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The Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide September 2010

pump-zone.com
The Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide
pump-zone.com
September 2010
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2 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Letter from the Editor
PUMPS & SYSTEMS (ISSN# 1065-108X) is published monthly by Pumps & Systems, a member of the Cahaba Media Group, 1900 28th Avenue So., Suite 110, Birmingham, AL 35209. Periodicals
postage paid at Birmingham, AL, and additional mailing ofces. Subscriptions: Free of charge to qualied industrial pump users. Publisher reserves the right to determine qualications. Annual sub-
scriptions: US and possessions $48, all other countries $125 US funds (via air mail). Single copies: US and possessions $5, all other countries $15 US funds (via air mail). Call (630) 482-3050 inside or
outside the U.S. POSTMASTER: send change of address to Pumps & Systems, PO BOX 9, Batavia, IL 60510-0009. 2010 Cahaba Media Group, Inc. No part of this publication may be reproduced
without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher does not warrant, either expressly or by implication, the factual accuracy of any advertisements, articles or descriptions herein, nor does
the publisher warrant the validity of any views or opinions offered by the authors of said articles or descriptions. The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors, and do not necessarily
represent the opinions of Cahaba Media Group. Cahaba Media Group makes no representation or warranties regarding the accuracy or appropriateness of the advice or any advertisements contained
in this magazine. SUBMISSIONS: We welcome submissions. Unless otherwise negotiated in writing by the editors, by sending us your submission, you grant Cahaba Media Group, Inc. permission
by an irrevocable license to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any medium on multiple occasions. You are free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to
republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned.
is a member of the following organizations:
I
ts September, and as the mother of two
extremely active children (ages 12 and 15), I
am continually asked if Im ready for back
to school. Is it just meor am I the only mom
in America who embraces September as an
opportunity to focus on wastewater treatment?
Yes, its probably just me.
his is the time of year that we prepare for
WEFTEC, our biggest tradeshow of the year.
his generally means it is also our biggest issue.
So while I am helping my daughter with her
Civil War essay and my son is cramming all his
summer reading into about two days, Im learn-
ing about wastewater treatment. Surprisingly,
they do not teach this stu in the Alabama
public school system.
I have learned that it was not until the 19th
century that large cities began to realize the
necessity of reducing the amount of pollutants
used in the water that was discharged into the
environment. Many outbreaks of life-threat-
ening diseases were traced to bacteria found
in polluted water. Since then, many impactful
technological advancements have been made to
perfect wastewater collection and treatment.
Several million gallons of wastewater ow
through a typical wastewater treatment plant
daily. Some statistics show this can amount to
50 to 100 gallons for every person using the
system.
In this issue of Pumps & Systems, which
is All About Water, we explore technologies
that contribute to the importance of wastewa-
ter treatment, and Dr. Lev Nelik takes a look at
the future of wastewater treatment (page 24). In
this issue, we also cover everything from sealing
technologies, the importance of ow meters and
eective remote communication used in water
applications to reverse osmosis and metering
and submersible pump technologies. Even the
island of Alcatraz cannot escape from the need
for wastewater treatment (page 80).
Please visit the Pumps & Systems team at
our WEFTEC Booth (#2959 in F Hall) in
New Orleans, La., Oct. 2 6. We will also be
attending and co-sponsoring the Submersible
Wastewater Pump Associations 5th Annual
Advanced Controls Training Seminar in con-
junction with its 9th Annual Pumping Systems
Training Seminar. For more information on this
event, please contact SWPA Executive Director
Adam Stolberg at swpaexdir@sbcglobal.net.
In the meantime, please let us know about
any advancements in wastewater treatment
technologies that you are using.
Best Regards,
Michelle Segrest
Editor
msegrest@pump-zone.com
PUBLISHER
Walter B. Evans, Jr.
ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER
VP-SALES
George Lake
glake@pump-zone.com
205-345-0477
EDITOR
VP-EDITORIAL
Michelle Segrest
msegrest@pump-zone.com
205-314-8279
MANAGING EDITOR
Lori K. Ditoro
lditoro@cahabamedia.com
205-314-8269
MANAGING EDITOR
ELECTRONIC MEDIA
Julie Smith
jsmith@cahabamedia.com
205-314-8265
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Laurel Donoho
Joe Evans, PhD
Dr. Lev Nelik, PE, APICS
SENIOR ART DIRECTOR
Greg Ragsdale
PRODUCTION MANAGER
Lisa Freeman
lfreeman@pump-zone.com
205-212-9402
CIRCULATION
Tom Cory
TomCory@cirtecinc.com
630-482-3050
ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES
Charli K. Matthews
cmatthews@pump-zone.com
205-345-2992
Derrell Moody
dmoody@pump-zone.com
205-345-0784
Mary-Kathryn Baker
mkbaker@pump-zone.com
205-345-6036
Mark Goins
mgoins@pump-zone.com
205-345-6414
ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT
Ashley Morris
amorris@pump-zone.com
205-561-2600
A Publication of
P.O. Box 530067
Birmingham, AL 35253
Editorial & Production
1900 28th Avenue South, Suite 110
Birmingham, AL 35209
Phone: 205-212-9402
Advertising Sales
2126 McFarland Blvd. East,. Suite A
Tuscaloosa, AL 35404
Phone: 205-345-0477 or 205-561-2600

Editorial Advisory Board
William V. Adams, Director, New Business
Development/Corp. Mktg., Flowserve
Corporation
Thomas L. Angle, PE, Vice President, Product
Engineering, Weir Specialty Pumps
Robert K. Asdal, Executive Director, Hydraulic
Institute
Bryan S. Barrington, Machinery Engineer, Lyondell
Chemical Co.
Kerry Baskins, Vice President, Grundfos Pumps
Corporation
R. Thomas Brown III, President, Advanced Sealing
International (ASI)
John Carter, President, Warren Rupp, Inc.
David A. Doty, North American Sales Manager,
Moyno Industrial Pumps
Ralph P. Gabriel, Director of Product Development,
John Crane
William E. Neis, PE, President, NorthEast Industrial
Sales
Dr. Lev Nelik, PE, Apics, President, Pumping
Machinery, LLC
Henry Peck, President, Geiger Pumps & Equipment/
Smith-Koch, Inc.
Mike Pemberton, Manager, ITT Performance
Services
Earl Rogalski, Sr. Product Manager, KLOZURE

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4 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
ALL ABOUT WATER
p
Predictable Pump Motor Maintenance at
a Cranberry Bog
Chris Rayburn, Fluke Corporation
Due to the delicate nature of the cranberry, pump failure is not an option.
p
Cellular Communications for SCADA Applications
Ira Sharp, Phoenix Contact
Effective and secure cellular communications for remote data acquisition.
p
Technology Saves Valuable Equipment
Brad Clarke & Kari Oksanen, Singer Valve
Airdrie, Canada, prevents cavitation damage by using an anti-cavitation trim.
p
Considerations for Choosing a Flow Meter
Marcus P. Davis, McCrometer
Find the right ow meter for your process and plant.
p
Clean Water for Florida Community
Henia Yacubowicz, Koch Membrane Systems
An RO system solved the problem of purifying brackish water.
p
The Balancing Act of DP Flow Meter Selection
Kitty Elshot & Emily Vinella, Emerson Rosemount Measurement
Choosing the right differential pressure ow meter for an application can be
challenging. This article outlines the considerations and trade-offs in selecting
the optimal technology.
p
WEFTEC Preview
Learn what to expect at North Americas largest water quality event.
SEALING TECHNOLOGIES
p
Reliable Flange Sealing
Pamela Dauphinais, A.W. Chesterton Company
Improve sealing reliability in bolted ange connections.
p
Unique Sealing Solution Solves Sulfur Leakage
Problem
Alton R. Smith, EagleBurgmann
Sulfur leakage, causing housekeeping and environmental issues in a renery,
was stopped with an innovative seal conguration.
METERING & SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS
SPECIAL SECTION
p
Non-Metallic Mag Drive PumpsGreat
Equipment for Abrasive Fluids
Travis Lee, Pulsafeeder, Inc.
Non-metallic magnetic driven gear pump technology improves equipment life
and maintenance costs for metering and transfer applications.
p
Peristaltic Pump Facts
Todd Loudin, Larox Flowsys
The peristaltic pump explainedfrom advancements to maintenance.
p
Escape to Alcatraz
Bill Nestor
A low-pressure wastewater disposal alternative offers a cost-saving
installation solution for wastewater and raw sewage disposal.
Table of Contents
29
32
38
40
46
50
58
60
66
70
78
82
PRACTICE & OPERATIONS
p
Reclaiming the Gold
Mike Dwyer, Quadna
Investment in mine expands production capabilities.
p
When Maintenance Becomes Emergency
Donald Spencer, P.E., HydroAire, Inc.
In this case study, routine maintenance of a condensate pump at a nuclear
power plant becomes an emergency situation.
DEPARTMENTS
Readers Respond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
P&S News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Pump Ed 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Joe Evans, Ph.D.
AC Power (Part Four): Transformers
Pumping Prescriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Dr. Lev Nelik, P.E., APICS, President, Pumping Machinery, LLC
Chris Staud, Engineering, Wastewater Group, Atlanta, Ga.
Wastewater Treatment Industry: Present Challenges and
Future Horizons
Business of the Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Jen Yao, Frost & Sullivan
Electric Motors: Driving to Higher Efciency
Maintenance Minders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Preston Walker, Jr., Caliber Pump Repair
Understanding the Basics of Pump Repair
Efficiency Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Greg Kriebel
Primer on Polymer Handling
HI Pump FAQs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Centrifugal pumps: how do they handle slurries, and what is
their maximum allowable working pressure?
FSA Sealing Sense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
What is the Sealing System Energy Footprint for Controlling
Process or Barrier Fluid Temperature?
Product Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Index of Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
P&S Stats and Interesting Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
September 2010
Volume 18 Number 9
The Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide September 2010
pump-zone.com
The Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide
pump-zone.com
September 2010
100
102
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6 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Readers Respond
Energy Savings with the Correct Duty
Point, June 2010
Your recent article Energy Savings with the Correct
Duty Point presented some interesting details about VSX-
Vogel analysis software tools.
Since I am not familiar with EN 12056/DIN 1986,
Formula 3 (the domestic-wastewater-drainage) and Formula 4
(storm-water-outow) were new to me.
In Formulas 2 and 6, the p symbol appears to be used
as mass density: i.e., rho. In Formula 5, if p is used without
a g, the resulting units would be weight per unit volume
for friction loss. Is g a missing factor in the numerator of
Formula 5?
I am accustomed to seeing Hv as a symbol for velocity
head. In Formula 6, if the (Va
2
x Ve
2
)/2g term should have
been (Va
2
- Ve
2
)/2g, then this term would be the velocity head,
and Hv(Q) would, therefore, be the friction head loss. Under
Formula 6, Va and Ve are dened as pipe length. I assume this
was a typo.
hanks for the commentaries and gures.
Lee Ruiz
Oceanside, CA
Jens-Uwe Vogel responds:
hank you for your feedback. I need to agree with you.
Unfortunately, some mistakes arose during the whole docu-
ment process.
You stated that in Formulas 2 and 6, the p symbol
appears to be used as mass density: i.e., rho. You are right; it
should be the Greek letter (rho).
P
1
=
Q H g

tot
P
1
= Power input
= Density of the medium
g = Gravitational acceleration

tot
= Total e ciency of the unit
Formula 2. Power requirement of a centrifugal pump
Also, in Formula 5, if p is used without a g, the result-
ing units would be weight per unit volume for friction loss, and
you wondered if g were a missing factor in the numerator of
Formula 5. he friction loss here is given as pressure p. Anyway,
even here a mistake came in. Below, you will nd the correct
formula, where I have added the metric units in brackets (see
Formula 5 below).
You are absolutely right regarding Formula 6. he correct
formula is of course:
H
tot
=
p
a
- p
e
g
+ (z
a
- z
e
) + H
v
(Q) +
v
a
2
- v
e
2
2g
p
a
- p
e
= Pressure dierence between suction and discharge tank
z
a
- z
e
= H
geo
= geodetic height
H
v
(Q) = Pressure loss in dependancy of ow rate
v
a
, v
e
= Pipe length
Formula 6. Head of the plant
I am somewhat surprised that so many mistakes came into
our article. It says to me that we have to improve our quality
management for such documents throughout the whole pro-
cess. Finally, I want to apologize for any trouble that may have
been caused by this incorrectness.
Once again, thank you for your feedback.
p
v

[
Pa =
N
m
2
=
kg m
s
2
m
2
=
kg
s
2
m

]
=
U [m] L [m]
4A [m
2
]

