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Political Campaign Planning Manual

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A Step-by-Step Guide to Winning Elections

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By J. Brian O D ay

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National Democratic Institute for International Affairs

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Contents
5

Preface

Contents

13

Introduction

17

Step One: Research

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Step Two: Setting a Goal

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Step Three: Targeting the Voters

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Step Four: Developing the Campaign Message

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Conculsion

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Appendix A: A Glossary of Campaign Terms

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Appendix B: Campaign Research Questions
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Appendix C: Geographic Targeting Methodology
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Appendix D: Issues Related to Political Polling SdG CGdG SH Je jb : ( O) aG
Appendix E: Drawing Contrast with Your Opponents aG Hh H jdG j : (`g) G
Appendix F: Sample Campaign Forms
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Appendix G: Strategic Campaign Plan Template d JGSG dG H : (R) G
Evaluation Form
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b cS CG Y S fCG eCG G dh ,dP j b Qh ,aG M Y J b
dSQ jJ Y eCG dP J bh .T GbH hCG aG V GbH eEG NdG bE J
SCG J dG J dh ,aG M Hh Teh M H jdG ie VJ eGS
.jdG dP c dhCG
,FdG d S M J CG jJ fEH dG g SdG G kdZ a J dG NBG CGh
Y afGh bdG QgCG EGh .jd S H dG Y c j ae Y dG AGLEG dh
OGSG Y JGQb J S fEa ,aG Hh H jdGh FdG Y dG AGLE G G H
.Hh H jdG Ia jd Ce J dh ,S hCG dS e AGREG
Mh ,j CG bJ dG JGSG j h CG j ,Mh aG Y dG AGLEH J M
CG e d ,OGSGh jgG e ,aCG Vh S fEa bdG J G NCJ
.Y j
kef Vh QOe Kd Fb V :dG jZ J CG j ,c KH Ff H eb Y
Le ee jhJ Y dGh e eCG ae e dG ihL a .eG Y G YS d j
PJG dS d ,dP eCG j M dEG LdG o rnj e c dG J V j Gd .fCH
Gh bdG e dG aJ Y GQOb S fEa ,BG J cCGh UdG OCH ke c Ea .QGdG
.G

SdG VQCG J :(1) jdG


c eCGh ,keT k (G Ve) SdG VQCG d G jah fCG YS H LG .1
.zd dG SCG{ () G SG e f e MGh
O rCG EG Y a ,kGQa Me HLEG J GPEGh .SCG J e Qb cCG Y HLEG hM .2
FdG YGG J CGh ,L Y dhDG UTCGh eRdG eG Y G jW
.eG J MGh SCG Z G jd NBG LG Y ZJ bh .d
IqOe h e f Y UdG c zMe aO{ Y qhO ,dG OGe L H .3
.HG G Nh JGSd dhCG SCc eGSG

21

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GgCG Vh :fdG IG
Step Two: Setting a Goal
g) d Gf S dG e OoJ CG H ,PEG ,HfG RdG EG H J fCG Vd
eRdG GUCG f bJ h ,IOh UN d SG d aG S Vd gDhGLEG j M
.(HfEG Rd
JCJ jCG e :j Y VJh ,RdG d eRdG GUCG AMEG G SJ ,GMCG e
dG W dG gYh dGeCGh dG bh G J QJ dP Yh .HfEG GUCG
NdG OY H dG Y gh .RdG d dEG jdG NdG dhCG EG jG Y VY ac
.Y IdG J MCH J CG Y ,H JG j dG YG e OY EG
,NdG LEGh ,JFGO WdG dG LEG O CG j ,FGLEH J dG dG Ue eh
J J dG SCG OY dch ,Rd eRdG GUCG OYh JGUCH dj jdG YG LEGh
MCG aCG SG ,zdG dG{ EG AdG hCG G GSG e J HLEG H .IFGdG
.HdG HfEG e IG eGh aGdG fdG e dEG UJ dG eGh

?IFGdG dG LEG j GPe


jdG dGh WCG qj G Gg EG .IFGdG WdG UTCG qc g H f dG LEG
e cCG j d LEG FMEG bdG Ea .IFGdG G Zh Gbd ffdG dG Gj
.JGP IFGdG NdG OY LEG

?Nd LEG OdG j GPe


g Gj CG h e We fEG d qG NdG c g zNd LEG OdG{
.HfEG

?NdG YG j GPe
.HfG GbEG H AOEG bG GUCG j zG GbEG{
YS jdG NdG OY qJ CG GMCG e h .JH AOEG hCG GbH Nf c j
eGY J h ,INCG G HfEG %35 YG f fc GPEa .KG HdG HfEG He
23

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

%35 EG J b YG f CG bJ CG ,g VdG i d HfEG g IjL


gGdG bdG h ,SFdG HfEG %55 YG f fc GPEG iNCG L eh .gGdG HfEG
EG HfEG g J b YG f CH QJ CG ,jdG HfEG EG SFdG HfEG V
.%55

?Rd eRdG GUCG OY c


RdG d HG NdG OY LEG EG dG H fh zkjjJ kFMEG kbQ j Gg{
.HfG adG
aVEH NdG LEG e %50 f j eCG dP Ea ,Rd NdG ZCG EG c GPEa
T GUCG jcCG hCG ,YG GUCG jcCG EG GMCG e .MGh LJ U EG
RdG Y GQOb J b TG OH G HfG dG .ad YG GUCG Y jd
dG J j gCG EG IQTEG Ofh .YG GUCG e dP Y j e hCG %25 hCG %35 hCG % 30 H
GdG JQa .ke J CG j ?RdG d S dG dG GUCG OY a .M bQCG EG
.N e H aCG eRdG GUCG OY IOjH

?NdG dhCG J dG SCG OY c


SCG H .ISCG d SG KG rnNf kjJ g CG dh .jdG g J iNCG Ie
jdG G GdG e j b NdG Hh .JGP G ke j HQCG hCG Nf KK j b
CG zYCG Y{ VJ CG ,f d JS LhdGh hdG CG iJ c EG BGh .iOGa j
.NBG NdG U ,a ISCG e MGh Nf e WdG
QJ b fCH d JGh JGP dG J JLh EG dh .dG Gg ah dZ J QeCG dh
.L Se EG J dH fEa Ge Y LEG e Ge (6) qS
?RdG d YG e RdG OdG Y H JG j dG SCG OY e dP Y kAHh

fGG L
dG hO W 30^000 ah ,f 130^000 a j JFGO CG e d ?c c
H EGh .Nfh Nf 100^000 jd j .soG Z NdG e ADg Zh ,fd ffdG
S YG LEG CG kjCG VJ ,e 50^000 hCG %50 ING jdG HfEG YG f
d %34 Y G TG e S ,TG OG adGh .dG HfEG f OdG EG
8^500 LEG EG S fEa ISCG c KG rnNf S eCG M GPEGh .e 17^000 CG RdG
.ISCG

24

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

,dP Y kAHh .d GbEG hCG jdH S YbE dEG J Nf c CH VGaG ,BGh


17^000 CG Rd eRdG GUCG LEG Y d NdG e OY cCH JG Y J CG j
.d Gbd Nf IH QJ Y c e Nf S bEH b fCG Vdh .ISCG 8^500 hCG e
hCG Nf 17000 Ifeh YO J d ISCG 13^000 hCG Nf 25^000 e K fEG j Ga
ISCG 13^000 bEG dh EG .(13^000 * 0^7 = 9^100) (25^000*0^7 = 17^500) ISCG 8500
dG fdG FGdG qJ c dG a ,YbEGh Nfh Nf 100^000 EG dG dh e SCG
.UCG Y EG YbEG Y

G GgCG Vh :(2) jdG


YG K ,SCG Y HLEH b ,dG eMCG Y OYHh ,H e IG eG GSH
:HG G N HLEG eO Y
?JFGO (gMh NdG d) dG OY c .1
?HfEG g GbEG Y jQOdG NdG OY c .2
?HfEG g JGUCH dS jdG YG f bJ c .3
?HfEG g JGUCH dS jd dG OdG bJ c .4
?JGP G Y aS jdG TG OY c .5
?jL cCG gJ jdG aG TG OY c .6
?Te c Y S dG GUCG f e ,dG Gg HfEG L GPEG .7
?RdG d eRdG GbEG GUCG f c .8
?RdG d eRdG GbEG GUCG e dG OdG e .9
?IMGh ISCG c NdG OY c ,SG .10
?f Td jdG EG IMGdG ISCG NdG g .11
?dG d Jf eRdG SCG OY a ,f Td Yj Gfc EG .12
?YbEG jdG OY a ,Nf IY d SG J c EG .13
?RdG d NdG e c Od dSQ jE H JG RdG SCG OY c .14

25

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

NdG GSG :ddG IG


Step Three: Targeting the Voters
?NdG GSG g e
Te jCd YbEG G NdG OY O CG j ,Rd HG GUCG OY OM CG H
GYj jdG jNBG NdG Y NdG dhCG j dG e qJ CG eCG jh ,Jfeh
e dGh .zGSG{ WH hCG zNdG GSG{ Y j dG gh .hfj hCG T
dHh ,Te EG HSd GOGSG cCG J NdG b V YG e CG j g GSG
g Ea ,SdG dG fGL ZCG G j eh .Y OL c Jh cJ CG J
Y dG YJ BG IQhda ,dG d HG GUCG OY OM GPEa .bQ d J dG
kf bCG Y hCG ,eEG Qb U ebQCG J CG jh .JGUCG Y d HG NdG dhCG
CG j dG ,Y c V ,NdG OYh (gCGh) YG J M Od ,Ij Z je
.d j
,KCdGh IOdG S Y EG NdG H J CG zdG :hCG IG{ e W fCG cJ
.G NdG GSH J eY eG g J S fCH M d fcPh
.dH d dG fM dh

?NdG GSG GP
:d gCG dH GSG j
.dG dGh Gh edG J dGh d dG OQGG fEG V :hCG
.aG NdG dhCG bE da dSQ jJ :dGh
:G OQGe Y G
S fEa ,IFGdG J Nf c ae dhMh ,IFGdG T d HOCG OGYEH b GPEG
.a e hCG b e d GYj d UTCG Y ,kiS bdGh G e dG

27

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

,M dSH bd GOGSG cCGh M UCG NdG e Y j dhM GPEG ,iNCG L eh


dSQ jEG e cCG OQGe NS dHh .YG J Y OL cJ Y GQOb S fEa
.T GbEG iS NBG jH hCG QN CG Nd hj M ,GQGJh GQGe
cCG NdG dhCG j e GPEa ,RdG d NdG e %33 `H JG Qb fCG e Vd
K GH H JGh ,J Y S fEa ,NdG e %33 `H dSdG jE Jf MG
MG cCG NdH Jd ae OL H J CG ,iMCG a ,IMGh Ie Nf c EG OQGG
.dSd SGh AUEG M d Ge K JGP G QGJh ,Jf
OQGG J SGh .UTCG e ahCG GOYh ,cCG eh ,cCG bh J CG ,jJ M d
GP G H UdG G j ,G jjDd dSQ jE Ya f Yh ,cCG dah H
.IQG hCG RdG H FdG G dP j bh .LdG ee EG J dG Gh dG IQGOEG
d eRdG OQGG IQf e idG M hj Nf GS bh j jdG Ta
.gY hCG
:aG NdG bEG
aCG g e O CG Y qj ,dP b fCG EG .M dSQ dG dG bdG d bS
.H Jh J e J b Hb db j M db j e Y S fC ,dEG dSQ jE QL
e cCGh cCG f EG UdG hj Te hCG M CG CH J dG G IYdG cJ CG jh
QL/G e Y d V cCGh GcJ bCG hS e qC dSda .NdG G
j dh ZQa dSQ J OYdG c T c dG TG hCG G Ea FdG G h .NdG
.dSdG J IKDG bGG Nf CG
Y e jdG NdG e f Y M OL cJ CG GSG e jdG Ea ,dP Yh
IG OQh c Vh dG dG g dPh ,jdG Lh Y GbEG GUCG e f OdG
adG GUCG Y d fEa ,Vh Q f e aG NdG QL c GPEGh .fdG
,GcJ bCG hS dSQ Ea ,j YJG cCG aJ dG NdG QL c GPEGh .RdG d
.Nf e GALh dSQ e GAL Yj GcJ cCG TG Sh
e a ddG eCG ,a jDG dGh ,d jDG g hG ,NdG e GfCG KK a ,dG Yh
.d GbEG e GhQb jdG NdG g d hjDa .H gG Oj dGh SdG VG c
C GbEG GhQb a SdG VG NdG eCG .a GbEG S GhQb jdG g a hjDGh
NdG dhCG e kGAL J CG Yh .zYbEG Nf{ J Y fh ,TG e
.JGh UGJ Y g SdG G CG FGO cJh .d dSQ jEG hh zYbEG G{

28

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?NdG J c
CG j ,Te JGUCH AOEd dP e bCG hCG NdG f bEG EG fCG QJ M
?jNBG NdG Y G Nf j dG e J
hCG) fdG dG ah GSGh ,GG GSG :gh ,eCG dP jd HSCG g
.HSCG c J G eh .(GdG
:GG GSG
TG CG e dh .dG b ah T S e j WH GG GSH f
eh he gh () IH j () TGh .fGL H deh ahe gh ,(CG) IH J (CG)
() IH EG (CG) TG gJ CG eCG Sh (CG) IH e JCS (CG) Td jjDG e .fGL H
aCG fCH gd ,adG TG e C HS Ah d d jdGh ,g WdG NdG bE
GLh g WdG bEG hd () IH EG gP EG bd IQOgh AM TG Sh .Te
g GSG a j HfG g CG kY ,Hh VGh e Ggh .GbH () TG
,NdG bEG Hbh a AGOCG f d HdG HfEG G LGJ CG Y ,M CG Y .ddG
IFGO UCG ie M HdG HfEG fH e ,aCG f Y dP ae h .YG fh
.HdG HfEG He T hCG ,HM hCG T YG NdG f j HdG AGOCG .HfEG
G OQGe J CG `` jf `` jh .d G jjDG Y dG AGOCG GP HfEG FGhdG
e Ea ,dP e ZdHh .HdG d bG Nf bEG h CG G e d ,c dP ah ,Y
YGdG jJ H dPh ,HM T jdH V jQJ d We OQGG H j TG
.G jjDH JG b HU OGOd d IfG
.HfEG c f jdH J HfEG IFGO jG NdG f g NdG bG Hb
.de HfG JQhO hCG f HfEG He T GUG f dG gh
hCG (f HfEG IQhdG qLJ e qT J qj CG) jJ zj{ eEG Nda
.(cCG hCG HfG JQhO ie Y qLJ e qT J qj CG) jJ zj{
WGdG SFdG Td YbG fCG zG jdG{ GP FGhdG J ,IG jdG QWEG
J ,ShQ QWEG h .f fG QG G e SfdG jd Th zc H{
SFdG T YbG c zehdG{ YdG G T YbG fCG z qG jdG{ GP FGhdG
.S e bCG H dG fG zj{
YbEG G NdG FGhO e zG jdG{ hCG zG jdG{ GP FGhdG ,dG Y ,Jh
...H EG H e GQjdGh G `` gL e cCG dG G J ,dG ddh .G OL Y
de J ,QGdG Gg Y ,JGSGh .bEG feE dG iG GP HfEG FGhdG `` dEG
.eh
29

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

IdG KM He HfG NBG YG NdG f N e bG GbEG j h


OQGe M J CG j ,dP Yh .GJj d UTCG Y G OQGe J CG gdG a .eG
.dG GbEG GP HfEG FGhdG cCG
CG jh zbEG feEG{h zAGOCG{h zGbEG{ Sd eG gG cCG UJ j () G
fdG NOEGh HG dH J ,dG CH QJ Mh .HfEG hCG e QWE U jCG O
d zbEG feEG{h zAGOCG{h zGbEG{ ie dP H Qb K .SG EG HfEG IFGdG i
.HfEG IFGO
:dG d ah HfEG FGhdG JJ Y GQOb J Mh
bEG feEG

WGdG AGOCG

dG GUCG f) (KG GMCG S)


(WGd fMCG J

GbEG

GUCG LEG

HfG IFGdG bQ

11^2%

%43^4

%62^5

976

35

16^7%

%41^2

%52^7

1563

107

26^7%

%35^7

%53^4

1132

14

12^7%

% 28^3

%55^7

875

77

29^5%

%26^5

%27^2

1343

93

17^3%

% 23^1

%60^4

734

178

b ,YCG VG G .HfEG FGhdG e jG GfCd J M J CG j


VH z107{ h z35{ e FGhO HfEG GgdG e Sh G e mOY Vh G YJ
FGhO H EG H e gdG TG j b ,iNCG L eh .WGdG d jY IYb SJ
e dY f z93{ IFGd G M dh .zbEG feE{ JG iG GP z14{ :e HfEG
IFGdG J j jdG SdG e a dG CG EG j HdG zGbEG{ CG Z ,zbEG feEG{
.Jj Nf e bh Qj CG Td PEG j a ``a `` JH j HfEG

30

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GdG GSG
ah J h .Ya FGT hCG IY Y EG NdG b J GdG GSG j
kdZh .iNCG S jCG hCG KEG hCG G hCG dG hCG NdG ie hCG (gender QG) G dG hCG d
.fCH OGaG jJ oJ e
dG GSG h ,dG iG hCG ObG iG GSG ,dP Y VGdG eCG eh
,f ddG EG fS j dG hdG eCG .VGh KEG aNG a dG ,hdG KEG hCG jdG
dG J e VdGh .eGS iNCG fS S cG e Hh ;eGSG e ihL a
egG ``LQCG Y`` d S NdG e He Y c CH dG Y j ,GG dP Y
.f Td HfEG J S dHh ,Ke
a .iNCG hah FGT EG J Y d ,MGh b YG J eO ,dP Hh
%50 f GM EG j b jdGh (gender) G dG EG NdG QL J ,G S
S edG AdG a ,(GMCG c U dG g CG VJ ) ,fEG e K eh QcdG e
Ada .edG AdG e Yeh UCG a S WCG d JGdG edG AdGh .kIU kYa a
c GPEGh .fMh WCG VjH `` UN IQH `` j CG j WCG jd JGdGh edG
.d Jd IdG J e Ic f bEG Y IQb cCG a MG dP J EG Yj Te
d idG dH dG aRa .gCG J CG LQO EG IU YG J CG ,g e QG j eh
GUCG Y dM dh ,(dG dH aRdG jS Ve GhdG Y ona) dc UG JLMG
.RdG e e H J j d dG c
:aGdG Y
Y jCG EG f CG j ,T jd YbEG dG YG Oof M ,GMCG ZCG
f aGdG YG EG j dG TG CG ,LQCG Y ,hj NdG C ,f TG j
.e Y Qjh cCG eg j CG jh ,YG OGaCG H e j
dh he fCG c ,U Q Y jdh ,eL IOT Y UMh ,S 38 Y TG CG Vdh
S aG Y Ea .f jGh aG jh ,SQG dG j GR e Iah dh
QeCG AdhCGh IdG jQdG YCG hP eh ,S 45h 30 H e CG SG QYCG hP e OGaCG
a .dEG j jdG NdG Y L Y JQb MG jh .SQGG WCG d jdG
GUCG g fc EGh .jdG WG YQGGh MdGh eCG dGh jYG L Y JQb
e dSQ jEG dP H a ,GUCG J Te aCG gh ,Rd aG Y ac
.JGUCG d HfEG M N YG J ShC
GUCG g :khCG .Y HLEG j dGDS iS eeCG j ,aG Y OM b qfCG
dSQ SH j CG TG Y j ,() dH HLEG fc EG ?dG d ac G QG
TG Zj b fBG QcG G h .aG Y eRGh G iNCG YG d
31

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

Z fc EGh ,YG J Fe KCJ dSd S .AWCGh Gh dG d ,dSQ SJ


.SGQdG S g jdG ,WCG QeCG AdhCG EG jdH Le
HLEG fc EG ?G QG L Y ,TG e Z hO ,Mh QOb TG g ,kfKh
T j ,f G QG L Y jQOb cCG hCG Te KK hCG NBG Te ch dH
QG e OY cCG S TG Ea ,jdG Hh .V f gjh dSQ cJ M
b EG :G S a .aCG f Y YG Y IQb cCG TG fCH d Sh ,G
kGJ 25 EG SGQdG dG M S fCH hj eN ch ,SQGG eJ QeCG AdhCG H
jjh ,e d kGJ 20 EG SGQdG dG M N jj fCH j CG Td M ,e d
cCG eCG dP j b .SCG IMGh Ie SG RL GSG Ua Y J c M V
Y J b dSdG CG g Gh .GUCG e cCG OH Rd eCG cCGh aG Yd HL
CG j c ,edG J Y J dG GeCG CG hj jdG ,jYG e YG e OGaCG QSG
Ea jYG e Ic GUCG Y LQCG Y j d TG CG h .jYdG TG Y J
.dG EG Yj eCG
G QG H ac GUCG e e fCG j Ggh .dH dGDdG c HLEG J M G RJ
OY G NCf CG gCG e dP .QG Gg L Y QOdG MdG d TG CGh ,RdG d
dG Y G S Yh .iNCG Y L jGh TG Y j CG bj dG GUCG
kJU ch ,Y S YCG LQ e kJU c :DhdG W Y YCG LQ d dSdG SH
?f S QeCG AdhCG e
Y c GUCG OY cGh ,HG jdG H eb J eCG Gg SSCG dG
S fCH bJ .d J HfEG dSQ YSCG EG gJ EG ,T J CG bJ IO
e Y dM bJ b G H H Y dh ,NdG e QL CG GUCG e %100 f Y
.NdG e YG H JH eb j da ,e Y e Ye 10 c e GUCG 7 hCG 6
dh a EG g e eCG jf SdG da ,YG d bO bQCG Y G e J d
j S ae Y d G bQCG jJh jdG dP H eb Ea ,GMCG h .kY
. hCG bGh JJG dG GSG JGSG fc EG j Y
:aGdG Y
QL e kGAL J d aGdG YG CG j Y GdG GSG e e AL j
Xe f d{ `` e `` VH cJ CG j JGSG d JYLG Nh .G
j GT bdG OJ Y YS jdG Ggh .zQdG QU e dG f d{ hCG zeG
.SGh f Y e QL
e S Qb b eO e ad Y RdH ZJ dG aGdG YG O CG dG e
dG YG LGe dZ J Y RJ b dG YG Jh .aJ S dG YG
.aGS aCG gqJ
32

