” shape cross semi- cylindrical blades which are
section the wind flows in “S” shape eccentrically mounted in between the
path causes a dual impact force on the two end plates, placing a hollow shaft
turbine blades. in the center of the rotor. The cross
From the modified design of section of the eccentric vertical axis
Savonius wind turbine cross-section wind mill provide an “S” shape path
the power coefficient of the turbine get for the wind flow which help to cause
enhances up to 30-34% which might dual impact force on the turbine
help to harvest more amount of wind blades. This dual impact force
power using this modified Savonius primarily caused due to perpendicular
wind turbine. entry of the wind over the first blade
and latterly caused due to tangential
flow over the second blade.
Wind energy is rightfully and Wind power
indirect form of solar energy since Airflows can be used to run wind
wind is induced chiefly by the uneven turbines. This rotation of turbine
heating of the earth crust by the sun. results in the production of power.
today, wind energy is mainly used to Modern wind turbines range from
generate electricity. Wind is called a around 600KW to upto 5MW of rated
renewable energy source because the power, although turbines, with rated
wind will blow as long as the sun output of 1.5-3MW, have become the
shines. Wind energy offers a viable and most common for commercial use.
economical alternative to conventional
power plants in many areas of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
country. It is a clean fuel, wind farms Vertical axis panemones have
produced no air or water pollution been developed in the past that use
because no fuel is burnt. drag force to turn rotors of different
There are two types of wind shapes. These include those
machines available to convert wind panemones that use plates, cups, or
energy to mechanical energy. One is turbines as the drag devices, as well as
horizontal axis and another is vertical which actually provide some lift force,
axis wind machine. One wind machine bur are still predominantly drag
can produce 1.5 to 4.0 million kilowatt devices. Such devices have relatively
– hours (Kwh) of electricity which is high starting torques compared to lift
considered to be adequate for a year to devices because of their higher
cater 150-400 homes. Out of the total solidity, but have relatively low tip-to-
contribution of renewable sources to wind speeds and lower power output
per given rotor size, weight and cost. below, usually by first
Vertical axis rotor has the great connecting to a gearbox.
advantages of not having to be turned
in to the wind stream has the wind  As the rotor blades are vertical,
direction changes, because their a yaw device is not needed,
operation is independent of wind reducing the need for this
direction, vertical axis machines are bearing and its cost.
called panemones.
Until recent times, these Existing Savonius Wind Turbine
devices received title attention for the The Savonius rotor was formed
generation of electrical power, partly by cutting a cylinder into two semi
because vertical axis rotor has lower cylindrical surfaces, moving these
power coefficient at high tip speed surfaces sideways along the cutting
ratio. In addition vertical axis turbine plane to form a rotor with cross-section
are said to be more difficult to control in the form of the letter S, placing a
in strong winds. It is not related shaft in the center of the rotor and
however, that the lower efficiency of closing the end surfaces with circular
panemones may be more than offset by end plates.
the simpler design and consequent This design was able to
lower condition cost. Elimination of produce an efficiency up to 30 percent
the need for yawing into the wind, for which was significantly higher than
example, results in decreased tress on was obtainable with other types of
blades, bearing and other components. vertical axis windmills in
Moreover, the transmition and
generator or on the ground rather than operation at that time. The
at the top a tall tower. disadvantage of the Savonius rotor is
The overall efficiency of the that it is inefficient er unit weight. To
horizontal axis machines is better than produce 1000 kw in a 30 mph wind a
the vertical axis machines. Problems Savonius rotor requires about 30 times
with efficiency and maintenance of as much metal as a two-bladed turbine.
earnings have meant that VAWT have The existing Savonius wind
not been as commercially successful as turbine will having the power
HAWT. coefficient of only 25-30%. This is the
prime factor to harvest maximum
Types amount of wind energy from windmill.
There are few types of vertical This is the reason for the modification
axis wind turbine of the existing Savonius wind turbine
 Darrieus Wind Turbine even though these machines are called
 Savonius Wind Turbine as the Persian windmills as considering
the history of these wind turbines. Still,
Advantages these machines are being investigated.
 Easier to maintain because The table will help as to compare
most of their moving parts are power coefficient of the various wind
located near the ground. This is turbine.
due to the vertical wind The ratio of the highest to the
turbine's shape. The airfoils or overall diameter of the machine can be
rotor blades are connected by varied, but it is generally less than 3 to
arms to a shaft that sits on a 1. The power co efficient of the S rotor
bearing and drives a generator is low, but it might possibly be
improved by changes in the design,
number, and arrangements of the face, thus pushing both in the direction
vanes. These matters need to be of the rotation.

Modified Savonius Wind Turbine

In our modified Savonius wind
turbine we provide some eccentricity
in between the two blades which
causes our turbine to harvest more
wind energy by means of circulating
the part of the wind into the
eccentricity or region forming
convergent and divergent portion of
the turbine. Due to presence of
convergent and divergent section the
velocity of the wind after hitting the
first blade will decrease and it is
entered into other blade tangentially
with increased velocity.
It consists of two half cylinders
facing opposite directions in such a
way has to aye almost an S shaped to
cross section path for wind flow. These
semi cylinder rums are
mounted on a vertical axis
perpendicular with a gap at the axis
between two drums. Irrespective of the
wind direction the rotor rotates such as
to make the convex sites of the buckets
head into the wind. From the rotor
shaft we can tape power. However,
instead of having a wine space together
to make an S-shaped they overlap to
leave a wide space between the two
inner edges, so that each of these edges
is near the central axis of the opposite
A fluid jet is a stream of fluid
half cylinder.
issuing from a nozzle with a high
The main action of the wind is
velocity and Hence a high kinetic
very simple: the force of the wind is
energy. When a jet impinges on a plate
greater on the cupped face than on the
or vane, it exerts a force it (due to
rounded face. In detail it is a bit more
change in momentum). This force
complicated. The wind curving around
(hydrodynamic) can be evaluated by
the back side of the cupped face exerts
mg. 'Impulse-momentum principle'.
a reduced pressure much as the wind
This deals with the application of the
does over the top of an air-foil and this
impulse-momentum equation for
helps to drive the rotation. The wide
evaluating the hydrodynamic force on
slot between the two inner edges of the
the stationary and moving vanes.
half cylinders lets the air whip around
In the modified Savonius
inside the forward- moving cupped
turbine instead of fluid issuing from
nozzle, the fluid atmosphere condition
enters into the turbine. This assembling the various components
atmospheric fluid cause dual pact force like rotor, generator and structural
on the turbine blades. The following support components. The rotor blades
cases of impact of jet will be are made up of alloy steel sheet metal
considered; having 2mm thickness. Sheet metal
was rolled on the rolling machine for
A) Force exerted by the jet on the 15 inch diameters. Rolled sheet metal
stationary vane; was sheared on the shearing machine
 When flat plate is held as per the requirement of two semi-
normal to the jet; cylindrical sheets.
 When flat plate is held Then the edges of the blades
inclined to the jet; are rolled 3600 to stiffen the blades.
 When plate is curved; The blades are guided by the stainless
steel sheet metal riveted to the top and
B) Force exerted by the jet on the bottom of the blades. The blades are
moving vane; then welded with the three small L
 When flat plate is held shaped plate on the guide sheet metal
normal to the jet; both at the top and bottom of the blade
 When flat plate is held surfaces.
inclined to the jet; The end plates are made up of
plywood of I0mm thickness of 25 inch
 When plate is curved;
diameter. The 26 inch square plywood
was sized to 25 inch diameter end BEARINGS
plates by sawing the plywood on the
wood sawing machine. Hole of 12mm
A bearing is a device used to
diameter was drilled on the end plates
permit constrained relative motion
center in order to insert the hollow
between two parts, typically rotation or
linear movement. Bearings may be
The blades having L plates are
classified broadly according to the
then screwed with the end plates by
motions they allow and according to
providing the eccentricity in-between
their principle of operation. Savonius
the blades. The hollow shaft was
rotor required bearing carrying more
inselied through the end plates. The
axial load and less radial load.
end plates are then screwed with the
rectangular rod welded with the hollow
Two bearings are required, one
shaft. Bushes are provided at the top
at the top and another at the bottom of
and bottom of the end plates in order to
the rotor. Top bearing helps to keep the
place the whole setup over the bearing.
rotor at its centre position and the
The whole setup was mounted
bottom one serve for two purpose
on the structure carrying the bearings
namely, to carry the net load of the
at the top and bottom of the structure.
rotor as well as to carry the part of
The timing belt drives larger pulley
centrifugal force of the shaft along
was placed at the bottom of the rotor
with the top bearing both the bearing
shaft. For the equal distance the
are placed inside the tightly fitted ring
alternator carrying smaller pulley was
in order to arrest the lateral movement
bolted to the bottom of the structure.
of the bearing.
Both the pulleys are then connected by
means of timing belt.
The fabrication of eccentric
Savonius windmill was· done by
turbine to rotate at the no-load speed
Checking For Turbine Placement by disconnecting the belt drive from
First step in the experimental the turbine. Once the turbine reached a
procedure is to check whether the stable revolution note the revolution
turbine is placed at the suitable per minute (RPM) value with the help
distance of 3.5m from the exit of the measuring instrument .namely
blower and suitable height of 2.5m tachometer. Repeat the experiment for
from the floor. After checking those different wind speed value and note the
phenomenon then start the 3phase no-load speed of the turbine. Similarly,
induction motor by closing the flow note the loaded RPM of the turbine by
control valve of the blower and allow connecting the belt drive with the
it to run at its specified revolution. alternator and note the volt generated
with the help voltmeter by connecting
Set the wind speed it parallel with the circuit. The rated
Once the motor reached its 20V of the alternator is obtained at the
specified revolution open the flow wind velocity of 3m/s.
control valve slowly and check the
wind velocity at the inlet of the Likewise, for a set wind speed note
turbine. Adjust the flow control valve the exit velocity of the wind at the exit
by opening and throttling by means of section of the turbine. Its value is
rotating the flow control valve in comparatively less than that of the inlet
clockwise and anticlockwise direction. wind velocity. Since some of the wind
Set the wind flow at a particular velocity is harvested. Similarly, note
velocity by checking the wind flow the velocity at the convergent and
velocity divergent section of the turbine under
With the help of the anemometer on static condition of the turbine with the
the basis of trail and error method. help of the anemometer. Repeat the
experiment for the different wind
Testing speed and tabulate the results.
After setting the wind speed at
certain velocity, say 5m/s allow the



S. No Inlet Velocity Exit Velocity Velocity at Velocity at convergent

V1 m/s V2 m/s convergent Section b m/s
Section a m/s
1 2 1 1.3 1.6
2 3 1.4 1.8 2.1
3 4 1.6 2.4 2.8
4 5 2 2.8 3.1
5 6 2.8 3.3 3.7

S. No Inlet Velocity Loaded Speed rpm No Load Speed rpm

V1 m/s
1 2 68 84
2 3 74 106
3 4 116 141
4 5 135 162
5 6 156 185


S. No Power available in the Outlet to inlet Power of the rotor Power

wind La velocity ratio L=(P A V13) /4 Coefficient
= (p AV13 )/2 a= V2/V1 (1+a)2 (1-a) Watt C1=(L/La)
Watt 0.593
1 2.747 0.5 1.54 0.333
2 9.2715 0.4666 5.31 0.396
3 21.976 0.4 12.922 0.3486
4 42.9238 0.4 25.239 0.3486
5 74.172 0.4666 42.561 0.3402


S. No Tip to wind speed Torque Torque Axial thrust

ratio λ 0 = (π R n)/ coefficient T= (C d R A V12 p) /2 S= C w A V12
(30 V1) C d=C1 λ 0 p/2 N
1 1.34 0.246 0.1028 0.1244
2 1.1285 0.3009 0.2836 0.2800
3 1.1258 0.3096 0.5188 0.4777
4 1.0348 0.3368 0.8818 0.7778
5 0.9848 0.3454 1.302 1.120




TURBINE 25-30 0.7-1.7



ECCENTRIC SAVONIUS 30-34 0.98-1.34

CONCLUSION: the two results in increased

power coefficients.
It has been concluded that the power
coefficient of existing Savonius wind turbine
can be improved by 4% providing gap
between the inner edges of the rotor blade
with respect to center shaft.
It has been found that the tip-to-wind
speed ratio is improved from 0.7 to 0.98 by
appropriate eccentric vane arrangement. REFERENCES:
Commercialization of existing Savonius council.smallwarsjournal.com
wind turbine has been enhanced by eccentric www.angelfire.com
vane arrangement which will lead to www.windstuffnow.com
compact turbine due to reduction in the rotor www.treehugger.com
swept area per unit power generation. www.flipkart.com
Scope for future:

1. Power coefficient of the AKNOWLEDGEMENT

eccentric Savonius wind turbine
can be maximized by means of We wish to express our deep
adjusting the eccentricity gratitude and sincere thanks to our honorable
between inner edges of the correspondent Udyoga Rattan Thiru. J.
rotor blades sudhanandhen who has always encouraged
2. The profile of the blade can be We wish to express our sincere and
varied to maximize the power heartily thanks to our beloved Principal
harvestation by varying the DR.G.Ramadoss.ME., Ph.D., for his kind
convergent and divergent cross permission and encouragement for
section path. completing our paper.
Our sincere thanks to proffessor
3. Power harvestation of the wind Thiru.R.Kumaravelan M.E, Ph.D., Head
energy can be maximized by of the department mechanical engineering
providing changes in the design, for assigning this paper.
numbers and arrangements of We express our heartful thanks to
the vanes. our co-coordinator Mr.R.Jothimurugan
4. The use of augmentation M.E. Asst.Professor of Mechanical
Engineering Department, for his guidance in
devices such as concentrators
all matters relating to the paper and for
or diffusers or combination of
having provided us with various facilities supporting staff of Mechanical Engineering
needed for carrying out the paper. department for their advice, encouragement
We also express our sincere thanks to and help in making this project a successful
all lecturers, non-teaching staff and one.