[
kg
m
3 ]
= v
2
[
(
m
s
)
2
=
m
2
s
2 ]
2
[]
p
v
= Friction loss
A = Passed cross section area
U = Circumference related to A
L = Pipe length
= Density of uid
v = Average ow velocity
= Friction factor
Formula 5. Friction loss in straight pipes
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8 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Readers Respond
Suction-Side System Design, March 2010
he Relative Resistance of Materials to Cavitation
Damage chart shows two aluminum alloys. Can these be
dened?
Excellent magazine.
Alexander Kargilis, PE
ALKAR Engineering Company
Terry Henshaw responds:
Stepano (Note 1 from the article) places aluminum
between bronze and steel. Yedidiah (Note 5) places aluminum
and certain alloys below plastics. I dont know which is correct
or why the apparent discrepancy. I would put more faith in the
Stepano report.
Vertical Turbine Pump
Reliability, March 2010
I read your interesting VT Pump
Reliability article in the March P&S.
I am curious if Item 13 in Figure 2
could possibly be a lan-
tern ring. If so, maybe
there was a ush con-
nection at the box that
wasnt being used.
Lee Ruiz
Oceanside, CA
Lev Nelik resonds:
Very observant and true. he ush
indeed was disconnected. Otherwise,
it would (at least) provide an expan-
sion outlet for the vapors being formed
(water boiling) to expand and not create
a pressure cooker eect.
Responding to other
readers, April 2010
My eye was caught by the graphic
accompanying Jim Elseys letter in the
Readers Respond section, April 2010.
His point was in reference to the posi-
tioning of an eccentric reducer at the
suction inlet of a pump. His conten-
tion is that the at side of the eccentric
Lee Ruiz
714-893-8529
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PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 9
reducer should be on top only if the suction source is below the
pump and that the at side should be on the bottom if the suc-
tion source is above the pump.
Mr. Elsey is absolutely correct if the pump in question is a
horizontal, end suction design, and if we ignore the fact that the
elbow should be 5 to 10 diameters away from the pump suction
in any well-designed piping system.
However, when you relate his state-
ment to the diagram accompanying the
letter and the fact that it identies a
double suction pump, the positioning of
the eccentric reducer has very little eect
on the ow pattern to the impeller eye
in the pump. he ow patterns within
the casing design in such a pump can
accommodate any disruption that may
be caused by either arrangement.
A more frequent and expen-
sive problem of pump suction piping
arrangements with a double suction
design occurs when the elbow approach-
ing the pump suction is on a parallel
plane with the pump shaft. When the
pump is horizontal and the suction
piping leading to the pump is also in
a horizontal plane and turns through a
horizontal elbow into the pump suction,
then the trouble starts. Under such con-
ditions, seal or bearing failure will occur
with alarming regularity owing to the
hydraulic imbalance created within the pump.
Ross Mackay
Consultant in Pump Reliability
Author of he Practical Pumping
Handbook
Creator of he Mackay Pump School
P&S
Ross Mackay
Dont Forget
to Enter Your
Product
Deadline for Submissions
October 1
www.pump-zone.com
Answers.
3126
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800-323-4340 ColeParmer.com/8036
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Unique products combined with
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10 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
P&S News
PEOPLE
CRANE PUMPS & SYSTEMS (PIQUA,
OHIO) adds key sales personnel to support
growth in the plumbing, pressure sewer,
HVAC and municipal markets. Graham
Hackett is the new regional sales manager
for the Western Region, Plumbing. He
will develope and manage wholesale repre-
sentatives and distribution channels in the
plumbing market. Nathan Kimball is the
new regional sales manager for the West-
ern Region, HVAC and Industrial. Nathan
will be growing Crane Pumps & Systems
presence in the region. John Lazinski is the
new regional sales manager for the South-
east Region, Municipal and Pressure Sewer.
He will be growing municipal sales and
supporting pressure sewer projects in the
region.
Crane Pumps & Systems is a manu-
facturer of pumps, accessories and services,
providing solutions for pressure sewer,
municipal, plumbing, HVAC, industrial,
military and dewatering markets.
www.cranepumps.com
ITT WATER & WASTEWATER U.S.A.
(CHARLOTTE, N.C.) announces that Chris
Ambrose has joined the company as the new
director of marketing and business develop-
ment. Ambrose was most recently the vice
president of sales and marketing for John
Zinc Company managing the sales and mar-
keting of engineered combustion products
throughout the Americas. Ambrose received his Bachelor of
Science Chemistry degree from Florida Atlantic University.
ITT is an engineering and manufacturing company in
water and uids management, global defenses, and motion
and ow control. www.itt.com
HINES INDUSTRIES (ANN ARBOR, MICH.)
names Matthew Pohl as general manager of
sales and marketing. Pohl will be respon-
sible for all sales and marketing initiatives,
expanding the industrial, high-perfor-
mance, and aftermarket business units in
North America and abroad.
Hines Industries provides balancing
solutions to pump manufacturers, pump rebuilders and rotat-
ing equipment professionals through a wide variety of standard
machines and custom equipment. www.hinesindustries.com
COLFAX CORPORATION (RICHMOND, VA.) announces
that William E. Roller has been promoted to executive vice
president of Colfax Americas. He was most recently senior
vice president and general manager of
Colfax Americas. In his expanded role, he
is responsible for the companys operations
in the Americas, as well as its global oil &
gas and Colfax Defense Solutions organi-
zations. His duties also include expanding
the two-screw pump business and driving
global sourcing.
Colfax Corporation produces uid-handling products
and technologies. hrough its subsidiaries, Colfax manufac-
tures positive displacement industrial pumps and valves used
in oil & gas, power generation, commercial marine, defense
and general industrial markets. www.colfaxcorp.com
DANFOSS (NORDBORG, DENMARK) announces that its
VLT division has appointed Frank Taaning-
Grundholm as Global Pump OEM business
manager.
In this position, Taaning-Grundholm
will be responsible for sales to all interna-
tional and major regional pump original
equipment manufacturers (OEMs), includ-
ing business development, marketing, prod-
uct portfolio and application support.
Danfoss is a manufacturer of electronic and mechani-
cal components and controls for air-conditioning, heating,
refrigeration and motion systems. www.danfoss.us
AROUND THE INDUSTRY
KSB GROUP (FRANKENTHAL, GERMANY) acquired Stan-
dard Alloys Inc., based in Port Arthur, Texas, on July 29,
2010. Standard Alloys Inc. specializes in spare parts man-
agement for pumps and compressors. Standard Alloys brings
experience in Rapid Cast Technology (RCT) and engineer-
ing expertise in pump hydraulics to KSB Group. KSB will
use this experience and applied technology to bring a greater
level of service and satisfaction to its customers.
Standard
Alloys has two
locations with
a total employ-
ment of 90
people. he
main facility
located in Port
Arthur, Texas,
houses engineering, administration and foundry activities.
Component machining, pump repair, and assembly take
place in the Vidor, Texas, location.
KSB is a manufacturer of pumps, valves and related
systems for industrial applications and building services, for
water and wastewater management and for the energy and
mining sectors. www.ksb.com
Graham Hackett
William E. Roller
Frank Taaning-
Grundholm
Chris Ambrose
Matthew Pohl
John Lazinski
Nathan Kimball
THE ORIGINAL
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STRONGER THAN EVER
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So dont lay awake at nighttrust Inpro/Seal to design and deliver your custom-engineered
bearing isolator, right when you need it; our installed base of over 4,000,000 speaks for itself.
Trust Inpro/Seal, the clear leader in bearing isolators.
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12 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
P&S News
PUMPTECH, INC., (BELLEVUE, WASH.) has been appointed
the Grundfos Master Distributor for its Grundfos/Aldos line
of chemical dosing pumps in the Pacic Northwest. he prod-
uct line includes the DDI and DME digital dosing pumps as
well as the DM and DMH series of diaphragm dosing pumps.
PumpTech has invested $100,000 in inventory to service the
states of Washington and Oregon.
PumpTech is a distributor and manufacturer of packaged
pumping systems for the municipal and industrial sectors.
www.pumptechnw.com
TENCARVA MACHINERY COMPANY (GREENSBORO, N.C.)
announces the acquisition of the assets and operations of
Greensboro-based Electric Service and Sales Company Inc.
(ESSCO), a division of Enerphase Industrial Solutions Inc., as
of May 28, 2010.
ESSCO is a distributor for Toshiba motors and drives,
Marathon motors, and ABB drives and controls. he assets of
ESSCO were acquired from Enerphase Industrial Solutions,
Inc., of which ESSCO was a division.
Tencarva Machinery Company is a distributor specializ-
ing in liquid process, compressed air, vacuum equipment and
custom-designed systems for the industrial and municipal mar-
ketplace. www.tencarva.com.
GRAPHITE METALLIZING CORP. (YONKERS, N.Y.) announced
that NSF Internationalan independent, not-for-prot/non-
governmental organization that provides mate-
rials evaluation, standards testing and product
certication services involving public health and
safety issueshas just certied two grades of
GRAPHALLOY material for use in municipal
well pumps and water treatment plant applica-
tions. he two newly certied GRAPHALLOY
Grades are certied to NSF/ANSI Standard
6Drinking Water System Components
Health Eects and approved in the category
for Multiple Water Contact Materials (MLTPL)
up to 180 deg F. hese newly certied grades are
used in the manufacture of pump bushings and
bearings for both vertical and horizontal pumps.
Graphite Metallizing Corporation produces
GRAPHALLOY, a graphite/metal alloy bearing
material used in the manufacture of self-lubricat-
ing bearings and components for pumps, machin-
ery and process systems. www.graphalloy.com
VARNA PRODUCTS (CAMERON PARK, CALIF.) announced
the release of Calculating the Value of Prelube spreadsheet &
ANDROID phone application. his application can be used to
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Bigger doesnt necessarily mean better. You may think were small, but EagleBurgmann
has been producing products of uncompromising quality, durability and reliability for more than
120 years. Weve got the engineering expertise and the know-how to meet your toughest sealing
challenge, no matter what the size. Our 5,200 employees worldwide remain strong in their
customer commitment to ensure you can always rely on EagleBurgmann for your seal and service
needs. To nd out more, visit www.EagleBurgmannSeals.com or 1-800-303-7735.
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14 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
P&S News
calculate the savings and value of prelube for your industrial/
marine application.
VARNA produces solutions for prelube, soakback, transfer
and many other applications in industrial/marine oil & fuel
pumps & turnkey control.
VARNA Products is the production arm of Transportation
Research Corporation specializing in custom uid control solu-
tions for diesel engine systems. www.varnaproducts.com
EAGLEBURGMANN (HOUSTON, TEXAS) has become one of
four Fraunhofer institutes and seven other partners to receive
the Stifterverband Award. he award, one of German industrys
joint initiatives for supporting research and higher education,
was presented to EagleBurgmann as one of the partners in the
alliance that developed DiaCer, a new diamond-ceramic com-
posite material for applications under extreme conditions in
industrial environments.
EagleBurgmann manufactures mechanical seals, systems,
packing and expansion joints. www.eagleburgmann.com
JWC ENVIRONMENTAL (COSTA MESA, CALIF.) announced
that Big Fish Environmental is using its products in a unique
and e cient septage receiving and treatment plant design. he
products being used are the Honey Monster septage receiving
system, the Mu n Monster grinder and the Auger Monster
screen. Part of Big Fishs development process is achieving EPA
Environmental Technology Verication (ETV) which is now
in the nal approval stages. Biosolids produced at some plants
are approved by the State of Michigan as EQ Class A reusable
biosolids and are being distributed over agricultural elds.
JWC Environmental produces a family of wastewater,
stormwater and sewage treatment products. JWC Environmental
distributes its products through a global network of indepen-
dent representatives and distributors. www.jwce.com
IDEX CORPORATION (NORTHBROOK, ILL.) announced
the acquisition of OBL, S.r.l. A provider of mechanical and
hydraulic diaphragm pumps, OBL provides polymer blending
systems and related accessories for a diverse range of industries,
including water, wastewater, oil and gas, petrochemical and
power generation markets. Headquartered in Milan, Italy, with
annual revenues of approximately 8.5 million, OBL will oper-
ate within IDEXs Fluid and Metering Technologies segment as
part of the water and waste water group of companies.
IDEX Corporation is an applied solutions company spe-
cializing in uid and metering technologies; health and science
technologies; dispensing equipment; and re, safety and other
diversied products built to its customers specications.
www.idexcorp.com.
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16 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
P&S News
UPCOMING EVENTS
PUMPTEC
September 20 21
Holiday Inn Select / Norcross, Ga.
Presented by Pumping Machinery, LLC
770-310-0866 /
www.pumpingmachinery.com
SPE ANNUAL TECH CONFERENCE
September 20 22
Fortezza da Basso / Florence, Italy
Presented by Society of Petroleum Engineers
+39-055-33611 / www.spe.org/atce/2010
CADWORX UNIVERSITY
September 27 29
Woodlands Waterway Marriott Hotel /
Houston, Texas
Presented by COADE
www.cadworxuniversity.com
WEFTEC
October 2 6
Ernest N. Morial Convention Center /
New Orleans, La.
Presented by the Water Environment
Federation
877-933-4734 / www.weftec.org
TURBOMACHINERY SYMPOSIUM
October 5 7
George R. Brown Convention Center /
Houston, Texas
Presented by the Texas A&M
Turbomachinery Lab
979-845-7417 / turbolab.tamu.edu
SMRP CONFERENCE
October 18 21
Midwest Airlines Center / Milwaukee, Wisc.
Presented by the Society for Maintenance
and Reliability Professionals
703-245-8011 / www.smrp.org
FSA FALL MEETING
October 19 21
Austin, Texas
Presented by the Fluid Sealing Association
610-971-4850 / www.uidsealing.com
CERTIFIED OPC PROFESSIONAL
TRAINING
Level 1: OPC & DCOM Diagnostics
October 19 20
Level 2: OPC Security October 21 22
Level 3: OPC Unied Architecture
October 25 26
Level 4: OPC Integration Projects
October 27 28
ExecuTrain Houston / Houston, Texas
780-784-4444 / www.opcti.com
PACK EXPO
October 31 November 3
McCormick Place / Chicago, Ill.
Presented by the Packaging Manufacturers
Machinery Institute
703-243-8555 / www.packexpo.com
INFRAMATION
November 8 12
Ballys Hotel / Las Vegas, Nev.
Presented by FLIR Systems, Inc.
866-872-4647 / www.inframation.org
P&S
GRIFFCO VALVE
800-GRIFFCO716-835-0891
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Innovation, technology and reliability.
Three reasons why engineers, project
managers and plant operators request
Griffco Valves for their chemical feed
systems. Our new G and M series
valves with their injection molded
Noryl tops improve temperature and
pressure ratings while continuing to
deliver an extremely reliable, cost
effective way to achieve consistent,
user adjustable rates of fow and safety
relief in chemical feed applications.
www.griffcovalve.com
6010 North Bailey Ave, Suite 1B
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Email sales@griffcovalve.com
Your source for high quality
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18 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Pump Ed 101
L
ast month, we studied the properties and eects of
resistive, inductive and capacitive loads in an AC cir-
cuit. his month, we will take self induction a step
further and apply it to that simple machine that is at the
heart of AC powerthe transformer.
As I mentioned in Part One, (Pumps & Systems, June
2010) a unique quality of AC power is that its voltage can
be changed easily and in either directionup or down.
his allows us to generate power at some voltage and step
it up to a higher voltage for long distance transmission. his
decreases losses due to heat and signicantly reduces the wire
size. Once it reaches its point of use, voltage can be reduced
to a useable intensity. he key element in this process is the
transformer, and the key to its operation is a phenomenon
known as mutual induction.
Mutual Induction
If two coils of wire are placed near each other (see Figure 1),
an alternating current owing in one will create a magnetic
eld that induces a voltage and current in the one nearby,
even though they are not in direct contact. his occurs
because the lines of ux associated with the magnetic eld
extend well beyond the coil that created them. his property
is called mutual inductance or mutual induction, and it is the
basis of the transformer. he transformer gets its name from
the process of transforming electrical energy into magnetic
energy and then back to electrical energy. he coil that pro-
duces the magnetic eld is called the primary (input) and the
coil that intercepts that eld is called the secondary (output).
Although some transformers consist of coils separated by
an air gap, most use insulated wire wound about a laminated
iron core (see Figure 2). he iron core increases transformer
e ciency by directing nearly all the ux produced by the
primary through the secondary coil. he laminations reduce
eddy current losses that would be much higher in a solid
core design. Depending on the design and capacity, trans-
former e ciency can range from 20 to 99 percent. Larger
onesfor example those designed for power distribution
Joe Evans, Ph.D.
AC Power (Part Four):
Transformers
Figure 2 Figure 3
Figure 1
Last of four parts
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 19
applicationsoperate at 98 percent or better. Another impor-
tant property of the transformer is electrical isolation. Since
the primary and secondary coils are not in contact, the power
source is isolated from the point of use.
Voltage, Current and the Turns Ratio
According to Faradays law, voltage produced in the secondary
of a transformer depends on the voltage
in the primary and the number of turns
(loops) in the primary and secondary
coils. his may sound a little compli-
cated, but this relationship can be simply
stated with something called the turns
to voltage ratio. he equation below
where V is voltage, N is the number of
turns, p is the primary and s is the sec-
ondaryexplains this relationship:
Vs = (Ns / Np) x Vp
Secondary voltage is directly pro-
portional to the product of the turns
ratio and primary voltage. If Ns is greater
than Np, then the voltage in the second-
ary coil is greater than that of the pri-
mary coil, and the transformer is called
a step-up transformer. If the opposite is
true, we have a step-down transformer.
For example, suppose a transformer has
a primary with 1,000 turns and a sec-
ondary with 100 turns. Based on the
equation above, the turns ratio is 1/10
or 0.1. If the voltage feeding the primary
is 1,200 V then the secondary voltage
will be 120 V.
However, what about current? How
do we calculate its change? he trans-
former is an intelligent machine because
it automatically adjusts the current to
keep power (in watts) constant. A slight
modication of the original equation
explains this relationship:
Is = (Np / Ns) x Ip
In the equation above, current (I)
replaces voltage and the turns ratio is
reversed. When fewer turns are in the
secondary, a transformer steps down
voltage, but it increases current and,
therefore, keeps power constant. In
the case of our step-down transformer
example above, if the primary is fed
by 1,200 V at 1 A, then the secondary
would provide 120 V at 10 A. Both volt/amp combinations
provide 1,200 W of power.
Winding Congurations
Transformers allow an extremely exible secondary output and
are not limited to a single secondary winding. Figure 3 shows
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20 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
an example of a typical power supply transformer. he primary is fed
by 110 V and induces three individual secondary coils providing 5 V,
6.3 V and 700 V. he 700-V coil shows another feature of the trans-
former. A tap placed at the center of the coil provides two 350-V
outputs in addition to its full voltage output. Multiple taps may also
be placed within a single coil.
Three Phase Transformers
Transformers used in three-phase appli-
cations can consist of three, single-phase
transformers or a single transformer
wound in a manner that accommo-
dates all three phases. he primary and
secondary windings of the three-phase
transformer are congured in two basic
patternsDelta and Wye. he primary
and secondary can be any combination
of the two (such as Wye/Delta, Delta/
Wye, Delta/Delta and Wye/Wye).
his article will examine the Delta and
Wye secondary characteristics only.
Additional resources are provided at the
end of the article if you are interested in
pursuing the eect of a particular pri-
mary on a secondary.
Figure 4 is the schematic of a Delta
secondary that produces three individ-
ual-phase voltages of 120 V. he Delta
gets its name from the Greek letter that
has a similar appearance. You might
think that such a conguration would
short circuit since they are connected in
series. However, note the angle associ-
ated with each phase starting at the top
and proceeding counter clockwise. If you
refer to the three-phase power curve in
Figure 3 of Part Two (Pumps & Systems,
July 2010), you will see that the volt-
ages cancel one another and no current
ows through the circuit. If, however, a
load is connected across any two of the
three lines, a current will ow and the
line-to-line voltage will be the sum of the
phase voltages, which equals 240 V.
Figure 5 is the schematic of a WYE
secondary that also produces three indi-
vidual-phase voltages of 120 V. It gets its
name from its resemblance to the letter
Y and is sometimes called a star. At the
junction of the three phases, a separate
connection, known as a neutral is usu-
ally supplied. A load connected between
the neutral and any of the three lines
Pump Ed 101
Figure 4
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22 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Pump Ed 101
will see a voltage of 120 V. When a load is connected across any two
of the three lines, the voltage will not be the sum of the two phases.
Instead, it will be approximately 208 V. he reason this occurs is due to
the phase angle and the way the coils are connected. Although we will
not show one here, a phasor diagram would illustrate that the voltage
vector created by any two WYE phases produces a voltage that is only
1.732 of the phase voltage. If you are interested in viewing WYE and
Delta phasors, check out he Changing
Voltage Puzzler on my website.
Based on the line-to-line voltage, it
would appear that the WYE transformer
is less e cient than the Delta. However,
an interesting event occurs within the
Delta conguration. A phasor diagram
would show that the line-to-line cur-
rent is only 1.732 of the phase current.
herefore, the relationship below will
hold true for any circuit regardless of
whether it is Delta and WYE connected:
Power (watts) =
volts x amps x 1.732 x power factor
I hope that this brief introduction
to AC power has been useful. A lot more
is involved, so below are several websites
that you can visit for more information.
In the future, I plan to write a similar
series on AC motors.
P&S
Resources
All About Circuits: www.allaboutcircuits.com/
vol_2/index.html
Integrated Publishing EE Training Series:
www.tpub.com/content/neets/
Electronics Tutorials:
www.electronics-tutorials.ws/index.html
Siemens:
www3.sea.siemens.com/step/templates/lesson.
mason?bep:2:1:1
Electricians Toolbox: www.elec-toolbox.com
RLC Circuits Java Applet:
www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/accircuit.htm
Joe Evans is responsible for cus-
tomer and employee education
at PumpTech, Inc., a pumps and
packaged systems manufacturer and
distributor with branches through-
out the Pacic Northwest. He can
be reached via his website www.
PumpEd101.com. If there are topics
that you would like to see discussed in
future columns, drop him an email.
Figure 5
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24 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
T
hese days, the importance of a fresh water supply and
safely-treated wastewater returned to the river cannot
be overemphasized. No matter how hard we try, we
are still a long way from the most e cient, economic and
reliable ways to ensure that our cities are properly equipped
and ready for the clean water challenge.
As a civilization, we have achieved isolated instances
of superb e ciency in water treatment and reuse, such as
space shuttles and stations that rely on the almost perfect
use and transformation of the precious water cycle, as there
is no alternative other than that in space. But on the ground,
the quantity of issues are grander and not as technically
advanced. Yet this is where are our world is and what we
have to work witha world in which we must be in tune
with nature and our environment as we look toward more
innovative ways to maintain a fresh water supply and safely
treat wastewater.
Chemical vs
Biological Treatment Methods
Is wastewater about to be treated in other more innovative
ways? Currently, most plants use a combination of biologi-
cal and chemical waste stabilization. Increasingly, the EPA is
presenting the idea of making wastewater e uents cleaner
in terms of nutrients. his forces more plants to add large
quantities of chemicals to polish their e uents.
he other unintended eect is that multiple systems
now need more maintenance. Wastewater plant operators
have trouble maintaining complicated systems while keep-
ing costs low. Eventually, chemical stabilization methods will
displace some of the biological stabilization techniques.
For instance, one big problem area is biological phos-
phorus removal followed by anaerobic digestion. he unfor-
tunate consequence of this procedure is the release of phos-
phorus back into the plant, whereas chemical phosphorus
removal permanently ties up the phosphorus until it leaves
the system. Complex systems are not only hard to run, they
are expensive to maintain.
Pump Protection
Protecting treatment pumps (primary, secondary and ter-
tiary) from grit that accompanies the incoming water is an
important component of extending equipment life. he ways
that water is pumped have undergone changes, as well. he
traditional end suction pumps have steadily been replaced
by wet submersible units and now even by dry submersibles,
which are mounted into a dry pit and connected to a wet pit
allowing easy access to the pumps for repair or maintenance.
Combined Sewers
Combined sewers present challenges, and separating the
water streams is expensive. In practice, the more readily acces-
sible piping is handled rst, and the more di cult accesses
are put on hold until later. With the complexities involved
in sewer separations and the disruptions to business, many
communities are turning to tunnel collection systems when
upgrading (due to capacity issues or government regula-
tion) is required. Increasingly, deep drop shafts have become
common in many urban areas. he drainage of storm water
will be beneted by the implementation of drop shafts.
Simplied Repairs and New Materials
Repairs must become simpler and faster. Presently, main-
tenance departments conduct simple repairs in house, and
large and more sophisticated equipment is repaired by out-
side contractors. Systems are more complex, and more com-
puters are used to control them.
Computer specialists, who have good technical under-
standing of the systems, are more common at wastewater
treatment plants, but they may lack the knowledge of work-
ing on the equipment. Likewise, maintenance personnel
may be experienced with the equipment, but may lack the
technical knowledge of the systems. A disconnect between
the equipment handling and the systems that operate and
control the handling can occur. More training is required to
bridge this gap. In addition, more interaction between the
departments and groups is essential.
New materials are available today that were novel or
nonexistent years ago. For example, duplex stainless steel per-
forms better in high-G centrifuge applications. Composites
are becoming more common, bringing with them the advan-
tages of light weight, cavitation resistance and corrosion
resistance.
Dr. Lev Nelik, P.E., APICS, President, Pumping Machinery, LLC
Chris Staud, Engineering, Wastewater Group, Atlanta, Ga.
Wastewater
Treatment Industry:
Present Challenges and
Future Horizons
Pumping Prescriptions
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 25
The Future
How will our plants look 20 years from now? Hopefully, higher
e ciencies and eectiveness of systems will mean less waste
and a better recycling of resources. We may see technologies
applied and new trends. Perhaps water and waste treatment
plants will combine, and less wastewater will be discharged
into rivers, with more of it contained in a closed cycle, making
our rivers safer and more environmen-
tally friendly.
Plant space (or green areas), par-
ticularly in cities, will have to be used
better, and some communities will
likely apply new methodssuch as
closed-cycle water systemsto be
more self-sustaining and less pollut-
ing. Remember the experiment with
biosphere conducted in Arizona years
ago? his type process can work in a
small-scale situation. he challenge is to
implement it on a wider scale.
he benets of closed-water sys-
tems would be impressive. Less water
discharged to rivers would mean less
piping, less repairs and less ground-
work disruptions, and an easier-to-pre-
serve infrastructure. Problems that are
common todaysuch as cracked pipes,
inltration and pluggingwould be
eliminated.
Solar energy could be better used,
with solar panels and special bacteria
growing methods that may advance
us even further, making us less energy
dependent and more e cient.
Perhaps one day, present issues with
our water supply will be reversed with
more innovative water treatment and
delivery systems. he public is increas-
ingly concerned about whether we actu-
ally remove all the harmful pathogens in
drinking water in urban areas.
It is di cult to tell, how the world
will look in 20 years. However, if we
do not try to imagine it today, we may
nd ourselves unprepared in the future.
Perhaps the time to plan or at least talk
about it, is now. We would like to hear
input from our readers, and we wel-
come any additional ideas, challenges
or thoughts that you may have.
P&S
Dr. Nelik (aka Dr. Pump) is president of Pumping
Machinery, LLC, an Atlanta-based rm specializing in
pump consulting, training, equipment troubleshooting and
pump repairs. Dr. Nelik has 30 years of experience in pumps
and pumping equipment. He can be contacted at www.
PumpingMachinery.com.
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26 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Business of the Business
T
he freefall in electric motor sales is a
direct eect of the worldwide eco-
nomic downturn, which has severely
depressed industrial and commercial produc-
tions. Despite the 20 to 30 percent drop in
motor sales in 2009, manufacturers remain
optimistic about the future market landscape,
as the economic recovery, the need to improve
energy e ciency and the demand in high-
growth sectors will create need for high-per-
formance motors.
When selecting a new motor today, a
buyer has two choices for electric motor e -
ciency: EPAct (Energy Policy Act of 1992)
e ciency or NEMA (National Electrical
Manufacturers Association) Premium e ciency, which has
a higher e ciency requirement and costs 10 to 15 percent
more than motors that just meet the EPAct standard. With
the passage of the Energy Independence and Security Act
of 2007 (EISA), all general purpose motors of at least 1 hp
and less than 200 hp will have to meet or exceed NEMA
Premium motor e ciency levels beginning on December 19,
2010.
As a result of this legislation, motor selection is likely to
be consolidated, and NEMA Premium is expected to become
the new industry motor e ciency standard. he inclusion
of the NEMA motor e ciency standards into U.S. law
and the recognition of NEMA standards by environmental
groups, such as the American Council for an Energy E cient
Economy (ACEEE), has resulted of a resurgence in a mature
electric motors market.
Despite the high, premium costs associated with high
e ciency motors and concerns with making new capital
investments amidst an uncertain economic environment,
the trend toward higher energy e ciency has been gaining
momentum in North America. To adhere to EISA, end users
are replacing less e cient motors with NEMA Premium e -
ciency motors.
he U.S. Congress and President Obama passed the
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, or he Stimulus
Plan, which provides funding for the federal government,
states and cities to improve energy e ciency
in buildings and schools. ARRA also provides
enhanced incentives for consumers to upgrade
existing heating and cooling equipment and
allows consumers to purchase energy e cient
HVAC systems, energy e cient motors and
energy e cient water heaters. hese incentives
include receiving a tax credit of up to 30 per-
cent of the cost for energy e cient products.
he stimulus encouraged consumers to make
their homes more energy e cient, and also
drives the sales of high e ciency motors.
To oset the price factor associated with
Electric Motors: Driving
to Higher Efciency
Jen Yao, Frost & Sullivan
Figure 1
Figure 2
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 27
NEMA Premium motors and encourage faster adoption, the
U.S. Senates Energy and Natural Resources Committee voted
in favor of adopting the NEMA advocated premium energy-
e cient motor rebate program, known as crush for credit.
Once the $700 million motor rebate bill is passed, it will pro-
vide a $25 per horsepower rebate for the purchase of NEMA
Premium energy e cient motors, and a $5 per horsepower
rebate for the disposal of the old, non-
NEMA Premium motor.
With all the emphasis on energy
independence, other opportunities for
electric motors exist. Wind power is
gaining acceptance and becoming an
increasingly cost-eective and clean
alternative to conventional energy
sources. Electric AC motors and servo
motors are used in yaw drives, pitch
controls and other control systems. he
North American wind power market
has experienced tremendous growth
during the last three years, growing at an
average annual rate of 37 percent from
2006 to 2009 and reached a capacity of
34,000 MW and $13.5 billion in rev-
enue in 2009. Increasing government
concerns about energy security and
independence, government incentives
on renewable energy and other factors
such as rising energy prices and volatil-
ity of fuel costs have contributed to the
accelerated market growth.
Looking forward, wind power con-
tinues to be a strong growth sector; it is
expected to reach a capacity of 127,000
MW and $37.1 billion in revenue by
2015, with an average annual growth
rate of 24 percent. Since electrical and
control systems (including yaw systems,
pitch systems, brake systems, power
converters and transformers) account
for 13.8 percent of the capital cost of a
wind turbine generator system, electric
motors used in wind energy are pro-
jected to experience strong growth to
meet the strong demand.
Manufacturers moved quickly to
make changes to their product oerings
to ensure NEMA Premium compliance
and began moving more inventory to
the new levels to ensure availability and a
smooth transition to high-performance
motors. Furthermore, manufacturers are seeking opportunities
within the high-growth sectors, such as wind energy, to stay
competitive. With the economic recovery, the requirement
to meet energy e ciency standards and demand from high-
growth sectors, the electric motors market is expected to see a
fast recovery.
P&S
Jen Yao is a research analyst with
Frost & Sullivan.
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All About Water
SPECIAL SECTION CONTENTS
Predictable Pump Motor Maintenance at a Cranberry Bog . . . . . . 29
Cellular Communications for SCADA Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Technology Saves Valuable Equipment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Considerations for Choosing a Flow Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Clean Water for Florida Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
The Balancing Act of DP Flow Meter Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
WEFTEC Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 29
W
hen a pump or motor fails at Sea Wind Cranberry
Farm in Langlois, Ore., farm manager Knute
Anderssons business is at stake. An equipment
malfunction could allow the farms cranberry elds to cool just
a couple degrees, and on a cold night, that can mean losing part
of the crop. For modern cranberry farmers, properly function-
ing pumps, motors and sprinklers help ensure that their berry
yield will be high. Without them, the berries are at the mercy
of hostile climates that can cause crop-killing frost or destruc-
tive heat.
Because of the fragile nature of the cranberry crop,
Andersson needs an on-call electrician who can provide emer-
gency repair service eectively and e ciently enough to save
the berries, sometimes in the middle of the night. Even more
important, Andersson needs an electrician who can ensure
through eective predictive maintenance that many of these
emergencies do not happen at all. Anderssons electrician is
Joe Buchanan, project lead man and safety chairman at Kyle
Electric, North Bend, Ore. Buchanan has been in the electric
business 33 years; since I was a pup, he says. hroughout that
career, he has made safety and customer satisfaction his per-
sonal mantra.
Buchanan helps keep his customers happy by maintain-
ing and repairing their equipment before it fails. Buchanan has
worked with Andersson on the maintenance of the cranberry
farms pump system for about six years.
Berry Particular
Andersson has 11 pump houses, each with between two and ve
pumps and just as many motors for those pumps. he motors
range from 10 to 100 hp. All the elds have temperature sen-
sors that relay back to the pump houses. If the temperature goes
up or down too far, the pumps come on to start the sprinklers,
which then use water to adjust the air temperature in the bogs.
he equipment maintains the proper temperature of the
elds 24 hours a day, 10 months each year. he cranberry vines
must stay within two or three deg of their ideal temperature,
otherwise the crop is damaged and the yield is reduced.
If they get frosted, they freeze. hats a throw away,
Andersson says. If it gets too hot, it will cook them, and they
will rot on the vine. Yield is all about temperature control.
While high temperatures are less common in temperate,
coastal Oregon, often the air and water on early spring nights
can dip dangerously low. If a motor fails then, when the ambi-
ent temperature is too high or low, Andersson could lose part or
all of an entire eld before the pump is up and working again.
Since he started managing the farm in 1991, Andersson
Predictable Pump
Motor Maintenance at a
Cranberry Bog
Chris Rayburn, Fluke Corporation
Due to the delicate nature of the cranberry, pump failure is not an option.
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has worked on his pump and motor system to maintain the nec-
essary temperature for the berries in his elds. Buchanan began
helping him six years ago when he installed the farms most
recent pump house and its four 100-hp motors and pumps at
a price of more than $100,000. Each pump can move as much
as 1,500 gal of water per min to provide frost protection, irriga-
tion, weed control and ooding of the bogs at harvest time or
when otherwise necessary.
Water, Water, Everywhere
Mother Nature not only provides haz-
ards for the berries, it can also cause
abuse to the equipment. Buchanan must
be mindful of those hazards during
maintenance of the farms 27 motors.
he salt air eats through insulation,
and the constant presence of water
slowly corrodes the motors and relays.
Windings fail faster. here is corro-
sion and insulation degradation ahead
of schedule, Buchanan says. However,
equipment failure is not an option.
Buchanan has worked to eliminate
failure by implementing a predictive
maintenance plan. Each winter, he visits
the farm for an annual inspection of
motors, controls and pumps and checks
for loosened terminals and connections
and any damage from moisture or age.
On each predictive call, Buchanan
looks for changes in readings, and he
checks the insulation and lining around
each motor. We want to prevent criti-
cal shut down, he says. To do this, he
compares all his readings against those
he measured at the same time the pre-
vious year. He also tests for any power
dips, looks for any damage to the insu-
lation or the lining of the motor, and
ensures that no feedback or deteriora-
tion is present.
Weve gone through it all, and
it is now pretty much trouble free,
Andersson says. If a problem occurs
in any of his pump houses, most com-
monly, starters burn up or a relay fails.
The Bottom Line
Safety is Buchanans top priority, and he
says that the right tools can make a dif-
ference. Use quality tools and be a good
craftsman. hese tips not only ensure
safety but keep customers coming back,
Buchanan says.
P&S
Marketing Manager for clamp meter, earth ground, and
insulation test products, Chris Rayburn has an extensive
background in aerospace with a masters of science in aero-
nautics and astronautics from the University of Washington
and an MBA from the same school. Prior to Fluke, Chris
worked for Aerojet, Accenture and GE. You can contact
him at christopher.rayburn@uke.com.
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32 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
M
anagers of water/wastewater
facilities need to collect accurate
information from remote assets
such as pumps, tanks and booster stations.
Traditionally, this information is collected
manually by collecting the chart record-
ings. his might be done monthly, weekly
or daily, depending on available sta ng.
While manual collection of this data
is the norm, plants want to move to an
automated process using a central station
for all monitoring and control, which can
reduce or eliminate the need for manual
data collection. his type of system is
called a SCADA (Supervisory Control and
Data Acquisition) system. hese advanced
networking SCADA systems can provide
all the information from remote assets at
a single location, improving the accuracy
and timeliness of the operation.
A SCADA system requires a network
with a secure communication path. Many dierent technolo-
giesincluding dial-up, DSL, leased line and private radio
can provide this communications link. In water applications,
networks must often reach areas where phone lines or tradi-
tional wiring does not exist. Conduits can be trenched and
wire can be laid, but this is often cost-prohibitive. Radio can
provide access to these remote locations without the need for
wires. When it comes to radio, there are a variety of options
available. his article examines the use of cellular technology in
SCADA applications, how it can be implemented, the dierent
networking options available and security.
Cellular Network Options
In the world of cellular communications, two network options,
voice and data, are available. Each has dierent capabilities
for SCADA applications. In this article, we will focus on the
Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) network
for voice communications and General Packet Radio Service/
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (GPRS/EDGE) for
data communications, but the same principles exist for other
cellular technology segments.
he general dierence between these types of networks is
that the GSM network addresses all devices on the network by
a phone number. On the GPRS/EDGE network, all devices
are addressable via an IP address, making data communications
easy.