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.dG GU eCG e e HGQ bCG d d jYG e dG Qc LdG EG :G S a


dSQ jJ HdG eh .a iNCG YG Y RJ a YG e a jCG aSG EG ,ddh
.YG c de Y dG e dGh YG bE

GSG ce
dG jJ .hdG aCG M ,bO Y d GdG GSG qEG iNCG Ie dG cDf
:g eGY Kd HU cCG hJh .H a NGJh HdG HJ YdG aGdG
b dG YG QYG NCG EG aj HfG aJ c TG e IdG OGYCG .1
.H GUCG f Y j e Y e j
.dGh IaG aGdG fdG Z .2
hCG fdG JUh JS ah IO de jd OGaCG H JGdG Yd QdG ie J .3
.aGdG
j GO J CG cH (1) eEG HLEG EG fEa gQL j Y TG GDS Yh
e QL d hCG G h .zGh jG f eCG fCG{ e dH (2) hCG ,dH Y
dG d j dh dG V G gQL CG dG G h .T c aj fC
.WGO LJ d M c jdG Yjh ,NdG e IU a f jG f .eCG

c L
.M OH GSG Hd LP j dG dG hG

33

e Z

GOGSG bCG e

zR{

zO{

d OL
(INCG jdhCG)

Y M Y cdG
GbG

z{

z`g{

efH hH

bEd fK cJ

z{

zh{

efH hO

efH hO

GOGSG cCG e
zCG{

(MG cCG) jDe

jjDG IYb WJ
z{

() jDe

dSdG Y cdG jdhCG


JGh
z{
(fe jdhCG) JG

Z Nf
jCJ Y G

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:hdG
CG bh hCG d jh .d YdG IYb h d jd MG cCG NdG j :zCG{ hdG
.SJh jjDG IYb WJ fC dG ,AT
h .YbE GSG Fb SCGQ Gfj CG jh .G jjDGh NdG jh :z{ hdG
.dP S L CG NqJ
fCG aJ b G h .hjDj CG j jdG UTCG e jW bh J :z{ hdG
.a jdGh HfEG hU EG gdG EG g
YbEG iS Y a Gbd MG bCG dh cCG MHh hYGh hjDe :zO{ hdG
Y e OY cCH aOEG fG j h ,I dSH YG g SG .jdH
.jdG
dJG H Y cdH b .SM LQO Y Gd fCG EG , hjDeh Nf :z`g{ hdG
.z{ h zCG{ hdG YH
J CG H EG g G OQGe H J dh .dGh G O GSG :zS{ hdG
bh J CG aCG a .Rd YG g GUCG EG LM c GPEG hCG ,dH dEG QG jOdG
.HdG YG Y dG dGh deh
.Ta Ga EGh GYj CG a .NdG ADg Y OL QJ :z{h z{h zh{ jOdG

NdG
.ac G QG dP OGaCG d GL J CG j , G QG OM G H
.jOdG dGh dGh bGGh jdG CG HQCG fGG H J CG jh
:jdG
e J CG j ?fG Gg Y MG Od j NdG S dG G jdG e
SCG Y eCG eh .LQG SdG hDT hCG YLG hCG jObG :cCG NdG H j dG jdG
QdG QSG Vh g ?HdG Y bCG CG gCG cCG G ae g :LJ CG j dG IOG
j CG Td j .eEG Qb Gj cCG J CG G e ?kGMCG j fCG CG fG Gd e
.ObG Y edG dG e H ,ObG AGOCG d ,Y j e jdH
:bGG
g ? CG edG SDG FSh eH j g ?Fe CG H Fe NdG g
?gGdG VdG Y QGSG CG dG hjj g ?HdG Y QgdH CG dH hj

34

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:dG
f Y hQj b CG :G S Y ?G QL NdG MJ dG jgG dG e
dG ?UEG CG QGSEG ?jOdG jG CG YLEG dG ?jObEG UdG CG YLEG jG :cCG
?Y Jh e g dG dG eh ?dG FS e a cj dG dG e ?dG eCG CG
.aG Yd jdG dG j b HLCG J H
:jOdG dG
j CG IG GP IG IOdG QGSG EG j g ?JOb NdG gGj CG jj U CG
j kGFb CG jG f e kGFb j g ?IWG dG b Y J ejOh HT IOb EG
?OdG WGG g
:YLG dG
dG SGH dPh jd h Nd aGSG J CG j ,Me eCG j M
.bdG YLG
hO OGdG dM Ae JQS Oj FH TCG SG YLG dG Y SDJ dG a
.dG dG j CG H EG eeCG AT CG ij da .Tc AGVCG
dG hO ,aj fCG ha zQG{ d W e d CG hj e c SdG e
gG J j dG dGh dEG qdGh gJ j dG dGh be j dG jdG H
.edG HfEG hCG SdG YSEG Ff LJ e dZh .NdG
JGS dG Y JY YLEG dG e Yf SdG TdG e jh
Y d cdG Y e U bh .SdG SGh cdG Y :gh ,JM
ee Y d SdG SG ojh bGeh NdG egG b Y c ee
EG bJ a ,j eh .KdG g Ve f QN Leh YLG dG jf d .c
.zO{ aG G SdG SG OGe H

GG GSG :z3{ jdG


: GG GSG jd ddG SCG Y LCG
?TG e C gjCH I aGL We g g ?TG c j jCG .1
.GdGh GG dG ah fEd GOGSG cCG jjDH Fb V .2
.a Y RS jdGh gjCJ Y G G Z UTCH Fb V .3
?NdG ADg J dG jdG e .4

35

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?bGe e .5
? f Y j gh ?kMG cCGh G jjDG b e .6
?JOb aGJ CG eCj dG jOdG dG e .7
g NH KCdG gCG cCG J CG j z7{ EG z4{ e SCG Y HLG e CG .8
?HfEG

GdG GSG :(4) jdG


: GdG GSG jd qddG SCG Y LCG
TG qd (dEG ...,adGh ,Gh ,QG / G dGh ,dG) qaGdG UGG g e .1
?qTe a ,M G
? qTe qjDJ CG j qaGO Y qCG .2
?HfEH Rd YG g V ac GUCG g g .3
?f qaGdG YG EG qLj hNBG Te g g .4
?a RS qaGO Y CG Y .5
?LG YO GPEG dEG CJ CG G e dGh ,qaVEG fV qJ dG YG e .6

(GSG GfCG c L) c L :(5) jdG


:HG M qN HLEG uVh ,qddG SCG qc Y LCG
.kaGOh kaGL ,G jqjDG qH F V .1
.kaGOh kaGL ,YbEG G jqjDG qH F V .2
.a Y RS jdG jqjDG Z qH F V .3
?IgX jW jCH j g ?YbEG Gh G jjDG c b g e .4
?bGe g e .5
?NdG ADg J dG jdG e .6
?Y j dG jOdG dG e .7
Nf Y KCdG gCG cCG UdG J CG G e 7 EG 4 SCG HLCG e CG .8
?HfEG g aG

36

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G dSQ Vh :HGdG IG
Step Four: Developing the Campaign Message
?dSdG e
J a .M dSQ g g .YbE d S GPe QJ CG j ,G QL O CG H
eG hj .ae e H d GJj CG j GPh ,OG G Gd Ud aJ fCG GP NdG
.J d j dG dG e dG a .jd Ie fCH dG Qf d ?dc dCG ,kH
Zh Te dSdG J b GMCG H . hCG dSdG J g e rcQOCG AGS dSQ M d :hCG
G a ,ddh .V hCG T GbEG EG NdG aJ b SCG a ,j eh .Nd VGh
aG Nd j GP ,VGh J CGh ,NdG gP W jJ iDhdG e f CG G QJ CG
.Td GbEG
fj dG ,TG efH d G dSQ .dSH d g e dH CGd ,G dSQ g e jdh
H IQY O dh ,TG S dG jdG Fb d dch ,fG GPEG H S dG e
S fc EG dH fge gh ,G dSQ e kGAL j b fcP e ch .GQT dh G
N GQGJh GQGe gjOH S .H IQY J dG dSdG Hh H f CG j dh , CG NdG
.aG NdG bE G
?eG Y j jCG eh NdG j GPe
Y j dGh ,NdG j GPe j hCG .NdG Y gcJ CG j e GeCG g
J fCa .dG NdG Y e j ddG Gd M Qb CG .eG Y d gQOe
Ia N .SdG Y jGh dG bh e J fCGh .fEG GH UN f Yh SdH
bh ,e Gd Nda .SdG dG H j GL Jh bh J CG j ,HfEG
.f fhj
:j e Nd jdhCG Fb g
? CG d ac GOf Gfc EGh FXh j c .1
?IG jH G gQeCG c .2

37

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?IG gQeCGh SQG dWCG QeCG J c .3


Ige gQhe c EGh ?jQG hj GPh ,dG Id ja e QeCG c .4
? CG G IGQG
?dG HfEG j c EG YS K .5
.dG Nd jdhCG Fb jf JCJ HfEG Mh fCG fCG dP c G dGh
J GdhCG EGh ,dG LCG NdH Teh TCG KCJ d jdhCG Fb YCG dG QeCG eh
.a KCJ d a egG QeCG
.ej NdG Y cGJ eG e dG CH dG Y j cJ CG j dG NBG eCGh
fYEGh jYdG jh ,Y e jQdG Y jh ,jOGdG hCG jdG QNCG EG j Nda
e dG j NdG Ch .QdG hCG GG H dhGG dG FdG EG j c ,bdG GW
FJ Oj Ga .J jCGh J eG CG jd T za{ e jd QJ ,kej eG
NBG dG aj fCG hj TGh .fL H j hCG ga J dG eG e jSh
ch NdG gG Y PGSG jj ae Ea G eCG .JGP G d adG dG NO dG
ej dG zdG{ QGL J CG j M dSQh .ej NdG Y J dG eG QOe
.Nc J dG jdGh G QeCd egG Ld NdG
GTh ,j H ejh ,YS H YS G edG dch TG j M ,GG dP Yh
bh e bO hCG bO iS j d NdG Ea ,G Y j e CH dGh dG ,T H
.GQg J CG j a ,gH AUEd dG
jh bOh VGh FSQ fEH ej ,ddh .QeCG YJ YEGh jYdG cT EG
Ic bhCG bhj hCG gGj hCG j M G QG EG FSdG J jEG d Ic GeCG
Gd eh GQhCG Hc YSh YS J CG a f AdG J CG jh .eEG Qb
.bd QGgEG dP Ea MCG gCGj hCG fK 15 Z fL NdG H dCG EG dh ,dGh eCdG J
IQb e SCG H bOU Z dSQ AGSG Y hQOb a .Nd jdG c CG j ,PEG
.H dG Y SdG

IG dSdG U
.dSQ da O IY je g
:Ib dSdG J CG j
dH Nd dSQ jEG Y kGQOb J Ea .dH oG Sd AUEd b U Nd
.JU Qh NdG gG Y PGSG Ua S cCdH fEa ,IMGh bO Z

38

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:bGe GPh bOU dSdG J CG j


IhY .TG N e VQJ CG jh ,jQJh JSSh JSQh TG b e dSdG J CG j
Y Y Nd GaM j bGh Z GOYh j dG Ta .de dSQ J CG j ,dP Y
.d GcG
jDJ CG SGh G e ddh .d J Y hCG f Y c AGS ,dJ e NdG j CG j
CG hO e b hCG e e J fEG b Ea .dG jQJ e ae hCG JGN e dOCH dGbCG
fH HH TG j CH j eCG Ggh .bhh bh QJ fEa ,c hCG GP NdG Y VJ
.e f Y NBH Jj e a .dSH HfEG
:ae dSdG J CG j
bGdG fEa T qc EG J dSQ fc Ea ,NdG GSG ddG IG bf
d jdG ch ,d GYj jdG dhCG Y j d YS jdG Nda .T CG WJ
e .G jjDe EG dSQ Ld aNG g HfEG oM O CG j . egG
.d GYbG Y GM Ea ,de dG dG Y VGh ee g NdG jj e GMCG
eG NdG j CG bj fCG ha .VGdG eG J aJ SdG j e kdZh
.ac SdG dj e c eG J H NdG j hCG gdj CG hO
:Nd egh e dSdG J CG j
dG cG Y YVG J J b .G QL J dG YVG Y J CG j
jDj CG j .edG Sd e fCG SdG j dG jdG dh ,edG JM LGoj
TG e cCG ,jYdG JTe Yh dWCG J Yh FXh Y dEG Kj jdG TG NdG
.QeCG H J edG fRGG J CG kY ,edG fRGG Y j dG
. GbEH CG ,AT H dH YbEGh d Te aCG fCH NdG bEG h fCG cJ
j a ,Jh G N NdG Yd dG bdG fCG cJ CG gCG e dc
NdG OjEG OQGe J CG aCG eh .JLJ d Nd Ie jb d jW bh dP
.d jd H ,Yb HS Yb jd jdG
:jdG dSdG J CG j
Y fCG c ,Nd VJ CG H PEG .a hCG d GbH eEG QG jjCH NdG
ObG QdG d j Te c c a .Hh H jdG N e HfG adG TG
FGdG N jDJ iNCG L e c EGh .VGh GQN eeCG j d Nf c Ea ,YLG dGh
A eb .VGh GQN eeCG hS NdG CG dP ,f AdG hjj aa e Yd
H j (`g) G dc .VGh jJ jJ Y YS ,M UH bS dGh ,hdG
.ae Hh H VGh jJ jd IQG
39

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:dG EG dG e Jh VGh dSdG J CG j


Zj ,eH Sda .WH fjh NdG ej S H dSQ Nd UJ CG j
d J hCG NdG j b a e ej Gd ,AcPCG fCH NdG id fG WJ
.ah J e SGQO EG j NdG QL L ZJ fCG W .Se T
Gh ATCGh SdG Y .NdG gPCG Jd gP IQU H J CG g dG aCGh
,WY Y SdG .zedG jObG SdG{ e IOG QaCG Ud Gh Id G
CG j dP CG EG .dG Wj jdG dhCG ej e kdZ NdG b Hj jdG SdGh
S Y J G Y H ,HSGh NdG a J VJ hCG ,T hCG H dG SCG gj
c fLGj dG cG YJh J fCG VH Nd Jh ,Nd jG dH M Hd
.j
:GQGe dSdG QJ CG j
J CG j ,T GbH YbE aG NdG EG H LS dG dSdG M Oq M
.UdG d S c GQGJh GQGe f dSdG jEH
Sd .fhcSh dJ j fCG dP j a e T J c EGh .H HCj NdG
fEa ,gH b EG dh . FGWh Hh IY Ge gj CG j ,NdG gP dSQ
.NdG gP jJ gS b J

?G Gg Y aJ GP :(6) jdG
?HM hCG T GbEG Nd j GP :Y HLEd SCG H Fb V .1
S G J .Te Y L cGh ,YCG cP YbEG SCG cCG QNH b BG .2
z?jDhCG CG j GP{ hCG z?G Gg Y aJ GP{ :GDdG Y HLEG
c IQdG IAGb e AfG Y GQOb J CG j .dd bdH bh Y H IQdG CGbEG K .3
TG .e L EG IQdG jH a bO e cCG eCG e SG EG .IMGh bO Z
.FbO d N d egG hj d NdG CG cJ .aG hdGh jdG G TCG
JGQY jDJ g ?bGe GPh bOU g g .S IQcG jG He dSQ SH b .4
bO Rh EG ?aG Nd e S ATCG Y J g ?Ve e JGP GH
H VGh GQN eb g .aM j Z c hCG L TCG g J a ,IMGh
?FdG aeh Te
eCG c eh .hCG IG Ja dG ATCG QYG NCG e GQdG Hc IOYEH b BG .5
J Sh ,S fCG c .IMGh bO e bC edG dG V dSQ Y a CG j
. qJ S Nd djEGh H d eJ Mh ,IQdG Hc
40

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dSdG hU :(7) jdG


U Y TG IY dG jdG Paul Tully zJ H{ jeCG SdG JGSG U
J jdG Gg Y WCGh .Jh e f Y HfEG JGSG N dGh ,dSQ
S c ,G N dS e EG aVEG ,TG Oj CG dSdG hU jh .zdSdG hU{
.JGAYOGh aG g Y OdH
:fOCG VG hG SQCG Hc d Y hCG Ic bQh Y
?Y f GPe

?fCG Y f GPe

?Y dj GPe

?fCG Y dj GPe

.eEG Qb FG eH fG A b BGh
?fCG Y f GPe
dG HjEG dG H gC fG gh ?f TG qoj c hCG TG G qoJ c
.TG Y Nd djEG G ZJ
?Y f GPe
a j CH G ZJ dG dG QeCG c fG g C ?ac aG M oJ c
?g e bCG Y J CG j dh ITe NdG
?Y dj GPe
jCH .d FdG aG jDhQ ah Mh Te EG J CG M Y j fG g
GbEG Y Nd j ,gf Lh e GPh ?Te dG NdG e aG jj jW
?T
41

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?fCG Y dj GPe
e GP ?fCG aqoj c BG fCG ,FdG aG jDhQ ah M EG dG CG b eO e
?d GbEG Nd j ,gf Lh
Vh EG UJ b J c dSdG hU C eY fEa ,U jH jdG GH b GPEG
dPh .ac FdG aG Y dch ,Te Y HfEG G N j CG e d UN
.V IQcG eJG hCG J dG ATCG M j
gRJ ae CG Y V j da ,HS IN aCG MU fEG b GPEG ,G S a
Y ae j dch .hSa aG CG Y V j da ,jf hCG eCG fEG b EGh .IG
c .dG jYH fCH V hj a ,dG jYH j fEG ``e `` Gdb GPEa .f AdG
?dG hCG jdG JGAYOG Y
c EG :cJ .H f EGh ,HjEG jH dEG d aG QhO J M HdG RJ e kdZ
?NdG qS GPe :g G GDdGh .U fCH J a GAYOG J Y j ae
.NdG id FM S eG J Ea ,V Yj e Y OJ EG
fdS eh ae e G GAYOG c Y HLEH J CG Y j jdG Gg e NBG AGh
iNCG fG Y OJ a ,jOU e fN e eCG UH dG hCG dG Y GdCG GPEa .Y
?HG

ae bGe Nh NdG id bGe ie aQ ` bGG


ZJ e CG gP J CG j ,ae Hh H JQW dG jdGh dSQ QYG NCJ M
.ae bGe j ie Y ,aG Nf H bGe IOjR g FdG G REG
.d GJj M ,aCG Tc dEG hj aG NdG cCG j CG ZJ fCG ,NBG Hh
Ea ,H dG J M ddh .S f Y SdG EG `` dG `` NdG e j
dhCG g j jdG SdG .H bGe RJh QJ M ,dJ a dG H S NdG
fCc LdG dhCG hd ,SdG EG NdG H j dG fG jDhdG Y QG fCG aj jdG
:dP RE jW gh .aCG f Y e Y jQObh NdG e
N e dP Y h .NdG Y bGe QGe aj e J hCG J CG :hCG
.jdG edG bGeh ,HjEG JU Y cdG
e dP Y h .NdG Y ae bGe QGe qj e J hCG J CG :fK
.jdG IG Z bGe hCG ae S EG IQTEG N
ie Y a f S dG VdH ge H S S CGh QS dG e CG j EG
,dH RdG bJh CGdG SG ie Y ee f b ,dG Yh .H eb
CG gdj M ae cH ZJ b .bGe ie aQ Y cdG EG M Y eh

42

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

hCG S M hj CG e AGLEG N e NdG Y OHH WJ CG jJ dc .gG


.dEG YGO SCH aG Y keg
kac j d bGe aQ Ea ,CGdG YSG ah e f Lh GPEG ,iNCG L e
.ae bGe N Y J CG f bdG h ,bGe LQO aJ CG Y H Rd
jdh aG Y dG H (HfEG J eO e) J e jd j d ,NBG f Yh
.(RJ CG ) Hd dG

G dSQh jdG
dP eh .H S dG jdG Fb h ,HfG efdG g d M dSQ ,S fcP c
.NdG J dG jdG Y J CG d a
e VQCG Y gQhL ,SGQh jbh V IT L fCch HfEG M J CG
IdG J ZCG g bS dG G jb CG ,dG dP QGZ Yh .JGdG GGh NdG b
J CG j ,JGP GG Yh .IdG L CG ,dSH IH Je dh ,SGh M X dG
,dH jdG J J d ,M CG Yh .G QL J dG jdG e SGh bf M
.M dSH jdG HJ CG Y ,efdG QaCG e e Z H aG NdG jJ Odh
Y Y GL e d TH QL FdG LGe 1992 Y j NO zc H{ jdG ca
:VdG c VGh zc{ dSQ fc .dP
dG EG ,ObG QgdGh YLG OcdG EG iOCG dG QG G e eY Y KG H
.Y g e Y G AH hCG dG :VGh c 1992 Y QGh .d Ce UCG jeCG
(e) zc H{ GPEa .dSdG H G jb e c HH GR Y zc{ M Y
?Y g e Y G AH hCG dG :j GDdG Ea ,NBG AT CG hCG YLEG hCG dG jYdG UEG Y
c JGh ,IG dSd jG c e e fc zc{ dSQ JGSG CG Me jh
SCG Y G dSQ Vh ,G S a .d d OTQEG qdG Gg VG UdG
j c jeCG dG CG cdG Yh SdG CGdG YSG qH PEG ,SG dG
.d H G
c H jdG VJh ,NdG ZC eh bGe GPh ,bOUh ,Ib dSdG fc
.jeCG dG GLh e VH Jh ,jQGh
SS CH GhT jdG SG dGh dG :aG Q Fe f Y dSdG U bh
Y JGP dSdG zc H{ SG bh .eCG EG QdGh dG Y gYJ QG G
.zY g e Y G AH hCG dG{ :UdG d S ch ,GQGJh GQGe gQj c M ,GhdG