Optimization of Compression Rings to Reduce Oil Carry Over in

Automotive Air Brake Compressor
K.Mahendran1 and S.Arul Selvan.2
Madras Institute of Technology, Automobile Engineering, Chennai, India
Email: kkdiran@yahoo.co.in
Lecturer, Dept.of Automobile Engineering,Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai,India

Abstract analyzed for ring-twist during installation

and at operating conditions using Ansys.
The Lubrication of piston ring is
The cross-sections with minimum ring
directly related to blow by and oil carry
twist are taken up for performance testing
over in reciprocating compressor.
in lab.
Compression ring is an open-ended ring
that fits into a groove on the outer The proposed cross-sections were
diameter of the piston. Piston ring seals tested in lab and a Design of Experiments
the compression chamber and regulates was performed to assess the effect of
motor oil consumption. Piston ring is the certain parameters on ring performance.
area of concern in any reciprocating The ring-pack combination that provides
system construction. The aim of the optimized low oil carry and blow-by over
project is to reduce blow-by and oil carry is considered for endurance testing and
over past the ring-pack. The Project field testing.
focuses on the development of a new
profile for compression rings. I. Introduction
The parameters affecting the
performance of piston rings i.e. blow-by The ring-pack plays an important
and oil carry over are studied in detail. role in a reciprocating compressor. Its
These factors are: operation ring seal primary function is to provide a moving seal
(pressure balancing), Ring geometry, between the piston and liner, which prevents
tangential tension of ring. To reduce oil the air leakage form compression chamber to
carry over and blow-by, a change in the the crankcase, and at the same time
cross-section of the compression ring was minimizes the oil transport in the opposite
recommended. The concepts of reverse direction .The lubrication occurring in the
torsion ring, torsion ring and micro- interface between the ring running –face and
Napier were implemented in this project. cylinder liner surface greatly influences the
The proposed cross-sections were ring sealing performance. In a single-
acting reciprocating compressor, lubrication • Running Face angle of ring
of the cylinder is usually carried out by oil 4. Evaporation of oil from the liner wall
splash. Oil consumption through the
clearance between rings and liner is not 5. Suction Pressure
easily controlled. As a result, a large amount
of oil is carried into the compressed air. This Piston
not only gives rise to an excessive waste of Pe
lubricating oil, but also causes carbon
deposits in the discharge system of the Ring Pb
compressor and increase maintenances.
Developing capabilities to understand the Po
ring-pack lubrication has always been an
active subject in reciprocating compressor Oil film
research. The main attributes for oil carry
over are bore distortion, Rings instability PL1, PL2: Land Pressure Po: Oil
along the liner, evaporation of oil, surface Pressure
roughness of liner, honing process, Pe: Surface Pressure Pb: Back
tangential tension of ring, ring geometry. For Pressure
the purpose of reducing compressor oil carry
over, this project is initially focused on the Fig.1 Schematic of pressure in radial
mechanism of oil carry over through ring direction acting on the taper faced ring
pack and finite element analysis is used to
analyze the stability of ring and its salability
along the liner. B.Phenomena of Ring Collapse
A. Causes for oil carry over
The ring pushed into its groove and the loss
The causes for oil carry over for the of sealing function on the circumference,
reciprocating compressor are as follows caused by the difference in pressure between
inner/outer circumferences of ring is called
1. Reduction of Ring sealing ability RING COLLAPSE [1].It is shown in
• Inertia force & Air load Fig.1.When the piston is moving from BDC
• Different kinds of loads changing to TDC, ring in such state is subjected to a
over time force pushing the ring against the liner due
• Thermal stress of the ring the pressure (Pb) applied to the back of the
• Geometrical condition of upper and ring and the surface pressure (Pe) of the ring
lower surface of ring groove caused by the tangential force of ring itself.
• Frictional force of ring against While piston is near to top dead center, at
the same time second land pressure and third
land pressure pull off the ring from liner. If
2. Bore distortion
the PL1,PL2 exceeds than Pb,Pe,the second
• Clamping torque applied during
ring –liner contact force is liable to be
assembly of cylinder head with block reduced and the second ring oil film
• Air Pressure developed inside the thickness becomes thicker by that amount,
block resulting in a smaller oil scrapping effect of
• non-Uniform temperature the second ring and greater oil consumption.
distribution on The second ring oil film thickness suddenly
• Cylinder wall become very thick for a short period of time
3. Ring Running edges wear. starting from a point immediately before
• Tangential tension of ring CTDC due to large clearance between the
second ring and liner detected. The lower
edge of top ring becomes flooded, down Balance of forces in axial direction
ward scraping of oil occurs during suction
stoke. Some of oil enters the top ring For determination of state of contact
groove, it move further up to crown land and between the ring upper surface and the ring
easily contribute oil carry over. ring groove near CTDC, the forces applied
to the ring in the axial direction are
calculated where the ring is touching the
C.Theoretical analysis of Ring collapse
upper surface as shown in fig.. The force to
for compression ring
push down the ring is calculated on the
Balance of force in radial direction assumption that a pressure that varies
When the force (Fo) to push the ring into the linearly from pL1 to Pb is applied to the ring
groove becomes greater than the force (Fl) to upper surface. The force to push the ring up
push the ring against the cylinder wall, the is calculated from the force applied to the
ring collapse may occur and the blow by ring lower surface caused by Pl2 is equal to
may blow through the clearance between the the value of Pb.The frictional force between
ring sliding surface and the liner. The values the ring and cylinder is ignored.
Fo and Fl are calculated in relation to the Fig. Shows the calculated values of Fup and
pressure distribution in the radial direction, Fdown at 3000 rpm.The calculation is done
using the model as shown in figure.2.The within the crank angle in which the second
values of l, m and n here are obtained by ring is touching the groove upper surface. It
measuring the ring sliding surface with a is found that the Fdown becomes greater than
surface roughness gauge after the Fup around Compression top dead center,
completion of experiments. Around the and the ring may go away from the groove
CTDC where the oil film thickness of upper surface at that time. It is showed the
second ring starts increasing, values of Fo second ring oil film suddenly becomes very
and Fi become closest to each other and face thick for a short period of time starting from
load of ring becomes lowest. The value of Fo a point immediately before the compression
may become greater locally according to the top dead center.
Calculation of upward & Downward Force of First Ring

Fe 2000


Fl 1000
Force( N)

Fb 500

Fn m
Fm n
-180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Crank angle (degree)
Fig.3 Fup and Fdown
Fl = P2 x l,Fm= (PL1+PL2)x m/2, Fn= PL2
Fo = Fl +Fm+ Fn , Fl=h (Pe+Pb)
Fig.2 Modal of pressure
distribution in radial direction

direction of ring. Hence oil film thickness

increases around such a portion. Calculated
values of Fo and Fi is shown in the fig.3
Force Down

Ring Twist (Degree)

PL1 Piston

0.4 Napier ring

Ring twist (Degrees)


Plain ring
Ring 0.1


D 0 50
100 150 200

Angle along the ring (Degrees)
Angle along the ring (Degree) Napier Plain Proposed shape1

Proposed shape 2 Proposed shape 3

PL2 Pb
Oil Film

Up Force
Fig.5 Ring deformation
F Down = π. d.a. (P2+Pb)/2 Analysis of compression ring under
FUp = π.d. a. Pb +Fi operating conditions was carried out to find
out the twist of the ring at operating
Fig.4 Modal of pressure distribution in conditions i.e. at pressure conditions,
radial direction compression ring shapes were analyzed
individually as well as in assembled
II. ANALYSIS OF RING condition. The results of Assembly analysis
DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR USING indicate that displacement of ring also
FEA occurs due to piston load acting on it. All
types of compression rings were modeled
Different compression ring cross-sections with an allowable initial twist of 0.65º
were analyzed for ring-twist during within the groove and were subjected to the
installation and at operating conditions and pressure load. The results obtained are as
the cross-sections with twist less than the follows: All compression rings exhibit
existing cross-section were considered for positive twist during compression and
Prototype development and experimentation. negative twist during suction stroke. Napier
Fig shows the twisting behavior under ring exhibits maximum twist value than any
installation condition. Napier ring other cross-section during compression
experiences both positive as well as negative stroke. The twist values of proposed cross-
twist along the ring cross-section sections is below the twist value of Napier
Plain ring does not exhibit any twist pattern ring but greater than that of plain ring.
except for some points. Proposed shape 1
has a positive twist, which is desirable.
Proposed shape 2 experiences positive twist III. DOE FOR COMPRESSION RING
that can be efficient in sealing the
compression chamber. Proposed shape 3 The Taguchi method of experimental design
conforms to the twist pattern of plain ring. is used during initial design and prototype
However, it has higher twist values than testing to determine optimal settings for the
plain ring. product and process parameters. Considering
the results of the experimental design the
products are then designed to minimize any
detrimental effect. The proper choice in the
design phase of parameter settings for both
the product and process can reduce costs and
improve quality. There are several N ±2N
advantages to experimental design, they are
2nd Ring :17.35 2nd ring : 13
as follows:
5. Identifying the key decision ± 2.3 N ±2N
variables that control the process Interactions to be estimated
6. Development of a new process for
which historical data is unavailable. Taper Angle Tangential tension
7. Identifying important factors and
their associated levels that maximize Table 2 Control Factors
yield and reduce overall cost.
8. Reduces lead time between design Factors Value Factors Value
Compresso Manual Compressor 1500 rpm
and manufacturing.
To assess the effect of piston ring parameters r Assembly throughout the speed
such as Running face taper angle, tangential experiment
Compresso Same Loading 780sloading
tension, bevel angle and bevel height on
blow-by. Thereby a DOE is performed to r body cycle /30s
assess the significance of these factors on unloading
blow-by of the compressor. Designs of
Experiments were formulated such that Linear Graph
Process would be simpler and contain
correlating factors. Therefore two DOE were
performed using L4 orthogonal array. AXB

Factor Interaction Orthogonal Array (No: of replications

Treatment Factor A
1 1 1 1 planned: 2)
2 1 2 2
3 2 1 2 Table.3 Mean response plot
4 2 2 1
A. DOE on Running face taper angle and
Tangential tension to assess the effect on oil
Two replications were done with the four
carry and blowby Variation
combinations and the Results, Mean
Response: Oil carry over and Blow-by
Response plot and Annova table are as
Factors and levels
Table 1 Factors and levels
Table 4.Mean Response plot
Factors/ Level I Level II
Factor Factor Interaction Table 5. Annova Results
A Levels
B AXB 1 2
1 Taper
1 1 1º 6.8 7 3º
1 2
Angle 2 5.9 5.4 From the mean response plot and Annova
2 Tangential
1 2
Existing 9.6 Reduced
10.2 results the following can be inferred:
2 2 1 9 9.4
tension specification Tension Factor A i.e. Running face taper
angle is the most significant factor affecting
Top ring : 20 ± 2 Top ring :15
blow-by variation. Factor B i.e. Tangential
Table 3 Annova Results

tension has significant influence on blow-by The oil carry over trend is well within the
variation. No interaction exists between
Q-Table limit. Average Oil carry over 0.02
Running face taper angle and tangential
tension. The running face taper angle value g/h
for a ring-pack should be optimized such
that it yields low blow-by. The optimized
value is found to be 1º for first ring and 3º
for second ring, this configuration is used 6.2

for the proposed ring-pack. 6


Blow-by litres/minute


Considering the results obtained from

Blow by (liters/min)
5.3 5.3
5.26 5.26

validation tests on different cross-sections 5.2

and Design of Experiments a ring-pack with 5

low blow-by and optimum configuration of 4.8

41h 50
2h 285
3 h 645
4 h 836
5 h

running face taper angle and tangential Duration (hours)

tension was selected for endurance testing.



0.70 According to the Analysis, Experimental and

Field results, the proposed ring pack as
Oil carry over (g/h)
over (g/h)


0.50 mentioned gives low blow-by and oil carry

0.40 over. The proposed ring pack was evaluated
Oil carry

Q table Target for blow-by and oil carry over in
0.20 compression ring bedding-in (worn out)
condition and the results are observed to be
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700 3000
within the project limit. The effect of ring
Duration Duration (h)
parameters like running face taper angle,
Tangential tension, on oil carry over
Fig.6 Oil Carry Over variation were confirmed using Design of


[1] Piston ring Manual by Geotze India Ltd.