Simple Control with the GSM Network for
SCADA applications
he GSM network connects with the Public Standard
Telephone Network (PSTN), allowing communications from
cellular devices to land-based modems using a phone number.
his is used for voice communication and Short Message
Service (SMS), also known as text messaging.
Cellular Communications
for SCADA Applications
Ira Sharp, Phoenix Contact
Effective and secure cellular communications for remote data acquisition.
Cellular modem-to-modem text message communications can be used for autonomous
tank-level control
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 33
However, in the U.S., dial-up networking, where one
modem calls another using the PSTN, is not permitted over the
cellular infrastructure. his limits the use of the GSM network
for SCADA applications in the U.S. to SMS-only. Despite this
limitation, the GSM network can be useful for simple control
applications in a SCADA system.
For these simple control applications, modems can use a
text message to take an eventsuch as
a door alarm, high- or low-level tank
alarm, or change in pump statusand
report it to a control room or another
modem for autonomous system opera-
tion. In modem-to-modem commu-
nications, when the second modem
receives a command, it provides some
action or status update. he modems
create an autonomous system that can
control some part of an event-based
process.
For example, Modem A receives a
low-level alarm message from the tank.
his modem then sends a text mes-
sage to Modem B, which turns on the
pump and lls the tank. Once the water
reaches an adequate level, Modem A
sends another message to Modem B,
requesting that the pump be turned o.
While this process occurs, the modems
also send the text message to a second
number for the control room. his pro-
vides real-time updates to the control
room SCADA system about the actions
occurring on site.
If an autonomous system is not nec-
essary, the facility can still use text mes-
saging. he modem can send informa-
tion about the processes to the control
room SCADA master, which will pro-
vide the needed logic for control. It can
also send a text message directly to the
technicians who are responsible for the
system. he technicians can then make
the necessary changes to the system.
Text messaging can be an eective way
to monitor and control simple processes.
Advanced Networking
with GPRS/EDGE for
SCADA Applications
For applications that demand more than
simple, event-based monitoring and
control, the GPRS and EDGE networks
oer additional capabilities. he GPRS
and EDGE networks can connect to a
private network or to the Internet using standard networking
protocols. Since this allows for more information exchange
from the remote assets, greater exibility is available for moni-
toring, controlling, or even programming over the cellular
infrastructure than the GSM network allows. When using the
GPRS or EDGE network for data communications, you must
decide if you will leverage a private network or use the standard
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34 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
public network.
Private networks oer a great deal of exibility. Just about
any network architecture can be realized, including host-ini-
tiated communication, and all communications do not need
to ow over the Internet. However, to create a private cellu-
lar network, you must work with a carriersuch as AT&T,
T-Mobile, Verizon, etc.to dene how your network should
be constructed. hese private networks typically charge a one-
time setup fee to create the network. his fee can range from
hundreds to more than $2,500, depending on the type of net-
work being constructed.
With this type network, you will also need to do some
network management to ensure proper network use. Private
networking can be ideal for larger cellular networks, but smaller
systems usually nd the public network
more suitable.
he public network does not require
any special congurations. Service plans
are easily accessible, and generally, no
setup fees are required. However, all
data communications will ow over the
Internet, which heightens the chance of
network security threats.
In addition, typical poll-response
networks used in SCADA systems will
not work over the public network with-
out proper preparation. he public net-
work is designed for mobile-originated
communications. In other words, the
remote device talks, and the host receives
the information. In most SCADA sys-
tems, however, the host initiates the
communication to the remote device. A
VPN (virtual private network) can over-
come both the security concerns and
the remotely initiated communication
issues.
Security with VPN
Tunneling
A VPN tunnel is one simple way to
ensure the security of the Ethernet traf-
c over the Internet. To use a VPN
tunnel, the modem must support VPN
networks. A router that supports VPN
networking must also be at the control
room.
Leveraging the VPN tunnel to
secure the communicated information
also solves other cellular issues. As men-
tioned earlier, cellular networks typically
require that the remote modem initiate
all data communications. Many indus-
trial protocols, such as MODBUS and
EtherNet/IP, however, are designed for
poll response. he SCADA master at the
control room must initiate the commu-
nications, not the remote modem.
By creating a VPN tunnel between
the remote modem and the SCADA
system, the modem will be available on
demand. his allows the SCADA master
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36 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
to do the polling. he modem will initiate communications at
startup and will keep the tunnel up, making access of the con-
nected devices easy.
Using this type of network in a water application means
that a SCADA master located in a control room can poll a
remote PLC, which monitors various aspects of a process, for
information on demand, such as pump status. his provides a
real-time look at the water process without the need for manual
interaction. In addition, changing variables or programming is
possible in the remotely located PLC over the cellular network,
eliminating the need to visit each location for a system update.
Whether the application involves simple data collection,
non-critical control, or remote programming capabilities, the
cellular network provides the network access necessary. I/O
modems with text message capabilities provide alarm noti-
cations based on a condition or control another device. Data
modems provide data communications to remote assets. When
used with a VPN, modem technology allows users to collect
information, program controllers and access other critical
information, all through a single secure wireless link.
P&S
Ira Sharp is Lead Product Marketing Specialist for Phoenix
Contacts wireless products. Ira has a Bachelor of Science in
Electrical Engineering from Pennsylvania State University.
He has worked for Phoenix Contact with a concentration
on wireless technology, industrial automation and process
control for ve years. His active professional memberships
include: the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation
Society (ISA); Wireless Systems for Automation (ISA100);
and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
(IEEE). He can be reached at 1-800-888-7388, x3777,
or isharp@phoenixcon.com.
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All About Water
S
et in the foothills of Canadas Rocky Mountains is the
city of Airdrie. Without a water supply, Airdrie purchases
its water from neighboring Calgary. Every night, Calgary
pumps enough water to ll two reservoirs in Airdrie (a total of
four million gallons). hen Airdrie pumps water into its distri-
bution system so the citys 38,000 people have water through-
out the day. Calgary supplies water at 5,300 gpm (335 l/s) at
60 psi (4.1 bar) to the inlet of the reservoir ll valve. Outlet
pressure of the ll valve is at or close to atmospheric pressure.
Pressure Drop Is a Problem
Anytime there is a high-pressure drop ratio across a valve, (typi-
cally a three to one ratio or more in absolute pressure) cavitation
can be an issue. his is a common
occurrence with reservoir feed
valves as well as relief valves when
they are designed to continuously
relieve higher, upstream pressure
to atmospheric pressure. People
have tried to resolve this problem
by using two valves in series: the
rst reducing the pressure partly,
and the second valve reduc-
ing the pressure to the required
outlet pressure, which eliminates
the three to one pressure drop
within one valve. his approach
can work. However, it requires
extra space, extra piping compo-
nents and two valves. So, this is often not the best solution due
to cost and space constraints.
Cavitation is a serious problem when a valve reduces pres-
sure with a ratio of three to one (or greater) of the absolute
inlet pressure. From 60 psi (4.1 bar) to atmospheric pressure
may not sound overly dramatic, but it is deep in the cavitation
zone. Typically, if the inlet pressure into a reservoir ll valve
is 20 psi (1.3 bar) or less, cavitation should not be an issue;
however, when pressure at the valve inlet exceeds 20 psi (1.3
bar), some form of cavitation control should be considered.
Kelly McKague, Airdries facility operator discovered this the
hard way.
We inspected the reservoir ll valve every year for damage
due to cavitation, says McKague. he valve was completely
eaten away, so we had to replace it every 18 months because of
cavitation damage.
The Cause of Cavitation
Cavitation is the formation of vapor bubbles that are created
anywhere there is a local pres-
sure low enough to allow the
water to vaporize. hese bubbles
migrate to the downstream side
of the valve and/or the down-
stream pipe where the velocity
of the water slows down and the
resultant pressure increase allows
these vapor bubbles to implode
with incredible destructive force.
It sounds similar to small rocks
rolling around within a valve.
hese imploding vapor bubbles
will erode any coatings on the
valve and the cast or ductile iron,
creating a porous, pock-marked
surface. his occurs most frequently around the seat area and
on the downstream bridge of the valve.
The Solution
McKague attended a trade show where he was fascinated to
learn about an anti-cavitation trim. On display was the exact
Technology Saves
Valuable Equipment
Brad Clarke & Kari Oksanen, Singer Valve
Airdrie, Canada, prevents cavitation damage by using an anti-cavitation trim.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 39
valve we had in the reservoir, says McKague. hat caught our
attention; so, the conversation led to the anti-cavitation trim
technology. After further consultation, the City of Airdrie
decided to purchase this new technology. he valve was then
customized to specic to Airdries application.
In customization, the specic application must be consid-
ered, as well as the capacity of the valve to prevent the supply
side from being reduced to unacceptable levels. Airdrie pro-
vided the company with the actual ow ranges as well as the
inlet pressure ranges and the required outlet pressure. With
this information, the companys engineering team modeled
that performance and selected a drilling pattern for the mul-
tiple orices specic to Airdries application. he trick was to
supply orices that could manage maximum ow while creat-
ing enough backpressure within the cage to prevent the micro-
scopic vapor bubbles from escaping.
he anti-cavitation cage is not a sacricial lamb and does
not cavitate, as all the destructive forces are kept in the middle
of the cage and the opposing vapor bubbles collide and implode
against each other, not against a metal surface. Newer entries to
the anti-cavitation market tend to use elongated grooves and
take a position that one size ts all. he problem with this is
that when the pressure drop is extreme, not enough back pres-
sure is created, and orice plates may be required as extra insur-
ance, which complicates the entire installation and does create
a sacricial lamb.
he challenge in designing this kind of anti-cavitation trim
is to control the pressure inside the anti-cavitation cage so that
through the full stroke, the pressure remains low enough to
prevent cavitation when owing out of the cage, and yet high
enough to assure that the valve opens. he main valve used by
Airdrie was dierent from the traditional main valves to ensure
a smooth constant ow around the entire diameter of the anti-
cavitation cage.
his solution was by no means a simple task and was the
result of ve years of R&D from the companys engineering
team. For guaranteed results in solving a cavitation problem,
you need to have an engineered solution as each application
is dierent and requires some customization. A one size ts all
approach is not the best approach.
After Airdries anti-cavitation trim had been operating for
six months, McKague was curious to check the valves perfor-
mance. We could have boxed the valve and resold it, says
McKague. here was absolutely no sign of cavitation damage,
not even on the coating. We couldnt believe it.
he trim allowed for smooth control and protection from
cavitation damage. he double sliding cages of heavy stainless
steel construction directed and contained the cavitation recov-
ery, allowing it to dissipate harmlessly. he cage was engineered
to meet the ow/pressure dierential of this specic applica-
tion. he anti-cav trim did not eliminate cavitation, says
Summit Valves Harry Rehmann. Instead, it contained the
cavitation and caused the vapor bubbles to collapse away from
any metal surface.
One year after installa-
tion, McKague inspected the
valve again and still no
damage. We were
used to seeing exten-
sive damage,
says
McKague.
Singers
anti-cavita-
tion trim has
saved us a lot
of grief.
he valve
is working
perfectly, and
we wont inspect it again for
another few years.
Rehmann was on site when the valve was opened and
inspected. When I saw the valve after it had been operating
for several months, he says, there were no marks on it. Not
one. It was phenomenal. I estimate that the anti-cavitation trim
prolongs the life of the valve by about 10 times. hats how
eective it is.
Another benet of the anti-cavitation trim is noise reduc-
tion. Cavitation is really noisy, says Rehmann. It is like gravel
going through the valve. With the anti-cav trim, the valve is
amazingly quiet. Noise can be an issue when these valves are
located in a residential area with domestic housing nearby. Also
from a worker safety perspective, any reduction in noise is a
real benet.
Pleased with the overall performance of the anti-cavitation
trim, Airdrie o cials ordered another valve with the anti-cavi-
tation trim for its newest reservoir.
hese are long-lasting, dependable valves that handle
high pressure drops without causing damage while minimiz-
ing noise. We didnt have to think twice about that decision,
says McKague. his anti-cavitation valve is denitely the right
valve for the job.
P&S
Brad Clarke is the VP of sales and marketing for Singer
Valve Inc., a global designer and manufacturer of auto-
matic control valves. He can be reached at
Brad@singervalve.com.
Kari Oksanen, Singer Valves general manager, has over 30
years of extensive knowledge and experience in the auto-
matic control valve industry. He can be reached at Kari@
singervalve.com.
40 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
S
electing a liquid ow meter to measure volumetric ow
rate or totalized ow can be a complex process. Many fac-
tors must be considered, including the uid type; appli-
cation environment; operating parameters, like temperature;
pressure and ow rate; ow meter technology; accuracy and
repeatability requirements; reliability; installation constraints;
maintenance requirements; and instrument life cycle.
For example, many types of ow meters measure liquid,
and some are better suited to clean water than wastewater treat-
ment environments. Some are more accurate and repeatable
than others. Some require less frequent or more complex main-
tenance, and some last longer than others.
In choosing a liquid ow meter, all the selection criteria
must be considered rather than focusing on one aspect alone,
such as price. Low purchase price alone can often be a mislead-
ing indicator considering required performance, maintenance
costs and life cycles. A better consideration would be total cost
of ownership, which takes into account not only purchase price
but also the cost of installation, maintenance, calibration and
meter replacement.
On the other hand, sometimes an inexpensive ow meter
with simple features does the job adequately. When the appli-
cation is simple, performance may be less critical, and there
might be no compelling reason to consider a more sophisti-
cated solution.
Selection Considerations
Developing an application-specic comparative ow meter
evaluation tool is a good place to start. Table 1 is an example
of a ow meter selection matrix, in worksheet format, that will
help in comparing ow meters to specic ow meter criteria.
Time invested upfront in thoroughly understanding the uid
to be measured and the process or plant environment where the
ow meter must operate will ultimately pay dividends.
Fluid Media Type
Selecting a ow meter begins with understanding the process
media uid. Do you need to measure liquid, steam or gas? For
the purpose of this article, we are focusing on liquid for volu-
metric measurement (ow rate or totalized ow). he question
then becomes what kind of a liquid?
For example, the ow meter you choose to measure drink-
ing water may not be the appropriate choice for wastewater
treatment. Not all liquid ow meter technologies are appro-
priate to measure dirty uids, particulate laden slurries, high-
density, viscous uids or sanitary liquids for food/beverage or
pharmaceutical applications. he conductivity of a liquid and
the presence of bubbles in a liquid are additional factors to
consider.
he chemical properties of the liquid are important, too.
Corrosive and caustic liquids may require specialty materials to
prevent damage to the meter. Excessive maintenance or costly
replacements can result when the chemical properties of the
liquid are not fully considered in advance.
Operating Temperature and Pressure
Full knowledge of the liquid to be measured is only part of
understanding the overall application. Some ow meter
technologies are aected by uid temperature and operating
pressure. If a ow meters sensing accuracy is aected by tem-
perature, then you may either need a ow meter with built-
in temperature compensation or you will likely need to add a
temperature sensor. Some ow meters also rely on moving parts
not designed to withstand high-pressure operation. While some
meters work exceptionally well at a regular ow rate, others will
easily outperform in high turndown applications such as those
that start and stop frequently.
Flow Range
Knowing the ow range and pipeline diameter are both critical
factors to consider. Will the ow rate be continuous or will it be
variable? In some plants, such as municipal water treatment, the
plants are often designed specically so the ow rate has pre-
dicted uctuations because there are daily or seasonal high- and
Considerations for
Choosing a Flow Meter
Marcus P. Davis, McCrometer
Find the right ow meter for your process and plant.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 41
low-ow periods based on consumer demand. In other opera-
tions there may be a year-round continuous ow or stable ow
that exists when the process runs. Not all ow meters respond
well to a sudden decrease or increase in the rate of ow. Some
ow meters operate well over a wide turndown rate.
Likewise, not all ow meters are designed for all pipe
diameters. When outtting or retrotting a plant, it is a good
idea to use ow meter technology that
meets the needs of all ow measure-
ments throughout a plant. It greatly sim-
plies purchasing, installation, training
and maintenance.
Sensor Type
he complexity of uid ow measure-
ment has resulted in the development
of numerous ow sensing and measure-
ment technologies. Once you start ana-
lyzing the liquid to be measured, the
accuracy desired and the process and
plant requirements, however, you will
usually nd two or three options for
your application. he major ow sens-
ing technologies are:
CoriolisLiquid owing through a
U-shaped tube results in the tube
twisting, and the twisting motion
or vibration is used to calculate the
ow rate.
ConeA cone is placed in the pipe,
and the dierence between the
upstream and downstream ows is
calculated with dierential pressure
technology to indicate ow rate.
ElectromagneticA conductive liquid
moving through a magnetic eld
generated in a pipe creates an
electric charge, which is measured to
determine the ow rate.
Orice PlateDierential pressure
technology is used to measure ow
by determining the dierence in
pressure from the upstream to the
downstream side of the obstructed
pipe.
Propeller/TurbineLiquid owing in a
pipe spins a propeller or a turbine,
and the rate of spin is measured to
determine the ow rate.
VenturiA ow element forces liquid
into a smaller diameter area of the
pipe and the dierence between the
restricted and unrestricted ows is
calculated with dierential pressure
technology.
VortexAn obstructive device is placed in a pipe to create
vortices downstream. he vortices are measured with tem-
perature or pressure sensors to determine the ow rate.
UltrasonicUltrasonic transducers are placed in a pipe to
measure the velocity of a passing liquid. Flow rate is deter-
mined based on the velocity measurement.
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42 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
Accuracy
How accurate does your measurement really need to be? While
highly precise ow meter technologies can measure within
0.01 percent of full scale, there is a price to be paid for this
type of performance. If you are measuring chemical additive
injections into pharmaceutical, biotech or food/beverage prod-
ucts, then this type of accuracy is essential. On the other hand,
many other processes are less critical, and good rather than
precise accuracy is all that is needed to get the job done.
Repeatability
When you consider accuracy, do not forget to ask your ow
meter manufacturer about repeatability. he term repeatability
in ow instrumentation is equivalent to consistency of accurate
Evaluation Criteria Requirement/Goals Manufacturer 1 Manufacturer 2
Application Process Inuent
Fluid Type Raw Water
Fluid Temperature 40 - 50 deg F
Fluid Pressure 20 40 psi
Flow Range 100 1000 gpm
Pipe Diameter 12 Inch
Flow meter Technology Cone, Mag or Propeller
Accuracy +/- 2% of Rate
Repeatability +/- 0.5%
Installation Considerations Retrot with pump and valve in close proximity
Maintenance Schedule Inspect/Repair Verify Calibration
Table 1. Flow meter selection worksheet
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PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 43
measurement. Because ow meters are typically calibrated to
pipes owing at a specied rate, then the accuracy of measure-
ment can drop too. he manufacturers repeatability specica-
tion will help in comparing accuracy specications among dif-
ferent devices.
Installation
he requirements for ow meter installation vary by the type of
ow meter technology. he three basic types of installation in
order of complexity from most di cult to simplest are: inline,
insertion and clamp-on. An inline meter requires cutting the
pipe; in contrast, insertion and clamp-on types can be installed
under owing conditions.
Nearly all major ow meter technologies require a man-
ufacturers specied pipe diameter straight run upstream and
downstream from the meter to ensure a stable ow prole.
Failure to comply with the manufacturers straight pipe run
installation requirements often leads to either poor accuracy or
Evaluation Criteria Requirement/Goals Manufacturer 1 Manufacturer 2
Expected Installation Life > 25 Years
Budget $7,500
Meter Purchase Price $3,500
Installation Cost $1,000
Annual Maintenance & Calibration Costs $500
Meter Life Expectancy 10 Years
Replacement Cost $5,000
1 Year Cost of Ownership $5,000
5 Year Cost of Ownership $7,000
10 Year Cost of Ownership $14,500
Table 1. Flow meter selection worksheet (cont.)
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44 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
inconsistent performance (repeatability problems).
When ow meters are placed too close to pumps, valves
and other equipment, unstable or irregular ows can impact
performance and eventually result in maintenance problems.
If you nd yourself in a tight spot in terms of a plant retrot
or limited space in a complex pipe gallery, a limited number of
ow meter technologies, such as electromagnetic devices or self-
conditioning dierential pressure meters, will oer the appro-
priate solution. Either meter type requires virtually no straight
run due to the sensing technology, or they feature built-in ow
conditioning technology that removes swirl and other ow dis-
tortions without the need for straight pipe conditioning.
Maintenance
Ask the manufacturer about the required maintenance of any
ow meter under consideration. hese requirements can range
from periodic inspection and cleaning with devices such as ori-
ce plates to replacing moving parts that wear to calibration
checks to maintain accuracy. Increasingly, environmental and
safety regulations at the federal, state and local levels specify
maintenance procedures for all types of plant instrumentation
including ow meters.
Life Cycle
What is the expected life of your ow meter? In some applica-
tions such as subsea oil/gas production, your ow meter must
have a life expectancy of 25 years or more with no possibil-
ity for maintenance. In other applications, a simple disposable
device with a one- to two- year lifespan is perfectly acceptable.
Your application probably falls somewhere in between. As you
compare dierent ow meter technologies, be sure to calculate
the cost of installation and maintenance and also amortize the
cost of the ow meter over its lifespan. hese cost comparisons
can be revealing.
Conclusion
While choosing a ow meter can be a complex task, simplify
the task by using a comparison table, such as Table 1. Do not
hesitate to ask your ow meter manufacturer for product infor-
mation, demonstrations and training. Flow meter manufactur-
ers are happy to help you nd the best ow meter solution for
your process and plant.
P&S
Marcus P. Davis is a product manager for McCrometer,
3255 West Stetson Ave, Hemet, CA 92545, Phone: 951-
652-6811, Fax: 951-652-3078, www.mccrometer.com.
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46 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
R
oy Fallon, chief operator of the wastewater treatment
plant in the Village of Tequesta in Palm Beach County,
Fla., said that after the company installed two reverse
osmosis systems in 2000, more than eight years passed before
the membranes needed to be cleaned. Naturally, after using
a reverse osmosis (RO) system for eight years to desalinate a
water supplyand never cleaning it even onceone might
assume that the buildup of dirt and slime would be more than
even a hazmat team could stomach. But that is not the case at
Tequesta.
We have recently passed eight years since we installed the
reverse osmosis systems, and we have not had to clean them
once, said Fallon, who is responsible for managing all phases
of water treatment at the plant, including maintenance, water
quality control and laboratory safety. From my experience,
even with a relatively clean water source, when you hit six or
seven years with one of these systems, you have typically gone
through multiple cleanings and you are even thinking about
replacing the membranes.
Yet it was eight years before we reached the point when
the membranes underwent their rst cleaning. It was pretty
remarkable.
Located at the northern end of Palm Beach County, the
water treatment plant serves 5,000 water customers, including
residents of Tequesta, Jupiter Village and Jupiter Island, as well
as a number of residents from unincorporated areas of Palm
Beach and Martin Counties. Based on the performance of the
RO systems, which have increased the capacity of the plant to
more than 5 million gallons per day (mgd) of potable water,
Tequesta now enjoys complete water supply autonomy.
Village of Tequesta Challenges:
How It All Began
In the early 1980s, the local water management district discov-
ered a signicant amount of salt water intrusion occurring in
the surcial aquifer from which the Tequesta water treatment
plant was extracting its water supply. his salt water intrusion
subsequently entered the villages wells.
Due to the unwanted movement of the salt water/freshwa-
ter interface, and to prevent more intrusion, the water manage-
ment district implemented restrictions on the amount of water
the plant could extract from the upper aquifer. Consequently,
Tequesta o cials developed a plan to draw water from a much
deeper aquifer (the wells are down 2,000 ft; in the upper aqui-
fer they descend a mere 100 ft). Because no restrictions existed
on the deeper water supplya far more abundant supply
the amount of water the plant needed to take from the upper
aquifer was greatly reduced, alleviating the salt-water intrusion
dilemma.
Unfortunately, this seemingly perfect solution had a down-
side: the water in the deeper aquifer was far more brackish, with
a much higher salt content. While the aquifer would not be
subject to salt water intrusion, it would clearly require desalina-
tion before it was suitable for consumer use. Water from the
upper aquifer had been treated using a standard aeration ltra-
tion system to remove iron and was then chlorinated. However,
since the water from the upper aquifer was much purer, it did
not require the treatment level of deeper water. herefore, the
Clean Water for Florida
Community
Henia Yacubowicz, Koch Membrane Systems
An RO system solved the problem of purifying brackish water.
The Wellington project showed the scope of what the company could
do, not only with the membranes that it manufactured but with the
companys overall expertise in water treatment and desalination.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 47
existing system had not been designed to provide the desalina-
tion that the deeper aquifer demanded.
RO Membranes Help Solve Problem
Eager to identify a suitable solution, Tequesta o cials solicited
bids from a variety of engineering rms. Arcadis Engineering
(Denver, Colo.) ultimately submitted the winning bid, and
the rm was contracted to design a
new plant and recommend all requisite
equipment.
We were certainly aware of the
kinds of processes available for a project
of this type, such as electrodialysis rever-
sal and ion exchange, said William D.
Reese, now vice president of Arcadis.
But we did not try to go against the
grain in terms of where the industry
was headed. We were condent that
a membrane-type process, specically
reverse osmosis, would be the optimal
approach.
In late 1997, design of the facil-
ity that would include the RO systems
commenced. A concrete block structure
was conceived that would blend in with
the architectural landscape of the vil-
lage. Since a fair amount of noise was
associated with the pumps that feed the
membrane process, they were housed
in a dierent room, creating a far more
comfortable operating environment
when maintenance on the membranes
was required.
A Process That Works
he facility was built to house a maxi-
mum of three 1.2 mgd RO trains, for
a total capacity of 3.6 mgd. Currently,
there are two installed trains; the second
one was commissioned in 2007. After
the water is pumped from the newer,
deeper water source, booster pumps
increase the pressure to provide the
proper operating pressure for pre-treat-
ment with sulphuric acid to keep the
pH low; the lower pH helps keep the
hydrogen sulde gas in the well water
throughout the process. An anti-scalant
is then added to prevent the formation
of carbonates, after which the water
travels through a pre-lter (one micron),
before going to the high pressure pump,
which increases the pressure to the RO
membranes.
Once at high pressure, about 276 psi, the water is forced
through the semi-permeable membranes to separate the impu-
rities; the ltered water or permeate passes through the mem-
brane and the concentrate is sent to waste and discharged. he
permeate from the RO is pumped to the clear well, or nished
water tank, where it is mixed with the 2.74 mgd of water drawn
from the upper aquifer and goes through ltered systems; the
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48 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
entire mix is then treated via the older ltration process, then
goes into a clear well.
he entire water treatment system is fully treated with
chlorine and computer-driven; any out-of-range conditions are
immediately communicated to plant operators for remediation
or shutdown. his RO permeate is a high-quality water, more
like a distilled water, which makes it an excellent complement
to the older water source.
Combining the two water sources produces a perfect
blend, says Reese. he older source comes out with a couple
hundred parts per million of calcium hardness, which helps
improve the taste. By blending it with the newer source, we
still have enough calcium for taste concerns, but overall it is a
purer end product. With over 5.1 mgd of total capacity, we are
more than satisfying the needs of our customers, even in times
of peak demand.
RO System Exceeds Expectations
Fallon says that the performance of the RO system has been
exceptional. here are a lot of factors that enter into how the
system performs, not the least of which is the design of the wells
and all the ancillary equipment, he explained. But there is no
doubt that the RO system has done everything we had hoped
it would. hey have been almost maintenance free, which has
saved us substantial dollars in labor costs. And, of course, we are
now producing a higher-quality product than we were before
the system was built.
How about the fact that the membranes remained so clean
for so long? It is time to clean membranes when either the
feed pressure increases 10 percent or more from its original
set point, or if when you hold the pressure constant, the pro-
duction drops by 10 percent, said Reese. After eight years,
we were just hitting the point where the feed pressures were
bouncing slightly above 10 percent higher than they were at
the original start of the plant. Maintaining your production
within 10 percent for this long is not what I have experienced
at other facilities.
In the nal analysis, the RO systems used by the Village
of Tequesta have performed almost awlessly, requiring little
maintenance and needing no cleaning until they passed their
eighth birthday.
P&S
Henia Yacubowicz is domestic director process engineer
with Koch Membrane Systems, Inc., 850 Main Street,
Wilmington, MA 01887-3388, 888-677-5624, Fax:
978-657-5208, www.kochmembrane.com.
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All About Water
S
electing the right dierential pressure
ow meter is a balancing actone
that involves dening the purpose of
the measurement, specifying the applica-
tion parameters, understanding the envi-
ronmental and safety needs, and prioritiz-
ing the selection criteria to determine the
optimal ow technology.
Purpose of Measurement
Understanding the purpose of the mea-
surement is the rst step in the selection
process. What will be done with the ow
information? How critical is the measure-
ment? What decisions will the user make
with the information? In general, ow
information is used for either the control-
ling or monitoring of processes. here are
many reasons to measure ow, some more
critical than others. hey can range from
batching, continuous blending, custody
transfer and mass balance, to inventory
control, governmental regulation compli-
ance and safety.
Flow Application
Of the many ow meters available for mea-
suring uid ow, the type of ow meter
used often depends on the phase of the
uidliquid, gas or steamand the con-
ditions under which the uid is measured.
hese conditions include line size, ow
rate, process pressure and temperature, ambient pressure and
temperature, and chemical properties. For example, insertion
ow meters are more frequently used in steam, large line sizes
and situations in which process shutdown is not a possibility.
Wet gas applications, where the presence of liquid in a gas
stream can pose signicant challenges, are another example.
Technologies like conditioning orice plates eliminate dam-
ming and provide predictable and correctable results when the
moisture content is known. Inline metering technologies are
the best practice for small line sizes as the possibility of errors
caused by installation are reduced.
The Balancing Act of DP
Flow Meter Selection
Kitty Elshot and Emily Vinella, Emerson Rosemount Measurement
Choosing the right differential pressure ow meter for an application
can be challenging. This article outlines the considerations and
trade-offs in selecting the optimal technology.
Figure 2. Differential pressure ow meter technologies for comparison
Figure 1. Flow data for application example
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 51
he ow application example ref-
erenced in the remainder of the article is
detailed in Figure 1 and compares four dif-
ferent ow meter technologies, as shown in
Figure 2.
Flow Meter Capability
he next step in the selection process is to
determine how well the ow meter meets
the given application. Flow meter capa-
bility is, among other things, dependent
on the following parameters: installed
performance, transmitter performance,
permanent pressure loss and straight pipe
requirements. hese performance param-
eters should be prioritized based on the
measurement purpose.
Installed Performance
When considering installed performance,
be sure to understand the performance of
the ow meter over the entire ow range. It
is important to note that the installed per-
formance is not equal to reference accuracy
because it takes into account environmen-
tal eects, including line pressure variabil-
ity, temperature uctuation and drift/sta-
bility. Additionally, transmitters specied
as a percent reading perform better at low
ow ranges. When a ow meter is speci-
ed as percent of span the error at low ow
rates gets magnied.
For example, if the transmitter is
spanned for 0 to 100 inH2O, a reference
accuracy of 1 percent of span reects a 1
inH2O error across the full ow range. If
the transmitter is reading 5 inH2O, this
represents a 20 percent error. Alternately,
a transmitter specied to be 1 percent of
reading would have a 0.05 inH20 of error
if it were reading 5 inH2O.
Another key consideration is that
coe cients, such as the discharge coef-
cient of the primary element, the gas
expansion factor of the liquid source and
the thermal expansion of the construction
material, vary with ow. If accuracy is sized
at a specic ow point, then there is a risk
that errors will occur away from that sizing
point. It is therefore recommended that
accuracy is sized over the full range of ow
to dynamically correct for these variables.
Other factors may also contribute to mea-
surement variation.
Errors in ow measurements are also
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All About Water
attributed to errors in density measurement. For uncompensated velocitya volu-
metric measurement that does not take into account the uids density properties,
such as a turbine meterthe percent error in ow is optimal. While an uncompen-
sated dierential pressure measurement results in reduced percent error, it is still
Figure 3. Total system performance of differential pressure ow meter installations
Figure 4. Permanent pressure loss for DP ow meters
Figure 5. Upstream straight run piping requirements by technology
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PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 53
not optimal. A multivariable measuring
device compensates for both pressure and
temperature variation, and consequently
produces the lowest ow error at <0.1 per-
cent. Figure 3 compares the total system
performance of the various ow meter
technologies. It is evident that (B) and (C)
rate higher in accuracy through a wider
ow range.
Permanent Pressure Loss (PPL)
Whenever a piece of equipment is added
to a ow system, pressure is lost. his pres-
sure loss makes the pump or compressor
work harder to generate the same ows in
the system. In the case of ow meters, a
loss is incurred because a piece of straight
pipe would not have as much loss as the
ow meter. his pressure loss varies by DP
ow meter. Starting with the orice plates
(highest PPL) and sorted in descending
order of permanent pressure loss are ori-
ce/nozzle, wedge, V-cone, venturi and
averaging pitot tube.
A properly sized orice plate with a
beta ratio of 0.6 will typically lose 40 per-
cent of the sensed DP to permanent pres-
sure loss, whereas an averaging pitot tube
has a blockage range between 15 and 20
percent. Lowering permanent pressure loss
will reduce pumping or compressing costs,
increase capacity and minimize the size
requirements for the compressor, pump or
boiler. For this articles example, the per-
manent pressure loss for each ow meter is
shown in Figure 4.
Straight Pipe Run Requirements
Traditional orice plate ow meters require
long straight pipe lengths to meet speci-
cations. Minimizing piping requirements
improve performance and lower installed
cost. his presents a challenge as most
plants are not designed with su cient
straight pipe, making it di cult to engineer
and add ow measurements. Technologies
are available that require shorter straight
run, eliminating the need for costly piping
modications. Figure 5 plots the piping
requirements of the options available in
the market.
Using technology designed for short
straight run can enhance performance.
In a 2-in. line size with a 0.4 and 2D
straight run with an induced swirl,
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54 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
selecting a conditioning orice plate, which
only requires two pipe diameters upstream
and two pipe diameters downstream,
improves the ow measurement accuracy to
0.5 percent compared to a standard orice.
he piping requirements of the ow meters
in the original example are in Figure 6.
Another benet is that these technolo-
gies allow mounting at grade, allowing for
easier access and increased operator safety.
he lower installed costs are realized from
the savings in labor, procurement, design and
engineering, and materials.
Environmental and Safety Needs
Minimizing leak potential is critical in mitigating negative
emissions and hazardous waste eects. Traditional installa-
tions require impulse lines. he impulse lines create numerous
potential leak points, and have a tendency to plug, leading to
inconsistencies in measurement. he potential for leak points
is signicantly reduced in a best practice installation, where
the pressure transmitter is directly mounted to the primary
element, eliminating the need for impulse lines and ultimately
improving the measurements reliability. his equates to cost
and time savingsless process uid lost, energy wasted and
maintenance necessary in repairing leaksand improves over-
all personnel safety. A three-year user study found that replac-
ing impulse line with direct-mount technologies resulted in a
90 percent reduction in work orders, and 46 percent reduction
in total maintenance cost.
Economic Factors
In a traditional installation, the materials costs, namely the
price of the components, accounts for only 65 percent of the
total installed costs. he remaining 35 percent is comprised of
engineering (sizing technology and creating specication sheets
and drawings), procurement (generating purchase order and
managing delivery dates) and labor costs
(preparing piping, installing and com-
missioning). Selecting the right DP ow
meter can generate substantial savings
in the total installed cost. For instance,
choosing a directly mounted ow meter
over a traditional orice meter can trans-
late to a total installed cost savings rang-
ing from 20 to 30 percent, depending on
the line size.
In general, no ow meter meets
every application need. Every applica-
tion should be considered individually.
Start with the end in mind by consid-
ering the purpose of the measurement.
Make sure the application requirements
are understood and met. Eliminate any
technology that cannot handle the appli-
cation. Finally, prioritize, rank and opti-
mize ow meter capabilities to guarantee
a customized recipe for success.
P&S
Kitty Elshot is the marketing manager
and Emily Vinella is the marketing
engineer for Rosemount Measurement,
8200 Market Boulevard, Chanhassen,
MN 55317, 800-999-9307, www.
rosemount.com.
Figure 6. Straight pipe requirements for ow meter combinations
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IF THEY WORK IN WATER,
THEY WILL BE AT
If you can only attend one event during
the year, make it WEFTEC, the largest
water quality exhibition in North America.
83rd Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference
New Orleans Morial Convention Center | New Orleans, Louisiana USA
Conference: October 26, 2010 | Exhibition: October 46, 2010
www.WEFTEC.org
Activated Carbon
Advanced Water and
Wastewater Treatment
Aeration Systems
Aerobic and Anaerobic
Treatment
Biological Nutrient Removal
Biosolids and Sludge
Chemicals and
Chemical Handling
Collection Systems
Contractor Services
Consultant Services
Contaminant Removal
Corrosion Protection
Computer Software
Data Monitoring
and Analysis
Dewatering
Digesters
Disinfection
Environmental Filters
Hydrogen Sulde Control
Inltration/Inow Control
Instrumentation
Laboratories
Leak Detection
Membrane Technologies
Motors and Motor Controls
Odor Controls
Ozone
Pipes
Pumps
Rehabilitation
SCADA Systems
Security
Stormwater
Tanks
Valves
Water Recycling/Reuse
...and so much more.
Take advantage of the opportunity to meet one-on-one with more than 900 exhibiting companies, the most knowledge-
able manufacturers, consultants, and contractors in the water and wastewater industry. Capitalize on unique educational
opportunities and form quality business relationships for your organization.
WEFTEC Exhibitors represent the most comprehensive array of products and services including:
Preview the technical program and exhibitor list at www.WEFTEC.org/announcement
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58 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
All About Water
W
aterused in nearly every application involving
pumps and other rotating equipment. he Water
Federations Technical Exhibition and Conference
(WEFTEC), will highlight many of the applications in which
water is a key component, just as it did last year when 17,744
people and 995 companies attended in Chicago.
his year, 112 technical sessions and 35 workshops will
focus on the following topics:
Collection systems
Membrane technologies
Plant operations, treatment and management
Regulations and research
Residuals and biosolids
Water recycling
We hope that you will come see what WEFTEC has to
oer and visit us at Booth 2959 in F Hall. We look forward to
seeing you there!
Learn what to expect at North Americas largest water quality event
WEFTEC 2009 by the Numbers
Total Attendance 17,744
Exhibitors 995
Net Square Feet of Exhibits 264,400
preview
Show and Conference Hours
Saturday, October 2
Workshops 8:30 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Sunday, October 3
Workshops 8:30 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Monday, October 4
Exhibition 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Technical Sessions 10:30 a.m. 12:00 p.m. &
1:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Tuesday, October 5
Exhibition 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Technical Sessions 10:30 a.m. 12:00 p.m. &
1:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Wednesday, October 6
Exhibition 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.
Technical Sessions 10:30 a.m. 12:00 p.m. &
1:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.
Company Name Booth Number
ABB Discrete Automation & Control 3115
ABS USA 2127
ATC Diversiied Electronics 6120
Baldor Electric Company 2543
Benshaw 2872
BLACOH Fluid Controls, Inc. 3733
Blue-White