43

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

jdG QNG
G e LGe J M Y J a .dGh G H e G OJ G e
jQdG YCG IQGOEG hCG dG QSG IOjR e ,e FL qM hCG qM a dG qeCG .jObG
S dG jdG Qd J eY qe jeCG cJ CG jh .ObH J ce LG IdG
be j Te CG ,kfKh ?aG Nd qG dG J gCG e ,hCG :dSQ N e M
jb gjh ,NdG J jb Y e Te cj e da ?NdG f Lh e dG J aCG
bG jh ,g bGG e e GQGe d CH ae Yj jb Y cj b hCG ,cCG gCG GP
.e edG aCG

beh jdG gCG j :(8) jdG


Y a ch .G HfEG d eGY J b ,jb Y QYG NCj Te CG Vd
.e kjCG O CG Y Gd ,K hCG b Y cdG ZJ b ,M cJ
fL Y bQCG) aG Nd gCG qd ( EG CG e) G jdG Fb V :hCG
, ,O ,CG ,`g , ,h ,R) dG Jh Nd b gCG () dG G Gg .(kjOeY hG
.GdG Y ( K
bQCG) ae EG HH jdG J d Te IOLE ah jdG gCG QGe VH b :fK
jdG Jh . aCG (R) dG TG CG NdG ij ,G Gg .(kaCG hG fOCG
.GdG Y (O K ,h , ,`g , , ,CG ,)
be

gCG

jdG

8
6
2

5
2
10

CG

5
3
10
4

6
8
9
3

`g
h
R

7
9

1
7

44

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.G fG VH ,HdG hG X c dG jd H SQ H b BG
:dG d ah dG SQ j CG jh
V be / gCG cCG

10

L be / gCG cCG

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

`g
CG
O

V be / gCG bCG

10

L be / gCG bCG

Y TG cj CG j ,G Gg .dG YCG ,fG G jdG Y M cJ CG j


Vh aCG Te CG hjh gCG cCG dG Jg CG aG NdG ij .z{h zR{ dG
.e edGh dG J d
C ,kGc Te J a (L be / gCG bCG) dG Y dG fG jdG Y cdG eCG
QJ CG j dh ,TG j d jdG g Y cdG CG kY .ib gCG GP fhj NdG
.G QL H j QeCG Y jG dG OQGG

45

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

aR G J (V be / gCG cCG) QdG Y dG fG G jdG Y cdGh


aCG be jNBG TG ij fCG EG gCG cCG jdG J CG ij G QG CG a .IWh
S M Ea zh{ dch z{ dG Y Te j M ,ddh .jdG J e ed
IY OQGe J fCG NBG f Y dG h .aG TG id IdG WGe EG NdG gG
.ae
H UG be Y NdG be J gQhe CG `` CG Lh Y `` TG j ,dZh
jZ eCG c ,b qjCG NdG J J HU ,LdS f Lh eh .jdG
j GP :dG GDdG W e qH g .Te be FJ jb b gG H J M ddG
NdG gG Y G j a z{ dG Y NdG J d dG OQGG Qg T
?zR{ dG Y jM Y ITe HjG
.IO b Jh NdG YJ EG Ie fCG ,JJGSG jJ Y ,G e dG Jh
bEG ddG eh .a G H hjj Qh ,kb faj AT Y NdG J CG dG e dh
Yd dh jCGh .jdG J d Te aCG fCGh ,H j dG jdH J fCH NdG
Y dSG j dGh ,d dG OQGG e c T Qg EG ODS FGQBG d hCG Jh NdG
.H j dG G dSH NdG bEG aCG f

dSdG jJh LdSdG dG


S a .SG dG SCG Y Jj CG j ,aGSGh NdG e M dSQ jJ
d dG gCG Y d CG a ,HdG hG ah ,jdG hL H J eY ,G
.CGdG SG e c jdG Fb JJ J CG j Me eCG c EG .e beh b
GHCG Rj PEG .HfEG H AdG b dSdG d LdSdG dG J CG j ,dc
Rj dch .e hCG S fc EG d JObh HH J CG hO IQS AGT Y de J CG
cdG Y J . CG da dSdG fc EG CG hO dSH QG YE FdG dG J CG
.ah G dSQ da Hd CGdG SG e c bCG jH

f dSdG Y AdG
FGOCG Y J h ,fS Ua c eJ CG Y ,eh bOh VGh dSQ QJ M
Jd kS bf dG dG .zf dSdG Y AdG{ Y f e Ggh .G Ia N
Jd jW c ,dG Yh .Jd J jW c f dSdG eJ CG G eh ,NdH
YEG ,G S Yh .Nd iNCG jH djEG dG dSdG jJ Y S NdH
.adG IQG HOCG Y djEG dG dSdG e Rj CG fK Kd LdG jdG FYdG

46

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

gfG j b dG NdG gP jH R d fEa ,JG S f dSdG GSHh


dSdG S EG Lj NdG EG j e dZh .dEG JGP dSdG jEG e RS EGh ,hCG gd
.fgPCG SJh gYj M cCG hCG Ge S f
b GPEa .dSdG J Y GH Gh NCj eCG b hCG AT Y EG adG hCG aG Cj e kdZh
ae Zj dG jdG Y jG EG qS dh ,dhJ OJ dG jdG Y J a Y OdH
dG dSdGh jdG EG YH jG fCG dh ,GAYOG jCG Y OdH b ,GMCG e PEG .dhJ
.djEG ZJ
j ,jjDG EG jG Yh .eG e c qc dSdG aO Y eG `` dc `` G eh
Aa .eG e jG ae EG j NdG CG `` dP gh `` SdG dG TG
GbG b fCG hj jdG jjDGh bEG EG LH GRe dG OdG NdG H Y eCG j CG j
EG LG J `` ddG `` h .eG e jG ae EG jh ,G hCG Td GbH S
U h FdG dG gLJ CG j dh .VdG M e hCG H Y eG e je
Pj L HOCG f dSdG J CG j dc .hCG G dSdG j eYEG c IMGh
HOCG gh .dSdG SJ M gdG QJ dG jhdG hCG IQdG N e NdG gG Y
dG{ d J CG eG e jG gMCG W GPEGh .Nf EG dSdG jEG FGd cCG AG
H dh ,Nh IL HOCG GHEG c G TdH hS .VdG hCG bG H hCG zQNEG
QL NdG e OY cCh da cCH dSQ jEH J c g g dG
.G

47

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

NdH JG N jJ :eG IG
Step Five: Developing a Voter Contact Plan
,eCG dP S c J CG J ddG IG Ea ,S GPeh S ne e OM CG H
?NdG EG M dSQ US c CG
(H EG H e) RG EG GQjdGh HOCGh G `` HfEG M T c a j e Gg
Od bdG H J CG b j ,da M AGLEH J d dh .HfEG GgdGh GQdGh
JG S J M ,dSdG jJh QG GSGh ,GgCG Vhh ,dG AGLEG :ddG GG
NS fCH YEd U GDe Y EG AdG Yj TG e da .IKDeh da NdH
.NdH Jd c dG LGe bh ,SSCG YGdG Vh hO G hCGj K ,HfG adG
CG j dPh ,dG OQGG IYb hCG .JG FGW c Y J dG G dG e OY g
fCG dP jh ,FGdGh OQGd jdG OdG fKh .dGh Gh edG M e jW c c J
jjDG jh NdG bE JG jW c da GNCGh . OQGe GSH JGP G REG J
GbG dP ,G MGe e Me c e dP d J CG G eh .jdH GbEGh
.(HfEG GbEG) jdG j NdG

IOhG OQGG IYb


Me FQ OQGe KK G dh ,UGJh JG Y g SdG G Ea ,kHS fcP c
Zh IY FGH JJh L KdG OQGG gh .dGh Gh edG :gh JG Y d
fCa .eJ dHh Lh cCG Y KdG OQGG GS jW aCG AfG Y j dG Hh ,IOh
.G Y fCG e dh ,eR YS dh ,G e d ,NdG KCJ cCG OJ
QGb a .IOh OQGe CH cJ CG SGh G e ,G e Ac NdH Jd dG Yh
aj a ,HOCG jRd kYe 120 jd j eY .NBG eCH dG H QGb g e eCH d J
YEG Y G J eYh .f bdG JdG Y NdH JG Sh dh dG dd
bG a J dG bdGh .jdG Y NdH Jd d e jd j a jJ
fGe J CG G a .(H EG H e) dG GQjd G bdG e JQOU dG bdG g dG
KdG OQGG J d dEG M j he J M ,dGh Gh edG :OQGG J d
.eCG SG OQGG d dSG Y NdG KCJ cCG jJ fCa .eJ dH

49

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

FGdGh OQGd jdG OdG


.f dG d FGWh OQGe SG `` dG Y `` QJ fCH cJ CG G e
gdG Y j e 1^000`d ,d GbH Nf 10^000 bEG fCG Qb fCG Vd
bdG h G fCG j da) .d GbH Nf 10 e c d ,H EG H e GZ
kNf 50 H ,Nf 10000 bEGh dG Mh dHh .(dG e dG jd dh ,dG
hCG .(bdG e dG jd dh dG hCG G fCG j dPh) ,j 200 I j c
S .Y jJ FYO YEG H jW Y IYe h Y CG hO Nf 10000 `H GZ JG
.bdG hCG dG dG SG EG d dh G e dG dP
CG Y AdG a .d H jJh dOJ FGdGh OQGG J c VJ ch Ic eCG g
FGdG iMEG fc EG .ag d dG jdG d IOG FGdG SQJ K jJ e O
`dG `G EG .jQhV GeCG `` T hO `` dG j dd .iNCG S EG CJ CG hJ
bh QJh HG YG h eRdG GeCG L Y dH dZ J He N Y SDJ
.Y

NdH JEG FGW da


aG NdG bEG :gh Jhe je Y QeCG KK j NdH JEG S e f c
G eh .NH Jd OL da ie O JhG jG J .YG h jjDG jh
.dH KdG jG J ,H e L EG ,FGW G QJ CG
aG JY bE eJ CG G a ,dah bOh VGh dSQ jd UCG CG H ,BGh
Ge Yd Ljh .dSQ g e ae EG NdG j .aCG QG g Te CH NdG e
.NdG EG GQGJh GQGe e dSQ UJ CG j .fgPCG Sd IY
.NdG bE ac Oj h AfG Y bdG Qj ,GbEG j e dG J eY ,GNCGh
d aJ CG j ,dH J dh .T GbEGh jdH jjDe b d OL cJ CG jh
?d jd NdH Jd OL N e YbEG j jdG eh ?hjDe g e jd FGdG H
dEG S c J CG G e dch .jjDe jd bdG H J CG j GbEG j bh
.Ibh ILh Ia Z
:aG NdG bEG
gdG g e CGh ,Te aCG fCH aG Nf bEG EG S M OL e
QG GSGh GgCG Vhh ,dG c :dG M H b AT ch .d GbEGh jOdG EG
e Ic Y Jd jW SCG O CG Y ,BGh .dG g M UhCG ,e dSQ jJh
.T Y NdG j EG Y dSd ihL .d GbH YbE QG

50

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

fe e e L Te fCG GS Ea . QOe e f AdG j M `` dZ `` SdG j


e GhCGbh ,d e HOCG Y gQfCG GdCGh ,H EG H e gQhj dG TG GHbh ,e
J JG S e CG J j h .d Yj bh TG M hcj b ,dG TG Y GL
fS Ua c f dSdG jEGh JG S S S f Y G a .aOd
.Ie c S Y f dSdG RJ M
:Get-Out-The-Vote zJU eEG{
EG QG dP gj GPEG ,Te aCG fCH G QL bEG QT Ab e ihL
j CG j .d KCJ GOe JU EG d fCG ij H NdG .d jh fG j jOdG
e bQh hCG Jg JG e `` H cJ fMCGh .e eCG Td YOh ,Y eCG e AL fCH NdG
AOEGh GbH eb d ac J b `` jG IG GQdGh adG e dG hCG HOCG
Q SdG G fQb GPEa .G e Me `` dZ `` zJU eG{ O j .JH
M gCG a .HfG GbEG j ,dG Gg EG H aj dG G g TG j ,d
zJU eEG{`d jdHh c d NCG Ya .MdG OG dG Gg zG AGT{ Y NdG
FGH zJU eEG{ OL REG j CG h .fK Ua e a .HfG dG GbEG jOU bEG g
.JG qj J G fc EG gh ,MGh eY Y Sb ,REG M e hJ fCG EG ,
`` d YS Nf IY c e S dh `` jjDG e H j YO TG dG WG
J CG jh .GbEG d gcH b jdG UTCG cCG J S .jjDG j QhV Z
Y j e J CG ,WG g .GUCG ZCG Y Te d GbH Geb fCG
g .jDj e ae Y dG H ,GbEG hU EG Nf H adG CG zYCG adG / dG{
eb d NdG e OY cCH JH G J CG ,jb jCdG hj M WG
.a d jjDG Nf cJ CG a ,jCdG ie J M ,iNCG WG eCG .GbH
CG Hh .zJU eEG{ OH J CG b fhjDS jdG NdG jd bh J CG G a ,ddh
b IdG IdG Z H JG Sh OQGG aJ Y YEG ,jjD Fb hCG fdG IYb J
d bGh N jd Jh ,adG dGh Gh dG bdG qJ CG G e ,dd .fG
.jjDe e UGS c
:NdG j
CG G a ,fG j b jjDH U Fb aJ Y j zJU eEG{ OL e kGc C
L bG EG dh .Nf bE OQGG J CG Y .d hCG jCG jjDG OS c J
eCG Gg h .JGUCH AOEd GbEG jOU EG fCH gd Y J fEa ,H JG Y
CG gH Qhe h ,YbEG jdG e aY GPEG UdG YJ CG PEG ,gNCJ CG j aR
.GbEd H aJ

51

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

j ,dG a .dEG dG N e T jjDG NdG ae `` MG ZCG `` h


bQCG j kGQe V .dP Y dEG dG dZ Zj gSh FGQBG EG jNBG j CG SdG
ad jDGh ,z2{ bdG a H Qj dG eCGh z1{ bdG YGdG jDG Vh ,3`2`1
e J CG ZJ a .gjCJ ie QJ CG hM ,NdG e M UGJ ah .z3{ bdG
.G QL e z2{ bdG NdG Y OQGe
H e GSG .gjCJ QGe H e SCG GSG jJ fEa ,NdG jH J a
eh .LM ah G J jH FGO Jh zSG{ RL Y fH IYb hCG bdG e
Yh .H dP NCG GPEG EG d kGjDe Nf CG qJ h .U eEG Qb fdG IYb J CG G
hjDj Gfc GPEG hCG ,H GhQj GPEG Tf e Ghj CG j hCG FGQBH LYREG SdG Zj dG
.T HfEG G OGaCG e fCH d J M dG Ye a J ,dG Gdh .ae

NdH JG fCG e GfCG


:NdH Jd G dSCG j a ddG SCG J CG G e ,fcP e c Y kAH
?dG e jh edG e jh G e j c .1
?H JG NdG CG J g .2
?YbEG g .3
?d YS fCG e cCdGh Te hjDj Gfc EG J CG g .4
.Jhe j jG J e j fOCG G NdH JG FGW e f c
:HOCG AdEG
e c OY jh .Nf d TG Y HOCG H koe ,H EG H e G fG Y g
fCG J fEa ,HfEG G g RG CG J fCh ,kf YH Ic e J YG
b , dh ,jjDG hOj PEG a ,NdG e YG j h .G NdH a J
.GJ qj M JH jjDd cJ J ,fEG j
:HOCG jRJ
GSCG dP j CG h ,SdG e M a j e CG HOCG RJ CG h
e YSh dS cCG eCG dP j bh .GL gh aG bGeh QdG h fG NGe Yh
dhj jdG UTCG CG e GcCe J d fC aGSG bCG dh ,NdG ce Y HOCG J
b dZ j fCG e dG Ggh . hCG Td jdG j hCG ,IFGdG j HOCG
jM Y HOCG RJ CG jJ c EG ,G S a .G j jdG UTCG J IO
,hd QfG Y YRa zhG{ fCG f UEG hCG ,d FdG NG Y YRa ,e
.dGhO Ggh G eCG YRa Gh Id e jM hCG
52

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:jdG
GbH NdG bEGh dSQ jE da jW j b NdG EG jdG Y G HOCG SQEG
,G S a .(dG ,dG ,dG) aGO hCG aGL NdG GSG ,jd Fb jCG ahh .d
iNCG jb e be J HOCGh ,dG Qd jdG H e be LJ HOCG SJ CG
.HfEG IFGdG NdG EG j jH CG S iNCG Ieh .(HdG) Ad
:H EG H e
EG S T eh ,e EG e e ce EG GQjH dG NdG bE da FGdG cCG e
d dSQ jJh ,fLGj dG cG S Y GQOb S .IM Y c dEG jd iNCG
hdG AY f c dG TH NdG KCj e kdZh .jCdG ie Sbh dG JegG EG
S NdH Jd jdG J CG VGdG eh .G dH dG O gjCJ Sb h .Fd
W fG jdG Ta .a S dG dG AMCH ge eCGh ,kjW bh J
e IQjdG Y QOb fCG VGaG Y dPh .SCG Nf 300 GMh MGdG dG kNf 50 GM
bdG H aVEG e ,Nf c e FbO K j CG Y ,IMGdG dG YS d H EG H
e bCG dSQ jEG Y GQOb J CG e eCG j GP J ,BGh .H EG H e fd
.IMGh bO
cCG d J CG j dG ATCG e dG a ,jW bh j H EG H e fG Ch
b Qh .kb dGh dG J QeCG g iNCG Ieh .edG hG ah dH dG dh da
gS EG TG dSQ NdG cj CG G eh .ahX M FGdG J jJ QYG NCJ
EG H e JGQjR YV GPEG G fG N Y IQb cCG TG S ,ddh .IMGh Ie e cCG
e GQ G jRJ N e khCG dH dG h .HQCG hCG K hCG Je EG IMGh Iqe e ,H
CG cJh dG AMCG J dH TG b e SCG b aG NdG e EG JHOCG
K .G dSQ jEG e G Y jRH YG j hCG jdG Y eEG qRJh .a qS TG
.j Yh hCH Nd j fCG j da ,NdG dhCG EG TG j M
cj dG G HOCG N e jjh T dSdG jE dG AMCG J TG j K
S fEa ,dEG j dG eh TG dEG e He J G fc EG ,kGNCGh .Nd
SCj fEG hCG NdG H kGS c TG EG J dG ,dP e SCG H HG bH OGYEG Y IQOb
.dEG d Ua Y G d
gh TG aG kYe J CG g ,edG hG ah H EG H e GQjdG H jW aCGh
Jh ,GHCG Y dGh ,HOCG M Y hDe dG dP j CG Y .H EG H e j
Y ,hCG NdG EG TG j a ,dG dG EG G j K ,dG j dG d TG
TG bh EGh .MCG N e Oj dG dG dch HLEG e J H c a hj kS j CG
Hh .TG IQOe NdG GSGh IOdG d ,jG Wh NdG MCG e Hh M
.dGh AdG dG QhO ODj ne g qG j jdG
53

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:JdG JG
GbH gcJh ,jjDe jH J PEG ,T GbH NdG bE JdG GSG
G e JdG G AGLEG h .f Ib Jg e J ,cP Y ch .T
jcG bGG J Y j bh .JdG N aGJ M ,ce be e hCG ,YG MC dG
qQG J VJ ,aVEG Jg kWN e hCG jQ cGe J Qh zJdG H{
ce e FGLG e cCG HjEG JdG H e G AGLEh .a VdG Gd eGS
:PEG ,YG
JH Y dhDG b Vh JdG H JdG G Y GTEG G J :hCG
.dG
cGTG G eh .JdG KOG H d jNBG Ye e YO Y YG S :fK
ITG IdG Y IQdG d S NCG h .INCG d ,S CG fc IL ,IG
j b .IqJG eG Jh SCG Y HLEG dch ,ITe cG e edGh dG Y
b kfMCGh .J jh da GP JdG Wd kfMCG YG ej dG G PdG
M dH dP c Y h ,iNCG IFGO EG IFGO e JdG JG J G ZJ
.JdG H dG j
He J g J CG H a ,YG MCG S e JG hCG JdG H dG c EG
Sh He GOTQEG JG e ,JdG G J Y e VdG Y J ,YG dhC VH
h jOJ j e d TJ CG , gCG e dc .NdG EG JdG Kj M fdj
SCHh JdG JG e OY cCH dG Y CG YG j CG jh .NdG e G IQKEG e
eY dZh .NdG CGQ J f dh Y NCJ EG EG ODJ d NdG e G IQKEa . e
AGHEG Y GQOb M NdG j M G jg Y aEG Y G a ,TG jCd NdG O
GOTQEG bH b bh .H J dG g G dh HfEG g fCG YG GPEG bOU f Lh
.(h) G HG
:FG dSCG
Y adGh ,QGdG UGf Y fYEG J a .NdG QHCG dG ATCG H Jh
dG cM Mj TG hCG YGh ,GQdG hCG IYCG Y Gh ,NdG e
Y TG SG hCG ,FdG AMCG cQe GQS G GQdG fch ,IHdG GQdGh
SH aqJh H NdG Yh aJ b dSCG g .GL gh IdG GcCG hCG T-Shirts dG dG
e SGh b EG J fCG c ,NdG bE V jW fCG EG ,G dSQ e RS dch ,TG
IFGdG QN e NdG M FG YCG J gj a .G QG e H NdG QL
eh .T jjDG jd jW dSCG g ,FdG G h .Td GJj d jdGh
JGUCH AOEGh gdH jdG jCdG We e NdG cd dH dSCG g GSG ,j

54

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

e dG Hc EG CJ a ,GK d edGh GOTQEG J EG NdG j a .fEG j


,Nd TG J hCG TG SH jdG Vd FQ H J FG dSCG J Ch .UdG
Vh e ihL ,ddh .adGh edG J Y cCG Me TG SG j CG gCG a
VZ ODJ fCG c ,UCG be SG ha ,SGh Me fC adG J Y TG IQU
.ihL GP
:jCdGh bOG
,G Y e QOe e TG Y bGe GP ee Y j eY dZ NdG j
j CG Td ,G hdG Yh .G id d IYe j CGd G IOdG bO Rda
j ASDhQ j b CGdG IObh .G jCH YbEG dh ,dG CGdG IOb e OY Ad Y dZ
AdG SdG d j jdG G dhDG hCG ,G G eh IO jH Gh ,dG
.Rd NdH Gh IOdG dhCG KCJ Y NdH JG da J .GMGh
NdG j eY ,G e Ge dG CGdG IOb YO Y d bdG j e kdZh
.gG dG CGdG IOb j dh ,HfH egG dj
:IdG/dG M
NdG H KCd jOdG NdG jCJ J CG d ,eG CGdG IOb bOe Y IhY
c Qb d dPh ,e T GbH (QL EG QG jc) fGL EG fL Kj b ,faj jdG
.QH QG KCJ e dG Gd J CG d IY FGW gh .KCdG e
M ,jjDG Re IG YLG d ef dG G g IdG hCG dG M
e j dGh ,TG e Ld Lh JG hM dP HjEG eh .TG H AbUCG IYO
YdG hCG YG S SCG Gg J CG h .NdH Jd YbEG dG cCG
GPEa .J jh U J dG hCG IdG a .kjW bhh e GL J b dh .IdG
T g j CG j NdH TG JG e Ac g G efH J CG G Qb
efda .eRdG JdGh GAGLEH dGh G J aSG ZGdG YG OjE hDe
dhL j K hCG KG hCG M Y j e dZh .Ae c Ib M Y ,bCG Y ,j G
G EG fGh ,c H dEG dGh NdG Heh hdG TG eEHh .f dG eR
e He j OY cCG TG Hj CG G a ,H EG H e GQjdH G g eh .dG
NCj ,G Gg e h .IdG hCG dG M GhM jdG dhCG S G h .NdG
T ch Gh TG Y c Hh ,JHOCGh G dSQ VJ dG IYdG U OG JG
OY cCG SQEG OOJ a dSdG UJ IYdG CG h .dG G hS jdG dhCG Y AKh
G NCJ CG jh .dH G aj jdG NdG dhCG EG j d fCG LG a .e
.aG HfEG IFGdG M hCG Ib hCG T M J QYG
55