[2] SAE Paper “Contact Pressure Distribution of Piston Rings” by Michio Okamoto and
Itsuro Sakai, Teikoku Piston Ring Co., Ltd.
[3] SAE Paper “Effect of Contact pressure on Piston ring Twist” by V.Dunaevsky and
[4] SAE Paper “Analysis of Elastic Distortions of a piston ring in the reciprocating Air
Compressor due to Installation Stresses” by V. Dunaevsky, J.T.Sawicki, J.Frater and
[5] Technical Paper on “Exact Theory of Self-Expanding Piston rings” by C.Trusdell.
[6] Piston ring Tribology by Peter Anderson, Janna Tamminen and Carl-Erik Sandstrom.
[7] Technical Paper on “Computer simulation of piston–piston ring–cylinder
[8] liner coactions in combustion engines” by Institute of Machine Design and Operation,
[9] A Technical Paper on “Distortion inside a Cylinder bore” by Teimuraz Bardzimashvili,
James F. Kelly and Elene Romelashvili.
[10]“Study of Piston ring” by Teikoku Piston ring Co., Ltd.
[11]A Technical report on “Predicted and Measured ring-pack performance on Diesel
Engines” by Federal-Mogul Corporation.



    
     

email id:sundar.mtrs@yahoomail.com

    
     

ABSTRACT engine was found to be more comparing to

the operation with CNG. Where as HC
In S.I. engine use of higher emission was found to be very low.
compression ratio is limited to (8-12) by
the knocking tendency of the fuel. On the SYNOPSIS
other hand use of higher compression ratio
results in higher power output. Producer 1.NEED OF THE PROJECT
gas derived from bio-mass has about 60%
of inert gas, which acts as a knock 2.PRODUCER GAS GENERATION
suppressing agent hence producer gas can
be used at high compression ratios. So 3.PROPERTIES OF PRODUCER GAS
there is a need for optimization of
compression ratio of SI engines. Moreover, 4.COMMON DESIGN OF GASIFIER
ignition parameters also have a significant
bearing on the efficiency and power 5.ENGINE PERFORMANCE UNDER
output. This paper consist of detailed PRODUCER GAS GENERATION
investigation of effect of compression ratio
and the spark advance on the performance 6.EMISSIONS
in terms of power output, brake thermal
efficiency and exhaust emissions for a SI 7.EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
producer gas engine. This also compares
the producer gas engine performance with 8.OBSERVATION &PERFORMANCE
compressed natural gas engine. USING CNG

Derating of converted diesel engine 9.CONCLUIONS

while operating was found to be 14.72%.
Engine is developing best power output Need of the project
with better efficiency at compression ratio
of 15 and spark advance of 35˚ before the Usual approach of producer gas
TDC. CO content of the SI producer gas utilization in IC engine is mainly operation of
CI engine on producer gas cum diesel dual ratio (c.r.)., because increase of c.r. in SI
fuel mode. Duel fueling involves the burning engine is limited by design consideration of
of liquid and gaseous fuels simultaneously in engine due to increased mechanical stresses
CI Engine. One of the disadvantages of using through increased combustion pressure. Thus
producer gas in dual fuel mode of operation conversion of SI engine on producer gas
is that we need at least 15-20% diesel for operation is simple but not popular. Use of
ignition of Gas-Air mixture, thus there is existing CI engines with lean burn mixtures
some dependency on the conventional fuel. needs very less modification, but the power
Therefore with the advance of the gasifier output is lower due to lower flame speed,
technology 100% self-reliant producer gas lower mixtures calorific value and chances of
engine on SI mode is highly attractive, miss firing. On the other hand use of
especially at remote places where the stoichiometric and rich mixtures is limited by
transportation of conventional fuel is knocking tendency. Therefore there is a need
cumbersome and expensive. Also at these to optimize the c.r. for stoichiometric
places biomass is readily available in plenty. mixtures for less Derating and more
SI engines are basically high specific
power engines provided with lower specific Producer Gas generation
stroke volume, therefore factors such as
lower calorific value, lower flame speeds of Combustion of biomass is needed in
producer gas-air mixture will dominate and oxygen deficient atmosphere for IC engine,
we can’t decrease the power loss. In case of for this process of gasification is carried out
SI engines retrofitted for producer gas by supplying biomass to reactor, fire is
operation, the De-rating reported is 40-50% ignited in the gasifier and air was supplied at
at full load condition. To take care of power regulated levels. Hot combustion gases are
losses here we can’t increase the compression allowed to pass through the fuel bed where

chemical reactions take place and lead to In UDS gasifier the volatile products like
generation of producer gas . Producer gas tar are carried out along with producer
derived from biomass contains combustible gas from gasifier. Tar contained in the gas
components i.e. Carbon monoxide, hydrogen can be depositedon
and small amount of methane, non- valves ands it will affect
combustible components like co2, nitrogen, the pressure at the end of
dust and condensable tars. Dust particles will compression stroke PRYOLISIS
lead to increase wear and increase
maintenance. Tar content causes coking in • Down Draught
cylinders, sticks in valves, cases can occur System OXIDATION
that require dismantling of engine for
cleaning or complete engine replacement. Calorific value of ags
Dust particles from the hot gases coming out obtained from theUDS is REDUCTION
of gasifier can be removed by passing high, even then it is not used in engine
through cyclone. Sprinkling of water from applications. In DDS the tar have to pass
top of the cyclone causes the condensation of through the oxidation and reduction
tar. zones, hence cracking of tars take place
to make acceptable gas for IC engine.
Three common design of gasifier.
Cross draught system:
• Up Draught System (UDS)
Here the flow of gas is across the gasifier
and it holds a position in STAGES
DDS for its merits and demerits.


Composition of the producer gas coming

out of the gasifier is not constant with
time and always changes with type of
biomass used. The gas contains 40 to 50
percentages of combustibles (15 to 25 %
Hydrogen, 15 to 25 % Carbon and 1to 3
% Methane) and the rest is non-
combustible and inert gases. (10 to 15 %
of Carbon di oxide, 40 to 50 % Nitrogen
1to 2 % water vapor.

Density Calorific Stoichometric Stoichometric mixture

value air gas ratio heating value (kcal/ Nm3)
(kg/Nm3 (vol basis)
Gas ) (kcal/ Nm3)
CO 1.25 3020 2.38 695
H2 0.0899 25702.38 2.38 760
CH4 0.717 8550 9.52 812

Mixture Calorific Value

Flame speed
Mixture calorific value is the amount of
heat release when unit volume of Various gases depending on their
Stoichometric air fuel mixture burns. concentration have various flame speeds.
The graph shown shows clearly that the
Mixture calorific value (MCV) = hydrogen is about 10 times that of CH4
or CO. This graph also indicates the
flame speed of producer gas mixture.
Lower heating value of fuel Comparing with this it shows that flame
speed of gasoline as a function of mass
1+Stoichometric (air /gas) ratio, it is obvious that gasoline engine
and in particular high-speed engines
cannot perform as well as on producer
If we know the volume fractions of gas. Thus in high speed SI engine power
combustible gases in the producer gas by loss occurs due to the appropriate de-
using the formula we can determine rating of the speed of engine when it runs
mixture-heating value of producer gas. on producer gas. Although flame speeds
of various gases are based on laboratory
tests and actual; flame speed in engine is
12680VCO+10800VH2+35900VCH4 probably a higher magnitude, there exists
H g = 1+Stoichometric (air /gas) a larger difference between gasoline - air
mixture and producer gas - air mixture.
Consequently, ignition must be advanced indicator diagram and efficiency. The
to allow the flame to cross the combustion process is divided into
combustion zone before the piston
reaches TDC. This means loss in four parts 1. Initial Phase. 2.

Transition Phase, 3 turbulent phases, and 4. considerable inert gas presence in the
Termination. It is possible to reduce burn producer gas.
duration through turbulence in phase 2 and 3.
The turbulent burning velocity varies directly It can be seen that highest c.r. that can be
with initial temperature and decreases with used is limited by hydrogen in producer
increase in pressure with higher c.r., the gas. On average, octane number of
burning velocity would reduce by pressure producer gas can be 105.the critical c.r.
alone, but the increase in temperature and and octane number requirement of
reduction in exhaust gas dilution would be producer gas and gasoline operated SI
expected more than compensate for such an engine is presented in graph.
effect. Burning velocity thus would likely
increase. Producer gas stoichiometric mixture is
not comparable with the mixture of all
combustible gases because of higher
amount of nitrogen. Nitrogen presence in
the producer gas increases the ignition
delay and therefore leads to knock

Engine performance under producer

gas operation.

Power output, efficiency, exhaust

emissions and specific energy
consumptions are important performance
parameters of interest for spark ignition
producer gas engine.
Octane number and critical
compression ratio. Power output

Use of higher c.r. is limited fir S.I. As we se mixture calorific value of

engine by the knock tendency of the producer gas stoichiometric mixture is
70% of that of petrol air mixture. It
Carbon Monoxide 105
indicates that amount of heat that can be
supplied for a given stroke volume will
be 30% lesser. Thus even though the
Hydrogen 60 engine is running at same speed as that of
Methane 105 petrol, it will be derated in proportion to
the reduction of heat input value i.e.
fuels. Compression ratio of engine can be about 30%. However increase of diesel
increased considerably when the engine engine due to the engine is operated in
is operating on producer gas as fuel due lean mixtures, some portion of power loss
to higher knock resistance because of can be regained.
Producer gas having CO necessary to overcome the total pressure
as its main combustible constituents has drop across the gasifier, purification
comparatively much lower flame system and piping. This later fraction
velocities in turn would require larger causes reduced power output.
amount of time to ensure complete
combustion. Therefore engine can’t be Exhaust emissions.
operated at the same speed when operated
in diesel mode, which in turn reduces the The temperature at the end of the
power output. Because of lower flame combustion process iv a SI engine can
velocities combustion curve will deviate vary from first to last burned mixture by
from the theoretical in the PV diagram. as much as 600 K. The first burned is
hottest. Correspondingly to the variation
Ploytropic index of compressed in temperature there can be variation in
stroke will be higher for producer than nitric oxide formation from first to last
liquid fuel operation, due to altered part of the mixture to be burned. A flame
molecular weight and heat capacities thus temperature of producer gas is low and
the working surface of the indicator therefore the Nox formation will be less.
diagram will be few percent smaller.
Another reason of power decrease is that Spark retard reduces the NO
during combustion of producer in the formation by reducing the maximum
engine, a decrease of volume of the liquid operating temperature of the engine. This
fuels. The decrease is about 10% in the will also cause in poor efficiency and
case of stoichiometric air fuel ratio and higher exhaust gas temperature because
largely independent of the composition of of more late burning. Higher exhaust gas
the producer gas. temperature will reduce hydrocarbon
The excessive moisture content in
the producer gas also causes power Carbon monoxide emissions
decrease. The effect of the moisture
content of the wood on thermal value and Carbon monoxide emissions from the
power is shown. Water vapour slows spark ignited producer gas engines is low
down the combustion, decreases the because amount of carbon in the supplied
flame temperature and increases the time gas is less and gaseous fuels from more
losses unless ignition is properly homogeneous mixtures compare to liquid
advanced as humidity increases. fuels which results in better combustion
and less carbon monoxide in the exhaust.
Efficiency The effect of spark timing on the
concentration of CO exhaust gas is
In general one can assume a better relatively small and CO level will depend
indicated thermal efficiency under upon the mixture strength.
producer gas operation. Since the
combustion of gas is more complete and Hydrocarbon emissions.
the flame temperature is considerably
lower. The mechanical efficiency under Piston cylindering crevice gas
producer gas operation will be lower due constitutes a major source of hydrocarbon
to induction of gas air charge. The emissions as well as significant losses in
mechanical loses are in general causes the power and efficiency. With the increase in
friction of the bearings, piston and other c.r. crevice induced hydrocarbon
mechanical components. In addition, the emissions increase because more charge
engine is providing all the suction that is enters the crevice at higher pressure. With
increase in power output in SI engine Re-designing of combustion chamber and
maximum pressure of the engine will reduction of c.r. to 10-12 bar and varying
increase which will lead to increase in up to engine designed
hydrocarbon emissions. Ignition advance
had a great influence for near Enlarging the volume of combustion
stoichiometric mixtures and had quite chamber effects a change of c.r., it
small effect for lean mixtures. This was can be performed by 1.Exchanging
partially due to the faster oxidation of the pistons 2. Machining of material
lean mixtures with the presence of excess from piston top 3. Machining of
of air. material from the combustion
chamber 4. Exchanging the standard
Dedicated Spark Ignition gas producer cylinder head for a special low
gas engine compression head. 5. using thicker
SI engines are basically high
specific power provided with lower Intake velocity
specific stroke volume. Therefore factors
such as lower calorific value, lower flame The principal effect of higher port
speeds of producer gas air mixture will velocity is to increase the turbulence
dominate and we can’t decrease the during intake process. Shrouding the
power loss, in case of SI engine under intake wall creates higher charge
producer gas operation, the derating is velocity. The shrouding results in
reported 40-50% at full throttle condition. increased power and drop in
To take care of power losses here we volumetric efficiency.
can’t increase the c.r., because increase of
c.r. in SI engine is limited due to Squish
increased mechanical stresses in engine
components. Thus directly SI gasoline Squish in engines is effective in increasing
engine cannot be directly converted for combustion rates during main portions of
producer gas operation consequently, combustion events i.e. when the piston is at
existing C.I. engine can be converted to TDC. Chamber geometry promoting squish
SI engine. generally results in a large surface area to
volume ratio in the end gas, which is highly
Conversion of CI engine to SI producer desirable from knock inhibiting new point
gas engine with the addition of squish in engine cylinder,
there will be reduction in burn times except
The main changes to be carried out are. in the cases of the high velocity port without
swell and reduction in burning duration will
Removal of injection pump and nozzle be around 11%. In most cases, however much
and mounting of ignition system with of turbulence generated during the in take
distributor, ignition coil, spark plug stroke decays before combustion process is
and electric supply started.