Industries 1957
Boerger, LLC 3243
Cole-Parmer 1644
Crane Pumps & Systems 3417
Danfoss Drives 2017
Environment One Corporation 3017
Fairbanks Morse 1035
Fluke Corporation 810
Fuji Electric 3629
Global Pump 6647
Griffco Valve, Inc. 7605
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. 6113
ITT Corporation 5025
Iwaki America 6657
KSB, Inc. 2351
Larox Flowsys, Inc. 7857
LobePro Rotary Lobe Pumps 5757
Lutz-JESCO America 5414
Meltric Corporation 1843
Mercoid Division, Dwyer Instruments Inc. 6531
Moyno, Inc. 5739
MTH Pumps 4750
Company Name Booth Number
Myers 1035
National Pump Company 2951
Neptune PSG 2538
Orival, Inc. 7017
PeriFlo, Inc. 6555
Proco Products 5939
ProMinent Fluid Controls 5531
Racine Federated Inc. 1634
Revere Control Systems 2401
Rockwell Automation 2409
Salem Republic Rubber Company 7227
seepex 3043
Shanley Pump 2963
ShinMaywa

1245
SJE Rhombus 5119
Swaby Manufacturing Co. 5421
SWPA 5353
TECO-Westinghouse 2571
Valve & Filter Corp 1654
Vaughan Company, Inc. 2613
Verder GPM 5428
VibrAlign, Inc. 2582
WAGO 1638
Weir SP 4828
WILO USA LLC 1015
Yaskawa America, Inc. 7125
Zoeller Company 2041
Perferred Booths
60 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Sealing Technologies
T
ypical operating environments create unique chal-
lenges for plant maintenance personnel when
meeting their goals of reliably sealing bolted ange
connections.
Many factors can prove detrimental to the performance
of a gasket used to seal angesincluding ange alignment
and ange imperfections, vibration, pressure and tempera-
ture surges, chemical attack, gasket creep, changes in clamp-
ing force and improper gasket loading. An understanding
of bolted ange connections is critical to ensure optimum
gasket performance and improve ange sealing reliability.
Bolted Flange Connections
A ange is a method of connecting pipes, valves, pumps and
other equipment to form a system. A bolted anged con-
nection versus a welded connection provides easy access for
cleaning, inspection and modication of a piping system.
Flange joints are made by bolting two anges together with a
gasket between them to form a seal.
Many types of bolted ange connections have been
designed for dierent equipmentincluding ANSI/DIN
pipe anges, valve bonnets, site gages, manways, handholes
and heat exchangers. An ideal anged joint would consist of
two, mirror-nish, perfectly at and parallel surfaces bolted
directly together to create a leak-free seal. However, manu-
facturing processes do not allow for perfect sealing surfaces.
Most ange faces have surface irregularities that cannot be
sealed without the use of some type of compressible, resil-
ient material or a combination of materials between them
to seal the uid being transferred. herefore, a gasket is
used between these surfaces to compensate for real world
conditions.
he ange faces are the eective sealing areas of the
ange. A gasket is placed between the ange faces, and they
are mated together when the ange is bolted and the gasket
is compressed between them.
Bolted ange joint leaks have been a cause for concern
across all industriesincluding chemical, hydrocarbon pro-
cessing, power and pulp and paper. While advancements
have been madesuch as gasket design, materials and bolt-
ingthe high-temperature, high-pressure applications con-
tinue to create a sealing challenge.
Flange leakage can be gradual, sudden or drastic. Visible
ange leakage is recognizable and leads to costs associated
with loss of uid. In addition, uid leakage can result in
environmental and safety concerns. Even though individual
ange leaks may not be considered to have large leakages, so
many anges are used throughout a plant that they do con-
tribute to overall leakage. An average plant may have from
3,000 to 30,000 anged components to be monitored, and
large facilities may have more than 100,000 components,
with dierent standards applied for monitoring and compli-
ance with environmental regulations.
In some industries, non-visible leakage can also be a
concern such as fugitive emissions from Volatile Organic
Compounds (VOCs) and Volatile Hazardous Air Pollutants
(VHAPS). Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) is a program
implemented to comply with environmental regulations for
reducing the leakage of targeted uids into the environment.
Process components subject to LDAR are often monitored
to detect VOC and VHAP leaks, which are required to
be repaired within a predened time period. Enforcement
Consent Decrees and LDAR monitoring programs can result
in signicant nes for non-compliance.
Proper Selection and Techniques
Some important items to consider in ange sealing are
selecting the right gasket and applying the correct load.
Selecting the Proper Gasket
To ensure that an application is sealed properly, the rst step
is to choose the right gasket.
When selecting a gasket there are many factors to con-
sider including:
Chemical compatibility
Temperature resistance
Pressure capability
Compressibility
Recovery
Reliable Flange Sealing
Pamela Dauphinais, A.W. Chesterton Company
Improve sealing reliability in bolted ange connections.
hickness
Temperature cycling
Flange condition
Flange vibration