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:jdG UCG
UTCH Jd T f Yh iOGa G YGh hjDG j eY g jdG efH
jdG UTCd kHS U bH SQEH dP Y h .Td jdG e jh faj jdG
S dG d H G CG G a .G aQ JG W hCG gQGH j
Gg Ch .dG H g da .H JG q jdG UTCGh G Y HdH G e dG GH
.zJU eG{ OL dZ QYG NCa HfEG j b dZ ioj JG e dG
:qnoG G
hCG TG d ,G QN e e hCG g e d dGh OGYEG j M c J IqnoG GMCG
GgJ hCG ,e YL gYJ GXe Y J b G GMCG Jh .NdH AdG e
Ch .G QH JH fge NdH JG da .cQG TG d J VGSG
dG eYEG dG i dZ SJ gCG Ea ,IJG eG e dG iS J GMCG g
.H
:G N
VGSG GgdG GMCG J Jh .LGdG EG aJ KGMCG J CG dc d h
JG da CG cDf ,iNCG Ieh .jdG e G be VJ Y dG GDG hCG jjDG
G HjEG fG jh .GMCG d adG / eYEG dG QG dZ SJ NdH
GMCG N S Jh .Qd VGh dSQ jEH d ,bG Y IdG Y G IQb
cCJ CG jh .d HG SdG OYh ,J dG GeCG QGeh ,gOGYE bJ dG jdG edG
.G QG e ac OGYCG EG dH Jh e dSdG CG e
:adGh YEG c
cCG H j QH adG d J ddh .e kKGMCGh IQOf J e dZ SdG HfEG
adG J ,dP Y IhYh .eCG Gg bj TG eh .f G IG GMCG e
e ch YCG hL aa ,j eh .a Oj e NdG j e kda ,ed e GQe
EG fCa ,M dSQ jE jGh jdGh adG J c GPEa .gOQGeh bd dG
JS G e dh .dSQ a Y IhY ,QNCG f EG gd SGG e IL bY
TCG e T EG d QeCG g CH cJ CG jh .QeCG g e ed e eYEG aZh eYEG
.FGWh NdH JG TCG H e dG Gg j CG jh .NdH JG
gG e fCG ,dG Yh .JFGO eYEG bdG gCG eYEG gaeh IFGdG W OS
:d dPh e Gh FGh G YEG e IL bY Y M SDJ CG

56

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

S ,M Y GN je jj hCG U j bh c a .d Y LH YEG :hCG


. RdG G e Te LCG hO G QG EG dSQ jE UdG
Y f dG HjEG eG NdG qj CG jh ,bGe GP dZ YEG j :fK
e Re Qe Y IQOdG eG e cCG ,YEG e e Qe e AL GPEG ,Te
c J N d J CG G a ,NdG bEh Jd YEG J CG Qb GPEGh .M
.dP S
eYEG e bdG WJh JGSG J jJ Y hDe j eYEG JS G e dh
aG d eT Fb jH j CG eYEG JdG Gd dhCG G iMEGh .gY dSdG jE
a .FdG YGGh cdG bQCGh JGgh SGG ASCH e FdG J Jh ,G eYEG
.SGd G Qb S G Y HdG Xh CG G
IfG QOGh fdG aH b .gj CG gjJ c jN b U Y eYEG ZdG cG
e Rjh kVGh AT c j CG Y YG ,f bdG h .G Qb (JGdG bQCG e e)
aQG ]b M[ be Y kH ah GPEa .db jJ e c SGd U eCG .dSQ
.IMGh U bG j eYEG H
.dEG eYEG eh He dG GDG J CG jh
FG bGG Hh d HOCG CGh JGdG JS e Ifh TG IQU e U me aH b
JGSG OHCG kGRue YEG e JG j CG G a .dG ZdGh jN Ubh
Y LCa ,aG dSQ be :G S Y dSQ Y j e T bj CG YEG OGQCG GPEa .G
cCH j CG eYEG Jd H g .dSQ VH HLEG NGh G Qb YH SCG
U Y Gg c .YU GDH TG CLoj M ,eYEG dG e MW G SG
AH Qj dG da .dP Y dG e e fC ,YEG c Y jh .kGc bh dZ jh
JGSG J CG j ,ddh .c CH hJ fjj eh fj e hQGh adG Y
.e IFdG FG Fd eYEG
CG j YGb GhOM b YEG jW H d jdGh ,dG dhCG Ea ,eCG e j eh
:j c gh ,G M J
OQGe J e .WEG Y SM gG YEG j IdG HfEG IQhdG .1
kGKCJ d j b bh Z dSQ jE YEG Y EG S fEa ,IO Z de
.kGc
eYEG jhd O T g j CG j :ec Xh dZ J eYEG bdG .2
g J CG j ,IdG G Mh .IdG d YEG FSh e Sh H Td
.d eYEG JdG g j CG Ta .Ff hCG G j We XdG

57

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

b Ua T S .Y Gj CGh bdG GW dSdG GdhGj CG ac Td j .3


QJ CG j dG UdG gh .adG dGbCG Sb hCG YGPEG dG hCG jdG Qd
da M dSQ jd bh bSG b eO a .aG Nf H HCj ATCG Y jH
.j h j eGdG H
YGPEG hCG jdG Qda .eYEG OGYEGh jQdG e d TG c j CG j .4
.jJ hCG YGPEG QX CG b d dGh OGSG d UdG g QJ a .Kh IQOf Ua
.db Y QJh dH dS e e YEG
:adGh jOGdGh jdG FYdG YEG :LCH YEG hCG aG YEG
bh .M dEG dG jhdG Ua ad SGGh dG Y OYEG ,SCd
J M .IFGdG Wd jjdG FSdG hCG YGPEGh adG FYdG YEd Ua AGT EG J
EG hCG d S FYdG fYEG ij hCG j dG dG c EG d j d ,NdG e jY H
jh YbEG cCG j ,fjdG UNh JG TCG e dG Ga ,dP eh .G QL e c
.H EG H e IQjdG jW e ,kT UH b dG dSQ jJ UG Lh Y GL
J CG G e dc .cCG Y IMGh bO hCG fK KK iS j da cCG FYdG YEGh
.Oh eR e dSQ jEG Y IQOb M
:G hCG dG qQe
,G bG Y d Y Gqc ha ,NdH Jd SCG qQG CG G e dG J
J G d .TG EG dGh hdG e NdG j M Sd eR hL hOjh
gdG f Z dH J fC ,eG Y d fe EG Ad NdG Y G OYG
BG e H OGaCG H Y G EG Y j JG e dG dG Ggh .NdH Jd
.G H J CG j jdG UTCG
:jG dG
d a ,NdH Jd eGSG dG jG dG e J Fb g CG hj
.dEG...hdG jdGh BG AGdG RLh (cdG) GSG
e SMh jY b g c EG J CG g ,jG dG GS eCG Gg G dGh
e BG AGdG bQCH Fb jd fc Ea .dG FSdG J GSG S d J G jjDe
aVEG MCG eh .BG AGdG ILCG NdG e %3 g c EG ihL h ,kj eCG a
EGh NdG Wd gJ fCH j dPh UGd S T hdG JG FGW IG
jW fc EG ffG H be jQNEG ee Vh Y GQOb J bh .dEG AG NdG Y

58

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GPEG EG H e QL EG Ud da J d dh ,G dhC eG jE e Z
.ffEGh JdG g ZdG qg Sd Gbd jJ H J c
: FGW V
a .NdH JG S e Y GSH MGG c J b M g
,H EG H e d dG bdG jd dh ,NdG j JG J dGh ,edG WdG SdG
,iNCG L eh .dSdG jE fjdG fYEGh eYEG dG e e dSCG J b
OdG EG dH ,e j dGh ,jdG YEd eRdG dG aJ Y IQOb Z IdG G G
IQjH TG j CG G e b ,G Gg .H JG G J jdG NdG e dG
EG dSdG jE LG G jH e SCG dP aGd ,H EG H e dEG dGh NdG
EG YG e dG dG G J b ,TG jdG M Hh ,iNCG Ie .fCG NdG
.GbH NdG cd JdG G fEG j bh dP H d JdG H
HJ dh Oh Zh Oe NdH JG S eO CG ,dGh Gh edH UG OQGG hdh
.TGh NdGh IFGdG Y fdG e OY cC L e j ,ddh .dP M
GfCG c QNG j M dSdG jE Yh He N QJ CG G Y j ,dP Hh
dG dSdG Y hJ jdG TT Y FSQ GhCGQ GPEG NdG gP j a .d SSCG
.ce Y Y gS hCG jdG Y dEG Uh

NdH Jd eG dG j :(9) jdG


.kYh kbGh J CG G a .NdH JG jW j Y M Yj aG hG GSG
IY OQGG J EG ODS dP C ,JG FGW c GSG G NCJ CG d j
NCG ZJ ,dP Yh .dH FGdG e CG Y JQb j ,V d gG
:bGh jH G
?dGh Gh edG e dG OQGG e
?Jd jW c S ch ?d e G eh
jh NdG bEG e ,G c b e jH L e GPEG dG FGdG QJ CG G e dc
.YGbG Vh jjDG
e c eh a bQCH O CG hMh ,M gQJ CG Qb dG FGdG d Fb V
:ag d dGh Gh bdG

59

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

OQGG
dG

f
f

ddG
edG

jd YG

jjDG j

NdG bEG

NdH JG e

f
Q
f

HOCG J
HOCG jRJ
jdG

H EG H e

f
f
f

JdG JG

Fe dSCG

bOG

jdG UCG

GMCG J

GMCG N

adG

FYdG YEG

G e

jG dG

f IdG / dG M

G HOCG Vh
CG G e ,dd .dSdG jE d IL HOCG aJ Y NdH JG FGW e dG j
cCG CG cJ CG j ,SdG G HOCG Vh Yh .dSdG J jE eEG Qb da HOCG J
S CG gCG e ,ddh .Y e ZJ c hCG fCG J b c jYh bH ghCGj d NdG
U hCG JHOCG b gQGb PJ fbj dG dG bdG dSQ GYj M Nd
YdH dEG dSQ UJ CGh YH NdG gG Y PJ CG gCG YJ ,dd .Y gQfCG
gJ CG j .JeGQO dch Sh H M HOCG CG e eCG j ,NBG Hh .JGP
j jd Iae aVEG ee CGh ?d GbEG Nd j GPh ?j eh Te Y b SCH
jE YH NdG gG Y PGSd eG dG H gh .UCG dSdG YJh J CG
.dSdG
60

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:MGdG VG
Ia f h CG IQhdG J ,YdG Lh Y HSG J Mh ,H dSdG d
Y TG S c J HOCG e b fc EG ,G S a .HOCG e b c IMGh
.HOCG e JGP dG J j YVG a ,ObG d S e hCG ,G ae
Ve .TG d J G HOCG e eY b gh zdG bH{ J dG d ASGh
e dG TG be Y e kL J bh ?TG jCJ Nd j GP :g bdG J
.jdG
:cGh AGOCG QU `` ITG QdG
iS J h ,TG Y Nd T J fCG EG .Td IQU HOCG J MCG ZCG
.e H j hCG ,e T EG j gh TG IQU VJ CG j Gd .GdG e Ic Me J
e SCG f Y dSdG jEGh NdG gG L :VZ ,iNCG cGh AGOCG QU ODJ b
Z Y Ye ,MS Lj hCG e j d IQU g fc EG ,G S a .dG
NGdG IQda .NGO e deh GQhCG a EG NdG aJ b fEa ,G a UG HOCG
.Gh dG H e Hj da ,WdG EG j gh TG VJ CG j
JG QU UJ b M ,dG dSQ jEG Y G qJ CG SQG WCG Qd h
g CG cJ .JLGe j dG jObG cG Y dSQ QGdG SG Yh G jQdG
j ,dc .Y ee jCG UJ Mh Td dG IQda .IG cG J CG j QdG
eG dSdG EG Gc J h ,ddG dZ fG QdG C (OSCGh HCH CG) jOY QdG J CG
.djEG
:jh`dG
,ILe IQH jhdG c dSdG SG jh .jhdG IAGb EG SdG j ,IQdG EG dG H
J jH EG J HOCG IQcG iNCG ATCG ch .jdG H J e JQH CG
.VG j M IAGdG j CG NdG e bjh ;SCGQ c jhdG J e kdZ .ILG dSdG
Y GQH hCG (fH) e H jhdG M QJ CG gCG YJ ,dG J EG J a
.(NdG jCG `` NdG jY) e AT CG J .ihG
:IcG dG
dh ,e f V ,Fb eG e S jCG hCG JGdG IdG hCG efdG J eY
d TG H S QeCG S hCG ,TG jCd SCG N :e VH r nV nh .GdG U
hCG (G af) e cH e H J d jhY Vh J G dG gh .ObG
.(cObG qf)
61

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:kGO c
dh S ObG CG j T a .HOCG dG VY J M IO FM SG
hOh .dG hCG ZdG S JQG c hCG ,VG dG Y ASG dG FXdG OY c dH j
LGj dG cd G J G Qb kbO J CG G e ,H AadG J kGOYh J CG
Y aGG S jdG CG dP j z... S ffb hCG jJ{ Yj TG EG J ea .SdG
.dG e bG J GQdG J dh ,dG d
:bG hCG RjEG
Jc J CG Y ,dG e OY bCG dJ CG jJ e b .IOjR dG ,G HOCG
hCGj NdG CG cJ .HOCG e b c bCG G Y c (300) EG c (100) H
V .a LdGh TG KCdG d j d AT Y dH Zj GL J fC ,jdG UdG
Y j eY cQj NdG C ,T (NdG jY) e a ,gP eCG dP c
.G TCGh dG g Y Z fCa .dEG Le fCH HOCG e b
:dhGe d
id YfG J CG G e a .G EG UJh dJ CG jJ e J VGhh H d SG
Yj M dSQ jE S c GSG J M ,IdG dG GSH NdG
.Jh NdG YH J CG QhO j h ,HfEG G mc bh jd d .NdG
:dSdG Y AdG
a .d FdG H JJ CG j ,be J dG dG Y dG H ,G HOCG c
GQdG GSG iJ b G CG M .dG fc e Geh Ge f dSdG jJ j CG G
.NdG gP J jJ dG dG jE HOCG c f GQdGh

62

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

j RdG c :SOdG IG
Step Six: Making It Happen
eJ dG dG qHh dSdG Q qWh QG aSGh GgCG Vhh dH b d
jCG a .dP c S ch dGh Gh bdG e jd c ae YT dc ,dSQ jE
jNBGh aGh G jeh TG FXh EG S ,INCG IG g ?OQGG J Y S
S c ,YdG dG FHEGh YG SG FGW Y Sh ,gQhOh G cQG
aeh G fGe jJ Y S ,G h .edG hG beh d eR S jJ Y
.eRdG GeCG L c

TG QhO
hCG TG QgCG GPEa .d dGh dG OQG g bh CG c ,TG g SdG G T gCG
TG QhO .bd eCG SGh TG QhH J CG G e ,ddh .jJ bdG dP G
Nda .YdG L h G da UTCG cCG e gh .YbEGh NdG He ,WdG jZ
dd jd MG cCG hqj dSdG jh T TG Hj jdGh GYj CG j jdG
,ja e JGSG Hd G e SH TG j ,GMCG e .dGh gGh TG
.JQN e e h bh Qj TG dP a aCG UCG jjDG He dch
kWh .JGSG d SQ YLG H M J CG ,Y pobG dG Gg e h
.gjJ S dG JGSG KCdG e dG QdG dh YLG g e kGAL j CG TG Y
Y ,jNBGh G jeh G AYCG e dG j CG Td j ,JGSG J qJ eYh
.YbEGh NdG e OY cCG He Y OL qcj CG

G je QhO
Gg j ,GMCG c a .eJ K H TG j T j CG jh ,JQGOEG Y j G je
TG j ,NBG Hh .G bJ dG IdG IdG J M gCGh JM AT gCG G
IO QGhOCG gjeh Th ,da J CG j IG Gh .Y g G jeh ,G b g
.Y IdG T Qj hCG d Gje Qj fMCa ,M IQGOEG dZ TG Zjh .FGOC
63

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.NBG T gj CG j dG GQGdG PJG WCG bh Ab EG TH eCG j ,GMCG c h


eR hL aJ V G je Y j .YGh NdG H FdG QhO e j bdG dPh
FGWh YEGh adG e edG Hj e Y GTEG hCG edG Y c ,NdG H Td
.G N G e SCG hCG d dG e ch ,Gh NdH JG

G a
Ie e cCG QT dG da .GG cGJ e J iNCG YCG e SdG G
d dG dG IQe SG CG c .G SdG d GOGSG cCG j ,VG SS M
.Gh Td ihL GP J b fYh JYeh dG Gg VG G MGe c GN
dd .jdG Vh HfEG G IQGMh dG HdG Y eCG g G QaCG a
dch IG hP e G j Fb Y aM EG Gc Te SdG GMCG J b ,dG
MJEGh UTCG ADg J Y j CG d jh .HdG G GY jdG jYGdG aG
,jH j dG G H UdG Ga .G d hj dG G d d UdG
G e e fGL dG dZ d JCG UTCG g .b J DdG gje hCG G Ffh
Me c EG QYG NCJ CG d jh .GG SG j fL J CGdG YSa ,SdG
.H AGQBG SG AGLEG h CG b G dP IN d T XJ d
jJ e a a ,dG IjT SdG UCG ,jeCG IG jdG a
dEG ...NdG FGb Lh jOGdGh jd FYdG fYEGh TG SdG jdG
.T h G fS dh ,bdG e dG G Y haj b aG dhCa
.dP HT e hCG zIQdG fc{ fCG ej jdG SdG e dG g ,dP c fcP bh BG
J hCG ,Nd dG dG Y jH TG bh SdG dhCG Qj ,G V GHh
EG e dSQ jEG e j H ej dG dH Zj SdG dhCG CG c ,G NdG jW
jh ,jOMCG GT dH a jS qM Y j dG dG TG Y j e dZh .NdG
.dG dP deh bh TG dP

G g
J CG BG e eCG jh .G N IO jGH OYCG b J CG j ,MG g
hNBG edGh G jeh TG jd UCG a .G d HG edGh dG dG
gNCG j ee a .NdH JG N dJ CG j ,dP jd .d HG
.G

64

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.G H JG dAGh G d ah Oj dG dG CG Y j ,hCG G
,dG UJ c Y GTEd G je Xh g edG a qJ CG j dG IMdG FXda
.YGb LJ dP Zh .eY bY Xc QG e edGh ,JdG e Y Od NBG Th
Nh U GDe HQCGh bdG L :J NdH dJG N CG G S Y Vd
:j e EG S dP dh .e (60^000) Y HOCG AdE GQhO
.M je @
.(dG e ejh JdG Y Oj) e je @
L hCG GhO f Ze Z Xh J b) YWh HOCG IOe OGYEG Y hDe @
.(eYEG JdG Xh e
Qh bdG L e GeJ jdG fCG edG) bG edG XJ Y hDe T @
b 500 qRj MGh qc ,HOCG jRd be Xc kT S .(HfEG bGe
.ej
dG dG Ea ,T GbH jYG bEG FdG G c EG ,iNCG L e
:j e j
.G Y e M je
.e je
.YLGh GQGh bGdG L Y dhDeh bGe jYe e IY
khDe h YdG L Y khDe h keYEG kGJS j NCG dG dG CG MJ b
UTCG XJ fGe J h H YJ FXdG JJ .Xh d kGYe hCG ,edG hG Y
.G J Ie HfEG Y EG fCa .jFGR
.XdG hCG G SG N e ,H WG G N e OsnoJ Xh c EG j ,dG G
K .gREG j dGh HG Gh FXdG OqnMh XdH b dh ,XdG hCG G SG J
.d IOG G ch MUh dhDe edG AYCG S
XJ M g .NBG e cCG j e T j M ,bGH G qJ CG d j eCG da
d j dG G Y VGh HLEH QNEG Y QOb Z fCG EG ,G Ye hCG Fc T
e da .G d Yc S jdG SdG cP J dG g J eY .ej
e c ,dP Y IhY .Td e kAh dPh FXd ec H YS AbUCGh ISCG AYCG
IYGh aG Y dG Y hCG TG e da .d Ie G fc GPEG JbhCH YS SdG
FXdG d .LCG ae Y J h S e c ,G hCG jQG ZEG hCG GgdG OGYE
G j e cCJ .LCH Y J GQG Vhh H EG H e fH bGdG L e dG
.G J REG Y hDe T d