Transition type of ignition system is Swirl

used, here one magnet is attached on
the engine and pick up is mounted on Increase in squish area results in
the casing so that magnet on the increase of swirl and therefore decreases
flywheel passes close to the pickup. A burn duration . effect of swirl level and
transistor and ignition coil initiates spark location on burn duration in a
the spark for every revolution. homogeneous charge engine showed that
without swirl, burning duration is direct Provision of a producer gas air mixing
function of flame travel distance such that device for the supply of an air fuel
central ignition is optimum. However mixture with constant air-fuel ratio.
only for higher swirl level, burnt rate
increased by moving the ignition towqrds
cylinder wall.
A typical carburetor designed along
with the design calculation was
prepared. T joint has been designed
toensure maximum charge efficiency
by reducing pressure loss across the
mixture as to have homogenous
mixture of air and gas at a specified
air to fuel ratio

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP decreased such that engine will be

operated bellow the rated speed and after
that air flow was regulated such that
The experimental stage has been carried out engine will got to maximum possible
in three stages. speed. Once again producer gas was
decreased to bring the speed to rated one.
Preparation of the setup including Similar procedure was adopted for all the
calibration of airflow, producer gas flow compression ratio to ensure the engine is
and CNG flow operating with best efficiency.

Performance of CNG operation.(BASE

9. Second stages consist of base data generation with
CNG. This involves running the selected machineDATA)

from no load condition to full load condition at For obtaining the base line data engine was first
constant rated speed on CNG with compression ratio variatio n of exhaust temp.

of 11 and ignition timing of 30° BTDC. The p
performance of the engine in terms of power e
t 500
t 400 Exhaust
capacity and energy efficiency were the main s 300
u 200 temp.
parameters. Exhaust gas temperature and fuel h 100
x 0
consumption was also measured along with 0 2 4
load. brake power

3. Producer gas and air was adjusted such run on CNG fuel and the load test was
that engine will be operated with performed at the rated speed of the engine.
stoichometric mixture. Experiments were Compression ratio of11 and spark advance of 30°
conducted from full load to no load
was selected for the operation of the engine with
condition. If the speed of the engine is
the CNG. Results are reported bellow.
more producer gas flow rate was

O bser and results using CNG at compression ratio of 11 and
vati 30 Thermal on spark advance of 30°
0 Air Fuel
0 2 4

0 2 4
Brake pow er

From the above results it is reported that the

maximum efficiency of the engine is found to be
3.375%kW. Exhaust temperature at that temperature C.R.-11

was 22.8% and 571°c. Graphical representation is also 30

Brake thermal
reported here with the given data. 20
Engine test on producer gas 0
0 2 4
As proposed earlier the engine was made to Brake pow er(kw )
run at various ignition timings at each
compression ratio with producer gas as the
fuel. First engine test was performed with the Compression ratio of 13
compression ratio of 11 at three ignition
timings and corresponding reading are By the operation of the engine with the
presented bellow in graphical format. producer gas, tar accumulated and blocked
Similarly pistons were changed with the the piston rings. Before operating the engine
designed one for the compression ratio of 13 with the new piston i.e. piston designed for
and 15 and the experimentation was carried the c.r.0f 13, valves were grinded such that
out. there will be no more leakage through the
valve. Similar procedure for the above
Compression ratio of 11 c.r.was repeated for this c.r. also. Maximum
power obtained 3.181 kw and maximum
With producer gas as fuel and c.r. of 11 brake thermal efficiency of the engine is
experiment was done at various spark 25.64% at brake torque timing of 35° BTDC.
advance (40,35,30) and the graph for With the spark advancement beyond that load
maximum brake thermal efficiency and following capability of the engine is
power output of the engine has been done . decreasing. Maximum exhaust temperature at
Maximum power obtained 3.3 kw that is de- the best efficiency was 400°c.
rating of the engine is 11.4%. Maximum
brake thermal efficiency of the engine is
25.69%, which is 2.9% more than CNG
Exhaust temp. 400 Compression ratio of 15
S.A=40 With completion of experiment with at c.r. of
13, valves were grinded and the piston was
0 2 4
replaced with designed one for this c.r.of 15.
Experiments were done at various spark
Brake pow er
advance (32,35) and the graph for maximum
brake thermal efficiency and power output of
the engine has been done . Maximum power
obtained 3.181 kW. Maximum brake thermal
25 efficiency of the engine is 28.50%.
S .A 30
15 S A 35
S.A 40

0 1 2 3 4
B rake power

l 30
m y 25
r c
e n 20 S.A=32
th ei 15
e ci
k ff 10 S.A=35
r e 5
0 2 4
Brake power
Exhaust Gas temperature

S.A 32
S A 35
0 2 4
Br ak e the rm al e fficie ancy

Compression ratio of 16.5

Experiments were carried with piston of

Exhaust Gas temp.

0 1 2 3
Brake pow er
original c.r. of 16.5, brake thermal efficiency with the load and spark advance where reported.
Variation of exhaust gas with load and spark advance is also presented.



Brake thermal efficiency

CR 11

15 CR 13
CR 15
10 CR16.5

0 20 40 60
Spark advance

The figure shows variation in brake thermal efficiency withn the ignition timing at various
compression ratios.the best performance has been obtained with c.r. of 15 although the power
capacity of the engines with combinations (CR=11 SA=40; CR=13 SA =35

● Maximum power output

■ Exhaust gas temperature
◊ Brake thermal efficiency

AND CR =15 SA=35) is almost the same efficiency is maximum at the c.r of 15 with the ignition
timing of 35° BTDC.
20 S.A25

Brake thermal
5 S.A=35
0 2 4
Brake pow er


Performance of converted engine under CNG was carried out at c.r of 11 and spark advance of 30
° BTDC. Producer gas operation has been carried out at 11,13 and 15. At each c.r. park advance
has been optimized for best performance of the engine. Results have been analysed to find the
best compression ratio and spark advance for SI producer gas engine.

Following features were foundS

9. Engine could be successfully operated at all the c.r with comparable power capacities
10. Spark advance reduce with c.r.(35° BTDC for c.r.of 13 and 15 , 40° BTDC for c.r. of 11)
11. Best performance in terms of efficiency has been obtained with c.r. of 15. efficiency I at
this c.r is more than CNG operation with comparable power.

 BREAG,G.R , PARKER.A.P,PEADR “producer gas from biomass for low output

power system
 KAUPP.A “Myth and facts about producer gas engine system”
 HARKER, PEARCE, BREG “ Spark igntn. Engine fuelled by producer gas”
 “Producer gas : another fuel for motor transport”
 “Feasibility of producer gas in electricity generation”

Investigation on PID parameters for Uniform

Temperature Distribution in the oven by Forced
Convection using Lab VIEW 8.2
of core patterns placed inside the mould
cavity. For getting uniform quality and
repeatability, all the cores should have
Selvaraj .G,2 Sivakumar .M and 3C. Jegadheesan uniform strength. Temperature is
PG Scholar, Department of Mechatronics considered as one of the main parameter
Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai for the strength of the cores. For getting
Senior Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics uniform strength, the temperature
Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai distribution should be uniform inside the
Lecturer, Department of Mechatronics Engineering, oven. The distribution can be controlled by
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai
making a control over the temperature
manufacturing era, the
Abstract— In this modern and air flow. In this paper, the
complexity of design procedure is temperature is controlled by means of a
exponentially increasing. This will lead to virtual PID controller available in the
bring the design challenges in moulding. LabVIEW software. The virtual PID
The quality of the castings produced in the controller will give better control and
foundry depends on the size and strength precision over an
with respect to the Heating coil, if natural
convective heat transfer is considered [20]. Real-
Introduction coded genetic algorithm is used to tune the
The oven is a heating system which is used parameters of the DAC-PID controller such That
to heat the components to the required the temperature can be maintained constant
temperature. In the foundry industry, the cores [9].From the previous Literatures it is concluded
are extensively used for making parts with that Uniform temperature distribution is affected
holes. The cores will be prepared from core by the following parameters.
sand by mixing some quantity of water. Then 1. Heating time
it will be baked in the oven for removing the 2. Sample size
moisture. The strength of the core depends on 3. Heating coil diameter
the effective heating. In the oven it is found 4. Heating coil position
that the cores are heated in a non-uniform 5. Air flow
manner.i.e temperature distribution is The main objective of this project is to maintain
decreased from bottom position to the top uniform temperature distribution in the oven.
position. It results in the rejections of the For various PID values the temperature
components. In this discussion importance distribution is going to be analyzed and
towards the uniform temperature distribution optimized for uniform temperature distribution
is attained by using forced convection is in the oven by using forced convection.
explained. In addition to that an attempt is problem identification
made for setting up of a blower with air flow The 2-D diagram of the oven is depicted in
sensor setup is made for forced convection. the following figure.1.The temperature of the
object (Core) is decided by capacity of heat
literature review source, level of heat source, distance from the
The oven is an interesting system to do research.heat source, and velocity of air and heat loss
The PID controller is one of the best controllers to the environment. In case of foundry the
for controlling the oven temperature. From the cores are placed inside the oven to remove
literature Collections the following results are the moisture content. The heating coil is
concluded. placed at the bottom of the oven. The higher
The temperature is controlled by means of atemperature is identified at the bottom cores
virtual PID controller available in the Lab VIEWand lower temperature is felt at the top. Due
software [2]. Forced convection is usually havingto the varying temperature distribution, the
uniformity in heating than the naturalstability of cores which are away from the
convection [3]. The PID Controller has to beheating source is affected. This leads to more
tuned based on the model/sample inside the ovenrejections in the components to be moulded.
[15]. The aim of this project is to maintain the
The temperature distribution is affected byuniform temperature distribution inside the
number of parameters of which coil diameteroven by forced convection through PID
and coil location is important [13]. In thecontrollers interlinked with Lab VIEW 8.2.
conventional programmed heating controller, the
accuracy and regulation of temperature areFigure.1: The schematic view of the electric oven
<0.50C [12]. In case of PI fuzzy controllers the forced convection
system gain increases and the offset from the In forced heat convection, transfer of heat
actual value decreases [16].The sample shape hasis due to movement in the body which results
a great influence on heating Rate andfrom many other forces, such as a fan, blower,
temperature distribution within the sample [19]. and pump.
Temperature distribution is varying by 0.12 toThe general equation for convection is,
2.430C in front panel to 0.23-4.460C in the rear qc = hcA ∆T
panel of the heating zone [16]. The heat transfer (1)
functions Vary with the location of the sample,
with air