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High Performance PVE valves are constructed in
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The LFF puup incorporates a unique rolling design which eliuinates
friction, uiniuites hose wear, and lowers energy consuuption
Single, bearing-uounted roller presses against the hose only once per
30 degree operating cycle and produces unprecedented hose life
Fuup hose is the only part in contact with the uediuu.
The LFF fauily of puups can run continuously at high speeds without
heating or causing damage to the pump hose or bearings
The annual operating cost savings frou using the Larox LFF coupared to
other peristaltic or progressive cavity pumps is often enough to recoup the
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62 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Sealing Technologies
hese factors are all related. Many times, a change in one
parameter can aect, another so all need to be considered to
determine the best gasket for the application.
Proper Bolting Techniques
Proper bolting practices ensure that the gasket gets the proper
sealing stress. he primary factors aecting gasket loading from
bolting are:
hread Frictionlubrication of bolts is necessary to reduce
excess thread friction and maintain a consistent coe cient of
friction during assembly. Proper lubrication of all thread con-
tact areas, nut faces and washers with an anti-seize lubricant will
help ensure that the torque applied to the ange bolts yields as
accurate and consistent a gasket stress as possible.
Bolting Sequenceproper bolting
sequences must be followed to ensure
even loading of the gasket.
Tightening Methodthe installation
and torquing procedures are important
to the reliability and operational safety
of anges. Assuring that a correct seal-
ing force is applied and maintained will
help avoid problems with anges. Use of
a torque wrench, hydraulic tensioning
equipment or stretch control to apply
the recommended sealing force is critical
to establish bolt loads and gasket seating
stress above the minimum required to
maintain a seal.
Often selecting the right gasket and
using proper bolting techniques will
be enough to ensure ange reliability.
However, some anges such as criti-
cal and problematic anges can benet
from an engineering analysis.
Engineered Flange Sealing
System
Optimizing Gasket Sealing Stress
Improving ange reliability requires an
understanding of why the bolted con-
nection failed. Critical and di cult
ange applications at a plant often need
a more detailed understanding and anal-
ysis of the anged joint. Heat exchang-
ers are often critical problematic appli-
cations due to thermal variations and
hydrostatic pressures. See Figure 1. An
engineered ange sealing system takes
into consideration proper gasket sealing
stress and optimized bolt loading.
Improper gasket load is a leading
reason for gasket failures in plants. he
ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code
establishes code for ange design and
discusses m & y factors. he gasket must
conform to the ange surface and must
be compressed enough to seal any voids
and prevent leaks. his stress referred
to as the minimum gasket seating stress
(psi, MPa) is the Yield y value. he m
maintenance value is used to determine
Before
After
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PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 63
the compressive load on the gasket to maintain a seal when the
vessel is pressurized. However, these m and y values have limi-
tations and can not be used solely to ensure a leak-free anged
joint. A complete analysis of the entire assembly needs to be
completed to ensure anged joint reliability.
Too little applied stress results in excessive leakage; too
much applied stress can result in gasket creep and irrevers-
ible damage to the gasket and excessive
ange and/or bolting deformation. See
Figure 2.
Optimized Bolt Loading
Gaskets perform the sealing in anges,
but the ange bolts provide the gasket
stress necessary to achieve an eective
seal. A bolt is an elastic element. When
it is tightened, it will stretch. When the
bolt is stretched in its elastic region it will retain its memory.
As a result, when the bolt is stretched it will exert a force on
the ange and the gasket as it tries to get back to its original
length. he more you stretch it in its elastic region, the higher
the bolt force transferred to the ange. he stretch of the bolt is
limited by the yield strength. It is important that the bolt stress
is within its elastic limits. If the bolt is stressed beyond its yield
Figure 1.
Typical heat
exchanger
Figure 2. Flange
rotation as a result
of overloading.
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64 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Sealing Technologies
point, it will no longer provide the required elasticity for the
anged joint to seal reliably. See Figure 3.
A correct and constant bolt load is essential to reach and
maintain the proper compression of a gasket throughout its
service life.
he seal is aected by the action of force on the gasket
surface. Su cient stress/load must remain on the gasket surface
to prevent leakage. Hydrostatic end thrust works to open the
ange joint and reduces gasket seating stress. See Figure 4. he
bolt load force must be greater than the force created by system
pressure to maintain the seating stress on the gasket above the
minimum required to maintain a seal.
Many problem anges are subject to thermal expansion
and contraction, pressure surges and vibration. hese factors
can either decrease or increase the bolt load and gasket stress
from the initial installed values, which can lead to prema-
ture leakage and failure of bolted assemblies. Flanges can be a
dynamic component and often require a dynamic sealing solu-
tion to be properly sealed.
Maintaining Gasket Sealing Stress
An engineered ange sealing system provides a complete engi-
neered solution focused on uid compatibility, pressure and
temperature and maintaining the proper seating stress of bolted
joints through temperature cycling and mechanical distortion
due to vibration. All these dynamics are considered to recom-
mend the best ange sealing solution, and where applicable will
incorporate ange live loading engineered specically for the
ange. Upon engineering analysis Flange Live Loading often
provides the necessary increased margin of safety and reliability
for these applications when used in conjunction with the opti-
mal gasket and bolt loading.
Flange live loading uses specially designed ange discs to
Figure 3. Typical Elastic Curve for a Bolt.
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PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 65
replace washers under the bolt nuts and increases the original
bolt stretch. he typical engineered live loading system will pro-
vide approximately six to eight times the stored energy through
the use of ange discs to maintain a load on the sealing system
when compared to standard bolting. he live loading system
allows stored energy to automatically adjust to system uctua-
tions and maintain enhanced pressure on the gasket.
he use of ange live loading can help maintain proper
gasket stress through thermal cycling by storing elastic energy.
Stored elastic energy minimizes the loss of bolt stress resulting
in a longer life.
For di cult ange sealing applications, an engineered
ange sealing system will:
Maintain a uniform clamping force, improving bolted joint
sealing reliability
Compensate for thermal expansion and contraction
Absorb vibration shock
Dampen the eects of pressure surges, preventing gasket
blowouts
Provide a cost eective solution for expensive leakage and
maintenance on critical equipment
Plant personnel working together with a supplier who has
the engineering expertise, tools and resources to evaluate ange
sealing needs can properly implement an engineered ange
sealing reliability program designed to improve MTBR, lower
leakage and reduce total maintenance and operating costs.
P&S
Pamela Dauphinais is the marketing analyst, Mechanical
Packing and Gaskets, for A.W. Chesterton Company, 860
Salem Road, Groveland, MA 01834, 978-469-6448 Fax:
781-481-7030, www.chesterton.com.
Figure 4. Hydrostatic End Thrust.
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Sealing Technologies
N
o other industry has come under such intense scru-
tiny as the oil rening industry. Still, no one can deny
that processing crude oil into useful petroleum prod-
ucts such as gasoline, diesel fuel and heating oil is an impor-
tant part of the global economy. he oil rening industry has
strived to become more environmentally friendly both in its
product line and process facilities.
Liquid molten sulfur is a by-product of clean fuel produc-
tion. As environmental legislation mandates stricter controls
on rened products, oil reneries must remove more sulfur
from rened products, such as diesel fuel. he recovered sulfur
is sold to other industrial companies for use in other prod-
uctssuch as fungicides, black gunpowder, detergents and
phosphate fertilizersand for rubber vulcanization.
Leaking Liquid Sulfur
For one major U.S. renery, the sulfur recovery process created
problems in its process line. Sulfur has a high melting tempera-
ture of 250 deg F and must be constantly heated at or above
this temperature to maintain a liquid state for pipeline trans-
portation. However, molten sulfur also has an upper tempera-
ture limit of 300 deg F, at which point the viscosity increases,
and it begins to re-solidify. Trying to control this narrow tem-
perature range and maintain the molten liquid state can be
di cult. As a result, the renery experienced reliability issues
with its pumps and mechanical seals.
Immediately after installation and start-up, the pumps
mechanical seal would begin to leak. Within weeks, a large
pile of hardened sulfur formed around the pump base causing
huge housekeeping issues along with environmental disposal
problems. he plant would operate the pump for an extended
period of time, while the hardened sulfur formed around the
pump. When an opportunity arose, they would replace the seal
and clean up the sulfur. his bad-actor pump and seal congu-
ration was a never-ending problem for the renery. Not only
did the plant have to contend with continually cleaning up
the leaking sulfur, it also had to make sure that the sulfur was
disposed of in an environmentally safe manner.
In searching for a solution to its problem, the renery
tried several dierent sealing congurations, but the leaking
still occurred. Since the standard seal designs were not provid-
ing a solution, the renery looked for customized help from
a mechanical seal manufacturer. After assessing the situation,
the manufacturers team realized that the typical seal congu-
ration would not work for this application and a new approach
was needed.
The Sealing Situation
he engineers at the renery gave all the details of the applica-
tion and process conditions to the seal company. he existing
seal was a typical rotating bellows design with a carbon bush-
ing outboard of the seal faces and a steam jacket around the
bushing. However, no steam quench was being used between
the bushing and seal faces. Although a traditional steam 5-psig
quench had been employed in the past to prevent the sulfur
from accumulating and solidifying around the seal faces, the
quench line would become plugged with sulfur and tended
to accelerate the formation of solid sulfur around the pump.
Unique Sealing Solution
Solves Sulfur Leakage
Problem
Alton R. Smith, EagleBurgmann
Sulfur leakage, causing housekeeping and environmental issues
in a renery, was stopped with an innovative seal conguration.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 67
herefore, it was eliminated. Because of the barrier uid sulfur
contamination, a double seal was not a viable option.
he sulfur temperature in the pump was at 280 deg F,
and the pump speed was 3,600 rpm. he renery engineers
and incumbent seal manufacturer theorized that the heat gen-
eration in the seal gap was signicant enough that the sulfur
migrating across the seal faces was reaching its upper solidi-
cation temperature (300 deg F). A
steam quench on the atmospheric side
of the seal faces was keeping the sulfur
at this upper temperature. Without the
quench, the solidication still occurred
but at a much lower rate.
In either case, the result was a
domino eect, said Je Batinick, a rep-
resentative of the seal company. Sulfur
leaking past the faces was accumulating
and solidifying around the atmospheric
side of the faces, causing them to hang
up, and ultimately leading to additional
and accelerated sulfur leakage.
A Non-Traditional
Approach
After examining the situation at the
renery, the seal company engineering
department was asked to nd the best
solution. he engineers recommended
a pusher seal instead of a metal bel-
lows seal to eliminate the sulfur build-
up. We looked at the application
and, although a bellows seal is the tra-
ditional approach, we knew that what
was required here was out-of-the-box
thinking, Batinick said.
his non-traditional approach
looked beyond standard product oer-
ings. Ocassionally, in mature indus-
tries such as rening, the industry
gets hooked into canned solutions to
problems, commented Batinick. We
looked at it dierently.
he pusher seal is a slurry seal
design. It features a sti, single-coil,
stationary spring that loads up the faces
to resist hang-up. It also has a dynamic
O-ring on the OD of the spring-loaded,
stationary face with the spring on the
atmospheric side, and it uses faces with
large clearances between their ID and
the sleeve OD to resist hang-up if sulfur
begins to accumulate on the atmo-
spheric side. he other unique feature is
a segmented carbon (Espey-type) bushing on the atmospheric
side of the faces that can be used for a high-pressure (30- to
40-psig) steam quench.
Steam at 35 psig has a saturation temperature of 260 deg
F, which is near the lower solidication temperature for sulfur.
herefore, introducing a steam quench between the faces and
the segmented carbon bushing at this pressure and temperature
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68 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Sealing Technologies
and controlling it with a needle valve on the ange drain line
would:
Equalize the temperature around the faces to create a better
environment for the sulfur in the seal gap, resulting in a
more even transfer of the seal-generated heat away from the
faces to keep the temperature in the gap below the upper
solidication temperature
Improve the heat transfer capability of the seal, since steam
conducts heat better than air, which is an insulator
Prevent the sulfur from reaching the lower solidication
temperature as it leaks across the faces
Move the sulfur leakage away from the ID of the faces to
prevent it from accumulating, solidifying and hanging up
the faces
Sealing the Deal
To install this solution, the renery had to make a few design
modications to its process line. Engineers from the renery
and the seal company teamed up to minimize equipment
modications. he seal companys engineers made recommen-
dations both for the equipment design and for implementing
environmental controls.
Teamwork made this a successful outcome, said Batinick.
We were present for the seal installation and start-up, and we
provided training and support. here should be no issues with
the seal based on operators following the revised recommen-
dations and procedures from plant engineering and the seal
manufacturer.
Within two weeks after the pump start-upthe time
when sulfur would have started to accumulate around the
pumpno sulfur leakage was detected. Housekeeping is now
a non-issue for the renery and although it has had other pump
issues, none were related to the seal. he renery is pleased
with this solution and is currently in the process of modifying
a second pump to accommodate the pusher seal and is consid-
ering retrotting several other pumps within the facility.
P&S
Alton R. Smith is the senior regional sales manager for
EagleBurgmann. He can be reached at
alton.smith@us.eagleburgmann.com.
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70 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
F
inding an e cient and economically feasible way to
transfer and meter aggressive chemicals is a constant
challenge in many industries ranging from chemical pro-
cessing to food and beverage production to municipal water
treatment. Limited maintenance resources and critical service
demands put a premium on equipment uptime and extending
MTBF (mean time between failures).
In metering applications, choices have traditionally
included: controlled volume reciprocating diaphragm metering
pumps; peristaltic hose pumps; and, for certain applications,
even progressive cavity-type pumps. Critical factors for deter-
mining which technology to use for a given application include:
Material selection/chemical compatibility
Accuracy and repeatability requirements
Total cost of ownership (TCO)
Mean time between failures (MTBF)
Ease of maintenance
Initial capital cost
Installation considerations (footprint, compatibility with
existing control schemes, etc.)
With the continued focus on lean operating principles
in many industries, the importance of MTBF, ease of main-
tenance, and TCO continue to play a greater role in the deci-
sion of which process technology to use for a given application.
A relatively new entrant into the eld provides a solution for
many applications and meets the expectations of users regard-
ing these key categories. Non-metallic magnetically driven gear
pumps are becoming a frequent choice due to their simple
operation and maintenance, long-term reliability and ability to
meet performance requirements.
Non-Metallic Magnetically Driven
Gear Pumps
While positive displacement rotary gear pumps have been
around for years, the designs featured metallic construc-
tions, which required the use of high-grade alloys (Alloy 20,
Hastelloy C, etc.) for aggressive chemical applications. hese
material requirements required larger capital investments than
other technologies chosen for these applications. his has lim-
ited the application of rotary gear pumps in chemical metering
and transfer applications. However, a completely non-metallic
magnetically driven (mag drive) gear pump has been developed
that solves many of the critical issues faced in chemical transfer
and metering.
Non-metallic mag drive pumps include all wetted parts
in non-metallic construction including ETFE housings, PTFE
Non-Metallic
Mag Drive Pumps
Great Equipment for
Abrasive Fluids
Travis Lee, Pulsafeeder, Inc.
Non-metallic magnetic driven gear pump technology improves equipment
life and maintenance costs for metering and transfer applications.
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72 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
gears, and alumina ceramic shafts. he non-metallic construc-
tion extends to the containment can portion of the mag drive.
his is critical not only for chemical resistance in harsh environ-
ments, but also to eliminate energy loss and heat increase that
can be caused by eddy current losses in metallic gear pumps.
Bearings are also oered in both carbon graphite and silicon car-
bide constructions. hese material oerings allow the pumps to
accommodate almost all the hazardous and classied chemical
applications that a plant operator or engineer would encounter.
hey are also cost eective. A non-metallic mag drive pump can
cost up to 30 percent less than a comparable alloy pump and 60
percent less than Hastelloy C.
In addition to material compatibility, the pumps oer
sealless mag drive technology. his eliminates the need for a
mechanical seal, the potential for leaks
and the need for frequent maintenance.
his also ensures that no emission issues
arise when regulated chemicals are
involved.
A Good Choice for Many
Applications
Reducing the TCO for process equip-
ment is a priority for most users, and
several features of the non-metallic mag
drive gear pump assist with this goal.
One of the most important consider-
ations for equipment users is MTBF.
he overall cost of equipment failures
in chemical applications goes far beyond
the expense to repair the equipment. It
also includes the downtime costs; labor
hours required for the repairs; and the
potential product loss and safety consid-
erations, especially in aggressive chemi-
cal applications. he non-metallic mag
drive gear pump allows for extended
MTBF in chemical metering applica-
tions when compared to other choices.
Peristaltic technology relies upon
unpredictable hose/tube life, which
may result in frequent replacement.
he potential risk of product loss due to
catastrophic failure of a hose/tube is
also eliminated with non-metallic gear
pumps. In addition, the sealless mag
drive technology eliminates the need
for seal maintenance when compared to
non-mag drive gear pumps. hese sav-
ings manifest themselves throughout the
life of the equipment.
Another consideration when
attempting to reduce TCO is the ease
and cost of maintenance. While reduc-
ing MTBF is important, so is repair cost
reduction when repairs are necessary.
In this regard, the non-metallic gear
pump provides a unique solution. hese
pumps contain only 16 wetted compo-
nents (comparable metallic gear pumps
contain 46 components), allowing for
quick repair and servicing. All wetted
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74 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
components are easily accessible from the front-pullout design
(see Figure 1). his allows the pump to be repaired without
disconnecting process piping or removing the pump from its
installation location. his saves time and expense.
he simplicity and intuitiveness also allows for quicker
training of operations and maintenance personnel. he com-
bination of extended MTBF, low-cost maintenance and simple
operation ensures a low resource requirement piece of equip-
ment for maintenance and operations departments that are
continually asked to operate with fewer resources.
Many users operate multiple chemical dosing and transfer
applications on-site and may have to maintain a wide range
of spare parts to t dierent technologies and varying chemi-
cal compatibility requirements. With the non-metallic mag
drive gear pump, the basic conguration
handles the majority of chemical feed
applications. his allows the end user to
maintain a minimum inventory of spare
parts to service chemical feed systems.
Perhaps even more important than
the economic factors are the application
benets. hese pumps can handle a wide
range of process conditions including:
Dierential pressures to 150 deg F
psig
Working pressures to 200 deg F psig
Temperature range to 200 deg F
(with de-rated pressures; 150 deg F at
full pressure)
Flow ranges from 0.1 gpm to 33 gpm
Viscosities to 10,000 cps
In addition to standard chemical
applications, these pumps are an ideal
t for high viscosity applications, such
as polymer blending, as the gear pump
e ciency improves with higher viscosity
uids.
Metering Applications
he non-metallic mag drive gear pump
can be an excellent t for metering appli-
cations. hese pumps provide a pulse-
less ow which eliminates the need for
pulsation dampeners in the system. A
metering application with a vector type
variable frequency drive for the pump, a
ow meter for ow measurement and a
PID controller provides a high level of
accuracy (less than one percent variation
for properly sized ow meter and drive)
and performance in metering applica-
tions. his type of system also allows for
ow verication due to the ow meter,
which is not typically available in most
other metering applications in which
reciprocating or pulsating ows are used.
his provides a high level of accuracy
and a high level of turndown capacity
with ow rate proportional to the rpm
of the motor.
his compact metering pump
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76 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
system contains all the functionality required for
most systems.
Transfer Applications
With ow rates available up to 33 gpm, this tech-
nology can be a good t for small to mid-sized
transfer applications as well as metering applica-
tions. Te pulse-free ow and ability to handle a
wide range of chemical applications with a single
conguration makes this type of technology an
excellent t for chemical transfer applications.
Te pulse-free ow eliminates the need for com-
plicated piping congurations, such as pulsation
dampeners, while the transfer application may not
require the ow meter and verication required in
metering pump systems, which results in a simple
and eective transfer system with a low TCO due
to MTBF, ease and reduced maintenance costs.
Recommended Applications:
Sodium hypochlorite
Hydrouorosilicic acid (uoride)
Polymers
Ferric chloride
Ammonia
P&S
Travis Lee is the western regional sales manager
for Pulsafeeder, Inc., Rochester, N.Y. Pulsafeeder is
a manufacturer of chemical metering pumps and
electronic control systems for a variety of chemical
dispensing and control applications. He may be
reached at 800-292-8000 or at tlee@idexcorp.com.
Pulsafeeder is an IDEX water and wastewater company.
The Pumps & Systems
News You Can Use
e-Newsletter
Everything you need to know,
when you need to know it.
Go to
www.pump-zone.com
to sign up.
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www.vibralign.com
800-379-2250
Innovations like over-sized digital detectors, line lasers, and
True Position Sensing (TPS). TPS allows the GO to compensate
for both intended AND unintended movements of the moveable
machine made during the alignment process. The result?
Alignments usually can be completed in just one set of horizontal and
vertical moves without re-measurement in between. Now thats fast.
2010 Vibralign, Inc.
Figure 1. Front pullout design of the non-metallic mag
drive gear pump.
WILO USA LLC
Toll-Free: 866-945-6872
Web: www.wilo-usa.com
Email: info@wilo-usa.com
Your Pump
and Mixer Solution.
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78 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
T
he earliest peristaltic pumps have
been in existence since the 1930s.
hrough the years, the designs have
been continuously rened for improved
performance and enhanced lifetime.
During the early developmental years, the
greatest peristaltic pump improvements
have been advancements in rubber tech-
nology. he average consumer of automo-
biles has also experienced this improved
rubber technology with automobile tires,
wiper blades, hoses, and tubes. In earlier
years, these automobile components were
not durable and often required repairs.
As rubber technology advanced, the
need for replacements became seldom.
Peristaltic pump technology has advanced
similarly, but the quality and prevalence
of rubber gets overlooked. If average con-
sumers take the time to consider the reli-
able performance of their automobile tires, they may realize
that rubber is a durable material that is used globally in millions
of products that we rely on daily to make our lives easier and
more e cient.
To further establish the signicance of superior rubber
technology in pumping systems, we must examine progressive
cavity, centrifugal and diaphragm pumping technologies and
also larger diameter peristaltic pumps. hese all rely on rubber
as one of the most important wear components of their pumps.
he rubber hose is the main wear element and, in most per-
istaltic pump designs, is the only repair part that is replaced
periodically.
Sliding Shoe vs. Roller Designs
Early designs and even some current designs of peristaltic
pumps have high friction from xed shoes that slide against
the hose and limits a pumps capabilities. he sliding shoes
generate friction and heat, and enormous amounts of glycerin
are required to transfer the heat to the casing to help dissipate
the heat generated. Many sliding shoe peristaltic pump users
understand that the large quantity of glycerin used is a costly
nuisance when the pump needs to be repaired. One gallon of
peristaltic pump glycerin costs approximately $85 per gal. A
typical 3in. sliding shoe peristaltic pump uses about 10 gal
of glycerin. herefore, every hose failure is a loss of $850 in
glycerin, not including the 10 gal of contaminated glycerin that
must be disposed.
Sliding shoe design peristaltic pumps also cannot be con-
tinuously run at a high rpm. For instance, a 3in. shoe design
peristaltic pump may have a limit of 40 rpm to maintain con-
tinuous service. For a larger shoe design pump to be run at
higher rpms, it must be run for two hours and then turned o
and allowed to cool for one hour. Obviously, this downtime is
not possible or ideal with many processes. Some require two
pumps for continuous process running.
Newer and more advanced peristaltic designs use either
single or double rollers, which can eliminate 80 percent of the
friction caused by sliding shoe peristaltic pump designs, allow-
ing peristaltic pumps to run at higher rpms. Roller designs
require only a fraction of the glycerin used in shoe designs
and have hose lives that are signicantly longer. In the larger
diameter peristaltic pumps, the motor size required is smaller in
roller designs than in sliding shoe designs. A 3-in. roller design
Peristaltic Pump Facts
Todd Loudin, Larox Flowsys
The peristaltic pump explainedfrom advancements to maintenance.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 79