65

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

(UTCG) YG
UTCG Hh fCG ,AT c REG Y JQb Y d j b ,NdH Jd N jJ Y
QJ Qh ,IYG e c EG S fEa ,QhV AT c REG OQCG GPEGh .G fhYj GhCGH
fCH NdG bEH M CGJ eY YG YO gCG RJ ,G Gg h .GYG J He aO Y
. fYh YO dc eS dh ,a JGUCG Gej d SfCG g S .Te aCG
.Ra d M dH ZS SdG dhCa
Hh .G eGd cQj HM kdZ fj YG FGhCa .SCG Id Yj SdG
UH S qj ae C hCG ,fCH e J fCG jh e b jb Ye jd C j SdG
fcQj hNBG UTCGh AbUCG d C SdG G gjh YLG SdG Hh .CdG dP
.iNCG FGa hCG Xh Y d Ua eCG ij fC j SdG Hh .f egG
cQG SMEH hj fC G YG jh .GdG cCJ jj fC j SdG H ,G
dG C hCG ,je kUTCG Hj fC hCG ,e dG C hCG ,fhQj jNBG CH hjh ,gGh
.dGh dG J c
GPEG G YdG dG GhQOj CG j dh .kGc GL dj Gfc EG YG ib J b
dG YG OY O CG hCG eh .d gCG H ej dG dG c hCG ,Gh dH GhT
.HG H J CG Y ,iNCG Ieh .d Vh dG GgCG RE bh CG h dG S
e e U e S M HOCG e b (3000) RJ CG Qb fCG G S Y Vd
S dH ,YdG HOCG e b (100) SG RS GMGh Ye CGh ,YSCG dG jCG
S fEa YS (3) Z HOCG AdEH ZJ c EGh .G RE YS Ye (30) EG
.YS d Ye (10) EG
LJh d FGG H jd J CGh ,dG j U HOCG CG d j dc
CG j GPe j HOCG AdEG Y GTEG Y hDe j e T EG Sh ,Yd VGh
.Ye EG Gd Ya .G G dP EG UGG aH J b dc .j
Y j Ye (10) Y G e KGh J M (20 hCG 15) dh (10) SH J b
c EGh ,NdH JG N e AL d G dP AGLEH J CG e eCG jh .OG bdG
Gh qfG fGG GP G h .SM eCG dG EG f Gdh .aCG eCG S J cCG
YG SG Y hDe ,e e ,MGh T `` YCG Y `` g S jdG H
IY e JCj Ya .d g e ah AT c d HG OGG Y dM Vh jQJh
bh .HdG G GY jdG G Tf eh TG AbUCG e Gfj CG jh . We
Gh .aVEG Ye Y J CG eCG j bh .AT c RE c Z YG dhCG OY j
jdG e g b .IG d GYJ jdG SdG Y J CG j .gQGhCG j CGH b
...dEG SQGGh HdGh jdG Gh ,dG G YLh G G e e d GYJ
dG J gJ e bEG Y GQOb J b IO YL hCG e b Y J dSQ fc EG
fS Ua c J CG j NdG EG dH M CGJ Mh .YH M aQh Yd
Me J CG Y (h) G Ve g e ah YG bH Y FGO aM .d IYG d
.jjdG jCdGh Yd J Y GhqY jdG UTCd Iaeh
66

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dG fRGe :(10) jdG


G Qb bO ch .eGSG M ZJ dGh NdH JG fCG H Fb V .1
J dG JdG JG OY c ?djEG OJ dG HOCG b OY c .U kebQCG ee
J S ch ?JQjR J dG cG OY c ?jd aG JdG G OY eh ?H dG
?bh e GQjdG
Y G Qj G e c ?dH JcP e H d dEG S dG YG OY OM .2
?c G RE Y YS ch ?YS Z gREG
YG GSG Y dZ QS ?G N dEG S dG YG OY jH b ,eNh .3
Zh ,JdG JG AGLEG GL G j b ,GMCG H h . e RE fCG
.e dEG S jdG YG V SG EG S fCG cJ .adG Vh L

(edG) edG dGh edG hG


eh .VGh jQJ gCG g GbEG jh , G jQGdG c H G AH e b b J b
FKh Jh ,eRdG GAGLEH ed fdG ah VG jQGdGh IOG YGG J ,G QeCG
.e
ah G e edG dG dP j b .FQ eR S c YGG J Vh j
.cCG UJ j ej S EG d kYSCG keR kS S GbEG j e J eYh ,dG
ed kef QJ CG jh .TG gj CG j e GMCG CG dG Gg EG Sh
PEG QM Y QGYd FGWh ,jdG a kqe G c EG jd FGW j CG Y ,GYdG e
.e Z G JCGQ
CG j dG fCG H J CG gCG eh ,NdH JG fCG EG dP c J K
JG fCG e e GOY Ch .YGh G a QJ CG dG J hCG TG a Qj
keR kfH QJ CG IQhdG YJ a iNCG fCG e VQJ bh ,edG e jW Ia J b NdH
.f d HG dGh Gh edG Y cCG UJ j GMCd
a idG G eCG .edG hG dhDe e QeCG J CG ,idG G h
VQJ EG Oj b dP C ,H UN S M Y TG j CG G eh .G je dhDe
?eh jCGh g j CG j e j dh Y GVGh

edG dG :(11) jdG


GMGh T qYh ,d G fCd IOG jQGdG c d d FQ eR S jH b
c EG d GYdG e ed f jH bh ,fCG J YG dG He Y hDe d
eG c L dc ZJ bh ?d aGe CG QGYG dSQ H EGh , CG gS TG
67

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?G dP M EG TG S eh ,Jg bQ e JG Y hDG dG e ,G Y G
.dEGh G be EG Ud jOTQEG jNh

MCG

KG

AKdG

AHQCG

dG

edG dG :(12) jdG


Ph .NdH JG fCGh M N JY IGOCG aCG edG d dG PdG j
M SG Me e edG d K P H b .d INCG HSCG j edG dG
.QYG YGdG g V dH b EGh .eG MG
.dG a fCG dG dG EG Gbd NCG dG e NdH JG FGW H CGJ CG j .1
Y c dG G OY c ?RdG d M b J CG G e ,d NCG dG
?bW jjDG Yh Y dG GHCG OY c ?jRJ Y c dG dG OY c ?J
NdH JG GgCG J CG j .c NdH JG fCG c J CG j .2
c .bGdG Se T j dP e ag C ,zYEG e IL bY WJ{ e GJ
J CG j ?d S dG eYEG hCG dG ZdG OY c ?gS dG GMCG OY
:d qc jH AT c
jO 10 ja c Ea .G J S Sb Y YS bdG dG GgCG .CG
jd j a bQH GgCG VH J GPEG ? CG L dP a e H 5000 W b
. dG dG ie Y Ia fOCG
FGdGh dG dG H fQG .fRGG Vh Y Y YS dG GgCG .
dG c Y GPEG EG YGPEG YEG He hCG G He GQThdG YW e ILG
.dP c e G OdG hCG
,jO 1 M e 5000 Vd N GPEa ,d g c V HG dG N V .3
5000 Vd jQhdG UTCG S eh ?G EG G J NCS jQJ CG a
?e
CG hM edG dG EG J Mh .f c RE dEG S dG OQGd J CG J .4
SCG dP d G fCG J RE G eh UTCG e S c SCG dh QJ
?OQGG Y S jCG eh

68

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

IO YGe HfEG fb Oj g .HfEG fd dG QWEG V edG d N .5


?edG QWEG dP V gREG j e fC

dG

hDG dG

dG

jQdG

G jGh ,G je
aOh FdG J
fG j H
G jd
edG e
fG j
kHfG kGce 765 bGe
YG e
YEG e IOG TG GQjR
fG j
edG phrnoG
3h YG e
1500 YRj YG
j b MGh j
150h FGhO e
FbdG HOCG e b
fG
kYe
LQCe FGhO 3 Y INCG
YG qe
HOCG jRJh bGG jQJ fG j b ej
YG Y NBG
EG NCG jdG SQEG
fG j b ej
G je
jdG jOU
ahG jjDH JG
fG b SOdG dG e
50 h YG e
Gbd
gdH
gcd
fd HdG dG EG
kYe
HOCG e b 1500 YW fG j b jCG S
G je
INCG dG
NG b e jdG SQEG fG b jCG N
G je
jjdG jOdG
jYe KKh TG
edG hGh

G je
G je
G je
jYe KKh TG
edG hGh
G je

69

H EG H e GQjR TG
IQjR 300 INCG IFGdG

fG b HdG dG e
fd HdG dG EG
fG j b jCG S

NCG jdG SQEG


NCG b e jdG SQEG fG j b jCG 10
NCG jdG SQEG
Yd b 1000`d

fG j b kej 14

H EG H e TG gj
IQjR 300 INCG b e Id

b 14`dG dG e
HdG dG EG fG

NG b e jdG SQEG
Yd j b 1000`d

fG b
fG j b kej 17

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

(JdG) SG ILCG
YCG a .dGh Gh edG :KdG OQGG aJ Ua G b SG ILCG GSG
RL GSH dH Y dSdG jEGh SdH JG S Heh fdG e SSCG
efd fdG IYb Vh h .HdG HfEG fH d eGdG SJ .SM
GSH YH jh d edG dG M dc h .T jjDG Sh NdG FGb
T``dG eGHh Word Processing fdG d````e GSG Hdh .edG dG efH
YJ b ffEG T beh hdG jdGh cdG eGHh Desktop Publishing Programs
ch J dG G eBG g e G QJ M .dG CGdG IObh YEd dSQ jEG Y
.cCG QeCG SG qS c aCG f Y QJ CG ,aGgCG H S

HM e dG `` G G
iNCG M e dG GPEG bCG ch eJ dH gREG d j dG G e c
j M OG J H dG Y j CG HfEG IQhdG SdG H WG QGhOCG a .K
J CG j .H WG GgCG Y G YJ CG M e bj bh .OQGd kGaJh kGQNOG
.G e Y G bJ eh e G bj dG e VH G
Y NdH dJG jh M jH J CG d jcG dG Y CG ``dG Y `` TG j
c M jd dG WdG iG Y adG GeCG aJ GMCG ZCG . G Fb IQjR
GeCG L J dG G Ea ,dP Y IhY .e c EG gdG G Fd h ,T
J h jdG a e Z M ddG J NdH Jd G Fb Y Jh eRdG
.cj GL
:IYGh dG G a j b dG fGG H fOCG OS eh
:eGh dSdG
J e J fCG kVGaGh .TG hjDG Yj CG j GP J eT dSQ d j CG j
bh .edG OGG aJ G Qhe j b ,edG WdG dSdG e J UG dSQh ,dSdG
.ae Y S ee hCG dG WdG iG Y SdG GQOe Y eG aH HM j
Y HLEGh ce M JYe LCG e Ie hC TG zd{ dhDe G Qj fMCGh
.LG hdG SCG
:OGG J
edG WdG dSdG e J M G OGe J Y IYG J (dZ) WdG GMCG YJ
Te Y aj dHh G OGe c fE bG AGLEGh YdG H JH G j bh .d
.G eG hCG SG aVEH a WdG G OGe GSG IOYEG `` dc `` J bh .OGG J b
70

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:edG WdG OGG


Ga J G e J CG h ,HfEG eGdGh GQGh G aj CG WdG d
GQG MG H h .Te SH N Y e Vh hCG Y YdG M J M
Y IhY .(OdG H M ad) NBG fG Y J CG h fL Y oJ WdG
hCG YG Y jRJ hCG H dG iNCG OGGh Gh zjYdG QGQRCG{ J b ,dP
.jGg NdG e Y Y j dG HfEG fd d JJ h GQM c .YG
:YEGh adG
M eJ b dG WdG adG GMCG YG j CG dG WdG d h
,SG bdG M GPEG ,kqb Wh eRCG e G h j bh .G iG Y adG gG
.G iG Y adG gG Y d
:GQjdG
.JGSG g IQjdG J J CG j dh , G gG G Fb GQjR b
dG be EG GQjH G FQh edG G GOb b G TGh G ha `` dZ `` bJ
cG e j GL j eCG dP CG j bh ,dGh G Y TDe iS d eCG Ggh ,e
jd j CG j .IQjd OGYEd d dG jd Ea ,S d dG FdG c GPEa ,d dG
.LGMEG d J M hCG bd Qg O IQjdG J M Jh jjDG YG e c OY
e CG dG FGdG a .dG hCG G hCG bdG e dG J IQjdG J CG J CG jh
.fRGG f QN OQGe GSG EG OCG hCG d edG hH IQjdG qNCG GPEG ,iS gJ b
:bOG
CG kjCG qeh .d OGc eJ M WdG iG Y G IOb e TG QU OGYEH b
g aG JY iMEG fc EG G S Y .Jfeh OL YH G IOb GdG Y
.Te QNG gCG Y Nd N OGYE IQe hCG ahe jJ Ff Y Ha edG AdG
:```dG
j G C ,G UN eC e J gj CG WdG iG Y G Zj b ,keN
,a f Y G SG e S c VH VJ CG G e .RdG e S dP CG
.WdG iG Y d JGSG G dP gCG J ch

71

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G G e e UGdGh FG AH
:fG Gh YG IYe
G G e QJ j a .HfEG M ke GQhO G G e ODJ b
j .HfEG G G d fh HjEG SS cQe g J f e
,a SQ G G J .e IjDG jh JFGO fG G H Fb CG
UdG J dG eGh dG YLh jdG YG e ,dc SdG Z G dh
G YG M QaCG Y G GdG GSG GSHh .CGdG IOb N e dEG
bdG aj eY d dSG MGG G G e SG j CG jh .jDJ CG
M IjDG G G e e bdG d bh J CG jh ,gjCJ Wh GOdG H Td
.da J
:g IY FGH IYG fG YGh YG J b
:bOG
J bh , RGYGh d IYe dZ hj b Te jCJ G J e CG YEG
G fc GPEG S h ka S jCdG da .M HOCG hCG Je Y G SG GSG
.G ejh IQe
:bGG
EG ,dP Y Iha .M bGe EG j b fG G e jCdG TCG e T CG hCG bOG
e cCG eG J NdG qj CG j ,ae V hCG Te GeCG e e cP
.Nd bGe cCG QG S G g .M e G eG J
:AYCG M
YE GdG hCG jdG hCG JdG N e FYCG e UGJ CG G e WG ,bOG J eY
.dEG...H EG H e GQjdG hCG bGdG L e d Se d jjDG SGh YO
:dG hCG eYEG G
kGDe J CG ,G S a .eYEG fCG e dG aJ CG fG d
J M bGG aJ da ,ae V dG f bdG h ,d YO YE kU
ZH SJ CG fG d h .adG Y S dSQ jEH G QN e e T hCG Y
.G N RJ d IO gCG GP d gjCJ YE GQGJh GQGe U
72

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:dG
jdG KCJ M dG AGLEG YJh e Y GGh eG aJ CG fG d
(dG Y jG) bGG M H GQhCG IOe J CG d ,dP EG aVEH .G gCG
YJ CG d dc .G J dG jdG Y G OGYEG YJ CG c ,Td
.G de V bG hCG jJ ae OCG e jH dPh VQG H
:edG GMCG
c ,M jCH G UTCd bdG GQhCG hGJ e WG ,e Ad fG YG J eY
U De hCG YJ M hCG IgJ H M eb EGh . Ad J CG f Yd
.AdG dP QM EG gAYCG YJ CG YG J e WCG
:UGdG
YG bE JJG qSG .CGdG IOdh iNCG Yd eqj CG fG YG IOd
.M Y bOG jJh jCH iNCG
:YdG M
OGQCG GPEa ,d YdG IL QOe J b YCG LQ e e fG G H
e YdG H d dG J hCG H gG OOJ d fEa RdG Te j CG e e
.FYCG
:Jh NdG YJ
hCG JdhDeh bMh HfEG M Jh NdG YJ Y dhDe fG G J b
Y dhDe fG G J b ,G H .GbEG JGUCH FOEG c M WH
.G e ae e aGO Y j dG dP .NdG QL e UN b J
:fG G e dG YGb
:ddG YGdG cJ CG j fG G e J M
.jCdH eZ Yh e cCG S bJ dCH Fb .qch Se ge WG .1
GPEG Td J Ua J CG jJ fCa .H J J fG YG fc EG snnJ .2
.a bJ (50^000) Y eCG jf d bJ dCG e Y H Yh Y YG
g g b ,jjDe IY gJ GPEa ,jM GP kqT fG H bY CG cJ .3
hCG zAadG j YdG Y{ :J fG G e ed IL IYb JG .dEG gJ eY fK
.zdH phCGh dH Y{
73

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

HMh fG G e dG :(13) jdG


dG FdG Vh ,M YJ CG j dG fG Gh YG H Fb V .1
H JG Y J dG iNCG eG Hh Jg bQh YL d H JG j dG
.G
G d c Qbh d iNCG fCGh NdH Jd fCG Fb LGQ .2
.aG OJ Y kFb gH kYQT Hj ddG AH CG J h ,d Y aCG J Hh
.G d JYe He Y G FcT e jT c bj GPe

(1 G) G fRGe OGYEG
eT fGe jJh gREG J e c c QJ CG jh ,kT qS G H J AT c
.c d
N d dEG bGh Fb J CG j dh ,eCG Fb e G fGe J CG j
Hh .G EG S G e jCG Od edG dG dch edG dG LGQ .G
jCG h LS dG dG bJ Y kGQOb S SCH kYSG M hCG H kGT fGe
YdG L Y FdG Sh ,dG adG Y G G Y S dHh .LS
.dEG MG bhh G G c
,bG ah YdG L Y S Y M Ge j eh Seh dY fG N eG
.NdH JG fCG e dhCG Y fEH G aJ dch aCG f Y J CG Jh
J CG jh ,NdH JG fCG Y de e cCG dG J CH e c G ZJ
.G fGe e %20 e bCG JdG ILCGh XGh G ILCG Y J dG jQGOEG ddG
CG j H EG H e G dGh YG OGGh jdG J dG NdH JG dJ
.dG OQGe e %80 EG %70
.fGG e %10 e bCH oJ CG a CGdG SG dP ,dG eCG

fGG jJ :(14) jdG


EG Uh f d jjdG dG OMh d iNCG fCGh NdH JG fCG LG b
.edG fGG
J aVEH b .dG adG fGe Qd G aH S e OMh edG dG LG b
.dG edG dG EG YGG

74

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

(2 G) YdG L M
Yj b jdG G YG j K (fH) YG ASCG H dG Y J YdG Y
N EG M c fGe ?YdG J d G T aCG g eh ,YS Hh ,H
?eh ?L jh S G e c ae e J M YdG aGe
CG jh .NdG QL GSG H j dG f SCH YG GSG Gh Td jh
:d Yj b jdG UTCH j e eY cJ
K a dHh) fEG Gg T a IMGh Ie Yj b jdG NdG M K ,khCG
.he f Y dG gj b jdG YG M (jNBG NdG H
Y fCG a , ALQCG j Ya ,IFGdG f NGO kM j NdG c GPEG ,fK
.jJ M YG Y dG YSH d ,GUCG Y dM e bCG YJ Y S LQCG
je J CG jh .cQG EG SdG aJ SCG a ,YG SG f GG Yh
e hCG YH CGdh .YO Y M YG e f d eRdG Gh bdG e Jhe
fC Yj S UTCG ADg .TH KdG dG hP e G AeRh dG AbUCGh ISCG
dhCGh ,TG fG e ITe hS jdG UTCG J fdG YGh .T TG aj
jdG UTCG J ddG YGh .TG e de bH JJ dG Jb CG hj jdG
b dh TG e j b UTCG dhCGh ,HfEG GSN jDhQ hjjh aG e j
J iNCG SC hCG ,e b dG aG b jCGQ Y aEd dBc G EG hj
MCG C g SdG d SdG J Y AGQh j dG MdGh gCG dGh .RdG e ae
ddh dG Y Qj hCG j d e T CH zj{ fCH YCG Y TG j .dG e W
QJ CG j .jdG YdG h GDdG Od GQY dP j bhCG h .dH dG e j
hCG TH YLG Y dG dP S g . e c e G d aCG SCG g e
Jh ,eY ee d SJ CG j g ?M hCG Ad EG QG ZS g ?G jH
CG jh .TG g dG d T aCG CG GMCG e ?TG e Ad hCG Jg JH
hCG ,G zGhj{ CG jjDG e j fEa dP Y VYh ,G zj{ fCH TG j
eCG j a j CG Td b eCG c EG .deh bh e dG dZ a j M
?jjDd b
dG S dG dGh .GDdG hCG zdG W{ g YdG M UCG bG ,dH
eL S ,dG dP Y QdHh .dG Od QGYCG c Rj G Y e j CG j
.GOGSG cCG YdG
:ddG YGdG cJ CG j YdG L fCG h
.H cG jdGh dG Y KOG cJ CG hM ,e b hCG HM jDj G j EG .1
e H ,fOCG EG jH b K ,cCG e J G CJ CG aCG a ,e e WCG .2
.bCG Y a b e Y GDdG
75

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

CG ZJ fC ,gCG AG g G a .NC T Sd kGgL G S e dCSG .3


c dH dhJh OdG L YSCG ch .jT H eGdG e hd Y SdG iQGj
.aCG G
jdG R ge CH G j CG J jW aCG a T c J CG GHCG J .4
.V fc e AdGh
,Qe T hCG Wh YR dZ gj dG Gh edG YLG J Ic M g
VG OJ e Sh .YdG H SdG j CG Gc j ,QhdGh dG j G c Ea
LG L dG GeCG J fc EG Qd dG WdG iG Y G e ch L
.d c S hCG G e ebG S hCG edG WdG Od S dG
ZJ b .G gd TG Y ee jE Y Ua YdG L FSQ
dG e dh .fL H j CGh dG dSdG e aj CG dG e fC ,dSQ jW e dG W
hCG JdG JH S G e e T CH dSQ cP EG ,G QN H jh aj CG
id e Ze CG Y OJh e e J CG jdG Hh .H Ad GYe OS
j HN IY SJ h .dSdG Uh H eCG HJ CG d j jCG H Z h .gG
.MCG Hj CG
M J dh ,a gG QU EG dG L HN SQEH eb Y j eCG dd ASGh
J CG jh .WGG YJ e gG Y J fCH kGN Y adG c GPEG H
IU ge Y J M{ :ke cJ dG SCG Xe jjdG HGh GQG
hCG 037^45^67^8 bdH JG OOJ a dG J jJ c GPEG .e WGG e YJ YCGh
J .gG H Y b dh OhOdG e J d .zdG QT e gH bJ
.YdG L hO q fS Ua

YdG N jJ :(15) jdG


jdG AeRh G AbUCGh ,JSCG AYCG FdG hj CG e WGh ,TG H CGHEG .1
.TG fG e ITe j b T CG FdG hJ CG ZJ bh .Kh bY H HJ
CG j FdG g Yh ,d c Y j CG bj dG G SG c e TG j K
.hG SG jb d bG G j
b .G QL dG Gh G dG UTCG ASCG FGb H CGHG .2
NCJ CG jh .dGh YCG LQ eh HdGh dG G YL FGdG J J
,ZQ d dBG G hjh aG g Zj jdG SdGh d FGb Vh QYG
c a j CG bG G ch d dG d T aCG FGdG J Y qJ CG jh
.T
j bh ,G gG e G Y G d Y j e FGdG J d OMh .3
.kHS gjCJ Y M b J G J e AYCG jh ,JdG bQCH FGb CG eCG
76