Typically the convective Heat Transfer Programming PID Algorithm in LabVIEW 8.2
coefficient is greater with forced convection LabVIEW VIs contain three main components
than with natural convection, which results in • Font Panel
improved heating of the product.
In this paper, fan with blower setup is used • Block Diagram
for forced convection. Blower along with air • Icon/Connector Pane
flow sensor is added inside the oven, air flow
sensor is used to find out the flow velocity (1) Virtual Instrumentation is a user
inside the oven. With forced convection, the interface. It can
most important variable is the velocity V and, build the front panel with controls (inputs) and
indicators (outputs)
(2) Block diagram contains the graphical
source code. Front panel object
appears as terminals on the block
(2) diagram.
(3) Icon/Connector pane
Where v is the flow velocity, k is the • Icon: graphical
permeability which depends on distance representation of a VI
between dendritic arms and volume fraction,
η here is the kinematic viscosity, P is • Connector Pane: map of the
pressure, ρL is the liquid density and g is the inputs and outputs of a VI
acceleration due to gravity. • Icons and connector
The relevant dimensionless groups are the panes are necessary to
Nusselt and Prandtl Numbers and the use a VI as sub VI
Reynolds number (Re). In using the Nusselt
1. A sub VI that is
number to calculate the heat transfer inside of another VI
coefficient c h the characteristic length L is
replaced by the hydraulic diameter H D 2. Similar to a
equation. If Re > 2000 the flow is turbulent. function in a text-
based programming the experimental setup (temperature, air flow
language rate).
The PID controller VI consists of four 3. A TRIAC controller is used to control the
Sub VIs: Proportional, integral, ampere rating of the heating coil, fan with
derivative and Sub VIs. The blower setup. It controls the ampere rating by
mathematical algorithm of PID controlling the phase angle of the input pulse.
controller is as follows The control over the phase angle will change
the voltage input and accordingly the ampere
VOUT (t) = Kp e (t) + KI ∫e(t) dt + Kd[de
rating will vary.
4. The PID controller in RS Logic PLC
Where e (t) is the error. Kp, ki, kd are
software is used for controlling the TRIAC
coefficients of proportional, integral
controller. Whenever the temperature at the
and derivative actions
bottom portion increases, the current input to
the coil is reduced. Since the heat transfer is
through forced convection, higher heat energy
The PID controller in the LabVIEW
distributes to the middle and top trays at that
software is going to be used for
time the bottom tray will also reach the same
controlling the heating coil and blower set
up. The block diagram of this controller is
5. Whenever the temperature reaches below
shown in figure.2.
the set value, the current input is increased
accordingly. In the similar fashion, the
uniformity will be maintained throughout the
oven space.
with FAN
Experiments are conducted by placing
FIER eight samples inside the oven to ensure the
non uniform temperature distribution. The
Lab VIEW following graphs showed the top plate and
Air flow sensor
bottom plate having very noticeable
temperature difference. By the above
investigation it is found that there is some
Figure.2: Block diagram of the experimental contradiction arises between LabVIEW and
setup PID controller while working. In order to
overcome this limitations it is preferred to use
1. The ampere rating of the coil, air flow rate LabVIEW alone for the above investigation.
of the blower are taken as parameters which BR – Bottom Right core
control the uniform temperature distribution. MR – Middle Right Core
The cores are prepared and placed in trays BL - Bottom left core
inside the oven from the bottom to top whose ML – Middle Left core
temperatures are monitored using the TR – Top right core
thermocouples placed nearer to them. Blower M2R – Second Middle Right Core
along with air flow sensor is added inside the TL – Top left core
oven. The temperature distribution will be M2L – Second Middle Left Core
analyzed by observing the temperatures of the
cores placed inside.
2. The temperature terminals and the air flow
equipments of the oven considered will be
interfaced with the Lab VIEW 8.2 and system
model is generated in the software to monitor
[15] Chih Peng Huang, Yun Tien Chang and
Yau Tarng Juang (2008) ‘Design of fuzzy
PID controllers using modified triangular
membership functions’, Information
Sciences, Vol.178, pp.1325-1333.
[16] Datta A.K. and Arpita Mondal (2008)
‘Bread baking – A review’, Journal of
Food Engineering , Vol. 86, pp.465 - 474.
[17] Hung Ching Lu, Jui Chi Chang and Ming
Feng Yeh (2007) ‘Design and Analysis of
direct action CMAC PID controller’,
Neurocomputing, Vol.70, pp.2615-2625.
[18] Kenneth Unklesbay, Alejandro Boza
Figure.3: Temperature analysis with 8 cores Chacon and Nan Unklesbay (1997) ‘Air
after 10 minutes temperature transfer function of a
convection oven’, Food Control,
Vol.8.No.1., pp.39 - 43.
[19] Mohammad A.K.Alia and Mohammad
K.Abu Zalata (2008) ‘A closed loop
temperature control system by utilizing a
LabVIEW custome-design PID
[20] Navaneetha Krishnan P., Srinivasan
P.S.S. and Dhandapani S. (2006) ‘Effect
of heating coil in commercial shop
display cabinet’, Journal of Indian
Institute of Science, Sept.-Oct., Vol.86,
[21] Radu Emil Precup and Stefan Preitl
(2007) ‘PI Fuzzy controllers for integral
Figure.3: Temperature analysis with 8 cores plants to ensure robust stability’,
after 30 minutes Information Sciences, Vol.177, pp.4410-
[22] Rajani K.Mudi, Chanchal Dey and Tsu-
References Tian Lee (2008) ‘An improved auto
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Investigation of the Temperature Transactions, Vol.47, pp. 45-52.
Distribution in an Industrial Oven’4111- [23] Rachel Martin, Timothy Bond, John
4112 Research Project numerical. Erickson and Morgan Rog, Design of
[13] Boopathi M., Somasundaram P. and Solar Ovens for Use in the Developing
Jegadheesan C. (2008) ‘Study of PID World, International Journal for Service
parameters for uniform temperature Learning in Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1,
distribution inside the oven using Lab pp. 78-91. (2006).
VIEW 8.2’, (RTIME ’08). [24] Sundaram Gunasekaran and Huai-
[14] Bsebsu F.M. and bede G. (2000) WenYang, Effect of experimental
‘Theoretical study in single-phase forced- parameters on temperature distribution
convection heat transfer characteristics during continuous and pulsed microwave
for narrow annuli fuel coolant channels’. heating, Journal of Food
PP. 15-27 (2002) Engineering,Vol.78, pp.1452-1456.
[25] Van der Wal A.J. (1995) ‘Application of Journal of Food Engineering , Vol.78,
fuzzy logic control in industry’, Fuzzy pp.888 - 896.
Sets and Systems, Vol.74, pp.33-41. [30] Xiancheng Zhan, Gongkuan Yin and
[26] Van Impe J.F., Ryckaert V.G. and Claes Baozhong Ma (1995) ‘New heating
J.E. (1999) ‘Model based temperature controller and computation for linear
control in ovens’, Journal of Food heating stability experiment’,
Engineering , Vol.39, pp.47 - 58. International Journal of Pharmaceutics ,
[27] Vittorio Romano and Francesco Marra, A Vol.115, pp. 161-166.
numerical analysis of radio frequency [31] Xiancheng Zhan, Jinyou Jiang, Shicheng
heating of regular shaped regular shaped Liu and Gongkuan Yin (1995) ‘Computer
foodstuff, Journal of Food Engineering, controlled heating system and new
Vol 84, pp.449- 457. (2008). computation for reciprocal heating
[28] Weibiao Zhou, Shin-Yee Wong and stability experiment’, International
Jinsong Hua (2007) ‘Designing process Journal of Pharmaceutics, Vol.115, pp.
controller for a continuous bread baking 167-173.
process based on CFD modelling’, [32] Yau-Tarng Juang,Yun-tien Charg and
Journal of food engineering , Vol.81, pp. Chih-Peng Huang,Design of fuzzy PID
523-524. controllers using modified triangular
[29] Weibiao Zhou, Shin Yee Wong and membership functions, Information
Jinsong Hua (2007) ‘CFD modeling of an sciences Vol.178, pp.1325-1333. (2008).
industrial continuous bread baking
process involving U - movement’,

Design, Fabrication and Analysis of Vision
Assisted Inspection Robot
R.Sivaramakrishnan1, V.G.Umasekar2
Madras Institute of Technology/Production Technology, Chennai, India
Madras Institute of Technology/Production Technology, Chennai, India

Abstract— Inspection is an important and machine vision system will be integrated to

area of factory operations in which there is a get the automated inspection task.
significant interest in automation. Today in
most of the industries inspection is Keywords- Robotic Inspection, Machine
performed manually as per the sampling vision, Lead defect, Integrated chips (IC)
procedure. Even with sampling, the human I. Introduction
work involved in most inspection tasks is
Robotics can be used to accomplish
tedious and boring. Especially for integrated
inspection operations for mechanical
chips (ICs) manual inspection is tedious
dimensions and other physical characteristics of
because of smaller in size. Robotics and
the product. Generally the robot must work with
machine vision technology play an important
other pieces of equipment in order to perform
role for automating this inspection task.
the operations. Examples include machine
In this work, the inspection task
vision systems, robot manipulated inspection
related to the physical defect of integrated
and/or testing equipment and robot loading and
chip is automated. The defect of the IC that
unloading operation with automatic test
will inspect is “lead pitch or lead bend”. In
order to achieve the automatic inspection, a
model of the vision assisted inspection robot A. Work Methodology
will be designed and fabricated. In this The activities of the paper are grouped into
paper, a simple machine vision system is the following activities.
developed. Defective ICs with different
defect values collected and their images 1. Literature survey of the similar works
acquired. And these images processed 2. Simple machine vision system
through MATLAB image processing tool development
box. Preprocessing and segmentation steps 3. Robot and inspection system design &
carried out. Then distance between the fabrication
adjacent leads was measured in terms of no 4. Image processing program development
of pixels using distance measure tool of the 5. Integration of the robot and machine
MATLAB. These measured lead pitch value vision system
found closer to the input value. The
difference between the input lead pitch value 1. Simple Machine Vision System
and measured lead pitch value found 10% of Development
the input value. To do automatic inspection task a simple machine
The robot that sorts the inspected part vision system is essential with appropriate vision
and mechanical structure that handles the ICs software. It is being developed in this paper. And
were designed and fabricated. Necessary this system is built using the following components.
control circuits are being fabricated. The image
processing steps are being programmed to do 1. Digital web camera
the inspection task automatically. Finally robot 2. Camera software.
3. Personal computer
4. MATLAB image processing tool box A. Image Processing and Analysis
5. Image acquisition toolbox. Image processing and analysis is carried
out using the MATLAB image processing
Figure 1 illustrates the block diagram of the toolbox (IPT version 6.1). An algorithm is
simple vision system. And using this system developed to accomplish the task of the vision
Image sensing, digitizing and Image processing system. Steps involved in the algorithm are
functions of the machine vision is performed 1. Bringing the image to MATLAB
for the IC lead inspection. The acquired raw environment.
images of the 8SIP ICs are presented in the 2. Image enhancement or preprocessing.
below given figures. Figure 2 illustrates the 3. Segmentation or Edge detection using
image of the 8SIP IC with correct pitch values canny edge detection algorithm.
i.e. leads are in good condition. Figure 3 4. Measuring the distance between the
illustrate the image of the 8SIP IC with one lead alternative edges of IC leads
found in bend condition. The pitch value of one 5. Comparing the actual pitch value
of the pin disturbed. And this is the defect, against the standard pitch value.
which has to be measured through the vision 6. The inspection result to be
system. communicated for further sorting
Edge detection for different values of the input
lead bend defect performed and its result
updated. The Figure 4 illustrates the image
obtained in the above steps.

Figure 1. Block diagram of the Simple machine

vision system
Figure 4. Input image and segmented image

From the segmented image, the pitch

value of the defective units measured by using
“distance measure tool” of the MATLAB IPT.
Figure 5 illustrates the same. And the actual
pitch values against the known input values of
the samples are listed in the Table 1 given
below. Error in the measured value also listed.
Figure 2. Good IC image
Table 1. Actual pitch value measurement for the
segmented images

Measured Error
Sampl pitch Error
pitch value in
e value in %
in mils mils
in mils
1 3 2.99 -0.10 3.33
Figure 3. Defective IC image 2 4 4.15 +0.15 3.75
3 5 5.3 +0.3 6
4 8 8.74 +0.74 9.25


Figure 7. Solid model of the pick and place


Figure 5 Measuring the pitch distance using the

distance measure tool

3. Robot and Inspection Robot Design and


Figure 8. Fabricated model of the vision

assisted inspection robot

Figure 6. Solid model of the pick and

place robot

Figure 9. Fabricated model of the pick and

place robot
The Figure 6 and 7 illustrates solid model of theReferences
designed inspection system. The fabricated parts of
[33] Andreadis.I, Automated visual inspection
the inspection robot system are illustrated in the
system, department of Electrical and
figure 8 and 9. The inspection robot system
Computer Engineering, Decocritus
University of Thrace, GR-671 00 Xanthi,
1. Guide track assembly
[34] Asadpour. A and Golnabia.H, (2007)
2. Unloader unit
“Design and application of industrial
3. Timing belt assembly
machine vision systems”, Robotics and
Computer Integrated Manufacturing volume
4. Camera assembly
23, PP 630-637.
5. Base plate assembly
[35] Chin,R.T. and Harlow,C.A.(1982)
6. Vacuum pick up unit
Automated visual inspection, A survey.IEEE
7. Robot mounting assembly
Trans.Pattern Anal Mach.Intell volume 4,PP
8. Link 1
9. Link 2
[36] Chin,R.T. Survey(1988),”Automated visual
10. Link 3
inspection”/ Computer Vision Graphics
Conclusion Image Process, volume 41,PP 346-381
[37] Immanuel Edinbarough, Roberto Balderas
In this work, a simple machine vision
system for IC lead inspection was partly and Subhash Bose(2005) “A vision and
developed. ICs with lead bend defect of robot based on-line inspection monitoring
known defect values were collected and system for electronic manufacturing.
their Images acquired. An algorithm was Computers in industry volume 56, PP 986-
developed for the image processing. And 996.
[38] Jose Santos-Victor,(1998) “Vision-based
the acquired images were subjected to the
developed algorithm. remote control of cellular robots” Robotics
and Autonomous Systems, volume 23.PP
The pitch value of the defective units measured 221-234.
from the segmented images by using distance [39] Mikel Groover.P, Mitchell Weiss, Nicholas
measure tool of the MATLAB. These measured Odrey .G, and Roger Nagel.N(1986)
value against the known input values and error of “Industrial Robotics” Technology,
the measured value tabulated. Measured pitch Programming, Applications.
value found close to the input pitch value. [40] Mital, D.P. and Teoh Eam Khwang (1989)
Maximum error of 9.25% observed. “An intelligent vision system for inspection
The structural arrangement of the inspection robot of packaged ICs”. TENCON apos;89,Fourth
fabricated and assembled. Necessary control IEEE Region 10 International Conference,
circuits were fabricated. Presently control circuit Volume, Issue, 22-24 Page(s):1003-1006
programming is being carried. And MATLAB
image processing program is being developed using


S. Muthukumar1, L. Karunamoorthy2 and N. Arunkumar3
PG Student, 2Professor, CEG/Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai,
Email: muthu_ifet@yahoo.co.in
Professor, St.Joseph’s College of Engineering/Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chennai,
Email: karun@annauiv.edu
Email: n.arunkumar@rediffmail.com