peristaltic pump only requires 2.2 gal of glycerin, instead of
10 gal for a sliding shoe design. At $85 per gallon, the savings
on each hose change for the rolling design pump is $663 in
glycerin alone.
Roller design pumps can run at higher rpms and still pro-
duce a longer hose lifetime than shoe design peristaltic pumps.
In many cases the work or ow rate that a 3-in. shoe design
pump produces can be accomplished by
a 2.5-in. roller design peristaltic pump.
In peristaltic pumps the number
one determining factor of pump hose life
is the number of times the hose is com-
pressed. he medium being pumped
can have an impact, but the number of
hose compressions is the most impor-
tant factor. Sliding shoe designs generate
signicant heat which also factors into
how quickly the hose breaks down. A
majority of peristaltic pumps compress
the hose two times per revolution. So
in almost all cases, the hose lifetime of
a single roller design pump is two times
longer than a shoe design or multiple-
roller peristaltic pump.
For example, the costs of running a
peristaltic pump on abrasive slurry for a
one-year timeframe are more economi-
cal than other pumping technology. For
instance, if a 3-in. progressive cavity
pump was used in the above application,
the cost of rotor and stator replacement
during that same year may be as much
as $50,000. Regardless of the peristal-
tic pump type chosen, it may produce
signicant cost savings versus other
pumps. Also, peristaltic pumps can run
dry, which is often the cause of rotor
and stator failure in progressive cavity
pumps.
Peristaltic Pump Maintenance
Maintenance of all peristaltic pumps is relatively simple. It con-
sists of removing a broken or damaged hose, cleaning the inte-
rior casing of the pump of contaminants and then installing a
new hose with the manufacturer-required amount of glycerin.
In some designs, this can be accomplished by one man in 15 to
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Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
20 minutes. In other designs, the maintenance may require two
or three people, but it is still a fairly easy and uncomplicated
procedure.
Also with peristaltic pumps, you do not need to remove
the pump from the pipeline or take it to a repair shop. he
repair work can be done at the pump installation location.
With centrifugal or progressive cavity pump re-builds, the
pump is almost always removed from its mounting and piping
and taken to a repair shop. In general, the rebuild time with
other pumps is an eight-hour shift if all the parts are in stock.
With peristaltic pumps, the only required parts are a new hose
and the necessary glycerin.
Peristaltic pumps do produce pulsations. Many applica-
tions require a high-quality pulsation dampener. Since peristal-
tic pumps are positive displacement devices, it is recommended
to install a programmable pressure transmitter on the pump
outlet that can shut the pump down if the pressure increases to
higher-than-desired levels. Another option is to have a rupture
disc installed downstream of the pump to prevent any undesir-
able pressure escalations if the pipeline becomes blocked.
The Varied Uses of Peristaltic Pumps
Peristaltic pumps are used in many applicationssuch as print-
ing inks and colorings, mining slurries, wastewater slurries,
bleach, food, beverages, titanium dioxide, sodium bromide and
lime slurry pumping to name a few. Peristaltic pumps are also
excellent for abrasive slurries and suction lift applications.
As with all technologies, peristaltic pumps have evolved
and improved. he early designs of peristaltic pumps were
limited by the shoe design or the inferior rubber technology.
Today, peristaltic pumps have come a long way and provide
signicant reliability.
P&S
Todd Loudin is the president of Larox Flowsys Inc. in
Linthicum, M.D. Larox Flowsys is headquartered in
Lappeenranta Finland and also manufactures in Linthicum.
On pump-zone.com . . .
Read about other peristaltic pump
applications.
Polymer/Chemical Feed
Electronic and hydraulic diaphragm
chemical metering pumps, plus
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Metering Pumps
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Process Instrumentation
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The world's largest manufacturer of metering pumps
ProMinent Fluid Controls, Inc. 136 Industry Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15275 USA (412) 787-2484 Fax: (412) 787-0704 www.prominent.us
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Metering & Submersible Pumps Special Section
A
lcatraz Island is probably best known as the place where
an inescapable federal penitentiary housed some of
the most notorious convictsincluding Al Capone;
George Machine Gun Kelly; and Robert Franklin Stroud, the
Birdman of Alcatraz. In 1963, U.S. Attorney General Robert
F. Kennedy decided to close the penal complex on Alcatraz
Island, and in 1976, Alcatraz was listed on the National
Registry of Historic Places.
he plan was to open the island for tours and educational
opportunities. In 1972, the Clean Water Act became the prin-
cipal federal law in the United States governing water pollu-
tion and discharges to navigable waters. Alcatraz prison had no
sewer system, and during the time it was open, wastewater and
raw sewage were directly released into San Francisco Bay. How
could the Park Service open the island, oer tours, actively
welcome thousands of visitors and meet the Clean Water Acts
wastewater guidelines?
he answer came with the installation of a low-pressure
wastewater disposal alternative that oered a cost-saving instal-
lation resolving the problem with minimal disturbance to the
natural or manmade environment and requiring zero rock
blasting.
A manufacturer of grinder pumps for pressure sewer sys-
tems used a low-pressure system to solve the problem. It con-
sists of a network of pipes and grinder pumps installed at sani-
tary stations on the island, said Environment One President
George Earle. he grinder pumps collect and pulverize sewage
and push the resulting slurry to a holding tank through unob-
trusive small-diameter (1 in.) pipes that conform to the natu-
ral topography.
Unlike conventional gravity-central sewers, which can
use up to 24-in. pipe and require deep excavation, the E/One
Sewer system provides minimal disruption to the environment
or built features. he low-pressure system employs technology
that is known for its minimal maintenance; low, upfront costs;
reduced operating expenses; and ability to be installed at any
site, regardless of landscape challenges.
here are two duplex grinder pump stations and one sim-
plex station installed on Alcatraz. E/Ones system grinds the
solids, uses small diameter pipe to transfer sewage to a holding
tank for transport o the island, incorporates durable pump
components that are compatible with saltwater ushing and is
easy to service, said Don Reppond of Correct Equipment, E/
Ones local distributor.
Two of the three grinder pumps positioned on the island
are above ground and one is below. Pump One sits atop the
prison cell building. It pumps ground-up waste into a slurry
which ows through a 1--in. pipe to ground level and then
Escape to Alcatraz
Bill Nestor
A low-pressure wastewater disposal alternative offers a cost-saving
installation solution for wastewater and raw sewage disposal.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 83
Alcatraz, from Prison to Educational Tourist Spot
A
lcatraz was considered ines-
capable. From 1934 to 1963,
most, if not all, of the prisoners
incarcerated at the maximum-
security prison wanted to get off
The Rock, as it was known.
Today, about 5,000 people
escape to the island each day
for special programs and guided
tours. Alcatraz Cruises, LLC,
transports 1.4 million people
annually from its dock at Pier 33. The private company has the exclusive concession agreement with the
National Park Service to take people to and from the island. The cruise boats run year round, 10 times daily
during the winter and 14 times during the summer.
The National Park Services Alcatraz Development Concept and Environmental Assessment plan,
approved in 1980 and made public in 1993, doubled the amount of the island that was accessible for public
visitors to enjoy its scenery, observe nature, appreciate the gardens and explore the islands rich history.
Alcatraz has also taken its place as a seabird nesting island and sanctuary. Portions of the island are set
aside to protect habitat and breeding grounds for black-crowned night herons, western gulls, cormorants,
pigeon guillemots, snowy egrets, slender salamanders and deer mice.
Education of guests is paramount to the mission of the Park and Alcatraz Cruises. Not only is teach-
ing about the islands history, nature and gardens paramount, but so too is an emphasis on learning about
sustainability of an island ecosystem along with our planet. Incorporating thoughts and ideas with visitors
that can be implemented into their own daily lives and homes is increasingly important, said Cameron Clark,
Director of Environmental Service at Alcatraz Cruises. People come to Alcatraz in style and comfort to be part
of a living sustainability lab.
Alcatraz Island is off the power grid and currently uses 52,000 gal of diesel fuel annually to supply energy
needs. The Park Services goal is to continue to install alternatives and implement sustainable systems to
reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. The ferry used to transport tourists to and from the island is part of the
services plan. Alcatraz cruises uses a combination of solar, wind, grid electric, and diesel generator energy to
power its 64-foot long, 150-passenger boat, Hornblower. The Hornblower, the rst hybrid ferry in operation in
the U.S., began service in December 2008.
Two of the three engines on board are used for propulsion and the third creates energy for appliances.
The onboard wind turbine system produces 5 kW, and the photovoltaic panels add another 15 kW; both are
used to operate audio, video, lights and refrigeration.
Photovoltaic panels mounted on top of the vessel absorb sunlight to create solar electric energy that is
combined with energy generated by the wind turbines. The power produced from these sources charge 380 V
DC batteries. The diesel generator provides additional power. The vessel can operate on propulsion batteries
alone for over an hour of silent cruising, Clark added.
A non-hybrid 500-passenger vessel is also part of the San Francisco Bay eet. It has been retrotted by
Alcatraz Cruises with mechanical engine features including a catalytic converter and scrubbers. The increased
energy efciency has resulted in reducing diesel fuel consumption by 230,000 gal during the rst year.
For more information, visit:
Golden Gate National Recreation Area (www.nps.gov/goga)
Alcatraz Cruises (www.alcatrazcruises.com)
Environment One Corporation (www.eone.com)
Correct Equipment (www.correctequipment.com)
84 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
another 200 ft along the surface to a dock-
side collection tank. Pump Two, which is
above ground and housed in an open-air
stainless steel container, sends slurry via
a 1--in. line for 500 ft to the dockside
holding tank. Pump hree, underground,
pumps the slurry 1,500 ft to the same tank.
Alcatraz Cruises, the company that
brings tourists to the island, has a service
agreement to bring fresh water, fuel and
supplies to the island and dispose of trash
and wastewater. Using a specially equipped
Mechanized Landing Craft (LCM 8),
Alcatraz Cruises pumps sewage and waste-
water from the on-island storage tank to
a built-in container on the LCM 8. he
LCM 8 is also used to carry water, fuel and
supplies from the mainland to Alcatraz.
Upon arrival in San Francisco, the
waste is pumped from the onboard tank
directly into the citys sewer line, where it
ows through four-in. pipes to the main
before arriving at the sewage treatment
plant for processing. he procedure trans-
fers 6,000 gal each day and 2.19 million
gal/1,095 tons of waste annually.
he pumps run and the process
moves waste to the collection tank regu-
larly throughout the day. here is minimal
but continuous service and maintenance
done to ensure uninterrupted functioning
of system. his is particularly important
given the 1.4 million island visitors, the
use of salt water for ushing and harsh salt
air environmental conditions on Alcatraz
Island, said Cameron Clark, Director of
Environmental Service at Alcatraz Cruises.
he Golden Gate National Recreation
Area is one of the largest urban national
parks. It occupies miles of Californias
coastline and includes a large area of San
Francisco and Alcatraz Island. he evolu-
tion of Alcatraz from a harsh, inhospitable
place of discomfort to a popular tourist
attraction is a tribute to the far-reaching
thinking of the Park Service to preserve and
share a valuable part of American history.
P&S
Bill Nestor writes about travel, lifestyle,
nature and sustainable development
from his home in Vermont. He can be
reached via email, nestor@sover.net.
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86 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Maintenance Minders
T
echnical manuals with speciications such as
tolerance and pressures are important tools
for troubleshooting hard-to-ix problems.
General shop tools and a range of wrenches, sockets
and screwdrivers are also helpful. Packing pullers,
grease guns and the proper lubricants save time and
money.
In addition to these physical tools, most pumps
require that the user have a certain depth of knowl-
edge when inspecting or servicing. Problems with
pumps normally have an underlying cause of failure,
which oten extends beyond the failed item. he
maintenance methods described below form some of
the basic knowledge needed for servicing.
Packing
When checking the packing gland, look for exces-
sive leakage and repack if needed. When leakage is
excessive, the maintenance operator should tighten
the packing gland. Keep in mind the leakage should
not be completely stopped because water serves as the
coolant for the packing in the stui ng box.
Packing around the shat should be tightened just enough
to allow about 20 drops per minute. If the follower cannot be
properly adjusted anymore, the pump needs to be repacked
with the proper packing.
When selecting packing, keep in mind the pumps pres-
sure and shat speed.
Repacking a Pump
When repacking a pump, ensure that the driver and pump have
been safely isolated and that all safety precautions are followed.
New packing should never be added on top of old pack-
ing. Start by removing all existing packing and the lantern ring.
Once you have removed the old packing, clean out the stui ng
box and inspect the shat sleeve for unusual wear. Proper tools
should be usednever use a screwdriver. Using the wrong
tools may damage the stui ng box or shat sleeve.
New packing should it around the shat with no gaps at
the joints. Place the joint of the second piece of packing 90
deg away from the joint of the irst piece of packing. Stagger
each joint 90 deg from the last one, and ensure that the lantern
ring aligns with the coolant port attachment. his method of
staggering the joints prevents water from escaping through the
joints. Follow this process until the stui ng box is full.
he packing gland should be placed on top of the packing.
Tighten down the followers. Adjust the followers one lat or
of a turn every 30 minutes or until the leakage is controlled.
Feel the packing gland (be careful of the rotating shat) to see
if the packing gland is too hot or uneven, which will result in
damage to the pump shat.
Bearings
Overheated bearings are caused by friction, which can result
from a lack of lubrication. When inspecting a bearing, all it-
tings and grease cups should be cleaned before greasing to
remove any dirt. Dirt particles can cause bearing contamina-
tion and premature bearing failure.
Lubrication of a bearing should follow the manufacturers
Understanding the
Basics of Pump Repair
Preston Walker, Jr., Caliber Pump Repair
General troubleshooting tips can simplify preventive maintenance.
Improperly adjusted packing gland with no leak off.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 87
recommendations. Additional grease above the recommended amount may cause the
bearings to overheat.
When you start greasing a bearing, remove all relief plugs. Removing the plugs
allows the old grease to pump out as the new grease is pumped into the housing.
Conduct an inspection of the old grease and look for metal particles or metal shaving.
Any particles found in the old grease indicate wear, which needs to be addressed.
Couplings
Like bearings, couplings require lubrication. When performing maintenance on cou-
plings, ensure that safety procedures are followed.
When preventive maintenance is performed, remove the coupling guard to
expose the lexible grid. Remove the grid, and inspect it for wear. Whenever metal
particles are found, check for misalignment. Immediately inspect the grease for any
metal particles.
Once it is determined that the coupling can be reused or if a new one is needed,
clean all parts to ensure that no dirt or grit is on the grid or coupling halves. To reas-
semble, the grid goes on the drive end of the motor and the driven end of the pump.
Put the couplings bolt in place and remove the relief plug. New grease should be
pumped into the grease itting until it is expelled from the relief port. Take care not to
over-grease the coupling since it will damage the rubber seal on the coupling halves.
Inspection
Inspections play a vital role in a preventive maintenance program. Inspections are con-
ducted to determine the operation condition of pumps and associated equipment and
to help predict what corrective or preventive maintenance will be needed to avoid seri-
ous problems.
Inspections, cannot be overlooked or falsiied. hey should be routinedaily or
even weekly.
During a visual inspection, the operator should look for clogged drain lines,
excessive leaking from packing glands, overheated bearings or bearings operating at
higher than normal temperatures.
Listen for any unusual noise or vibration or anything uncommon when con-
ducting a visual inspection. Vibration is associated with pump operation and must be
addressed immediately before serious problems occur and the pump ultimately fails.
Noisy bearings can be caused by vibration from loose bearings on the shat or a failed
shat coupling.
Excessive leaking at packing gland.
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88 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Maintenance Minders
An inspection checklist is a great way to ensure that
nothing is overlooked. I highly recommend that main-
tenance operators carry a copy of past inspection data to
compare with new indings. his will allow them to detect
any new problems and identify trends among the normal
operations.
Operation conditions may not be ideal to start and
stop equipment. However, an inspection must be con-
ducted before the next inspection cycle.
Ater inspections, maintenance operators must sit
down with supervisors to discuss any problems that were
found. Supervisors must be able to prioritize concerns and
schedule preventive and corrective maintenance.
Although problems vary, corrective maintenance can
be minimized with proper operation and preventive main-
tenance procedures.
Basics Checklist
1. Packing glands must not be allowed to leak excessively
and should be corrected.
2. Bearings must have the proper amount of grease and
it clean to prevent premature failure.
3. Vibration must be addressed, or serious pump failure
will result.
4. Maintenance operators must document all inds and express
their concerns so the proper corrective or preventive mainte-
nance action occurs.
P&S
Preston Walker, Jr., is a plant maintenance senior and pump
repairer. He can be reached at 678-698-5366.
Improperly adjusted packing gland with no leak off.
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90 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Introduction
A
major concern at water and wastewater
treatment facilities is identifying the most
eective and e cient way to deal with and
dispose of solid particles and materials that are
found in the liquid stream. hese unwanted con-
taminants can have an adverse aect on the plants
operation if they are not contained properly. he
best way to eliminate these solid particles is to
have them clumped together into a sludge that
can be swept out of the water-treatment stream.
he most eective means of achieving this
sludge-creating process is through the use of poly-
electrolytes, or polymers, that consist of long-
chain organic molecules. hese polymers have
the ability to attract and absorb suspended solid
particles, making them easier to remove from the
water that is being treated. Activated polymer
molecules can perform this crucial task because
they have charged sites that attract suspended
solids of opposite charge.
Although their higher molecular weight
makes them eective for this process, polymers
can be di cult to mix and feed into the treat-
ment process. While other typical water/waste-
water chemicals such as alum, ferric chloride
and sodium hypochlorite can be easily diluted or
applied directly to the treatment process from a
storage container, to be eective, polymers must
be activated. A polymer is activated by being
hydrated and extended prior to dilution and
introduction into the process stream.
Polymers are used to remove colloidal sus-
pensions from surface waters and to condition
municipal wastewater sludges to enhance the
Primer on Polymer
Handling
Greg Kriebel
There are many benets of using liquid polymers in water-treatment
applications as long as the blending equipment is able to
accommodate their unique characteristics.
Efciency Matters
This system simplifies the polymer blending process because it has been
designed to effectively activate all types of liquid polymer.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 91
dewatering process. While lower-cost, metallic salts like alum or ferric chloride can
be used to initiate the coagulation process, high molecular weight polymers, or
occulant aids, are fed into the process to form larger, neutralized particlescalled
ocsthat settle faster. Some potential, negative side eects of using metallic salts
for coagulation include the chance that they can contribute to high levels of residual
metal content in the treated water and in some cases an excessive amount of sludge,
which will increase treatment costs. A more cost-eective approach to coagulation
and occulation would be to use smaller doses of metallic salts for charge neutraliza-
tion and to add polymer for bridging to create a large, settleable oc.
The Challenge
When a polymer makes initial contact with water, the outer surface of the poly-
mer particles becomes sticky. If the particles are not properly dispersed prior to
and during the initial wetting phase, agglomerations, or sh-eyes, will be formed.
Agglomerations make it more di cult for water to penetrate and successfully
hydrate and activate the bound-up polymer. herefore, pumping neat (concen-
trated) polymer into a tank of water and using a high-speed mixer may properly
disperse the polymer and prevent clumping, or the formation of agglomerations.
Once activated, however, polymers are fragile. In their concentrated form, polymers
are like a coiled spring. However when the molecules are uncoiled and extended,
the polymer molecules become fragile and are susceptible to fracture by any high-
shear device. High-speed mixers that are used to keep the sticky polymer particles
separated will fracture the activated polymer strands and render them less eective
in forming settleable ocs.
To compensate for any reduced eectiveness, plant operators often feed more
polymer than necessary into the stream, which leads to increased chemical costs.
One option that is used to eliminate fractured polymer molecules is low-speed,
low-shear mixing. Unfortunately, this method requires excessively large tanks that
allow for the slow dissolution of the inevitable agglomerations that are formed. Such
a system also requires the batching of polymer to begin hours before the diluted
polymer solution is needed, which greatly increases the capital costs of equipment
and facilities.
The Solution
A better option to large and expensive tank systems is a liquid polymer blending and
feed unit. An ideal polymer feed system should include a means of introducing the
neat (meaning as delivered) polymer to the water to avoid the formation of agglom-
erations while incorporating a two-stage or tapered mixing system in its design. he
rst stage supplies the high-shear and high-energy needed to disperse and wet the
polymer molecules, a process often referred to as inversion.
To meet these criteria, polymer feeder manufacturers have developed various
ways of introducing polymer to the dilution water to prevent the formation of
agglomerations. One such method is to draw the polymer out in a ribbon-like thin
sheet and introduce it to a high-energy water stream. Research has shown that when
polymer is introduced into the water in this fashion, it will be instantly and thor-
oughly wetted into a useable solution. hese wetted and extended polymer mol-
ecules may be easily fractured if they remain in the high-energy zone for an extended
period of time. hat necessitates a second low-shear zone or tapered mixing regime
that will complete the blending of the polymer with dilution water while not dam-
aging the activated and fragile polymer strands.
Polymers are available in a variety of forms and concentrations. Developing
an understanding of the dierent characteristics is essential when evaluating the
process design that best suits your operation.
Highland Oaks I,
1100 W 31st Street, Suite 120
Downers Grove, IL 60515
Tel: 909-512-1257
Fax: 909-512-1209
Info@pumpsg.com
pumpsg.com
Metering Pumps
204 DeKalb Pike
Lansdale, PA 19446
215-699-8700
neptune1.com
Polymer Preparation Systems
dynablend.com
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92 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Efciency Matters
Dry Polymers. Shipped in a powder
form that is similar to table salt or sugar,
dry polymers are considered 100 percent
active when calculating for process design.
he typical shelf life of dry polymers is
several years, making them ideal for quan-
tity purchase and storage.
Emulsion Polymers. Available in an
oil-based liquid form with a milky opaque
appearance, emulsion polymers have vis-
cosities that range from 100 to 2,000 cps,
which is similar to motor oil. Emulsion
polymers have an average content that is
40 percent active. he typical shelf life of
emulsion polymers is four to six months.
Dispersion polymers. Also available in
an oil-based liquid form with a viscosity
that is similar to motor oil, dispersion
polymers dier from emulsion polymers
in that their average content is 50 percent
active when calculating process design.
heir shelf life is four to six months.
Solution polymers. hese are known as
polyamines and are used for coagulation
purposes only, primarily in water plants.
Solution polymers are a water-based
liquid with viscosities that range from
2,000 to 10,000 cps, which is similar to
honey. he average content is 10 percent
active, for the purpose of calculating pro-
cess design.
Mannich polymers. his formaldehyde-
based liquid has a clear-to-milky appear-
ance with viscosities that range from
10,000 to 50,000 cps, which is similar
to gelatin. Average content is 5 percent
active for calculating process design. he
typical shelf life of this polymer is several
weeks.
Choosing the best polymer to use
depends on a number of variables, not the
least of which is the type of clarier, lter
or dewatering equipment that is being used
in the water-treatment process. Equipment
selection also must consider the water and
wastewater characteristics, potential changes
in the water or wastewater characteristics,
bench test results and a comparison of sav-
ings versus ease of use.
Conclusion
Todays high molecular weight liquid
polymers can represent a signicant
part of a water or wastewater treatment
plants chemical cost. Properly mixing
and activating polymer can result in
improved process performance and
reduced chemical costs, making proper
feeding of these chemicals of particular
interest to plant operators.
P&S
Greg Kriebel is the national sales
manager for Fluid Dynamics, a divi-
sion of Neptune Chemical Pump Co.,
Lansdale, Pa. You can contact him
directly at greg.kriebel@dynablend.
com or 215-699-8700. For more
information on dynaBLEND, please
go to www.dynablend.com. Neptune
is an operating company within
Dovers Pump Solutions Group
(PSG), Downers Grove, Ill. PSG
is comprised of six leading pump
companiesWilden, Blackmer,
Griswold, Neptune, Almatec and
Mouvex. You can nd more informa-
tion on PSG at www.pumpsg.com.
circle 165 on card or go to psfreeinfo.com
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 93
circle 173 on card or go to psfreeinfo.com circle 176 on card or go to psfreeinfo.com
It is
illeg
al to
duplicate this CD. Copyright 1997-2010 Hydraulic Institute, Inc. 0
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ANSI/HI
Pump Standards p
Version 2.2
The Very Latest ANSI/HI Standards Update:
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ANSI/HI 1.1-1.2 Centrifugal Pumps Nomenclature & Definitions