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

JG eCG j b .aG YG e gG Y Gh jhd dG aCG jH b .4


.Y M QM hCG G e dSQ hCG e ,G Y e hCG TG e Jg

IG G
hdG j M H b NCdG jh ,G Ia N gREG j dG G e dG g
jCG Qe Y CG EG da cCG S NdG bEG P :e G J h H AdGh G
dS cCG hS iNCG G e dGh NdG bEG P Ea ,dP e ZdG Yh .GbEG d HdG
HfEG e G Hh .dG bGdG U Y H AdGh SG b H dG T GPEG
G TGh G dhDG j b .H AdG b GS Z j b HdG
CGJ G a .Ieh FGO c SdG G jDhQ GYT GPEG Y IOSG SdG GMCGh
jY G c j HfEG IQhdG CGJ M H G YCG a ,GbEG e NCG dG
.eCG LdG Y dG REG Ua jh HU cCG dG hjh
CGJ CG j eh MGbG Hh M J CG j dG G Fb e GAL fOCG S
ahd ah jH J hCG ,FdG g EG aVEG ZJ b ? CG d dG AdG b ,G REG
.G

77

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

H AdG j e

G e

HfEG Y jQdG fGdG ae G TGh G Y HfEG fb SGQO


.fGdG J GJ CG CH WG Y Gfj CGh ,d IG MG
,a gOL cJ Zj dG FGhdG jH G b J CG GMCG Y
IFGdG GSG
.HfEG dG J e GSG dP J Y jh
H AdG G TGh SdG GMCd j ,d HS Ia
IFGdG SGQO
.IFGdG HfEG Y eG
QeCG Y eG L hdG G TGh SdG GMCd j
NdG SGQO
.G N GdG bG ejh , bh bCG Nd G
.jW bH G b hCG HdG HfEG AfG H bh bCG qJ HdG HfEG SGQO
bh bCG gGdG SdG VdG Y ee MJEGh aJ G Y j HfEG g SGQO
.G N VdG dP bG Jh YJ CGh
.G b Y dH TG SH SdG GMCG CGJ CG j
TG j
.Td SdG d IO Ia fdG j e dZ
TG J
UTCG e Y H AdG Y ,HfG adG NO TG Qj eY
G J
.HfEG G J JY
.gj j M Te Y J H CG G Y j
TG SGQO
.Y dG j M gREG j aG TG SGQO
bGJh bh bCG RdG d eRdG GUCG OY G O CG j
GgCG Vh
.H dG N dP Y FQW GJ CG
qJ CG d jh G AH b G Nf j CG SdG d j
NdG GSG
.G Ia N dP bG Jh bh bCG NdG e G QG
.gKCJ bGeh djEH FGO j SSCG dSQ SdG d j CG j
G dSQ jJ
.bh bCG dSdG jH TGh G J CG jh
d j dSdG jJh eRdG SGQdGh dG AGLEG G J M NdH JG N jJ
.dSdG J jEG c QJ CG
aVEG Y Jh ,bh bCG SSCG eR H jH CGJ CG G Y j
edG dG jJ
.G S J e dEG
. bh bCG G N J CG j
G N Hc

78

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dEG S fGe VH J CG j ,REG d j e a G CGJ M


.GgCG J d dGh Gh edG e
HG YdG H AdG j ,HfG adG VN TG Qj M
.G Ia N G g J CG jh
.G fEG j c `` FGO `` bGJ CG G Y eGd S
MG ah G edG XH bh bCG j CG Td j
.dP EG MG j M HG qQG J CG d j
,NdH Jd edG G e kGAL adG JGSG J CG j
.bh bCG jdH JGSG J jJ j c
.LG ah G Hc REG j
AH b fG G e aFG jH SdG G CGj CG j
Gh G H JG CGJ CG G Y jh .HfEG
. bh bCG
aJ b dG G hCG G IS ``dZ`` j bOd OG edG hG
QhV g e d hG dP ae G Y j dP eh .bOG J
.HG bOG d
Y Od ef G QJ CG jh .LG ah TG bhCG dhL j
.eEG Qb hH GdGh GYdG
TG aGj CG j GMCG h eRdG LMG ah XdG S
.bdG GW T
.aGgCG d bG e edG EG G S G J CG H
G Ia N H fSG d Ie MGe YG SG CGj CG j
.eRdG OGG jH
G J CG j NdH JG S j dch ,dSdG jJ bh W
.eRdG OGG jH
G d gOL c G J CG j NdH JG S Y bh W
.G AH b NdG e HS JG g j CG j dc
.Gh G ie Y jQS NdG Y OhOdG e J CG j

79

G fGe jJ
YdG L
dG adG bGe
edG XJ
qQG ah G
JGSG jJ
aU / eYEG
G Hc
aFG AH

bOG Y G

Td edG hG
Td XdG
jG edG
YG SG
G OGe jJ
JG N J
NdH
W Y OhOdG
NdG

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

``G
Conclusion
H b K ,hCG IG eT IAGb JCGb d M .eG e dG j OTQEG dG Gg
e .G dG H S fEa ,M Hc EG bdG d d IN H IN Y WEG
Gg EG LJ CG j .HS SS GN d fc EG M ,G dP c hH DdG G
.SCG H IQKEG Y hCG dG S J N d Le M N J e ,dG
:dc gOQf gCG gG cCGh
.dH gREG AGLCG EG H b K ,G EG eT IH CGJ CG j .1
.bGhh de M N JGSG J cGh ,Rd bGh JGSG QJ CG j .2
.YbEGh NdH JG CG dG G Jh ,G N J CG j GNCGh .3
.dG dGh Gh edG :OQGG GSH da cCG M S GG d YJHh
GG d YJGh .d jdH NdG bE cCG QH Ya M S GG J YJHh
.dG AT EG RdG jW Y aCG f Y Ad aS

81

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G eG G e :zCG{ G
Appendix A: A Glossary of Campaign Terms
cGe EG UdG j dG NdG ej GbG bH gh :FdG GbG bH 
EG jdH kdZ SJh .Gbd OG dG IFGdG Y Hd hCG ,jL bYEG Y Lf SC GbEG
.HfEG bH fCG .Gbd OG dG b HfEG dG
.eYG FSdG Y d YEG LCG aH G J ,NdH Jd jW :FYdG YEG 
.LCG aG YEG dch YEGh dSdG fG
Te e cCG j M hCG Ya FGhO IY J Ic IFGO kdZ Jh :dG SGh IFGO 
jd TG H dG SGh IFGO Y HfEG aG qTG Vj b .f IFGdG
.MdG IOe HfG fG .IOG gFGhO HfEG Vj (jdG) jG
gh dG CG VdH hj g ``fd j M NdG Ye Uh j Gg :bGG 
?S Ye HJ CG QGh QhdH SMG Y j
JU fh ,GbEGh JH AOEd NdG ej dG SdG KdG gh :GbEG bH 
.edG EG HfG
eQ hCG TG SG j M TG F Y G G Jh :HfEG FdG Y VG 
NdG OS da ,bdG W IOjR j f FdG Y TG e dG g c EGh .HfG
.aCG Ua Y S FdG YCG b S dG TG Ea ddh .gfOCG M FdG AGb Y EG
Y eG e Qb cCG jd DhGLEG j SS SG gh :YdG G SG 
SG fCG .SdG Wf N VG b d IG MGG ``IOY ``DhGLEG jh .NdG
.HG SGh SdG
c e S dh `` Td jjDG e H j OY a aj dG WG :YCG dG 
H ,GbEG cGe EG NdG e OY cCH adG d kj j b ``TG hjDj Nf IY
zYG dG{ j da ,Gbd G T c J a .Td jjDG j Y dG
.GbEG cGeh zJU eG{ fCG .GbEG cG

83

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

Y GTEd IOe GMCG e J hCG HM Z AYCG e ddG Jh :HfEG g 


.HfEG fG .feCGh gGH gS Vh HfEG
aJ e hCG bY j e hCG e hCG e T Ud G dP j :LLdG Y 
.iNCG fCG hCG eG
QJ CG j dc .G fGL Y bfEG bJ dG GeCG QGe EG kdZ J :fGG 
dG dP Yh .G e e c bJ S dG edGh ,e c RE HG UTCG OY
.dGh edG OQ fGG OGYEG SG b ``dc ``S
``jh .G Ga d ij dh ,OG Ye IOY ij fG CG :J fG 
.UG HfEG fG .UG hCG dG HfEG YG OY ``YG Y
NdH JGh GMCd edG hG jd G dG Jh :d edG dG 
Uj Ea) ,G Qhj e d dG dG j ,FQh Y dG dP j CG jh .G
j ddh) QGG Y e c S kdZ g jh .(j d fCG dP a ,dG eCG
.(kec
fG .Td FdG jQG e Jh G QGdG U Y IOY Jh :G 
.G ja
,TG Y ZHEGh G NdG YE J dGh d YG OGG :G HOCG 
.d jdH YbEGh
.G AGLE edG hDdGh JGSG jJ Y GTEG Y hDG dG :G je 
.G IQGOEG J Td h
dG dG GY Lj h .NdG K d ge J hCG je W LJ :G ge 
.dG Gg VG gGh Gh
.G JGSGh dSdGh GSGh edG dG dG HG KdG g :G N 
OG dG EG kUh IN H IN dG H gjhJh G e IOe dP c OGYEG jh
.Gbd
aoJh ,HdG G e jdG J GN d aJ jdG UTG Jh :G a 
.RdG h NdG bE RdGh dG dG gG cQj UTCG ADgh .G d QLCG d
.I W aJ c G JEG Y j eH eCGh
AT c J h .dGh Gh edG :Y J SdG dG MG OQGG :G OQGe 
OQe c GSG IQhV ,Ic CG fc IU ,M c QJ CG gCG eh .KdG OQGG d kah
.G QHh ,ddG dG aCH
84

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

h .Td FdG jQG e jh ,G QGdG U Y kdZ jh :G ja 


.G fG .G edG ch G G ja j b G H
Y dG TG QhO jh .HfG Rd HfEG Vj dG dG Jh :TG 
Td h .TG dd GbH YbEGh d YdG d G gGh NdG He
.G d edG hDdGh JGSG jJ Y hDG G je e j CG
dP h .Te Y G dG ,IL CG fc S ,eG ac jh :TG H 
.dG fG .G e gDhGLEG j dG HCG e kGAL
NBG EG Nf eh e EG e eh ,T EG T eh ,H EG H e fG Jh :GdG 
.H EG H e fG .jjDG jh NdG bEGh G dSQ Ud
VJh ,Nd egh eh ,bGe GPh bOUh ,Ib dSdG J CG j :dSdG S 
.kFGO QJh aeh ,(GLdG) dG WJh ,aG He jdG
gh .G Ia N jjDd Re IdG L e S :dG / IdG efH 
J d dG ec e T j eCG j bh ,ke kbhh kbT kGL J G
.dG / IdG L fG .GYdGh G
UCG j M jjDG e T hCG e e G J Jh :dG / IdG L 
dc .Ld Lh TG e JG J fCG HjEG fGL eh .TG He e G dP
.IdG efH fG .gG QU e YdG eGSG
.iNCG aGO Y e Ke de d hCG He aGO Y gh :eG YG 
SQG j ,dd .dG d eCG e ce de SQd j b ,G S a
.eG YG e eCGh
Hfd QGSHh FGO j Gh TG CH j dG G Jh :IG G 
.dSdG jEG hd fd OG YG M jj h .G
.e e hCG e T dG e AL gh :JCG 
.H H fQe Y TG H jdGh dG VGS G dSQ GSG gh :jdG 
.bGGh dSdG fG .VGh GQN Nd J CG G eh
.e hT hO e dG hCG SdG d H dG j dG GeCG gh :gG 
jdG UTCG ,dG Yh .SdG e M G H J dh qjCG :dG G N 
dH KDa ,eYEG dG gG j b f G dh .jjDG e eCG dZ g G
.bWh jjDG f jh YdG L G U GSG dc h .jNBG NdG
85

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

VJ CG d h .G hCG TG Y ,S hCG HjEG fc EG ,NdG jDhQ Jh :bGG 


.dSdGh jdG fG .aG bGe Nh ,Te bGe ad dSQ GSH jdG
Y HLEd SdG SG e GDd G HLEG He hCG fQe :We Me 
MG e Ie SdG Sd G ea .aGdG eG hCG iNCG SCG
.SdG SG fG .WG
FGdG e cj gDhYCGh aGdG dG NGO IU Y gh :We FGT 
.iNCG aGdG
Gh dG ieh NdGh dGh d ah NdG Y J :GdG GSG 
NdG CG Vjh .ac NdG QL d IOh IU S qjCG hCG ,jdGh KCG Gh ddGh
.Y SCGh H JGUCH Yj S e aGO Y EG j jdG
H G NdG EG dSdG jE YJEG d hCG Td f CG :NdH Te JG 
.eYEG FSdG GSG Y VY T
hCG SS hCG e dH e j Nd jH N SQEG :jdG Y TG dG 
.T
.FdG TG Sh HfEG a S dG IOG aGG G gh :IFGdG 
j dG dG e gh .IFGdG Y L d dG eG c gh :IFGdG H 
.dG fG .G e gDhGLEG
EG e e dH YG hCG TG j M ,NdH Jd jW gh :H EG H e 
,TG H j M ,GUCH Rd G dSCG aCG e Jh .NdG EG ITe dGh ,e
.e GLh bh J fCG ZH
YG J e dZh .GbEG F SCG gCG HfEG bCG J e dZ :e GbG 
adG fG .dGh fEd Vd hCG Y NdG Gf ,GUCG bCG Y FdG fOCG dG
.NdG AYEG dch NdG DhJ hCG G HfG
Hh H bd zYEG c{ Jh .YEGh adG d J jCG :YEG c 
e H j kGQbh bh e kGT S e kdZ G CG j dPh .LCH YEG hCG aG YEG
.IL eYEG J Y d gL
.gGH gS Vh HfEG Y GTEd J j HM Z g IOY gh :HfEG 
.HfEG g fG

86

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.JOb fGh JGUCH AOEd GbEG cGe EG NdG a Aj dG dG :fEG j 


.HfH Rd HG GUCG OY EG dZ jh :HfG dG 
.c f CG Y HfEG J fGb hCG YGb jCG :HfEG YGb 
jdH NdG bE IgG G hCG IG QaCG EG G Gg j :HfEG LddG 
dG G e dG J dSG g c H .Ie ge hCG M qjCG dG Gg j .Td
.HfEG ge fG .j H ej
.NdG fG .fEG Gg GbEG Y IQOdG fdG jdG gh :YG 
hCG/h bG dG J dG eYEG dGh jGh jdG jh :hdEG YEG 
G YEG fG .aGZJdG IQdG hCG / h YG dG j dG G YEG He ,jdG
.AhG YEGh
Yd jNBG NdG hCG YJG IKDG G hCG CGdG IOb e J hCG J bOG :bOG 
.CGdG IOb fG .d GbEGh TG
kdZ Y gh .e jd hCG jO hCG eb Y EG j dG NdG gh :KEG NdG 
.d aGdG dG QJ e
jdG cMh aG :e eG QeCG j Y J e Xh gh :dG G 
.jdG G fCG .FdGh
fEG JH AOEGh GbEG cGe EG gS fCG j dG NdG OY :G YG 
.HfG adG hCG OG
TG Y NdG e TG JG J Y hDGh G edG g gh :GG jG 
.G hCG
Tc d dG Td j NB OG edG gh :d FdG YGG 
.e
SG e S Wh UTCG e Y L j M YLG d e :cdG Y 
ee dG OhOQ QNGh gd edG bGG Y c ee Y G VH ,Y
.SdG SG fG .Ye SQh
FbUCH JG Y YG aGj M NdH Jd e :AbUCG UCG efH 
.TG dd GbEG Y Mh JdG hCG jdG Y FeRh

87

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.Sh qjCG Y d YdG j hCG j dG dG gh :YdG eL 


V IFdG CG jh ,dG bG kah NdG QL J :GG GSG 
GJUh e e j jdG NdG EG dG Vjh .GG d kah NdG QL
.dG g Ic GJ jCG hM Y M G dG GP Y JS ,e H HdG
.NdG Q e dSQ QGJ G c Y j :gdG IYdG 
jd GbEG cGe EG gdH NdG cd j dG G gh :zJU eG{ 
fG .JGUCH dS jjDe CG e cCd GbEG j b kGL G J e kdZh .TG dd
.YG dGh dG
.Y HfG G He Zjh NdG H j e HfEG M Jh :jT aJ 
.e aJ fG .YG e c OY Y jdG adG GP HfEGh
a ,dG HfEG Y GPEG :dH Lj SdG Sd GDS :G S hCG G GDS 
aGhdG J d Y HLG C d gCG bCG GDdG Ggh ?z`g{ TG hCG z{ TG dd S
SG fCG .Gbd OG dG GbEG cGe Y g gCG d dG MdG G GDSh .SCGh
.SdG
EG ad Td djh GG fOCG jdG UTG e jdG g :IQdG fU 
dhCG jh .NdG G Y Td dG G H gh Ie HfEG CH dG
Jd G dG e kH G TG jW CG hCG Nd dG dG Y kdZ UTG
S Ff EG kFGO j jdG dG TG .VGh dSH YbEG dh NdG S NdH
a fCG .G e dG jh bdG e dG jh UTG dhCG Ld hOj jSh
.G
.kdM j HfEG Vj TG CG Jh :fEG IOYEG 
,dG Y JG Wh SG ILCG J NdH Jd Sh qjCG :zffEG{ M 
e J J JG Sh CG ZQh .dhdG JG T d be jJ SdG J Jh
NdG e J EGh NdG EG Ud kGL J fC NdH Jd Sc da d fEG Z
.dG AG
YO .b dh e J jObG eRCa .e M e AL hCG M gh :jdG 
.jb J Qh ,IL QaCG g jYdG TG aO hCG , hCG QSG d FGdG GAYG
M SQ Z IQH jh ,Td FdG jQG Ud j e :G 
.jNBG gG GHj
88

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

cG NGe Y VJh HfG Gh TG SG Y Ic a gh :RG eCG a 


cJh TG Y dG Ua YJ fC IL IdG adG Jh .dG e He Y iNG Weh
.FG fG .GbH NdG
. gaJ SdG eCj dG IOG dG gh :jOb U 
G fG .jdG e eJ g hCG Sfd hCG d e Xh gh :jdG G 
.dG
HOCG AdE H EG H e YG gj M NdH Jd Sh :HOCG AdEG hCG J 
bCG SdG a NdG EG Kj h dG bj fCh .IFGdG e c dG SCG e
EG H eh G HOCG fG .cCG YH gREG dh Nd kYbEG bCGh NdH Jd da
.H
G Nd G HOCG jRH YG j M NdH Jd Sh :HOCG jRJ 
UGG FSh G hCG ,GhdG jf G hQOj jdG dG e Ic jG
.G HOCG fG .bG hCG ,QfG bJ Y
fG .dG H Kj Qh NdG H j e HfG HfEG M qjCG :e aJ 
.e GbGh jT aJ
HOCG d h .jdG Y NdG EG G HOCG SJ M NdH Jd Sh :jdG 
.jd IaG NdG Fb hCG G d kah kaGO hCG kaGL NdG GSG
ZCG Hj Ggh ,MGh Nf EG aVEH NdG e FG N Jh :NdG ZCG 
.YG ZCG fG .YG
.GSG fCG .Td HfEG RdG d HG NdG OY :RdG eg 
.SGh QH j dG G YEG CG :YEG 
dhGe U J b .e f YEG dG j dG aGG G Jh :YEG S 
.e f NGO H jRJ hCG ,IQhG IQGh je f NGO
SCG MJE GhdG Y djEH Gh TG j bOdG eG e IO U :dSdG 
.Td GbH Nd G
,fCG Y f df e :HfEG j CG jDhdG G j gh :dSdG hU 
c Y kf e IQU d j Ggh .Y dj eh fCG Y g fdj eh ,aG Y df eh
.aG Hh H jdGh VGdG FdG d j CG jh ,HfEG G N S AT
89

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

gCG eh .dGh edG dc OQGG Jh HfEG M d KdG OQGG MCG :GeCG 


.fGGh G OQGe fG .dd Nh d f c jEG qS dG G e O CG
.IOe Y TG H Rj IFGO fG :YG Oe 
.zAS Aj CG eCG CG{ :zQe{ fb 
TG Y dG NdG j e kdZh .TG ASCG Y NdG J :SG Y dG 
HdG Y jQOb NdG Gj CG TG Y G eh .SG Y aj dG Td Yj ddh
.GbEG F Y S Mh SG C ,dSdGh TG ASCG H
fEG eCG .e H Jj hCG ,GMCG H e eCG hCG e T Jj eY dPh :HM Z 
G eCG .GbEG F fhe Z HGMCG CG hCG e GMCG EG j TG c CG j HG Z
M EG AfG Od dPh , GMCG IY Jh GMCH JG Z G J a HG Z
.e
IOb e fj bh .H G gCG KCdG j jdG UTCG gh :CGdG IOb 
dhCG jCH RJ CG GL G eh .G YCGh eYEG dG AYCGh CGdG IOb eh ,fG G
.bOG fG .d Ie Me UTCG
Te cQjh ,H Rd faj jdG TG c dP jh :G / aG 
.f GbEG F
hCG S fc AGS AjbCG aG jd G dG ,eG gh :aG Y dG 
.dG fCG .G e gDhGLEG j dG dG e kGAL J gh .IL
FSdG VYh qH LCG e d He G aJ FYO YEG CG :LCH YEG hCG aG YEG 
.adGh jGh jdG e eYEG
,d Gbd SCG Jh TG Ud J G HOCG e jQe b g :dG bH 
.dSdGh G HOCG fG .G dSd VGh UN J CG jh
AfG CG j da kHM fEG j Mh .SS M EG j eCG CG hCG T CG :HM 
.HM Z fG .GbEG F Y Ve Qh ,c CT d HG
QNH G j K NdG j eY dPh ,GbEGh jd gh :HM Fb 
.Y M dG jdG d ah TG
MG GUCG f hCG GUCG OYh ,HdG HfEG Y eG c gh :HdG AGOCG 