Abstract focus their resources, capabilities, and

energies on building a sustainable
The objective of any organization
competitive advantage. Such an advantage
is to earn profit, now the market fixes
may be derived for example from lower
the selling price of the manufactured
cost, from higher product performance
components, unless we focus on our
from more innovative products or from
manufacturing strategy of reducing
superior service. This requires the
manufacturing cost it is very difficult to
application of some profoundly new
sustain in this ever competitive world,
concepts related to production process
having a suitable manufacturing system
organization of work and technology.
will help us to minimize the cost of
production. The suitable manufacturing Manufacturing is a transformation
system should focus on customer process by which raw material, labor,
satisfaction by finding out the energy and equipment are brought together
customer’s requirement in terms of to produce high quality goods. The goods
quantity, quality, and schedule. A survey produced naturally should have an
of existing literature on evaluation of economic value greater than that of the
advanced manufacturing systems inputs used and should be salable in the
indicates that the traditional presence of competition. The
manufacturing approaches are transformation process generally involves
inadequate for the purpose. Typically a sequence of steps called production
new technologies require very high operations. Each production operation is a
investments, so it is important to process of changing the inputs into outputs
identify and justify the manufacturing while adding value to the entry. A
system suitable for the particular Manufacturing system can be manual or
manufacturing industry. In this paper fully automated; highly dedicated or fully
an attempt has been made to overcome flexible; a collection of isolated machine
the deficiencies of traditional tools or a fully integrated production
manufacturing system by presenting an system. It is the level of technology that
approach to determine and account for determines whether a given system is a
the justification of the cellular mass production system, Job shop, batch
manufacturing system using analytical production system or a fully flexible
hierarchy process (AHP). manufacturing system. Selecting the
suitable manufacturing system is a multi-
Index Terms— Cellular Manufacturing,
criteria decision making situation where
AHP, Justification, Manufacturing
many factors are to be considered. With
the help of AHP the suitable
manufacturing system can be identified
I. Introduction
(Section III gives the methodology and
The manufacturing industry has gone section IV identifies the manufacturing
through successive periods of great system). The justification of identified
changes, new materials; new technologies manufacturing system is dealt in section
and advanced technology have always VI.
been at the root of these changes.
Manufacturing has thus become highly
competitive, and companies have had to
II. LITERATURE REVIEW simulating the human decision making
A. CELLULAR MANUFACTURING [CM] mechanism in multi criteria evaluation
Eric Molleman (2002) analyzed the
arguments on the design of cellular RELATIVE IMPORTANCE SAATY’S 1-9 SCALE
manufacturing system in a medium sized Intensity Definition Explanation
company and he indicated that interrelated A and B are A and B contribute equally to
things like market and manufacturing equally important the objective
Experience and judgment
technology places a key role in decision to 3
Weak importance
slightly favours attribute A over
of A over B
change the system and the arguments were B
Essential or strong Experience and judgment
made on market development, new 5 importance of A strongly favour attribute A over
manufacturing technology, and production over B B
Very strong or Attribute A is strongly favoured
control system as a constraint in the demonstrated over B , and the dominance of A
application area of cellular manufacturing. importance of A has been demonstrated in
over B practice
Charlene Yauch and Harold Steudel (2002) Absolute The evidence of favouring A
exploits the eight key cultural factors that 9 importance of A over B has the highest possible
over B order of affirmation
impact CM conversion for an organization Intermediate
2,4,6,8 When compromise is needed
converting to cellular manufacturing. values

B. JUSTIFICATION OF CM procedures. In addition, it is an effective

The deficiencies of the traditional mechanism to analyze the strategic
manufacturing system are account for the concepts of a company by the
justification of manufacturing system representation of a complex problem into a
based on AHP by tacking account into disintegrated hierarchical problem. This
intangible factors; the proposed approach disintegrated representation of multiple
is demonstrated through the case situation level hierarchy helps the decision-makers
by Vinay Datta and Sambasivarao (1992). identify the problem and deal with it in a
The potential benefits derived from clear manner .The complexity of the
Flexible Manufacturing system problem determines the number of levels
implementation and a method to quantify of hierarchy. The top level of hierarchy
these benefits for use in engineering consists of a single element, which is the
economy studies with the help of AHP to main focus of the overall objective. The
determine the best manufacturing system remaining levels may consist of few
is given by Wabalickis (1987).The elements. AHP compares each element in
Japanese manufacturing methods and each level with each other element by a
production management are introduced pairwise comparison process, with respect
including flexible automation, group to the objective. The pairwise comparison
technology and Toyota production system is done through the subjective evaluation
with the financial aspects of Japanese of the decision-maker depending on the
companies by Katsundo Hitomi (1985). nature of the importance of the attribute to
the company.
A matrix is constructed by listing the
Analytical Hierarchy Process is a attributes to be compared to the left of the
methodology developed by Saaty (1980) row and to the top of the column. The
to analyze rational and irrational values attribute are compared along each row
comprehensively according to the level of with the attribute on the column. When an
importance to the decision – making attribute is compared with itself the value
process. AHP facilitates formulating and on the cell is assigned to one. When an
attribute is compared with other attribute,
S.Muthukumar, the value is assigned depending on the
M.E – Manufacturing Systems and Management,
CEG, Anna University - Chennai importance of that attribute to the
compared one to meet the objective. If that maximum eigenvalue (λmax) for each matrix
attribute is more important an integer are then calculated. The λmax value is an
value is assigned if the attribute is less important validating parameter in AHP.
important, the reciprocal value is assigned. The consistency ratio is calculated as per the
The reciprocal value is entered in the following steps.
transpose position of the matrix.
1. Calculate the eigenvector or the relative weights
and λmax for each matrix of order n.
The AHP procedure recommends a 1 to 9
2. Compute the consistency index for each matrix of
scale proposed by Saaty which is given in order n by the formulae: CI = (λmax – n)/(n-1)
Table I. Once the matrix has been
3. The consistency ratio is then calculated using the
completed, the priority weights for the formulae: CR = CI / RI.
matrix are computed. In mathematical
terms it is called principle eigenvector. The Where RI is known as random consistency
estimate for that vector can be computed in index obtained from the Table II. The
the following for ways (Saaty, 1980): acceptable CR range is 0.1. If the value of CR
is equal to or less than 0.1 implies that the
1. The values in each row are summed
evaluation within the matrix is acceptable or
together and that summation is
indicates a good level of consistency in the
normalized by dividing each sum by
comparative judgments represented in that
the total of all the sums, resulting in a
matrix. In contrast if CR is more than the
summation of the vectors to unity. The
acceptable value, inconsistency of judgments
first resulting vector is the priority
within that matrix has occurred and the
weight of the first attribute , the second
evaluation process should therefore be
value for the second attribute and so
reviewed, reconsidered and improved. An
acceptable consistency property helps to
2. The reciprocal of the sum of the value ensure decision-makers reliability in
in each column is computed. Then determining the priorities of a set of criteria.
each reciprocal is divided by the As the matrix is consistent, the weight of
summation of all reciprocal values, each element is calculated as explained
resulting in summation of all vectors to above. Finally, the weighted evaluation for
unity, thus obtaining normalized each alternative is obtained by multiplying
values. Then the priority weight is the matrix of evaluation ratings (criteria
determined as in the first method; relative weights) with the matrix of priority
3. Normalization of the column is carried weights of the alternatives (relative weights
out by dividing the values in each of alternative) the multiplied value is known
column by the sum of the column. to be global weights of the alternatives,
Then the elements in each resulting moving upwards through the hierarchy and
row is added and that value is divided summing overall the vector values for the
by the number of elements in the row, alternative will give overall priority of the
thus achieving the process of averaging alternatives. The alternative with the highest
over the normalized columns; and global weigh evaluation is considered to be
4. The n number of elements in a row is fulfilling the objective of the problem with
multiplied and the nth root is maximum satisfaction and chosen for further
calculated. Finally the resulting consideration.
numbers are normalized, to get the
priority weight f each attribute.
After all matrices are developed and
all pairwise comparisons are obtained.
Eigenvectors or relative weights and
consultation with the industry personnel.
N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The criteria details are given in Level 2.
R. 0 0. 1 1 1 1 The definitions of criteria are given in
I 0 0 .58 9 .12 .24 .32 .41 1.45
Table III.

The analytical hierarchy process has

been a widely used method to solve multi- TABLE IV
criteria decision making problem.
Application of this method is widely used S.No ALTERNATIVES DEFINITION
in many fields. The main advantage of Machines dedicated to manufacture of
1 Transfer Line one or two product types, system
AHP is it decomposes the problem and to permits limited flexibility.
make pairwise comparisons of all elements Machines are grouped together based
on the operation (function); there is
in the level just above. The schematic of 2 Job Shop
no control on the sequence of
the manufacturing system selection model production.
A cell thus consists of a group of
is given in Fig 1which is mainly focused machines and a family of related
on manufacturing system selection for a components being produced on these
machines. Since the manufacturing
Brake lining manufacturing company in plant would now consist of several
Chennai to find out the suitable 3
cells, manufacturing using such group
technology is also called cellular
manufacturing system. manufacturing. Group technology
exploits the similarities and
A. GOAL relationships between large
populations of components.
Develop the focus or overall goal of the NC machines, material handling
analysis in this case selecting / Flexible
4 equipments are linked, controlled and
determining the best manufacturing monitored by a central computer.

system. It is given in Level 1 of Fig 1.

CRITERIA DEFINITION The alternatives are the manufacturing
system chosen to be compared and
S.No Criteria Definition
It covers the design, volume, routing, evaluated from the given set of
machine, process & operation. Can the alternatives, i.e. the options which are to
1 Flexibility [F] system handle variations in part size &
geometry, batch size and product be evaluated in terms of the criteria are
types. given in Level 3. The model evaluates the
Inventory of raw materials, WIP, FG.
2 Inventory [IO] To what extent does the system help in best manufacturing system for the
reducing inventory cost? application. The alternative manufacturing
Indicator of the lead-time, cycle time
3 Throughput [T]
& delivery time of the system. systems are
Is the company in a position to make
the required investment? Does this
4 Investment [IM]
investment fit in with the company's 1. Transfer Line [T.L]
overall corporate strategy?
Operating Cost In includes the tooling and scrap and 2. Job shop [J.S]
[OP] running cost.
In terms of safety, communication,
ergonomics in terms of efficiency and 3. Cellular / Lean Manufacturing [CM]
Relation [E]
4. Flexible Manufacturing System [FMS]
Develop factors or criteria which CALCULATION
contribute to the focus or goal in the Level
1. The criteria are the main components CRITERIA:
defined by a company when it has to take The criteria are compared with each other
decision on which manufacturing system on a pairwise comparison. Table V gives
to use. The selection of criteria is through the pairwise comparison and relative
literature survey, discussion and weights for level 2 criteria. The weights or
priorities are obtained. A questionnaire
was developed with respect to the case
situation used as an input to the AHP
model. From the pairwise comparison
matrix [PCM] the respective weights are
calculated. The distributions of the relative
weights [RW] are given in Fig 2 & 3.
With respect to each criteria the
alternative performance are evaluated
using satty’s 9 point scale to construct a
pairwise comparison matrix [PCM]. From
the PCM the relative importance of
Level - 1 Selectio n o f M anu facturing S ystem

Level - 2 Th ro u ghp ut Flexib ility In vento ry Investment O p erat ing co st E mp lo yee

Level - 3 TL FM S JS CM
Figure 1. Manufacturing system selection hierarchy

alternatives are calculated. The PCM and

relative weights for throughput and
flexibility criteria are given in Table VI &

Figure 3. Criteria RW Distribution in Percentage

T 1 3 3 3 4 6 0.3733
.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00
F 0 1 2 3 4 5 0.2331
.33 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00
IO 0 0 1 2 4 5 0.1764
.33 .50 .00 .00 .00 .00
IM 0 0 0 1 2 3 0.1059
.33 .33 .50 .00 .00 .00
O 0 0 0 0 1 3 0.0722
.25 .25 .25 .50 .00 .00
E 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.0391
.17 .20 .20 .33 .33 .00
TL 1.00 0.17 0.25 0.17 0.0556
FMS Figure
6.00 2.
2.00RW Distribution
0.50 0.2787
JS 4.00 0.50 1.00 0.17 0.1427
CM 6.00 2.00 6.00 1.00 0.5231
λmax 4.17 R.I 0.9
C.I 0.06 C.R 0.06 < 0.1 O.K

The same approach of pairwise comparison matrix formation from the data collected through
questioner for the remaining criteria used in decision making process level 2 (Inventory,
Investment, Operating cost, Employee) are used to calculate the relative weights with respect
to the alternatives. The relative weights calculated are listed in the Table 8 for global weight
calculation; the global weight is obtained by multiplying the relative weights of criteria with
respect to alternative performance as explained in the AHP methodology to find out the
suitable manufacturing system.