ANSI/HI 9.6.4 Rotodynamic Pumps Vibration Measurements
& Allowable Values

ANSI/HI 9.6.5 Rotodynamic Pumps Condition Monitoring

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94 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Q. How do rotodynamic (centrifugal) pumps perform when
handling slurries?
A. he performance of a rotodynamic pump on slurries will
dier from its performance on water, which is the basis for most
published curves. Head (H) and rate of ow (Q) will normally
decrease as the solids, size and concentration increase. Power
(P) will increase and starting torque will be higher.
In most circumstances, the net positive suction head
required (NPSHR) by the pump, not to exceed 3 percent
head drop, will increase. he eects of solids on NPSHR are
dependent on the slurry type and the pump design and can be
variable. For settling slurries of low to medium concentration,
a modest increase in NPSHR can be expected. For a particu-
lar application, a conservative estimate of this increase can be
found by dividing the value of NPSHR on water by the head
de-rating factor.
For viscous and non-settling slurries or slurries with
entrained air, the eect on NPSHR can be greater. he pump
manufacturer should be consulted for guidance regarding slurry
eects on NPSHR.
Dierent approaches can be used for predicting the
centrifugal pump performance change from water to slurry,
depending on the slurry type. When the solids-uid mixture, as
shown in Figure 12.17, is considered homogeneous and exhib-
its Newtonian behavior that can be characterized by an appar-
ent viscosity, the ANSI/HI method for pump performance vis-
cosity correction can be applied. See ANSI/HI 9.6.7, Eects of
Liquid Viscosity on Rotodynamic Pump Performance.
he viscosity correction methods in HI 9.6.7 are empiri-
cal methods based on the best test data available from sources
throughout the world. Many factors for particular pump geom-
etry and ow conditions are not taken into account. However,
the methods provide for dependable approximations when lim-
ited data on the application is available.
Pump users should consult with pump manufacturers
for more accurate predictions of performance for a particular
pump and particular slurry.
Q. What factors determine the maximum allowable working
pressure of a centrifugal pump?
A. he maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) for
centrifugal pumps is based on the minimum of any or all of
the following:
he maximum allowable stress level in the pump casing.
he stress level is determined by the design methods estab-
lished by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME) and considers the casing material, operating tem-
perature and factor of safety.
Finite element stress analysis methods are often used to
calculate stress levels, but empirical methods are also used
PUMP
FAQs

Figure 12.17
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 95
based on existing designs and experience.
Allowance for casing wall corrosion and manufacturing
thickness is also added to the desired wall thickness. In this
regard, manufacturers often provide minimum casing wall
thickness for use in monitoring the service life of a pump
casing.
Pressure ratings for standard design anges used to connect
pumps to the system are a major consideration, and many
pump MAWP ratings are equal to the ange ratings. he
minimum casing wall thickness is then calculated to match
the ange rating.
Mechanical seal housing design and seal selection must also
be capable of withstanding the MAWP.
On pump-zone.com . . .
Explore the HI PumpFAQs archive.
Also, purchase pump standards and other
pump related material at PumpBooks.com.
Pump FAQs is produced by the Hydraulic Institute as
a service to pump users, contractors, distributors, reps and
OEMs as a means of ensuring a healthy dialogue on subjects
of common technical concern.
HI standards are adopted in the public interest and are
designed to help eliminate misunderstandings between the
manufacturer, the purchaser and/or the user and to assist the
purchaser in selecting and obtaining the proper product for a
particular need.
As an ANSI approved standards developing organiza-
tion, the Hydraulic Institute process of developing new stan-
dards or updating current standards requires balanced input
from all members of the pump community.
We invite questions and will endeavor to provide answers
based on existing HI standards and technical guidelines.
Please direct your inquiries to: pumpquestions@pumps.org.
For more information about HI, its publications, Pump
LCC Guide, Energy Saving Video-based education program
and standards, please visit: www.pumps.org. Also visit the new
e-learning portal with a comprehensive course on Centrifugal
Pumps: Fundamentals, Design and Applications, which can
be found at: www.pumplearning.org.
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Pumps fitted with GRAPHALLOY

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96 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
T
his is the second of a four-part Sealing Sense series
that provides guidance on best practices to mini-
mize the size of the sealing system energy footprint.
he rst article discussed energy losses from the interaction
between the seal faces of a mechanical seal. his article will
discuss the thermal energy needed to maintain a suitable
temperature for the interfacial lubricating uid in high-tem-
perature processes.
Process Fluid Flush
he reliability and emission performance of any mechanical
seal depends on the ability to maintain a stable uid lm
between the faces. he three types of mating face lubrication
regimes were discussed in the August 2010 Sealing Sense.
For most applications, it su ces to provide a small amount
of process uid ow as ush to remove the seal-face-gener-
ated heat and lubricate the faces. he minimum ush ow
rate is based on a 10 deg C (18 deg F) maximum allowable
process uid temperature rise.
his ush-ow rate represents a small energy loss because
the process uid used for the ush needs to be re-pumped
from suction back to discharge. hese systems do not rely
on the cooling of the uid, so they consume an insignicant
amount of energy compared with the total energy footprint
of the pumping system. API Piping Plans 1,11,12,13, 14
and 31 are examples of sealing systems that use process uid
without cooling as ush. hey are applicable to single seals
and the process side seal of a dual, unpressurized seal.
he maximum recommended operating temperature of
these piping plans will depend on the process uids lubri-
cating qualities at operating conditions such as seal chamber
pressure and pump speed. Other considerations include the
temperature limits of the secondary seals and the potential
consequences of normal and transient leakage rates, or a
major leak (seal failure) to the surrounding environment and
the safety of personnel.
External cooling
he small energy footprint for operating seals at high tem-
perature has been recognized, but in some cases, cooling of
the process uid is needed to achieve acceptable reliability,
emission and safety targets. Historical data of seal OEMs
show that an annual energy savings of approximately 2.3
What is the Sealing System Energy Footprint for
Controlling Process or Barrier Fluid Temperature?
Second of four parts
This months Sealing Sense was prepared by FSA member Eric Vanhie
Figure 1. API Piping Plans 21 and 23.
From the voice of the uid sealing industry
SEALING SENSE
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 97
kW per 25 mm (1 in.) of shaft size can be realized for every 38
deg C (100 deg F) of cooling requirements that can be removed
from the seal cavity. Many high-temperature applications are
found in reneries, power plants and some chemical processes.
he most common sealing systems to incorporate cooling of
the process uid are API Piping Plans 21 and 23.
API Piping Plans 21 and 23
In these plans, an external heat exchanger reduces the process
uid temperature considerably and provides a cool ush over
the seal faces. his may be needed to protect against vapor for-
mation, meet temperature limits of secondary sealing elements,
reduce coking or polymerizing of the leakage or improve the
lubricating qualities of a process uid such as hot water.
he primary benet of Plan 21 is a su cient pressure dif-
ferential to achieve the high ow rates needed to cool the seal.
he drawback is that the cooler duty is high and the ush ow
needs to be re-pumped to discharge, which may result in a sig-
nicant energy foot print.
Plan 23 is the default for many hot water and hydrocarbon
services in power plants and reneries. he cooler duty is much
lower than that for Plan 21 because it only removes the seal
face generated heat and a small amount of heat soak from the
process. he seal incorporates a pumping device that circulates
the process uid to the cooler and back to the seal chamber. he
process uid in the seal chamber is isolated from the hot process
uid with a throat bushing in the impeller area to minimize the
heat soak loss.
Heat soak
Heat soak is a source of heat ow into or out of the uid that
lubricates the seal faces. It is the result of the temperature dier-
ence between the seal chamber and the environment surround-
ing the seal chamber. Calculating the heat soak loss is a complex
matter because of the many variables involved. Mechanical seal
standard API 682 provides a simplied method for estimating
this heat loss. he cooling capacities of the heat exchangers
that are used in Plan 23 are 6 and 36 kW, which cover the
majority of all high-temperature applications. From an energy
standpoint, Plan 23 has a smaller footprint than Plan 21, but
the process uid cannot contain many solids or be too viscous,
sticky or have polymerizing tendencies.
Dual seals
Sealing systems for dual seals require an external cooler to con-
trol the barrier uid temperature within a specied range, with
the maximum at 80 deg C (176 deg F) for many barrier uids.
he thermal loss due to heat soak may become signicant for
process temperatures above 150 deg C (302 deg F). he sources
of energy consumption in these auxiliary systems include the
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98 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
FSA Sealing Sense
pumps and motors to create
the ow and pressure in the sealing system, the heat removed
by cooling water through heat exchangers and additional
system heat removed above and beyond the seal chamber heat
load because of system design.
Each service is somewhat dierent and can best be esti-
mated by your local seal manufacturer. he maximum cooling
capacity of systems for dual seals is 8 kW for Plans 52 and
53A and up to 36 kW for Plans 54 and 53B. Systems for gas-
lubricated seals consume an insignicant amount of energy as
described in the August Sealing Sense.
Air cooling
his is an eective method for reducing the energy footprint
of sealing systems in general. he elimination of cooling water
reduces the cost to operate the seal and pump. he drawbacks
of air cooling include its limited capacity and typical restriction
to outdoor installations. Another method for eliminating the
cooling water is to use product cooling. In this case, the process
uid is circulated through a coil in the barrier uid reservoir or
heat exchanger to remove the heat from the seal. his method
is limited to process temperatures up to 50 deg C (122 deg F),
and the uid must be free of solids. he energy required to re-
pump the process uid back to discharge must be considered as
the ow rates may be fairly high in this scenario.
Conclusions
1. he energy footprint for controlling process or barrier
uid temperature can be estimated for any ush plan
application. Meaningful comparisons can be made to
determine the most energy-e cient system.
2. Reliability, emissions and safety aspects of the seal must be
considered during the evaluation and selection process.
3. For the majority of seal applications, the energy footprint
for controlling process or barrier uid temperature is
small compared with the overall footprint of the pump.
Exceptions apply in services involving high temperatures
and/or dirty uids.
4. For single seal and dual unpressurized seals in a high-
temperature environment, the footprint for API Plan 23 is
smaller than that for Plan 21. Plan 21 should be used only
when Plan 23, for some reason, cannot be applied.
5. Heat soak losses can be reduced signicantly by having a
close clearance bushing at the bottom of the seal chamber.
6. For dual seals in a high-temperature environment, API
Plans 52 and 53 consume less energy than Plan 54.
7. Air cooling and product cooling may be eective methods
for reducing the energy foot print in specic applications.
In next months article we will focus on the energy required
to remove external uids or diluents from a process stream.
Next Month: What is the Sealing System Energy Footprint for
removing diluents from the process stream?
We invite your questions on sealing issues and will provide best
eort answers based on FSA publications. Please direct your ques-
tions to: sealingsensequestions@uidsealing.com.
P&S
Figure 2. API plans 52, 53A and 54.
Sealing Sense is produced by the Fluid Sealing
Association as part of our commitment to industry con-
sensus technical education for pump users, contractors,
distributors, OEMs and reps.
In the September 8, 2008 issue
of the Wall Street Journal, an
article appeared, headlined
New Nukes. Reporter Rebecca
Smith led the piece with the
statement:
If there ever were a time that
seemed ripe for nuclear energy,
it's now. For the first time in
decades, popular opinion is on
the industry's side. A majority
of Americans thinks nuclear
power, which emits virtually no
carbon dioxide, is a safe and
effective way to battle climate
change, according to recent
polls. At the same time, legisla-
tors are showing renewed
interest in nuclear as they hunt
for ways to slash greenhouse-
gas emissions.
CLYDEUNION Pumps could not agree more with these
sentiments about the nuclear industry. In July of this
year, CLYDEUNION Pumps formed the Nuclear Services
Group and appointed Timothy B. Frisbie, Sales Director,
to develop this important and ever-growing business in
the Americas.
It was also in 2008, that Clyde Pumps (formerly Weir
PumpsGlasgow) and Union Pump merged to form
CLYDEUNION Pumps. This new company brought about
the best of two worldsit retained almost 300 years of
combined proven experience and generated a youthful
vitality to meet the challenges of todays fast pace and
ever-increasing demands.
Tim Frisbie embodies CLYDEUNION Pumps persona of
vitality and experience. He brings nearly thirty years of
experience in the fluid-handling industry from oil
refineries to desalination plants. Yet, one would never
guess his age when you first meet him.
CLYDEUNION Pumps is well positioned to serve the nuclear
industry with new and rebuilt OEM quality pumps and
24/7 on-site service. The company is a world leader in the
design and manufacture of pumping plant for the power
generation industry and has been authorized since 1977
by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to mark
its products manufactured to ASMESec III Classes 2 and
3 with the N and NPT stamps. We are currently seek-
ing U.S. and Canadian accreditations for our BattleCreek
Michigan and Burlington, (Toronto) Ontario facilities to
support dedicated nuclear repairs and component supply.
Frisbie says, I am excited to be part of our companys
nuclear aftermarket services group. It has been my vision
for a long time to be a leader in the Nuclear industry for
the supply of new pumping equipment, repairs of all
manufacturers and to be the go to company for field
service. We never ran away from the nuclear market, but
never really did support it like it deserved. Now, with the
merger of our two companies, it is finally coming to
fruition. My years of working with engineers, machinists
and customers in the field taught me the importance of
making sure I stand behind everything I promise and
deliver on those commitments without question and on
schedule. This has become one of CLYDEUNION Pumps
real competitive advantages.
Tom Tesoriero, a former U.S. Navy nuclear professional
with more than 25 years of commercial nuclear machinery
experience, leads the groups marketing efforts. Tesoriero
says, These are exciting times at CLYDEUNION Pumps as
we bring together expertise from both the European and
United States nuclear pump machinery industries. This
enables us to provide the best global solutions for the
resurgence of the U.S. commercial nuclear power fleet.
To find out what CLYDEUNION Pumps can do for you, talk
to a CLYDEUNION Pumps representative today. Whether
its a new or rebuilt system or on-site service on existing
equipment, you can count on CLYDEUNION Pumps.
Please visit our web site www.clydeunion.comor call Tim
Frisbie directly at (269) 317-2892 for sales or service with
24/7 on-site service support.
Tim Frisbie
www.clydeunion.com
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100 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Practice & Operations
D
uring the third quarter of 2009, a
new grass roots gold mine opened
in the state of Zacatacas, Mexico.
GoldCorps Minera Peasquito mining proj-
ect soon became the largest open pit mine in
Mexico and a signicant contributor to its
annual production and prots. he huge proj-
ect encompasses traditional mining, crushing,
grinding and otation circuits of sulphide
ores. Signicant by-products of silver, zinc,
and lead add considerably to the viability and
protability of this state-of-the-art mineral
processing facility.
A need for multiple pumps
he facility needed products and services for
several of the process pump applications found
in this massive mining endeavor. he largest
single order was for the reclaim water pumping
system, which returns water from the tailings
pond to the plant for use in multiple processes.
he system consisted of eight barge-
mounted vertical turbine pumps equipped
with 900 hp motors. he pumps and motors,
located in the tailings pond and gravity fed
to the processing plant, deliver 10,000 gal of
water per min each, or a maximum of 80,000
gpm, to a secondary booster pump station that
houses eight additional 1,000-hp, can-type
vertical turbine pumps. In the mineral process-
ing circuit of this plant, after the metals have
been extracted from the ore, the waste material
is sent by gravity ow to the tailings pond. he
excess water in the tailings is reclaimed and
pumped back up to the processing circuit via
this barge mounted pump station and a secondary booster
station for reuse. he systems 100-plus million gal per day
of total ow are reused continuously. Additional make-up
water is added to the system, as needed, for use in the mineral
process facility.
he process required pumps that could not only handle
the abrasive nature of the dirty mine water, but pumps that
are also adaptable to the varying conditions expected over
the 22-year estimated life of the mine. Multi-stage turbine
pumps that could be de-staged at future intervals as the tail-
ings pond levels rise and the pump system head requirements
Reclaiming the Gold
Mike Dwyer, Quadna
Investment in mine expands production capabilities.
The 900 hp vertical turbine pumps are situated on the Minera Penasquito mines
barge.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 101
decrease over the life of the mine were chosen. In
addition, special chrome oxide bearing and shaft
surfaces that will greatly extend the wear life of the
pump components were supplied for the project.
A Boost to Mexicos Gold
Production
he more than $2-billion-USD investment made
by GoldCorp in the Peasquito mine has been
important to the domestic mining sector in Mexico
and will position Mexico as one of the ve largest
gold producers in the world. It will generate 2,500
direct jobs and 12,500 indirect jobs. On March 23,
2010, Goldcorp celebrated the mine with a visit
from Felipe Caldern, the president of Mexico.
In the second quarter of 2010, a second sul-
phide line, which further expanded production
capabilities, was completed. he annual production
life of the mine will ramp up to approximately 500,000 ounces
of gold, 30 million ounces of silver and more than 400 million
pounds of zinc.
With gold and other commodity prices continuously on
the rise, the possible protability of this mine is impressive.
P&S
Mike Dwyer, project manager for Mining Accounts, has
23 years experience with Quadna and 31 years total in
the pumping industry. He can be contacted at 2803 E.
Chambers Street, Phoenix, AZ 85040, 602-323-2370.
Quadna, a DXP Company, engineers, fabricates and ser-
vices mechanical systems that move uids and gases for
industrial applications.
All pump systems are installed and the barge readied for operations in the mines
pond.
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102 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Practice & Operations
W
hen a nuclear power plant pulled
its vertical IR32 APKDnine-stage
condensate pump for routine
maintenance, an emergency situation was
not expected. he plant pulled the pump and
installed a replacement from storage, but it
failed catastrophically after only two days in
service.
Requiring a solution for the emergency
need, the plant accepted a workscope from
a service center that promised a refurbished
pump within nine days. he plant shipped
both pumps to the service center and sent
a condensate system engineer to oversee the work and
maintain an open line of communication between the
organizations.
his case study highlights the root cause of pump fail-
ure for a nuclear power plant and the emergency response
required to repair the pump. One key factor to handling
this emergency pump failure was the teamwork between
the plants management, an onsite plant engineer located at
the repair facility and the personnel at the repair facility. A
lesson learned for pump users in emergency situations is that
close teamwork and having a customer engineer onsite is
critical to facilitating a rapid response.
Root Cause of Failure
he pump failed as a result of having been previously incor-
rectly repaired, coupled with contributing installation issues,
ultimately causing the upper shaft to break. his root cause
became apparent during the disassembly process. hese
photos illustrate what the pump service center found.
Best practice is to maintain stringent alignment and
concentricity between interfacing parts. his ensures cor-
rect concentricity and perpendicularity between shaft and
bearings and rotor to casing. he service center discovered
that the top bowl male t had been previously repaired by
pad welding (see Figure 1), which is an improper practice
due to the presence of a sealing O-ring. When a pad weld is
performed on a pump that uses the O-ring design, ts and
tolerances no longer meet acceptance criteria. It appeared
that the previous repair provider coated the faces with sil-
icone or another sealant in an attempt to re-establish the
proper ts or control leakage (see Figure 2).
he top of the discharge bowl did not t properly in
the bottom of the discharge head (see Figure 3). Excessive
force used to make these components t bent the shaft and
created a condition ripe for fatigue failure. he forced bend-
ing of the shaft caused the impeller ring to contact the case
(bowl) ring during operation (see Figures 5 and 6). he
motor had to produce more torque to drive the assembly
due to frictional resistance from the heavy rub (see Figure
7). Furthermore, the suction bell was not properly seated in
the alignment ring (see Figure 8).
he misalignment and excessive bending load on the
entire rotating element assembly caused the shaft to break at
the snap ring groove, which resulted in catastrophic pump
failure.
When Maintenance
Becomes Emergency
Donald Spencer, P.E., HydroAire, Inc.
In this case study, routine maintenance of a condensate pump
at a nuclear power plant becomes an emergency situation.
Figure 1. Pad welded male t for the top bowl.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 103
Figure 8. he alignment ring at the bottom has a damaged edge, which
is evidence that the suction bell was not properly seated in the alignment
ring.
Emergency Response Required to Repair
the Condensate Pump
he agreed plan to repair the pump was to use in-spec parts from the rst
pump and reusable parts from the failed pump to deliver one working
pump. he plants ability to supply condensate pump parts from its inven-
tory helped decrease the turnaround time because fewer parts needed to
be manufactured.
Bowls and Bearings
Bowls from the rst pump were used because the impeller case wear ring
running clearances were acceptable; however, the shaft graphalloy bearing
Figure 2. Silicone coating appears to have been used in a previous repair after the
male ts were pad welded in an attempt to seal the proper t between the top
bowl and the discharge head.
Figure 4. The bolts between the can ange and the discharge head appear to have
been tightened with additional force as one section of the ange rose up about
in. on one side after the discharge ange was unbolted from the base-plate.
Figure 5. Damaged case ring as a result of galling
contact.
Figure 6. Heavy grooving from running stage impeller
eye ring.
Figure 3. The male t of the top discharge bowl was
over size at 18.754 in. and the female t of the dis-
charge head was 18.7445 in., causing an interference
t (Exaggerated diagram, not to scale).
104 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Practice & Operations
running clearances were not. Fortunately, the plant had
new bowl/shaft bearings in their inventory and pro-
vided them for use. After installing the bearings, bowl
TIRs (wear ring and bearing bores) were checked. In
the lower ve bowls, the wear rings had excessive run-
out. he plant had ve bowl wear rings in stock that
could be used with the impellers and bowls.
Shaft
he upper shaft from the original pump and the lower
shaft from the failed pump were used because both had
acceptable TIR readings of less than 0.003 in.
Impellers
he impellers from the original pump had to be used
because the bowls were taken from that pump and the
impeller wear ring diameters were sized to those bowl
rings. Each impeller was balanced individually to 1
W/N, and then each rotor was balanced (upper with
ve impellers and lower with four impellers).
Discharge Head
Plants often use a common discharge head in a given conden-
sate pump position. Spare heads are not usually kept. Using
the same discharge head with dierent bowl assemblies can
aect the geometric centerline between the rotor and the
casing as well as the head-to-bowl assembly. After inspection,
the discharge head was welded and machined at critical t
locations to re-establish proper concentricity. he completed
pump was shipped back to the plant within the agreed nine-
day turnaround time.
Lessons Learned
here is no doubt that the disassembly, inspection, analysis and
complete repair would have required much more time in a typ-
ical pump repair shop. he service center, which was dedicated
to nuclear pump aftermarket services, was able to determine
the root cause of failure and provide a rebuilt pump within
nine days because they had an in-house engineering team and
customer partnership during the repair process. Working with
a pump service facility that combines experienced individuals
using proper repair and rebuilding practices for vertical pumps
is important. Vertical pumps require precision manufactur-
ing and attention to detail during the rebuild and installation
process because of their multiple components, which when
assembled, result in a tolerance stack-up that must be concen-
tric within fairly narrow limits from top to bottom.
P&S
Donald Spencer, who has over 30 years experience in
the nuclear pump industry, recently became HydroAires
Manager of Nuclear Services. With a Bachelors of Science
in Nuclear Engineering, Dons career spans major OEMs,
including Bingham-Willamette, Johnston Pump Co., and
Sulzer. For details on this article or HydroAires Nuclear
Services, contact Donald Spencer at dspencer@hydro-aire.
com or by calling 312-738-3000.
Figure 7. The high amps reading at pump failure show motor torque.
Figure 8. The alignment ring at the bottom has a damaged edge,
which is evidence that the suction bell was not properly seated in
the alignment ring.
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 105
ReliaSource