90

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

IOe HfG hCG He Te g c GPEG .He LdjjEG d NBG hCG e M T


.dG AGOCG a H e H L YG dG Se Vh
ae GL G eh .Gh edG gh jNBG jOQG J dG SdG d OQGG MCG :dG 
.G OQGe fG .dd dGh e e RE HG UTCG OY
,NBG H .FGO Y Jj jdG HfEG IQGOEG NdG f Jh :bEG feEG 
,f d e hCG LdjjCG d K NB Jj M ,e T Jj b IFGO NdG
Hb MGh Y jG Z NdG ADg jh .He HfG JQhO hCG f fEG
G N Yfh NdH JG FSh QGe KDJ b e IFGO NdG bEG Hb fh .bEd
.IFGd
e T Jj CG ,eh e Y Jj jdG NdG gh :YbEG G NdG 
.be HfG JQhO hCG f fEG ,f G e hCG LdjjEH d K NB Jj h
dSH YbEG dh ,e LdjjEH hCG e H JQH j NdG ADg CG jh
.VGh
jdG YGh JdG N e OY a dG G gh (JdG JG cGe) :JdG H 
.NdH Jd Y j
bh .JdG Y NdH JH YG j M ,NdH Jd Sh :JdG JG 
.OG dG GbEG cGe EG Ld YG Mh jjDG jh NdG bE SdG g J
M REH hj e TG hCG SdG G a j ,kHe j e dZ :HfG efdG 
.efdG fG .HfEG dSQ d efdGh .j
ZCG Y j gh ,e fG JGUCH dj jdG YG ZCG Jh :YG ZCG 
.NdG ZCG fG .MGh Nf EG aVEH %50 J dG NdG
dH G dG e GfCH j e UHh ,H G dG gh :SdG VQCG 
.G SdG
.G iNCH hCG jH KDj b dGh ,G SdH j T c j :SdG YdG 
,Nd FGY d ah DhGLEG j ch YVe YLG H :SdG SG 
.JGSG d eG ad j c ,NdG AGQBG jd G eJh
.JGUCH AOEd YG j M qG G :HfG ce 

91

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

hCG aGdG LR Y Vh h ,HfG Gh TG SG J Ic eY :G 


.FG fG .GbEG H NdG cJh TG SG Y dG Ua Y IL G .QdG IYCG
.MGh GbG ce IFGd j dZh .HfH J IFGO UCG gh :HfEG IFGdG 
fG .dd HfG fMCGh ,Ye J Y hDG dG gh :HfEG IFGdG Hc 
.HfEG IFGdG
NdG Fb :e ,e HfEG IFGO Y L j ee CG :HfEG IFGO Y ee 
.HdG fEG e GUCG Mh HdG HfEG YG LEGh
d dh .G QN J j Nd c M hCG M CG Jh :eY YLG 
ddG L gh IXG Mh edG GDGh edG dG qJ gh .NdG Heh QG
.GMCG N fG .HfEG G IS QN
eG Y WEG MJE YEGh adG YJh G d J M CG :YEGh adG 
.e b Y hCG M Y
Y cCG ee MJE ad eJh G gQJ ,eG e aM gh :eYEG aM 
hCG TJ Y J dG d fh JQUh TG IS ddG eYEG aG Jh .TG
fh G JYCG dG IG d f e bGG M dG GQhCG Ve adG fdG hCG G
.G HOCG e
.TG e HLEG Jh SCG Ld ad Ua gh :HLCGh SCG :adG 
TG be VJ ,YEG edG hCG SGd G J dG eG gh :U H 
.jN b U dZ dG ZdG Jh ,M hCG e b Y
.adGh YEG fCG .YEG e edG Y hDe G e T gh :U JS 
dG j dG ,YEG TCG e T CG hCG ,G Gh dG jh :AhG YEG 
fG .jdG hCG FG hCG YG dG j dG ,hdG YEG Hh H jd ,IeG IQdG hCG
.YEG hCG dG YEG
hL G g J ,JGSEG J d Nh JGSG d dG G gh :Ya M 
.G G fCG .aG e LGS e e QJh Hfd dYCG
d efdGh .Nd e jb IY S e j ,TG hCG G efH gh :efdG 
.HfG efdGh dSdG fG .dSQ
AOEd OG dG GbEG cGe EG Td jjDG NdG gP V Jh :dG 
92

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

j ,dG Yh .GbEG cGe EG NdG d AT c J CG d jh .Td JGUCH


eG{ fG .G jCdG a aj dG WG GY jdG EG gdH kHS gj jdG jjDG M
.YCG dGh zJU
.HLCGh SCG :adG fG .GGh GDdG gh :HLCGh SCG 
Y HfG Rd TG Hj M ,dG H dZ HfEG G QJ :dG 
.HfEG VN
N j e hCG ,SdG VQCG OhOd gOQGe J dG G g :e M 
hL Vd G EG dG h ,Y REG Y Jh G EG J dG G gh :HfEG
.Ya M fG .YCG
J bh .L d dGh ,fEG Gg KDS dG eG c g :dG 
Te Y eeh ,G fEGh HdG HfEGh NdGh FGhdGh HfEG YGb eG
.Gh G JGSG hCG IG g dG AGLEGh .AjbCG aGh
a . AT Y H QGb f bdG g e d QGb CG CG Jh :IOhG OQGG IYb 
j dc ,OQGG J S QGdG J CG jh .dGh Gh edG gh ,OQGG e Oh OY M
.JGSG VJ He M N d j CG G e
,NdG ZCH FdG e jd fG AGLEG j eY ,fCG H :d jL fG 
FdG YCG MG jdG TG Ea ,hCG IQhdG NdG ZCG Y TG e CG j Mh
.jL S S hCG IQhdG GUCG ZCH
Rd TG Hj M ,dG H dZ HfEG G QJ :d adG dG 
.dG fG .H
Y OhOdGh Td edG dGh d dG dG Y hDe G e T g :hG 
.GYdG
LCG e J dG H Te EG Rj M ,MGh e GP HfEG IFGO gh :Oe e 
.G
.dSdG g d QdGh .G hCG TG jH NdG cJ b e IQY gh :QdG 
Y e IFGdG Jh dG Ge dG HdGh GQdG gh :eYEG HY 
.NdH Jd FG e e GAL Jh .dSdG
h .G d J jh edG hG QN IOY j fG gh :FL UN fG 
.dG fEG fG .dG HfEG g c YG OY j fEG Gg
93

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.G e hCG ,SdG e Y T J M IOY J :G 


.fS Ua CG G hCG dSdG jEG G hCG TG j eY :dSdG Y AdG 
.dP bh OJ G eh .dSQ QGJ Y GH G qj CG hj e dZ aG
FdG jQGh Td GAdG e S hCG YLG gh :JGSG dG YLG 
N U He JGSG g J CG jh .edG JGSG jh eRdG eG
.G N fG .d
f GbEG j M G H S e hCG ,G N G G gh :JGSG 
.G g EG ODj dG SG Ggh .H RdGh TG
G dSQ Y CG jh .Se IY TG dj jQe N gh :jYb N 
.fS Ua c OOJ CG Y U
Gg d hCG Td YS UTCc G e gj jdG NdG g :hjDG 
.fEG
.SQ hCG TG Y j T CG :jdG/VG 
Td he f Yh GMC GbEG e jQJ d HfEG IFGO gh :LQCe IFGO 
TGh G GMCG Hh ,QdGh dG H LQCJ fC ,be JQhO hCG f fEG
feEG fG .JGUCH RdG d IFGdG g NdG bE gOQGe G J CG ke jh .G
.bEG
GMC GbEG e jQJ dh HfEG IFGdG V IU IFGO gh :LQCe HfEG IFGO 
GPEG YbEG G V NdG ADg jh . HfG hCG f fEG Jhe LdjjEG hCG
.bEG Nf fG .iNCG e hCG IL M dSH dEG UdG
g JGSG f Y G OQGe SG j dN e dG SdG gh :dG 
.G
.Rd eg jh dSdH bEd Hb G gGJ jdG NdG e gh :e Nf 
.RdG egh dSdG fCG
Y cJ CG j e CG jh .UCG Y EG NdG QL J Y gh :GSG 
.GG GSGh GdG GSG fG .RdG eg ad dSQ
.fEG d G edG hCG ,e Te f G G EG J gh :G 
c O CG Gh .dG OQGh G OQe jh ,SdG d KdG OQGG e gh :bdG 
C ,jNBG jOQG Y jh .f d dG j ,Gdh .e f d edG e S
94

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.f edG ddH G J J dh ,HfEG VJ dG G f bdG


G dSQ fc c jd M bh FGLEH J SS SG gh :M SG 
GQGb Ghj jdG NdG dch ,YbE G NdG gKCJh NdH Jd G dGh
.SdG SGh YdG G SG fG ...JGQ
dEG IQTEG h JGUCH djh GbEG cGe EG dH gj NdG e AL gh :YG 
.U OY hCG je c
.NdG id HZe J dG OG gh :dG 
j eh HGh eSG GQdG h ,TG SG a j NdH Jd Sh :FG 
Gc J dh ,TG SG Y dG mc bd jDhQ Oa .NBG AT CG hCG adG Y
.G dSH NdG
.LCG hCG He hO G IY dG e bdG H jh Td jDe g :G 
.JbhCG dhLh YG SG Y hDe G edG g e T :YG e 
M e NBG T JGUCH dj K T JGUCH NdG j eY dPh :GbEG fG 
j jdG Nda .f GbEG h f GbEG bH Y LdjjEG AfG d hCG
.bEG feEG fG .G dSH bEd Hb hj JYGbG
Y Jh fe YG GUCG J G hCG G Z HfEG bdG :NdG VfG 
h TG Y hCG adG dG Y T e j NdG C ,ddG HfEG bdG GUCG
.faj T jdH JQH hj
dG bdG hCG ,faj jdG Td jdG Y EG NdG LJ gh :NdG AYEG 
hCG NdG VfG fG .G GbEG hCG G adG dG NdG AYEG Jj H j
.e GbG hCG e S
.IFGdG jhYh NdG ASCG Y dG ed SSCG IYdG gh :NdG e 
jQJh gQYCGh JGg bQCG e NdG Y iNCG ee Y j b QG NdG eh
jjDG jH aCG IQH NdG e jJ TGh SdG GMCd h .GbEG HdG
.ITe NdG GDH LdH g dP d IMdG jdGh ,NdG J dG jdG hCG Td
e dZh .dWCG J hCG FXh e J dG ATCH NdG j e kdZ :NdG jdhCG 
EG dG TG e eCG jh .Y IdG dG edG SdG jH egG LGj
.J dG ATCG Y NdG
.YG fG .G Gdh fEG Gg jdG Y QOb T CG gh :NdG 
95

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G H SCG :() G
Appendix B: Campaign Research Questions
bGh JGSG jJh .UG Vh a Y G IY U dG SCG e S g
dH CGJ b SCd edG dG N e dG dh .G e c Y GDS c J
Hh ,J HLEG j b NBG Hh ,e HLEG j b SCG H .JRh QeCG
e jdH dG j Hh dH eb j b NBG dG H ,d JHLEG QJ b SCG
eCG j b G H h ,U HLEG Y d ,dG YSG J dG dG
qJ CG gCG e .dG c J M EG dH J h ,e GDS HLE dG dH J CH
.SCG g Y HLEGh dG RE IO YGe

HfEG YGb (1
HfEG f .CG
Fb Y hCG HG FdG Y c EG G S Y) ?VJ dG Gg HfEG e f CG .1
.(MGh hCG YG Oe ,TG
?(YG ZCG hCG NdG ZCG) HfEG Rd G e .2
?(MGh hCG e e cC YG Oe kHfG c EG) Y aS dG YG OY c .3
?ja V hCG O HfEG VS g .4
?LCG e aS dG G dhDeh MU e .5
HfEG fb .
fdG J :hCG
?gGdG fd HfEG YGbh fb Hc Y hDG e .1
?fGdG da J Y hDG e .2
Td dG :fK
?Td d FdG YGG e .1
?Td d G e .2

97

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G j :dK
?e QG IO gG g .1
?gG Y jQdG ad G e .2
?G j e S OG YG j e .3
G :HGQ
?YEG GSG MJEG CH fdG j GPe Y .1
cG NGe ah Gh eYEG jYdG HY GSG CH fdG j GPe Y .2
?FYdG FG GS FGdGh
GbEG j :eN
?fEG MU d HG QeCG e YG LEG f g .1
?J eh ?GbEG cGe J e .2
?GbEG j G AGLEG UH fdG YGb e .3
?GbEG ce b G AGLEG UH ffdG YGdG e .4
?FdG Y bOGh HfEG AGLEG Y hDG e .5
?G HfG jhd HGS e g .6

IFGdG (2
?hJ g CG Yh IFGdG hJ c .CG
?OhG g e .1
?M eh ,Ic g g ,NBG f Y hCG ,IFGd dG dG e .2
?HfEG KDS gh ,IFGdG GbEG j dG M S c .3
?IFGdG IKDe e H eGY g g .4
?IFGd jObG G e .5
?CGSCG EG CG aCG EG eG IdG hdG J g .6
?kGNCG IFGd fdG cdG J c .7
?UGG f hj c .8
?IFGdG Y IaG iNCG fdG e .9
?HfEG g KDJ b IFGdG e eCG jb g g .10
?QYG gNC IFGd UN S g g .11

98

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?IFGdG SdG VQCG g c (


?IFGdG SdG YdG g e .1
?WdGh aGh jjG ie Y SdG GMCd FdG VdG e .2
?G G IOb e .3
?jQdG YG IOb e .4
?CGQ IOb hj jdG hNBG e .5
?eG Y NdG j jCG e (
?eYEG aG jCGh ,eh ,rne .1
?G YEG ae Y j rne .2
?G YEG a HfEG j jdG SGG g rne .3
?jQNEG eGdG J e .4
?SGd IOG YGG e .5
?G EG YEG j c .6
?G YEG S c .7
?aG S e CGh TG S aU CG .8
?LCH FYdG fYEG H d jCG .9

NdG (3
?dP eh ?IFGdG G Nd U Fb hCG NdG e aj g (CG
?GMCG jCdG ie hCG G J e (
dGh dGh jdG G hCG G hCG dG hCG NdG ie e) Nd aGdG cdG e (
?(...dG
?(Nf c j jCG) NdG Q aGG dG e (O
?iNCG YG e cCG S fCH cCG f Y j NdG e Y CG (`g
?hjDe hj c (h
?edG dG J K e ch aG NdG hj c (R
?IFGdG G G e (
?dG Y jhdGh GdG Ad FdG dG e (
?NdG j jCG (

99

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?NdG j jCG (
e f J dG cS e hCG dG hCG dG Qch IdG e IO aGO Y g (
?IFGdG
?eG IdG fdG cdG LEG Se GJ KM g (
?QYG gNC NdH UN U qjCG g g (

HdG HfEG (4
?HdG HfEG Y d dG VN e .CG
?Y d HdG HfEG Ff e .
?INCG HfEG GcQT jdG f e .
?INCG HfEG GYbG jdG NdG OY c .O
?INCG HfEG G dH Rd HG GUCG OY c c .`g
?JGP IFGdG iNCG YG Ff e .h
?KG TG jCJ NG ie e .R
?HdG HfEG IQb hCG HfEG jhd HGS g g .

G fEG (5
jdG (CG
?NdG J dG G jdG e .1
?NdG J dG edG WdGh bEG jdG e .2
?NdG FdG edG e .3
?Nd dG GG g c .4
?G IOb NdG j c .5
ie Yh dG WdG iG Y G dhDGh G IOb NdG j c .6
?G iG Yh aG
iNCG HfEG aJ (
KDS ch ?HfEG g GbEG bH Y S dG iNCG HfEG aG e .1
?dG HfEG
?IFGdG iNCG M S jNBG pe ne .2
?iNCG G e d MG UdG e .3
100

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

Te (6
Gg LCG e HfEG g VN GP :GDS Y TG Oj c hCG HfEG g V aGdG e (CG
?G
?fOCG OS e d Vh Jb WGe EG dH TG N g e (
.TG dW r pU .1
.TG J r pU .2
.Td dG jQdG r pU .3
.HbCG e TG FY r pU .4
?G g Fd S QhO CG .5
?Y J hCG TG fG S g .6
?HS TG H b dG dG GbEG hCG edG jdG e .7
?(Gh dG cPG) TG Y hNBG b GPe .8
?OYH AadH aM S Td g .9
?TG IS Z hCG e J b e Y g g .10
?a aW TG c c jb hCG Y S g g .11
?FGP JT ch ?TG H j AT aCG e .12
?dP Y QG WEG j gh TG GbG S e .13
?TG GREG gCG e .14
?dG G eCG L e g gh ?QG Hj M QG SCj QM Td g .15
? aG j M G e eJ CG jh ,TG Ve S QeCG g g .16
?G hCG TG OQGe CG (
?TG eS dG OQGG e .1
?YdG `` bGdG `` TG bS dG bdG c .2
?TG j L hCG e C .3
?G J eJ CG Y CG .4
?d J CG j ZV SS YL hCG e CG .5
?Gh jYGdG gG e YdG c FGdG bCG e .6
?HS hCG Ie de OQGe g g .7
?Y G S e .8

101

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?d dG adG g c .9
?d dG adG dP KDS ch gG L S e .10
?TG gjh j dG e .11
AjbCG / jG aG (7
?AjbCG aG g e .CG
?dG Y aG ADg S NdG e Y CG Y .
?dG Gg V HSCG eh ?aG ADg SQ e .
?HfEG g aG ADg j CG bJ G e CGh JGSG CG .O
?j e d Jbh V WGeh ?JN e .`g
.AjbCG ad dG G r pU .1
.AjbCG ad HdG FXdG r pU .2
?dG hCG fH aG Y M dG UG U .3
?aG ADg GbG S e .4
?H Geb dG G JYGbG hCG HdG JjJ e .5
?G jH hCG eY d aM S jd g .6
? dSG d dG aG dhCG IM dG QeCG e .7
?d aG L dG OQGG e .h
?JM aG S c .1
?ad MG iNCG OQGG e .2

102

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GG GSG e :z{ G
Appendix C: Geographic Targeting Methodology
IG VJ c GG GSd e S K Sd G G G Gg j
LEG e dH JGUCH dj jdG YG f WH H J YG .zNdG GSG{ :ddG
g HfEG IFGd HfG G ae e S dG MdG dG Ch .jd gDG NdG
:ddG dG ah YH CJ S dG Y ,HdG HfEG HfG e AGSG
(HfG JQhO V Gbd gDG NdG) Y e (2 GbG + 1 GbG)
hCG HdG fEG YG OY = 1 GbG
dG HdG fEG YG OY = 2 GbG
.HfEG IFGdG NdG OY LEG = Gbd gDG NdG
Y jG UTCGh .HdG HfG YG Se `` WH H `` dG g J ddh
.eG IdG Y HfG bC cCG fRh S GgCG
.G fd KG dG GP HdG HfEG QJ CG j YG Y GDdG Sdh
GP GMCG hCG Td e Y Yj jdG HfEG IFGdG NdG f :AGOCG jh
dG GUCG Se EG dG a jdG HG GAfG GP WG eCG .T KG LdG
jd ddG dG J bh .cCG hCG HfG JQhO ie Y f G e TG d e
:HfEG IFGdG AGOCG
/ WGO + 1997 jh cM / WGO + 1996 SFQ /WGO + 1995 jJ /WGO)
.HfEG GQhO 4 Y kee (1997 a
IFGdG J jdG HfEG WGdG T YG GUCG f = 95 jJ/WGO
.1995 Y HfEG
IFGdG J SFdG HfG WGdG T YG GUCG f = 96 SFQ /WGO
.96 Y HfEG
jdG cM HfG WGdG T YG GUCG f = 97 jh cM/WGO
.97 Y HfEG IFGdG
.97 Y IFGdG aG Hf WGdG T YG GUCG f = 97 Y a/WGO

103

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GQhO HQCG WGdG G e Te HQC HfEG IFGdG AGOCG Se dG g J


bH GSG Y jG UTCG CG dG Qfh .GJ cCG dG Y zAGOCG{ Uh HfEG
.eG IdG Y dG HfEG bC fRh S jYh
.HQGGh d IYe bCG S HG AfG a j dG WG zAGOCG{ jJ Vh Hh
:j c dG iMEG J bh
(97 a / WGO + 97 jh cM / WGO + 96 SFQ/WGO + 95 jJ / WGO)
.HfEG GQhO 4 Y e
jdG fEG zWGd{ K LH T YG f = 95 Y jJ / WGO
.1995 Y HfEG IFGdG
IFGdG J SFdG HfG zWGd{ K LH T YG f = 96 SFQ / WGO
.1996 Y
jdG cM HfG zWGd{ K LH T YG f = 97 jh cM /WGO
.1997 Y IFGdG J
IFGdG J aG HfG zWGd{ K LH T YG f = 97 a / WGO
.1997 Y
QNa ,kVGh eCG jh .HfG HQCG WGd KG Ld YG Se dG g J
.f jY dCe eCG j b zWGdG{ LJ jdG TG e hCG GMCG e CG
CG) YG JGUCG J eEa .e Yj HfEG IFGO NdG f bEG feEG
Yj CG) YG GUCG J J hCG (f fEG je SS LH T Yj
.G OL SGH bEd G NdG e zdH{ hCG zfG{ H (j K e T
H HfEG IFGd SG J dG gh .bEG feEG ie Sd dG g G J bh
(1996 Y SFdG HfEGh 1995 Y jdG HfG dG H) zdG NdG{
.(1997 Y Y aG HfGh cG HfEG H) zG NdG{ Hh
a/WGbO `` 97 jh cM / WGO) + (96 SFQ/WGbO `` 95 jJ / WGO) [
.HfG 2 Y ee ] (97
IFGdG jdG HfEG WGdG G T YG OY = 95 jJ / WGO
.1995 Y HfEG
J jdG cM HfG WGdG G T YG OY = 97 jh cM / WGO
.1997 Y IFGdG
Y IFGdG J aG HfG WGdG G T YG OY = 97 a / WGO
.1997

104

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

.dG Y Ff ec b hCG bQCG GSG :Me


IYe cCG S HG AdG a j dG WG zbEG feEG{ ae EG dG Qfh
:j c dG iMEG J bh .Gh Vd
](97 a / WGO `` jh cM / WGO) + (96 SFQ / WGO `` 95 jJ/ WGO) [
.HfG 2 Y ee
IFGdG jdG HfEG WGd LH K T YG OY = 95 jJ / WGO
.1995 Y HfEG
J SFdG HfEG WGd LH K T YG OY = 96 SFQ / WGO
.1996 Y IFGdG
jdG cM HfG WGd LH K T YG OY = 97 jh cM / WGO
.1997 Y IFGdG J
IFGdG J aG HfG WGd LJ K T YG OY = 97 a WGO
.1997 Y
1995 Y jdG HfEG H) zdG NdG{ H HfEG IFGdG Se dG g VJ
Y aG fGh jdG M HfG H) zG NdG{ e (1996 Y SFdG HfGh
TGh GMG e CG QNG oj kWh .HfG HQCG WGd KG Ld (1997
.kGJ cCG kGeCG ,kGL k zWGdG qLdG{