Throughput 0.3733 0.4079 0.2373 0.0692 0.2857 0.1523 0.0886 0.0258
Flexibility 0.2331 0.0556 0.2787 0.1427 0.5231 0.0129 0.0649 0.0332
Inventory 0.1764 0.3269 0.1527 0.0629 0.4575 0.0576 0.0269 0.0111
Investment 0.1059 0.1698 0.3423 0.0545 0.4335 0.0180 0.0363 0.0058
Figure 4. CM Performance
Operating Cost 0.0722 0.2257 0.3890 0.1283 0.2570 0.0163 0.0281 0.0093
Figure 5. CM Performance
Employee 0.0391 0.2356 0.1979 0.0651 0.5014 0.0092 0.0077 0.0025
OVERALL PRIORITY 0.2664 0.2525 0.0877
RANK 2 3 4
RESULT [CM] system based on the global weight
The global weights of the score which is decided based on the data
alternatives are plotted in a spider chart collection or quality of input through
Figure 4 and 5 gives the cellular pairwise comparison. One of the
manufacturing performance likewise all advantage is the group decision making is
the alternative performance are plotted to also possible with AHP. However,
compare with each other to take a strategic improving the approach for selecting a
decision on selection of suitable best manufacturing system suitable for any
manufacturing process. Manufacturing manufacturing industry can be solved
system performances are analysed with more efficiently in fuzzy environment by
respect to the criteria. The suitable taking care of the uncertainties involved
manufacturing system for the brake lining in the decision making process can be
manufacturing (auto component) company consider as topic for future research.
is identified as cellular manufacturing

Justification Methodologies

Strategic Economic Approaches

Analytic Approaches

Technicla Benefits Value Analysis Mathematical Analysis Risk Analysis Payback

Weighted Evaluation Integer Stocastic
Business Advantages Net Present Vales
Methods Programming Models
Utility Models Goal
Competitive Factors Monte Carlo Internal Rate of Return
Future Expansion Other DCF methods
AHP Models Linear
Non DCF methods
Sensitivity Analysis

Figure 6. Justification Methodologies

VI. CM JUSTIFICATION intangible and difficult to quantify.

Any investments or changes Following are the some of the justification
require justification; unless the managers methodologies, AHP comes under
justify the CM in terms of economic the analytical approach, so we can use the
management may not be committed / same AHP methodology with suitable
interested in the change proposed. economic criteria to justify the investment
Economic justifications require knowledge with respect to the benefits with the
of costs and benefits attributable to the alternatives of existing traditional
manufacturing system. Benefits and costs manufacturing system the company has
of many investments can be quantified in and the CM. The available justification
terms of tangible values, never the less , methodologies are given in Fig 6.
the cellular manufacturing technology
provide benefits which are tangible,

VII. CONCLUSION In this paper an attempt is made to

Analytical hierarchy process determine and justify the suitable
provides an excellent method to evaluate manufacturing system for an auto
the many tangible and intangible benefits component manufacturing company. The
in multi attribute decision making model. model developed is able to solve the
problem reasonably well, just giving the particular auto component manufacturing
inputs to the model helps clarify goals of company and the process is more complex
the organization as it requires deep thought in justifying the selection process. The
and constructive decisions. AHP basically AHP can also be used for other multi-
address the strategic issue of justification, criteria decision making problems such as
In case this decision is to be evolved by a machine tool selection, site selection,
panel of experts, say consisting of the personnel selection, etc.
managing director, chairman, financial
director, etc, then each person’s opinion
can be consolidated by appropriate weights
and then final decisions can be evolved. REFERENCES

AHP’s ease of use makes it’s a viable [41] Roger N. Wabalickis, “Justification of FMS with the
Analytic Hierarchy Process”, Journal of
method for everyone involved in the Manufacturing Systems, 1987, Vol 3, No 3, p.p.
decision analysis. The respective nature of 175-182.
pairwise comparison and the structure of [42] Vinay Datta, Sambasivarao, K.V., Rambabu Kodali
and Deshmukh, S.G., “Multi-attribute decision
AHP make computerization of the model using the analytic hierarchy process for the
technique attractive and easy. justification of manufacturing systems”, Int. Journal
Selecting a suitable manufacturing of Prod Eco, 1992, Vol 28, p.p. 227 – 234.
[43] Katsundo HItomi, “The Japanese way of
system from the alternatives is a multi- manufacturing and production management”,
criteria decision making problem. In which Technovation, 1985, Vol 3, p.p. 49 – 55.
the objectives are not equally important. [44] Eric Molleman, Jannes Slomp and Samantha
Rolefes., “The evolution of a cellular manufacturing
This paper presented AHP as a decision system – a longitudinal case study”, Int. Journal of
making method that allows the Prod. Eco, 2002, Vol 75, p.p. 305 – 322.
consideration of multi-criteria. This study [45] Charlene A. Yauch, Harold J. Steudel, “Cellular
manufacturing for small businesses: key cultural
shows that cellular manufacturing is the factors that impact the conversion process”, Journal
suitable manufacturing system for the of Operations Management, 2002, Vol 20, p.p. 593 –

EDM Parameters Optimization

Vasantha Prasath N, bKalayarasan M, cJagadeesan M and dSatheesh C
Lecturer, Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
Final Year ,Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
Final Year , Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
Final Year ,Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Erode-638052.
e-mail: vasanthanil@yahoo.co.in
1. INTRODUCTION To conduct study on the effect of
process parameters in EDM (Electrical
Discharge Machining) on machining of
Electrical discharge machining
tool steel.
(spark erosion machining) is one of the
To optimize the machining parameters
nontraditional machining. Within all the
of EDM with respect to performance
nontraditional machining methods,
characteristics such as MRR (material
electrical discharge machining (EDM) is
removal rate), over cut, and tool wear.
the one with highest potential because it
Comparing copper, brass and tungsten
is not affected by mechanical properties
to find out the best tool
of the work piece such as material
hardness or material strength.EDM
works on any conductive materials and 1.1. INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS
has advantages like easy to operate and PARAMETERS ON ELECTRICAL
requires only simple equipments. Since DISCHARGE MACHINING
there is no contact between the electrode The process parameters like gap
and the work piece for EDM process, voltage, gap current, machining time and
the force generated during the process is pulse on time greatly influence the EDM
far less than traditional machining performance. In EDM, polarity – work
methods. The EDM technique has been piece (+), tool (-). So, that the tool wear
widely used in the aerospace industry, will be low. Different machining was set
micro electrical mechanical system, and for machining the work piece. The
the manufacturing of molding dies and working medium of the EDM is dielectric
bio medical equipment. EDM oil is (EDM oil). The inter electrode gap control
preferred as a dielectric fluid. plays a major role. If the inter electrode
Experiments have been carried out to gap is controlled in the range of 15-20 µm.
analyze the influence of the ascendant The gap is very small; contamination can
process parameters such as gap voltage, cause a deposition to be formed on the
gap current, machining time and pulse tool, so that the work piece no longer
on time on material removal rate, tool dissolved uniformly. This problem can be
wear rate and over cut. largely avoided by applying a pulsed DC
voltage instead of a continuous one.
The influence of the ascendant
To perform parametric study on process characteristics, a well planned
Electrical Discharge Machining of D2 programme was considered for the
tool steel. indigenous development of EDM set-up.
Figure 1 Electrical discharge Machine

The EDM set-up consists of various sub-

components, e.g. power supply unit, 2. EXPERIMENTATION METHOD
machining chamber, tool post and holding
device, tool feed system etc. As shown in 2.1. Taguchi method
Figure 1 Presents a schematic view of the
Electrical discharge Machine. The The Taguchi method is very effective
Electrical discharge machining process is to deal with the response function
influenced by the number of parameters influenced by multi -variables
such as Voltage, current, pulse on time and
so on. The experimental setup provides all 2.2. Significance of Taguchi Method
the facilities to control the process
parameters to study their effect on  Reduction in number of
machining. The whole experimental setup Experiments
of Electrical discharge machining setup is  Identification of optimal
divided in to various sub units. combinations of factors for the
given response function
Selection of Parameters and Their
Levels  Identify the response functions and
Gap voltage = 20, 30, 40, 50 the process parameters to be
Gap current = 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 A evaluated
Pulse on time = 20, 30, 40, 50 µs  Determine the number of levels for
Machining time = 13, 15, 17, 19min the process parameters
 Select the appropriate orthogonal
array and assign the process
Control Levels parameters to the orthogonal array
Parameters 1 2 3 4 and conduct the experiments
Voltage 20 30 40 50 accordingly
Gap current 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5  Analyze the experimental results
and select the optimum level of
Pulse on time 20 30 40 50 process parameters
Mach. Time 13 15 17 19
 Verify the optimal process
parameters through a confirmation
Work piece - AISI D2 tool steel.
Tool - Copper (3.8mm)
Polarity - Tool (-), work piece
Working fluid - EDM oil
2.4.1. Degrees Of Freedom
The number of comparisons that
Chemical composition of AISI D2 tool
needs to be made to determine which level
steel (% wt)
is better. For example, a four level
parameter has three degree of freedom.
C Cr Fe Mn Si V Mo
1.5 12 84 o.5 0.3 0.9 0.8
The Orthogonal array is selected  The total degrees of freedom = 12
based on the degrees of freedom. L16 ORTHOGONAL ARRAY

2.4.2. CALCULATION OF DEGREES  Calculated degrees of freedom =

OF FREEDOM 12 < 16 and which is closer to 16
 So, for the present analysis, an L16
 Four process Parameters orthogonal array with four columns
 The four parameters are varied in and sixteen rows is used
four levels.  Only sixteen experiments are
 Degrees of freedom = Number of required to study the entire
levels – 1 machining parameters using the
 Degrees of freedom for the L16 orthogonal array.
parameters = 4(4 -1) = 12
Full Factorial Representation of L16 orthogonal array
S.NO Gap Gap Pulse Machining
voltage current on time Time
1 1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2
3 1 3 3 3
4 1 4 4 4
5 2 1 2 3
6 2 2 1 4
7 2 3 4 1
8 2 4 3 2
9 3 1 3 4
10 3 2 4 3
11 3 3 1 2
12 3 4 2 1
13 4 1 4 2
14 4 2 3 1
15 4 3 2 4
16 4 4 1 3

Experiments have been carried out on the EDM set-up to predict the influence of
some of the ascendant process parameters on MRR, Tool wear and over cut.
Formulas used
MRR = (initial weight – final weight of work piece)/ (density * time)
Tool wear = (initial weight – final weight of tool) / (density * time)

3.1Machined work piece at different parametric settings

FIG .2. 20V, 5.5A, 50µsec, 19min FIG.3. 40V, 5.5A, 20µsec, 13min
The table shows that experimental results for copper

S.NO Voltage Current Pulse Mach. MRR Tool wear Over cut(mm)
On time Time (mm3/min) (mm3/min)
1 3.023 0.17 4.032
1 1 1 1
2 3.315 0.29 4.080
1 2 2 2
3 3.980 0.36 4.135
1 3 3 3
4 4.571 0.57 4.218
1 4 4 4
5 5.030 0.36 4.274
2 1 2 3
6 5.896 0.52 4.312
2 2 1 4
7 6.423 0.42 4.326
2 3 4 1
8 6.731 0.68 4.382
2 4 3 2
9 6.981 0.52 4.454
3 1 3 4
10 7.329 0.62 4.478
3 2 4 3
11 7.520 0.74 4.498
3 3 1 2
12 8.152 0.72 4.513
3 4 2 1
13 8.426 0.64 4.542
4 1 4 2
14 8.742 0.72 4.621
4 2 3 1
15 9.213 0.84 4.683
4 3 2 4
16 9.432 0.92 4.652
4 4 1 3



 Response function is MRR

Tool wear and Over Cut
 Determines the optimal setting value of each machining parameter


S/N ratio = -10log (1/y2) (larger the better)

For overcut and tool wear

S/N ratio = -10log (y2) (smaller the better)

The table shows that S/N ratio for MRR, Tool wear and over cut
S.NO Pulse on Machining For For tool For over
Voltage Current
time Time MRR wear cut
1 1 1 1 1 9.6088 15.3910 -12.1104
2 1 2 2 2 10.4097 10.7520 -12.2132
3 1 3 3 3 11.997 8.8739 -12.3295
4 1 4 4 4 13.2002 4.8825 -12.5021
5 2 1 2 3 14.0314 8.8739 -12.6167
6 2 2 1 4 15.4038 5.6799 -12.6936
7 2 3 4 1 16.1548 7.5350 -12.7217
8 2 4 3 2 16.5616 3.3498 -12.8334
9 3 1 3 4 16.8784 5.6799 -12.9750
10 3 2 4 3 17.3009 4.1521 -13.0217
11 3 3 1 2 17.5244 2.61536 -13.0604
12 3 4 2 1 18.2253 2.85335 -13.0893
13 4 1 4 2 18.5124 3.876401 -13.1449
14 4 2 3 1 18.8344 2.85335 -13.2947
15 4 3 2 4 1 9.288 1.514414 -13.4105
16 4 4 1 3 19.4921 0.724243 -13.3528


S/ N ratio for MRR



S/ N in (dB)


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4





1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Signal-to-noise: Larger is better

ANOVA table for MRR

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F

Voltage 3 197.64 197.64 65.8805 170.02
2 2
Current 3 15.610 15.610 5.2034 13.43
Pulse on time 3 3.266 3.266 1.0886 2.81
Machining Time 3 0.947 0.947 0.3158 0.82
Residual Error 3 1.162 1.162 0.3875
Total 15 218.62

From the F-test,

 Comparing the tabulated values CONDITION:
and calculated values
 Machining voltage is the most For the above test to find out the best
significant at 99% confidence level machining condition,
 Machining current is significant at A4 B4 C4 D4
95% confidence level Machining voltage - 50
 Pulse on time is insignificant one Gap current - 6.5
Pulse on time - 50
Machining time - 17


S/ N ratio for Tool wear

S/ Nin (dB)

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

ANOVA table for tool wear

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F

Machining Voltage 3 0.4224 0.4224 0.1408 54.03
Gap current 3 0.1858 0.1858 0.0619 23.77
Pulse on time 3 0.0026 0.0026 0.0008 0.33
Machining Time 3 0.0241 0.0241 0.0080 3.08
Residual Error 3 0.0078 0.0078 0.0026
Total 15 0.6428