6x6T
he ReliaSource 6x6T above-
ground lift station is the newest
addition to the Gorman-Rupp
line of fully-customizable, com-
pact and pre-engineered pack-
aged stations. his unit comes
standard with all the existing
features of the 6x6, with an additional 3 ft of height. he
added space allows for easier access to routine maintenance
items, such as check valves, plug valves, gauges and air
release valves.
Circle 202 or go to psfreeinfo.com
Self-Leveling Mounting Chock
he RotaChock, an
innovative and proven
product, will save
time in the eld and
minimize the down-
time of equipment.
he RotaChock is a self-leveling, adjustable and reusable
machinery mounting chock and is available in carbon steel,
stainless steel 316L and other materials. Used under the
driver, driven machines or equipment that requires coplanar
mounting surface, it eliminates soft foot for equipment
in production lines and for the life cycle.
Circle 203 or go to psfreeinfo.com
Self-Priming Chopper Pumps
Vaughan Company intro-
duces its line of self-priming
chopper pumps, which are
designed for lift stations,
scum wells, portable cleanout
or any retrots of clogging
pumps. Vaughan Company
Inc. is the only manufacturer
of a self-priming chopper
pump. he new, high-e ciency chopper impeller design
allows priming up to 24 ft. hese pumps cover a wide
range of applications with ows up to 6,000 gpm.
Circle 204 or go to psfreeinfo.com
Self-Aligning Pipe Couplings
Tuf-Lok pipe cou-
plings, with a built-in,
self-aligning feature,
are rated for both
high-pressure and full-
vacuum conditions.
hey are available in
1-in. (25-mm) through
10-in. (250-mm) pipe sizes, and are ideal for pneumatic
conveying systems as well as gas and liquid applications.
Tuf-Lok pipe couplings can be used on mild steel, stainless
steel, aluminum and most other thick or thin wall pipe.
Numerous gasket materials are available for diverse design
conditions.
Circle 218 or go to psfreeinfo.com
MAGDOS LB from Lutz-Jescothe
new dosing pump with great savings
potential
he MAGDOS LB is available in
several sizes with a dosing capacity
of up to 15 l/h or up to 16 bar. he
MAGDOS LB can be used in almost
all process applications. he compact,
space saving design and footprint of
the pump is suitable for integration
into almost every metering system.
Moreover, the pump can be installed
in diverse positions. As part of the new Plug&Play con-
cept, dosing pump congurations with a range of 110 to
240 VAC are available worldwide for immediate use.
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Product Pipeline
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- Smooth Precision Ground Cover
- Mul-ply High Tensile Cord Reinforcement
- Tube Compounds: Natural Rubber, EPDM, Nitrile (Buna-N), and
FDA Safe White & Tan Materials
- For Watson-Marlow, Blackmer, Verder, Ponndorf, Perio,
and Other Posive Displacement Pump Manufacturers
Peristaltic Pump Hose
Call us for a quote or visit our website for addional informaon.
ID
(mm)
OD
(mm)
Length
(mm)
ID
(in)
OD
(in)
Length
(in)
10 31.0 508.0 0.39 1.22 20.0
15 36.0 762.0 0.59 1.41 30.0
25 53.2 1006.4 0.98 2.09 39.6
32 61.0 1250.9 1.25 2.40 49.2
40 66.4 1489.0 1.57 2.61 58.6
50 80.0 1820.8 1.96 3.14 71.6
65 99.2 2336.8 2.55 3.90 92.0
80 122.0 2781.3 3.14 4.80 109.5
100 144.0 3276.6 3.93 5.66 129.0
Non-standard or custom built peristalc hoses are also available.
TOLL FREE: 1-800-686-4199
www.salem-republic.com
106 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
Product Pipeline
ASI Model 550 Seal
he ASI Model 550 is suited
for slurry applications, particu-
larly those with harsh operat-
ing parameters and diering
product consistencies and
those of a corrosive nature.
It also seals many bleaching
materials, including multiple
forms of HTH paste, as well as
higher concentration caustic products. In addition, the 550
(equipped with its pumper option) lends itself to hazardous
waste applications, overcoming the large abrasives, varying
chemicals and occasional dry-run scenarios typical to the
service.
Circle 222 or go to psfreeinfo.com
Vortex Pumps
Zoeller Engineered Products introduces their
broad selection of 1 to 15 hp submersible,
solids-handling pumps with vortex impellers.
Vortex pumps, recognized for their superior
solids handling capabilities, are being applied in
challenging wastewater pumping applications.
Zoeller oers these pumps in either 2.5 in. or 3 in. solids han-
dling capacity. Discharge sizes are 3 in., 4 in. and 6 in. with
standard or explosion proof motors.
Circle 224 or go to psfreeinfo.com
KSB Dry-Pit Submersible
KSB announces
a new, dry-pit
submersible series
with NEMA
MG1 premium
e ciency motors.
his versatile
pump can be
mounted in a ver-
tical or horizontal
position in areas
that are prone to ooding. Modular construction incorporates
motors up to 10 hp, using three dierent impeller types and
sixteen dierent hydraulics, covering a wide range of ows and
heads.
Circle 223 or go to psfreeinfo.com
P&S
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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS
ABB Discrete Automation & Control 129 31
ABS USA 102 71
ABZ, Inc. 188 108
AE Pumps, Inc. 194 109
All Prime Pumps 195 110
ATC Diversiied Electronics 130 14
Baldor Electric Company 103 35
BaseTek, LLC 159 84
Benshaw 133 33
BLACOH Fluid Control, Inc. 134 20
Blue-White

Industries 135 8
Boerger, LLC 136 68
Boerger, LLC 196 111
Caliber Pumps 197 110
Chemicals Direct 198 109
CLYDEUNION Pumps 104 99
CLYDEUNION Pumps 199 109
Cole-Parmer 137 9
Coupling Corporation of America 171 107
Crane Pumps & Systems 138 19
Dan Bolen & Associates 300 109
Danfoss Drives 160 52
Dwyer Instruments, Inc. 105 17
Environment One Corporation 108 69
EagleBurgmann 106 13
Eccentric Pump 172 88
Electro Static Technology 139 25
Equipump 189 108
Fairbanks Morse 161 51
Flowserve 140 34
Fluke Corporation 110 45
Frost & Sullivan 173 93
Fuji Electric Corporation of America 111 49
Garlock Sealing Technologies

112 5
Global Pump 117 73
Graphite Metallizing Corporation 174 95
Griffco Valve, Inc. 141 16
Heinrichs 175 64
Holland LobePro 142 67
Hydra Service, Inc. 107 75
Hydraulic Institute 176 93
Hydromatic

131 62
Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. 113 30
Inpro/Seal 114 11
International Products Corporation 163 84
ITT Goulds 162 87
ITT Water & Wastewater M & C 109 3
Junty Industries, Ltd. 301 110
KSB, Inc. 143 41
Larox Flowsys, Inc. 115 61
LEWA Inc. 144 27
Load Controls, Inc. 145 65
Load Controls, Inc. 190 108
Lutz-JESCO America Corp. 116 BC
MSE of Canda Ltd. 302 111
Macromatic Industial Controls 177 97
Megator 178 106
Meltric Coporation 179 97
Mid-West Instruments 180 106
Moyno, Inc. 118 21
MTH Pumps 181 101
Myers 132 79
National Pump Company 146 47
Neptune PSG 147 80
NOC 191 108
Orival, Inc. 164 53
PeriFlo, Inc. 148 72
Proco Products 165 92
ProMinent Fluid Controls 119 81
Pump Pros 166 54
Pump Solutions Group 167 91
Pumping Machinery 192 108
R + W America L.P. 149 63
Racine Federated Inc. 150 42
Rain for Rent 303 111
Revere Control Systems 182 95
Rockwell Automation 101 IFC
Ruhrpumpen 120 15
Salem Republic Rubber Co. 183 105
seepex 151 36
SEPCO 152 22
SEPCO 304 110
Shanley Pump 184 101
ShinMaywa

185 88
Sims Pump 100 56-57
Sims Pump 100 110
SJE Rhombus 168 53
St. Marys Carbon Company 186 107
Summit Pump, Inc. 306 111
Swaby Manufacturing Co. 153 74
SWPA 154 93
Synchrony, Inc. 121 IBC
Tamer Industries 307 111
Tarby,

Inc. 169 51
TECO-Westinghouse 122 37
Trachte, USA 308 111
Trask Decrow Machinery 309 110
Tuf-Lok 310 111
Turbomachinery Symposium 128 89
Unitronics, Inc. 193 108
Valve & Filter Corp. 155 43
Vaughan Company, Inc. 123 23
Verder GPM 156 12
Vertilo Pump Co. 187 64
VescoPlastics Sales 311 109
VibrAlign, Inc. 170 76
WAGO 157 48
WEFTEC 124 55
Weir SP 158 44
WILO USA LLC 125 77
Yaskawa America, Inc. 126 7
Zoeller Company 127 85
Zoeller Company 312 109
* Ad index is furnished as a courtesy and no
responsibility is assumed for incorrect information.
Advertiser Name R.S. # Page Advertiser Name R.S. # Page Advertiser Name R.S. # Page
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BULLETIN BOARD
Pump Tec 2010
EVERYTHING YOU EVER WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT PUMPS!
7th Pump Tec
Pumps Hands-On Maintenance
and Reliability Conference
Atlanta, GA USA
September 20-21, 2010
For more information go to
www.pumpconference.com
770-310-0866
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PLC+HMI
Unitronics, Inc. Toll free: 866-666-6033, usa.sales@unitronics.com, www.unitronics.com
Starting at $489
Save Ti me and Money wi t h Uni t roni cs i nt egrat ed PLC + HMI
ONE PLC+HMI in ONE unit
Unitronics - Your Advantage!
Integrated PLC & HMI
Great communication options
Datalogging and recipes
FREE Remote access
FREE programming software
Vision350
TM
PLC+HMI
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MONITOR PUMP PERFORMANCE
UNIVERSAL
POWER CELL
One Size AdjusLs for
All MoLors, lron Snall
up Lo 150HP
Works on variable lrequency
Drives, 3 Phase, DC and
Single Phase
10 Lines nore sensiLive
Lhan jusL sensing anps
4-20 Millianp, 0-10 volL
FLOW RAT
PUMP CONDITION
DRY RUNNINC
CAVITATION
BARINC FAILUR
CALL NOW FOR YOUR
FR 30-DAY TRIAL
888-600-3247
WWW.LOADCON1kOLS.COM
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of Pumps & Systems when
you sign up for Pump Digest,
our e-mail newsletter.
Go to
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to sign up.
PUMP USE RS MARKETPL ACE
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 109
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''.
'
, ,' , '. ' |' |. '
.,'
''
. '', '.
,, .: , .''.
.. ,
, |. , : '
'

3649 Cane Pun Pd. - Loulsvllle, K 402ll - www.zoeller.com - 502-778-273l - PAX 502-774-3624
.,, ' '.|'
Easy to Install...
Zoeller Lnglneered Products' Progresslng Cavlty Grlnder Petrot readlly
adapts to exlstlng pump systems.
Our nned class 30 cast lron constructlon reduces heat--an arch enemy
to any electrlc motor.
For more information on the Progressing Cavity Grinder Retroit,
please visit www.zoeller.com
Model 6932
ANNIVERSARY
SINCE 1939
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Serving the Pump & Rotating
Equipment, Valve, and Industrial
Equipment Industry since 1969
Domestic & International
Specializing in placing:
General Management
Engineering
Sales & Marketing
Manufacturing
DAN BOLEN JASON SWANSON
CHRIS OSBORN DAN MARSHALL
9741 North 90
th
Place, Suite 200
Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-5065
(480) 767-9000 Fax (480) 767-0100
Email: danbolen@mindspring.com
www.danbolenassoc.com
EXECUTIVE SEARCH/RECRUITING
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Employment
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The Source for
Pump Expertise
The Pumps & Systems
editors have carefully
selected an exclusive
collection of textbooks,
guidelines, manuals,
standards and technical
materials related to
the pump and rotating
equipment industry in our
online bookstore,
www.PumpBooks.com.
The Source for Pump Expertise
The Source for Pump Expertise
PUMP USE RS MARKETPL ACE
110 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
For informaon:
(800) 803-0353
www.allprimepumps.com
All Prime self-priming centrifugal pumps are marketed in the
United States, Canada & Mexico exclusively by the All Prime
Division of Power & Pumps Inc., Jacksonville Florida. Based
on the design of Gorman-Rupps T SERIES & U SERIES,
these pumps are available as bare pumps, parts, base
mounted and assembled berglass lift station units.
Materials of construction available include Cast-Iron, CD4MCu,
316-SS, 304-SS, ADI, Hastelloy & High-Chrome.
T SERIES & U SERIES are trademarks and registered trademarks of The Gorman-Rupp Co. in the
US & other countries. All Prime is not sponsored by nor afliated with The Gorman-Rupp Company.
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C
A
N

M
A
K
E

O
B
S
O
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E
T
E

P
A
R
T
S

F
O
R

A
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Y

P
U
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P
Use the Best!
Sims

Replacement Pump Parts


PRECISION MACHINED IMPELLERS,
RINGS, SLEEVES & BEARINGS
FOR ALL CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS!
Specialists in Structural Composites
Specialists in Hydraulic Design
Specialists in Cavitation
1-800-SIMS-303
SIMS PUMP CO.
Since 1919
201-792-0600
US Navy Approved
100% Made in USA
www.simsite.com
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PUMP USE RS MARKETPL ACE
PUMPS & SYSTEMS www.pump-zone.com SEPTEMBER 2010 111
Rotary Lobe Pumps
Macerating Technology
The Multichopper,
(Single Shaft Grinder)
for solids and debris
laden uids, macerates
and conditions stringent
material in homogenous
sludge.
The Multicrusher,
(Twin Shaft Grinder)
grinds and crushes
foreign objects like
wood, plastics, textiles,
skins, etc.
Boerger, LLC | Minneapolis, MN | 877.726.3743 | www.boerger-pumps.com
i nnovati on
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Your Best Value in
ANSI Centrifugal Pumps
Model 2196
Green Bay, WI
www.SUMMITPUMP.com
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P&S Stats and Interesting Facts
112 SEPTEMBER 2010 www.pump-zone.com PUMPS & SYSTEMS
P&S Stats and Interesting Facts
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
-0.20%
-0.10%
0.00%
0.10%
0.20%
0.30%
0.40%
0.50%
Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10
Pump and Pumping Equipment Manufacturing
Air and Gas Compresor Manufacturing
Pump and Compressor Manufacturing
65.00%
70.00%
75.00%
80.00%
85.00%
90.00%
95.00%
Jul-09 Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10
Chemical
Food, Beverage and Tobacco
Petroleum and Coal Products
Mining
Paper
$1.50
$1.70
$1.90
$2.10
$2.30
$2.50
$2.70
$2.90
$3.10
$3.30
Aug-09 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10 Jul-10
Average Price of Gasoline
Average Price of Diesel Fuel
Rig Count (U.S.): Jan. 7 Aug. 13, 2010
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

R
i
g
s

R
u
n
n
i
n
g
Week
Month-to-Month Percentage Price Change
in Pumps and Compressors
Plant Capacity Utilization by Industry
Average Fuel Prices (U.S.)
Source: Baker-Hughes Inc.
Source: Federal Reserve Statistical Release
Source: Energy Information Administration
he Producer Price Index program of the U.S. Department of Labor measures the average change
over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers for their output. hese charts detail
the month-to-month percentage change in selling prices. Source: U.S. Department of Labor
2009 R&D 100
Award Winner
Synchrony Fusion


Magnetic Bearing
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