105

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

SdG CGdG SH Je jb :zO{ aG


Appendix D: Issues Related to Political Polling

:CGdG SG GgCG
SdG d SG ee .1
AGLE j J dGh JGSG d eG MJEG Y CGdG S FdG dG j
JY jd `` UN H `` SG Ff J CG jh ,gJh SdG G
Td gGdG bG jd SH dG eCG .dSH YbE G jjDG jh aG
,O g d SG c G CG j .dG OQGd kGQgh G Y WH a
.SG LJ GDS d e VZ qJ CG jh
Zeh JegGh NdG bGe cG .2
NdG J dG QeCG Y J CG j ,Lf J Mh .NdH e SdG G
bGe Sd Lf jW CGdG SGh .J e Hh JegG H HdG e SCH
.JegGh NdG
gJ dG jdG cG .3
ed MG OQGG Vh ,dP eh .gGdG SdG d FdG jdG Qj SS f c
H jdhCG J J ch ,Nd jdG J jdhCG G J CG j ,NdG H
dSQ cJ d fY j b CGdG Sa ?NdG Q YdG FGdG H UN
.gOQG aCG SG h
TG Vh YG .4
OdG Hj fCG NdG ij dG TG a ,Vh Jb WGe Te c id CG NdG Qj
,Gdh .LQG SdGh ObG jb e edG kV kTe JGP bdG fhj b IH
Y cdG j dG jdG jdh NdG gPCG ke be a SG GSG d
.G
dSdG eG .5
jE OQGG J b YG SdG da d CGdG SG GSG d

107

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

CG j dG FSdG da jd SG GSG ,dP Y IhY .Nd dSdG


.Y ad eCG dG j dch ,gJh FSQ Md aG ej
LdG He .6
TG dSQ EG j g :NdG Y Qhj e ae eCG S ,eb G J M
M N eG J O b V f Y HG YSG ?aG FSQ EG CG
.HfEG
:SCG e P
(HdG SCG) G SCG .1
EG jM LH J CG a ,Hfd JGSG ZU EG j SG VZ CGh W
SG SCG e H `` IQH `` CGJ SdG YSGh .dH S jdG dhCG
.GJj CG j jdG e jd
dG SCG .2
j . hCG NdG VQ R dG dG hCG IOdG hCG GMCG g e qJ CG G Y j
SG dZ jh dM CGQ jd hCG e SG aj fCG Ghj CGh ,feCH OdG Y NdG J
.VdG dd je
edG SdG dG M SCG .3
BG jOG dM g hCG ?WG CG dG G OdG J g :e SCG g J b
bGGh dG GG Sb VZ Y j SCG J eh ?eG GdG e fQH AS CG
.Nd
VdG SCGh jdG gCG .4
AGOCG Jh ,G be j dG SdG jdG jdhCG jd NdG EG SCG g LJ
Ve d ie j NdG e j b GG iMEG .jdG H j a GMCG
hCG zgCG Se{ hCG zGL e{ hCG zgCG jT{ `c eEG ,dEG...ddGh dGh G :e
.jdG d jdhCG Fb Vh Y Gj CG NdG e j b NBG e h .zgZ{
VdG SCGh jOdG dG .5
.SdG FdG HGh HZG dG jdhCG Gqoj CG NdG e J b SCG g
GQdG cGJ jH S dh .fBG dEG QG jdG gCG SC K SCG g ZUh
.zeCG e SdG j{ hCG zqeh qe{ hCG zb{ :e SCG e J M

108

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G S hCG G SCG .6
SCG g gCG ZHh ?Y CG j`d S dG Gg HfEG L EG :e ,adCe G SCG
j jeCG dG h .SG e gCG bCG NBG f Y fEa ,HfEG S J H
JGSG SCG e J h ,YEG SG hCG YdG L U SCG d FdG VdG
Td j a ,Td hCG d gDhfG j b NdG e IU f Ch .SdG
dG dP Yh .d hCG zS{ Td Jj S Gfc EG a Nd GDdG LJ
.aGdG Yd ah G jjDG j
dSdG QNG SCG .7
d ah G / Td jdG bCG hCG cCG ZS g :j e dSdG QNG SCG J b
jCG jd G ae dSQ LGe G dSQ QNG j GDdG dP e VdGh ?e
.da cCG
Lh GP jb M SCG ``gH jQNG SCG .8
H G d YS H ,e b M NdG gPCG Qhj e ae SCG g e VdG
(`g) dj d hjDG :j c G g dG GDdG j bh .dG J M ja
VQJ hCG ,G dP Y f aGJ CG ,G dP Y IH aGJ a ,zS{ dj VQGh
?b aQ aJ CG ,f
aGO SCG .9
dG iGh dG :Y NdG EG aGdG SCG e S `` dZ `` LJ SG jf
jZ eCG dPh .d YdG FGdG H FdG aNG jd ...dEGh NdG ieh
.ae jDJ dG hCG ,JGQN dG hCG ,HM jDJ dG aGdG YG jd gCG
.aGdG YG J IKDG SdGh jdG jd `` dc `` dG j eCG dPh

:eGSGh SG J FT ANCG
S Y NCG .1
G JS jdG d J CG j c .FGY SG Y J CG j
Qe NO hCG K Y hCG MGh L e G e dG Z OdG dch jGG Oda .FdG
.Y H dG Y U Z ee EG OS dP EG eh f aGdG YG e hCG
.G NdG e HLEG M d jQhVh SM GeCG G hj dd
IRG SCG .2
J CG j ddh .d dGh dG eG MJEG SG e VdG j
,G S a .bOUh eCG HLEG Y d IRG AGgCG Y IOe jOM H SCG

109

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:j c dCS GPEG dG j e NdG bGe Y U ee Y GHCG d


dG dG J g{ hCG ?d dG MdGh dG ghZ dGQdG ShQ VQJ g
.z?ShdG dGQdG Y fd YT Z YCH ej jdG dG HgQEG V
MGh bh dGDS LJ .3
EG G S a .Heh Je HLEG Y S f bdG dGDS LH J M
ej jdG dG e HgQEG V dG dH dG J g{ :dG GDdG Lh
Y j CG jJ c EG G j d .z?ShdG dGQdG Y fd YdG Z YCH
.LG IdG GSG YT hCG fd dG cM YT
G SCG .4
NdG ge Qj h SdG Yj dG SCG H ``dZ`` IUdG YSG J
`` NdG e a .eCGh bOU HLEH OdG e j a GDdG e G Qj GPEa .OdG
id HhQhCG bJG J feEH J g{ :dG K GDS Y e Ia gY S `` e
K GDdG Y Ia LEG NdG id J b dh .z?dG FGdG GdG Y jdG
gOhM NGO jdG IdG GSG Y dhdG bJH b ShQ CG iJ g{ :j
.z?dGQdG
eh edG We SCG .5
`` dH `` G eCG g e dh .SS M jCG c ObG gCG Qj T c
.e hS dG jdG Y Iceh IO SG SCG J CG j ?ObG
G SCG Y G OYG .6
QhdG NCj CG M C jh .HfG GbEG j gCG jZ G SCG Y HLEG J
d j dP Y VYh .dG FdG e g dch ,Sd jdG FdH
.d JGSG jd SG SG
NdG e d dSdG GS WG MG ee GSG QdG .7
SG GSG d jh .dSd f iH Gj dh ,f G e NdG d
.ae jT d ah JSQ Jh Nd YdG FGdG H aNG a

110

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

aG Hh H jdG j :z`g{ G
Appendix E: Drawing Contrast with Your Opponents
TdGh TG LGJ dG cG YCG e aG Hh H NdG gPCG jdG N j
hCG e M GP NdG Qj h ,gGGh edG EG SdG HGh GMCG eGa .SdG
HfEG EG dG Yjh Ke Z NdG hj ,dd ch .jNBG e aCG e Te
.IFdGh ihG Y c WGdG
bOh MVh jdG cCG G Q `` G Qb `` J CG j dSQ H J Mh
Mh .aG e H QNG Y G QL j a dH J EGh .ae Hh H
:dG SCd ah ZJ CG j jdG dP Y dSQ SG J
Hh H NG :gP GeCG J CG e WCG ,HfG cG EG GbEG j gJ M{
( , ,) Gch Gch Gc LCG e e bCG C fG :j Y MVh jj CG aG
g e jJ eh H jj eh (`g,`g,`g) Ggh Ggh Gg LCG e j dG aG J CG h
PJ e f e Ggh ,fEG Gg dG H g Ggh (`g `g `g) e bCGh ( ) e jG
.zQGb
:ddG G EG J CG j (`g `g `g) Gc h ( ) Y J M h
?aG jDj Y NG c jDJ dG hj c :dG
?aG j b Y VGh aNG jh c S dG e :SdG
?ae IG KCJ Y f Y ?XdG e dG JN KDS c :GG
TG Ca ...aG Hh H jdG Rd GG Y M Ya ,Ke dZ SdGh dG J
?OYdH AjEd dGh SdG J Y IQdG aCG j
eh UN U d N LGe d G jdG VJ M dSQ U J CG Y j
:ddG jhdG

111

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

`g `g `g
OcdGh gGdG VdG
hCG
cCdG Y / dGh QGSG Y
ah e
hCG
ee Zh cGQ
Wh Z
hCG
eb e
Rj HM
hCG
Re ,Oe
d j
hCG
fdG V
Fe
hCG
M
H Ke Zh Sa
hCG
PSh H

aCG EG dG
hCG
dGh QGSG
FS G
hCG
ejOh Ge
W h
hCG
jdH e
Reh JZGH
hCG
e
SdG WH j
hCG
Hf AcH j
Fe
hCG
bGh
d gCGh eCG
hCG
Mh bGh

SdG
Ud e
hCG
V H bEG
AZCG L
hCG
fGd G dGh dG V

hCG e j
hCG
WdG d dhO LQ
QdG L V
hCG
IQdG Jh dG e
112

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

b hHh e Z
hCG
ed ee YO
G Fd hL
hCG
dG Y e ae
QfG EG fG aj
hCG
Ag OQGG J dG dhdG jQe Yj
YdG Z IQLEG QGSG LCG e
hCG
jSdGh AZCd WdGh edG OQGG j

YLEG jG
hCG
jOdG dhDG
Oa e
hCG
H Ke ja Y
hDGh dG QSG LC
hCG
jOdG IQOd
dah jS N f
hCG
UCGh OQGG jRJ dGY

GG
VG EG e RY
hCG
IG Y MCG
OL Zh V
hCG
ISa T e U jd
e Z N
hCG
j Y
Z
hCG
UdG G e AL
VG e LQ
hCG
G j

113

ejO M T
hCG
IN MU M
AT c RE PdG jd
hCG
jfh e
cPh dG Y
hCG
SdG AH j
eG Y IN
hCG
G IG IN
IQdG j
hCG
G j

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

G Z P :zh{ G
Appendix F: Sample Campaign Forms
S GAGLEG WH J CG dG gCG J b ,fS OGOJh G QG nhCG j M
eG gGh GYdG :e QeCG e edG dch VGh GOTQEG UJh ,U
.M GSd jd jY eCG J CG Y ,ddG GQSG LG b ,
.fdG IYd hCG G bd P
:NdG SG
:GdG
:HfEG IFGdG
:JdG bQ
:HG AfG

:N e G YS

:EG j

dG ``
GdG ``
GUCG dG ``
dG ``
JdG JG ``

:cCG ee ``
Fd GbG bH ``
GbEG c UJ ``
GbEG d WCG jYQ ``

:aVEG ee

115

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

JdG H Y G GOTQEGh LJ
.JdG d edG LfEGh JdG JG fCG c Y hDe S JdG H Y c
Fb FYEH JdG d G Sh .aG HfEG FGhdG NdG Fb e S
.JdG JG
.JdG JG YS N de JGg N AH Y hDe S
d jdG dP j Sh .e Yd hCG dG jQJ IQhO J CG eCG S
YG Mh .dh GOhOh c .dGh HG FGb GSG EG gTQCG .e dSdG H b .YS
.JH ej jdG dhC cG We fH bGQh G AGOCd ICae eG .QGSH
bh .FMEG dG FGd SG dNOEGh HG FGb e c H J CG dhDe e
.Y Hf c jf Y dP H
.j c dG Hd ah JdG Y YG Y .YS HQCG Y Hf c J
.j c dG Hd ah JdG Y J cJ .jQhO UG dG P H b
aVEG e HH d dMEH b ,GcCG J cJ .jQhO UG dG P H b
.TG Y ee
................ :Y CSGh cG H JG e e LGh EG
J dG j GWh (kAe 9^30 jd h 5^30) FG YdG N JG J CG j
dhL Y G dhC UHh IOQGh kjCG g MdG JG .(kAe 9 jd h kMU 10 e)
.edG

116

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]G NdG Y[ d Jg QGM P
?a e....IdG / dG EG dG g ,(G Ae hCG)G U{
GQN jd SGQO e fh .QSG e H JGh ....SG....JS / S
.G g NdG
zdG bh dd ?.... hCG ....dd S a dG Gg HfEG L GPEa
:dG SG Y NdG jhH b
T jDe z1{
H GQGb j z2{
ad jDe z3{
a LCG .jNBG NH JG AGLE G bdG e NCS dP ,NdG e L NJ
.jdG bJ h FdG SCG Y
.G EG Y T c J CG cJ
fG e c H VGh eY Y Vh fCG cCJ ,G FGb EG J eY LJ
.e
.H e e fL gJ dG JG FGb V
.dEG j dG JdG H E hG h d jcT

117

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

IFGdG GdG GOTQEG bQd P


...J GPe
G HOCG e kb dhfh Te Y NdG HE LQCG FGhdG Rd GdH f f
eYh ,G fEG Gg fj e f CG jf c .JGQSGh SCG Y OdH f c
.HOCG e j jOOG NdG jhH G S dG JQjR J
...dP J c
:dEG e c Y aG g
:Nc j eh fGYh NdG SG Hc e cCJ ,GG G FGb
.T jDe z1{
.H Qj z2{
.a jDe z3{
.d c fh jNBG S IQdG g Vh :G IQT
.TG gjDj dG jdGh TG Y J :TG Y ee
.Nf d e YCG :G c
fH NdG NCG .e HLEH AYOEG h ,HLEG J GDS dEG Lj M :SCG bH
GDdG jhH b K .G e HLEG OjEG Y US fCGh dGDS Y HLEG J fCGh kYe
.d FdG G EG S dG bdG Y
GdG Ff He Y GQOb J M GdG jJ H dG Lj ,Y e J eY :jdG
.Y J Sb QJh YH
...dS e
.NdG QGb c KCJ d S dJ dG fGh H J dG da .Td T fCG cJ
.UG JH db Y dGh bdG d dJ CG eCG jh .Ve GdG dSQ fOCG Sh
.f jH b
HfEG g Vj dGh (TG SG) Td Ye YG fCGh (f cPG) SG ,G Ae{
z?bh e bH Y J a ,SfdG /jdG G
.TG Y
.G gCG e jNBG IY aM S dh eCG Te (TG SG) C (SG) Td Ye YCG fCG{
.jCG g H KdG jdG dG UTCG e (TG SG) CG YCGh
.jd QSG CH j CG WCG
dG (TG) b SdG ae e cCj CG jj (SG / TG) C ITe JG M fh
z?J e b g a .jdG e
.G c H b
pfCa gQN GhOM b fCH zf{`H HLEG fc EG) ((I)NdG JS/S j) S e Qb g
(..jG Sa z{ `H HLEG fc EGh ,Se SH HG
Td jdG QYG J CG LQCG .(SG) TG Y jG d jYQ dG g J ZQCG
.dG bh d GcT .SfdG G GY S (SG) TG .Gbd OG dG (SG)
UN GOTQEG
,OhOh Z T aOU Gh .dEG SEG Zjh ODe `` ZCG Y `` T c CG MS
.YdG Lh Y HG prfCG dh ,dO a
z...Jg bQ Y zG{ `H Ja ,e e hCG GDS jd c GPEG
118

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GdG h GdG jd P
zQ{ .ad jDe z5{ .YGO Z z4{ .H Qj z3{ .TG EG z2{ .jDe z1{ :SdG f
.dG OLe Z z{ .HLEG aQ
........:GbEG ce ....... :HfEG IFGdG ........ :G G ............. :QdG SG /bQ
HG

dG

SdG

Jg bQ

NdG SG

dG /G bQ

zjdG jU{ bd P
,jdG jU
da cCG S Sfd jL Y fG Ua d S G AKdG j
.fOhC aCG SQGe aJ LCG e S fC (SG) Td JU eCG S fCa .UdG
(SG) Td jd J CG LQCGh
,G
(G SG)

119

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dhG IQS P
..................................... :aGG ................................ :dG jQJ
..................................... :adG ........................... :QGdG PJG jQJ
....................................... :e

.................................. :OdG jQJ

..................................................................................... :G
..................................................................................... :jQdG
..................................................................................... :bdG
.............................................................................. :OfG e
.............................................................................. :G G
.................................................................................... :fGY
..................................................................................... :JdG
................................................................ :JG Y hDG dG
..................................................................................... :fGY
..................................................................................... :JdG
............................................................................ :efdG e If
........................................................................ :G QG OY
.................................................................. ?eYEG L S g
........................................................................ :TG cQe W
......................................................................... :iNCG ee CG

120

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

YdG L IQSE P

G gG bQh
...................................................................................... :SG
...................................................................................... :dG
..................................................................................... :GdG
................................................................................ :dG Jg
................................................................................ :G Jg
................................................................................ :cdG bQ
................................................................................. :H e
.............................................................................. :d H JG
............................................................................ :QGe/c WG
..................................................... :OhOdGh JGh UGdG Y Me
..................................................................................... :HG

121

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

d JGSEG dG H :zR{ G
Appendix G: Strategic Campaign Plan Template
.d eT N jd MGh Ve L dG eG c Vh Y JY dG dG U
.dG Gg IQcG jQd HLEG L b eG J e J CG jh

dG :hCG IG
?fEG KDS dG FGdh HfEG fb RjEH U

?fEG a VS dG IFGdG RjEH U

?IFGdG J NdG RjEH U

?IFGdG J HdG HfEG M dG e RjEH U

123

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

?fEG Gg KDS dG eGdG RjEH U

?RjEH Te U

?RjEH AjbCG TG U

GgCG Vh :fdG IG
:g IFGdG dG LEG
:g NdG OY LEG

:fEG Gg bG YG OY

:`H QJ GUCG Y M GPEG RdG S

,GUCG e OdG dP Y d cG e OY EG dSQ jEG Y S


:cG OY

124

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

NdG GSG :ddG IG


:GG GSG
:(fYGb We) IFGdG e AGLCG g GL Y ODj CG TG bj b ,HdG Hfd ah

IFGdG e AGLCG g GL Y hODS fCH aG TG bj b ,HdG Hfd ah


:(gYGb We)

:RdG d NdG bEG Y dG J M ,LQCe ddG WG J HdG Hfd ah

:GdG GSEG
:jjDd fYGb S dGh ,ddG aGdG Yd Te AfG QYG

:ddG SCd Te jCH aGdG YG g J CG bf h

:dG e ddG dG aGdG YG J c Jh

:EG j NdG Ea dG bQCG GSHh

125

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:gh eG YG e HLh jNBG Nf SG eCG YSG GPEGh

:ddG aGdG YG e `` SSCG IQH `` NdG aG j CG bfh

:NdG
:ddG dG G QL AYCG j

:ddG bGG G QL AYCG j

:ddG jdH gH G QL AYCG j h

:gFb ddG dG EG j G QL AYCGh

126

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dSdG hU :HGdG IG
Y f GPe

fCG Y f GPe

fCG Y dj GPe

Y dj GPe

G dSQ
.z?G Gdh fEG Gg VJ GP :GDS Y HLEd IMGh bO J IQY j a cf{

127

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dSdG a
:jG c e dSdG g J
?Ib g g
?bGe GPh bOU
?Nd eh e
?aG Hh H jdG VJ
?dG EGh dG e Jh VGh g g
?G Q Le

?dSQ jh jDj cP JCS e g


TG IS
G QT
G eQ
bOG
G dSQ

128

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

Yd FQ jb
:G Q jdG gCG j a
(1

(2

(3

(4

(5

129

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:dG SCG ah G dSH Hd ddG jdG Y cQ GPEG aCG f Y M VS


(1

(2

(3

NdH JG :eG IG
:ddG dG Y NdG EG dSQ UH S dG Y

NdH JG FGW

aGdG YG

130

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:RdG a ,H b EG ,NdH Jd IO kaGgCG j a S


:zY { qc H hCG dG Uh

:qc H dG dG Uh

:qc H ddG dG Uh

:qc H HGdG dG Uh

:qc H eG dG Uh

131

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:d edG dG
f d jh .gREG G J dG fCG Vj dGh d edG dG j a S
.bG dG dch RE HG UTCG e OYh e

dG

YGh G

dG

jQdG
GbEG j

GbEG e SCG b

GbEG j e YSCG b

GbEG j e HSCG KK b

GbEG j e HSCG HQCG b

GbEG j e HSCG N b

132

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

GbEG j e HSCG S b

GbEG j e HSCG S b

GbEG j e HSCG fK b

GbEG j e TCG HQCG b

GbEG j e TCG N b

GbEG j e TCG S b

133

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

:G H hCG g
:G ddG G UTCG ADd S

JdG bQ

SG

:G fGe
:NdH JG fCG c LEG

:(dGh G ILCGh GhOCGh edGh qQG) jQGOEG dG LEG

:dG c LEG

:G g dG G fCG S ,ddG d dG LEG L H

134

HfEG SdG G OGYEG dO

dG IQSG
Evaluation Form
bh WGdG SDG jd dG ALQCG dhdG hDd WdG WGdG G j
SdG GMCG e jY IYd dG J dG Gg jh .TdGh IG WGdG jOdG
.edG SdG b FSh J dGh
CG Lf .gCG dH g NGe J ,ddh .ef dG eG Y QGSH f fh
Y g aCG hj M Y j e Y WGh ,OTQEG dG Gg d bh e H
.gGdG bdG
:dG GdG EG dSG H dG IQSG SQEG Lj
G `` HdG `` GcCG ,6 dG S fR ,57 ,WdG WGdG G
+212^37^77^09^01 :cdG
? dG d fY cCG c dG Gg e AL hCG a CG

? dG d fY j dG Gg e AL hCG a CG

?aCG H VJ jh VGh j dG Gg e AL CG

?e GQGUEG dG Gg c

135

(01) 510385/6 :J - ...T T

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