From the F-test,

 Comparing the tabulated values TO FIND OUT BEST MACHINING

and calculated values CONDITION
 Machining voltage is the most
significant at 99% confidence level For the above test to find out the best
 Machining current is significant at machining condition,
95% confidence level
 Machining time is insignificant one A1 B1 D1 C2
Machining voltage - 20
Gap current - 3.5
Pulse on time - 30
Machining time - 13


S/ N ratio for over cut

S/ Nin (dB)


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4


1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better


Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Variance F

Machining Voltage 3 2.279 2.279 0.759 284.85
Gap current 3 0.1203 0.1203 0.040 15.04
Pulse on time 3 0.0065 0.0065 0.0021 0.82
Machining Time 3 0.0204 0.0204 0.006 2.55
Residual Error 3 0.0080 0.0080 0.002
Total 15 2.435


 Comparing the tabulated values For the above test to find
and calculated values out the best machining
 Voltage is the most significant at condition,
99% confidence level A1 B1 D1
 Machining current is significant at C1
95% confidence level Machining voltage - 20
 Machining time is insignificant one Gap current -
Machining time - 13
Pulse on time - 20

5. Conclusion 2. Presenting the optimal

In this work different machining condition.
techniques are employed to obtain the
following goals: Machining voltage and current found
1. Evaluating the effects of to be most significant. Pulse on time
machining parameters on material found to be least significant.
tool wear, and over cut.
Optimal machining condition

parameters Gap Gap Pulse on Machining Optimal

voltage Current time time value
(V) (A) (µsec) (min)
MRR 50 6.5 50 19 10.503
Wear rate 20 3.5 20 13 0.1723
Overcut(mm) 20 3.5 20 13 4.032

REFERENCES [4] Ming Zhou, Fuzhu Han, Isago

Soichiro, “A time-varied predictive
[1] Sang Won Lee and Young Seok Oh, model for EDM process”, International
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Machining Process”, International Manufacture Vol 48 (2008) 1668–1677
Conference on Smart Manufacturing
Application April. 9-11, 2008 [5] Shinya Hayakawa et al., “Study on
EDM phenomena with in-process
measurement of gap distance”, J.
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rate”, J. materials processing [6] Mingrang Cao et al., “Experimental
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[3] S.L. Chen et al., “The Discharge Machining Combined with
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mechanism with multi-electrodes in IEEE Conference on Industr
EDM”, J. Materials processing
technology Vol 203 (2008) 461–464
V. Senthil kumaran 1 and Prof .G. Somasundaram 2

1. M.E. (CAD/CAM), RajaRajeswari engg college, Chennai.

E-mail : varadan.senthil@gmail.com
2. HOD / Mech, RajaRajeswari Engg College, Chennai

ABSTRACT because of their capabilities to adapt to

variable operating conditions, and their
Today the technological growth is
ability to discharge different kinds of fluids.
unimaginable. Quality is an essential factor
Due to these reasons, it is vital to assure
to be considered in every product or service.
quality in the development of centrifugal
For the survival of any industry, quality is an
pumps. One of the important areas of quality
essential requirement. Without adequate
assurance is the, "assurance for failure free
quality, it is not possible by any industry to
complete in the present day market.
Failure mode and effects analysis
Centrifugal pumps find a wide application,
(FMEA) is a very powerful and effective
methodology for listing all the possible The concern for reliability and quality
contributing factors of a quality problem. It assurance is of increasing in mechanical
is a method available for evolving good industries in recent years. Product development
designs and processes taking inputs from teams need to build-in reliability at the early
various functions like design, assembly, stages of design. Design engineers are under
services etc., It is an essential ingredient of increasing pressure to produce correct, safe
Reliability Engineering. Also it is a designs in shorter time frames. As complexity
mandatory requirement when the company of mechanical systems has increased, it has
goes for QS 9000. In this project as attempt is become more difficult for designers to
made to use FMEA for a centrifugal pump. comprehend all the possible implications of
In this investigation, failures in the component failures on a design.
centrifugal pump components are accounted, Concurrent Engineering is a
i.e., casing, shaft, impeller, bearing and Management and Engineering philosophy for
stuffing box. The failure mode, causes, effects improving quality. This approach utilizes
and current controls are studied by taking Failure mode and effects analysis to act as a
inputs from various pump-manufacturing Failure Consultant during the product design
industries, historical data’s, customers and activities. FMEA is an Engineering technique
experts in this field. The rankings, used to define, identify and eliminate known
occurrence, severity and detection are and potential failures, problems and errors from
calculated to know the risk priority number the system, design, or process before they reach
of the failure mode. For each failure mode, the customer.
the recommended action is given to reduce
the effect of failure. 1. FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS
The results show that the failure ANALYSIS (FMEA) - OVERVIEW
modes, shaft deflection and bearing wear has 1.1 Failure mode and effects analysis
the higher risk priority numbers. To reduce (FMEA)
the risk priority number, the finite element A procedure by which each potential
analysis is conducted on the shaft. The failure mode in a system is analyzed to
results will help the designers to develop the determine the results or effects thereof on the
new product in the pump family. system and to classify each potential failure
mode according to its severity.
1.2 Failure mode
The manner by which a failure is
INTRODUCTION observed. Generally describes the way the
failure occurs and its impact on equipment recommended for use in a part level up
operation. approach often referred to as the bottom-up
1.3 Failure effect approach.
The consequence(s) of a failure mode 1.7 Functional approach
has on the operation, function, or status of an The functional approach is normally
item. Failure effects are classified as local used when hardware items cannot be uniquely
effect, next higher level, and end effect. identified or when system complexity requires
1.4 Failure Mode and Effects analysis from the top down.
Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 1.8 Risk Priority Number (RPN)
A procedure by which each potential The risk priority number is usually
failure is analyzed to determine how the failure calculated as the product of the severity,
is detected and the actions to be taken, to repair occurrence, and detection.
the failure. 1.9 Severity
1.5 Analysis approach The consequences of a failure as a result
Variations in design complexity and of a particular failure mode. Severity considers
available data will generally dictate the analysis the worst potential consequence of a failure,
approach to be used. There are two primary determined by the degree of injury, property
approaches for the FMECA. One is the damage, or system damage that could ultimately
hardware approach that lists individual occur.
hardware items and analyzes their possible
failure modes. The other is the functional
FMEA is an inductive process that
approach that recognizes that every item is
examines the effect of a single point failure on
designed to perform a number of outputs. The
the overall performance of a system through a
outputs are listed and their failures analyzed.
"bottom-up approach" as shown in
For more complex systems, a combination of
Figure1Since the FMEA concentrates on
the functional and hardware approaches may be
identifying possible failure modes and their
effects on the equipment, design deficiencies
can be identified and improvements can be
made. Identification of potential failure modes
1.6 Hardware approach
leads to recommendation for an effective
The hardware approach is normally used
reliability program. Priorities on the failure
when hardware items can be uniquely identified
modes can be set according to the FMEA's risk
from schematics, drawings, and other
priority number (RPN) system.
Engineering and design data. This approach is
for development of FMEA, are casing, shaft,
impeller, bearing and stuffing box. Various
failure modes for the above mentioned
component failures are accounted. The effects
and causes for each failure mode are reviewed.
The objective of this project is to
conduct the FMEA in centrifugal pump and
from the results, to review the design of the
component which has high-risk priority number.
The designers can use the results as guidelines
while developing new product in the pump


4.1 Problem Formulation
The survey of literature presented in the
previous chapter shows that the reliability and
quality assurance is of increasing concern in
mechanical industries in recent years. The
centrifugal pumps find a wide application
because of their capabilities to adapt to variable
operating conditions, and their ability to
discharge different kinds of fluids. Due to the
above and many other obvious reasons, it is
vital to assure quality in the
development of centrifugal pumps. One of the
important areas of quality assurance is the,
"assurance for failure free service" of the
centrifugal pump. Hence it is important to
Figure 1 FMEA Process account for the various modes of failures of the
centrifugal pump, at the product development
In this project, the parts and failure 4.2 Need for FMEA in Centrifugal
areas, which are considered to be worthwhile pump
The advertisement of any centrifugal any mechanical failure or physical damage of
pump often starts with a general statement, “our pump internals, the operating engineer should
centrifugal pump will give you completely be able to relate the failure to the process unit’s
trouble free and satisfactory service". Engineers operating problems. Effective troubleshooting
often face the statement “the pump has failed requires an ability to observe changes in
i.e. it can no longer be kept in service”. Inability performance over time, and in the event of a
to deliver the desired flow and head is just one failure, the capacity to thoroughly investigate
of the most common conditions for taking a the cause of the failure and take measures to
pump out of service. prevent the problem from reoccurring. The fact
There is other many conditions in which of the matter is that there are three types of
a pump, despite suffering no loss in flow or problems mostly encountered with centrifugal
head, is considered to have failed and has to be pumps,
pulled out of service as soon as possible. These • Design errors
include seal related problems (leakage's, loss of • Poor operation
flushing, cooling, quenching systems, etc.), • Poor maintenance practices
pump and motor bearings related problems (loss
of lubrication, cooling, contamination of oil, Hence it is important, the designers to know the
abnormal noise, etc.), leakage's from pump different failure modes of the components,
casing, very high noise and vibration levels, or which are occurring most frequently and which
driver (motor or turbine) related problems. will affect the system performance. The FMEA
The list of pump failure conditions is an effective tool for this purpose.
mentioned above is neither exhaustive nor are
the conditions mutually exclusive. Often the
root causes of failure are the same but the
5.1 Identification of parts and failure
symptoms are different. A little care while
designing a pump can save the pumps from
From the literature survey and customer
permanent failures. Thus the most important
survey, it is clear that, in centrifugal pumps the
task in such situations is to find out whether the
following parts are frequently failed,
pump has failed mechanically or if there is
(i) Impeller
some design deficiency, or both.
(ii) Shaft
Thus the decision to pull a pump out of
(iii) Bearing
service for maintenance/repair should be made
(iv) Stuffing Box
after a detailed analysis of the symptoms and
(v) Wearing ring
root causes of the pump failure. Also, in case of
5.2 Potential Effects of Failure additional and alternative ways to use RPN
A potential effect of the failure is the ratings to evaluate the risk associated with a
consequence of its failure on the next higher product or process design and to prioritize
design, system, and product. The consequences problems for corrective action. Note that this
may be to the design itself, the product and the article discusses RPNs calculated at the level of
customer. Often, the failure effect is evaluated the potential causes of failure (Severity x
from a customer's perspective or experiences. Occurrence x Detection). However, there is a
The customer may be an internal great deal of variation among FMEA
customer as well as the ultimate end user. The practitioners as to the specific analysis
effects should be in terms of the specific procedure and some analyses may include
system, subsystem or component being alternative calculation methods.
Overview of Risk Priority Numbers
The following are, reviewed to identify the
An FMEA can be performed to identify the
potential effects.
potential failure modes for a product or process.
• Customer complaints
The RPN method then requires the analysis
• Field service data
team to use past experience and engineering
• Warranty documents
judgment to rate each potential problem
• Similar current or past FMEA s
according to three rating scales:
Some of the potential effects of failures are
given below for centrifugal pump,
• Severity, which rates the severity of the
• Heat generated
potential effect of the failure.
• Fluid Leakage
• Occurrence, which rates the likelihood that
• Noise and Vibration
the failure will occur.
• Not enough water flow
• Detection, which rates the likelihood that
• Pump will not start
the problem will be detected before it
reaches the end-user/customer.
Examining Risk Priority Numbers in FMEA
Rating scales usually range from 1 to 5 or from
The Risk Priority Number (RPN) methodology 1 to 10, with the higher number representing the
is a technique for analyzing the risk associated higher seriousness or risk. For example, on a
with potential problems identified during a ten point Occurrence scale, 10 indicates that the
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). failure is very likely to occur and is worse than
This article presents a brief overview of the 1, which indicates that the failure is very
basic RPN method and then examines some unlikely to occur. The specific rating
descriptions and criteria are defined by the and an analysis team that strives to make
organization or the analysis team to fit the consistent rating assignments for all issues
products or processes that are being analyzed. identified within the analysis). Therefore, an
As an example, Figure 1 shows a generic five RPN in one analysis is comparable to other
point scale for Severity [Stamatis, 445]. RPNs in the same analysis but it may not be
comparable to RPNs in another analysis.

The rest of this article discusses related

techniques that can be used in addition to or
instead of the basic RPN method described


Table 1 : Generic five point Severity scale

After the ratings have been assigned, the RPN

for each issue is calculated by multiplying
Severity x Occurrence x Detection.

The RPN value for each potential problem can

then be used to compare the issues identified
within the analysis. Typically, if the RPN falls
within a pre-determined range, corrective action
may be recommended or required to reduce the
risk (i.e. to reduce the likelihood of occurrence,
increase the likelihood of prior detection or, if
possible, reduce the severity of the failure
effect). When using this risk assessment
technique, it is important to remember that RPN
ratings are relative to a particular analysis
(performed with a common set of rating scales
Centrifugal pump is calculated. It has been
LIKELY FAILURE RANKING found Risk Priority Number for Shaft
OF FAILURE DESIGN LIFE and Bearings are very high, which is
Very >10 per hundred items not recommendable and hence design
failures 5 per hundred items review
High:Frequent 2 per hundred items has been performed.
1 per hundred items 2) Productivity and Quality of the