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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System V100R002C00

Maintenance Guide (U2000)


Issue Date 05 2010-07-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2010. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information, and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind, either express or implied. The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address: Huawei Industrial Base Bantian, Longgang Shenzhen 518129 People's Republic of China http://www.huawei.com support@huawei.com

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

About This Document

About This Document

Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document. Product Name OptiX RTN 950 iManager U2000 Version V100R002C00 V100R001C00

Intended Audience
This document provides the guidelines to maintaining the OptiX RTN 950. It also describes the alarms and performance events that are required for troubleshooting during the maintenance. This document is intended for:
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Network planning engineer Data configuration engineer System maintenance engineer

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk, which if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk, which if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury.

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About This Document

OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

Symbol

Description Indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which if not avoided, could result in equipment damage, data loss, performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows. Convention Boldface > Description Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles are in boldface. For example, click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Update History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Based on Product Version V100R002C00


This document is the fifth release for the V100R002C00 product version. Compared with the fourth release, the updated contents are follows. Update A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures Description Added the BIOS_STATUS, LASER_MOD_ERR_EX alarm. Changed the LASER_SHUT alarm to the LASER_CLOSED alarm.

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

About This Document

Updates in Issue 04 (2010-04-20) Based on Product Version V100R002C00


This document is the fourth release for the V100R002C00 product version. Compared with the third release, the updated contents are follows. Update 6.12 Replacing the SFP Description The description of replacing the SFP is added.

Updates in Issue 03 (2010-01-30) Based on Product Version V100R002C00


This document is the third release for the V100R002C00 product version. Compared with the second release, the updated contents are follows. Update A.2 Alarm List (Classified by Logical Boards) C.2 Performance Events (by Logical Board) A.3.26 COMMUN_FAIL A.3.36 ETH_EFM_DF A.3.39 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT A.3.123 RPS_INDI Description Added the alarm list of each board. Added the performance event list of each board. Added the COMMUN_FAIL alarm. Changed the ETH_EFM_Discover alarm to the ETH_EFM_DF alarm. Changed the ETH_EFM_Fault alarm to the ETH_EFM_REMFAULT alarm. Revised the possible causes and handling procedure of the RPS_INDI alarm.

Updates in Issue 02 (2009-10-30) Based on Product Version V100R002C00


This document is the second release for the V100R002C00 product version. Compared with the first release, the updated contents are follows. Update 7 Database Backup and Restoration Description Added the backup and restoration of NE databases.

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

Update A Alarm Reference

Description
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Deleted the alarms POWER_FAIL and RELAY_ALARM. Added the alarms associated with the CF card: CFCARD_OFFLINE, CFCARD_FAILED, CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED, and CFCARD_FULL. Added the alarms associated with the relay: RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL, RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR, RELAY_ALARM_MINOR, and RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE. Added the LCS_MISMATCH alarm indicating the license file mismatch for the N+1 protection.

Updates in Issue 01 (2009-06-30) Based on Product Version V100R002C00


This document is the first release for the V100R002C00 product version.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document...................................................................................................................iii 1 Safety Precautions......................................................................................................................1-1
1.1 General Safety Precautions.............................................................................................................................1-2 1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols..........................................................................................................................1-3 1.3 Electrical Safety..............................................................................................................................................1-4 1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas.....................................................................................................................1-7 1.5 Storage Batteries.............................................................................................................................................1-7 1.6 Radiation.........................................................................................................................................................1-9 1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers..................................................................................................................1-9 1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure....................................................................................................................1-11 1.6.3 Forbidden Areas...................................................................................................................................1-12 1.6.4 Laser.....................................................................................................................................................1-12 1.6.5 Microwave............................................................................................................................................1-13 1.7 Working at Heights.......................................................................................................................................1-13 1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects.......................................................................................................................1-14 1.7.2 Using Ladders......................................................................................................................................1-15 1.8 Mechanical Safety.........................................................................................................................................1-17 1.9 Other Precautions..........................................................................................................................................1-18

2 Guides to High-Risk Operations............................................................................................2-1


2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch.................................................................................................2-2 2.2 Operation Guide to the IF Jumper...................................................................................................................2-4 2.3 Operation Guide to the IF Cable.....................................................................................................................2-5 2.4 Operation Guide to the IF Board.....................................................................................................................2-6

3 Routine Maintenance................................................................................................................3-1
3.1 Routine Maintenance Items.............................................................................................................................3-2 3.2 Operation Guide to the Routine Maintenance Items.......................................................................................3-3 3.2.1 Checking the NE Status..........................................................................................................................3-4 3.2.2 Browsing the Current Alarms................................................................................................................3-5 3.2.3 Browsing the History Alarms.................................................................................................................3-6 3.2.4 Browsing the Abnormal Events.............................................................................................................3-7 3.2.5 Browsing Current Performance Events..................................................................................................3-7 3.2.6 Browsing the History Performance Events............................................................................................3-8 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. vii

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000) 3.2.7 Browsing the History Transmit Power and Receive Power...................................................................3-9 3.2.8 Testing the IF 1+1 Switching...............................................................................................................3-10 3.2.9 Testing the IF N+1 Switching..............................................................................................................3-11 3.2.10 Checking the Telecommunications Room.........................................................................................3-12 3.2.11 Checking the ODU.............................................................................................................................3-12 3.2.12 Checking the Hybrid Coupler............................................................................................................3-13 3.2.13 Checking the Antenna........................................................................................................................3-13 3.2.14 Checking the IF Cable........................................................................................................................3-14 3.2.15 Checking the LOS Condition.............................................................................................................3-15

4 Emergency Maintenance...........................................................................................................4-1
4.1 Definition of Emergency.................................................................................................................................4-2 4.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance.............................................................................................................4-2 4.3 Procedure of Emergency Maintenance............................................................................................................4-2

5 Troubleshooting.........................................................................................................................5-1
5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure................................................................................................................5-3 5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions............................................................................................................5-5 5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link...................................................................................................................5-10 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services...............................................................................................5-18 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications..........................................................................................................5-24 5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment.........................................................................5-28 5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment.........................................................................5-31 5.8 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults......................................................................................................5-33 5.9 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults................................................................................................................5-38

6 Part Replacement........................................................................................................................6-1
6.1 Removing a Board...........................................................................................................................................6-3 6.2 Inserting a Board.............................................................................................................................................6-5 6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical Interface Board...................................................................................................6-7 6.4 Replacing the PDH Interface Board................................................................................................................6-8 6.5 Replacing the Ethernet Interface Board..........................................................................................................6-9 6.6 Replacing the IF Board.................................................................................................................................6-10 6.7 Replacing the CF Card..................................................................................................................................6-11 6.8 Replacing the System Control, Switch&Clock Board..................................................................................6-13 6.9 Replacing the Auxiliary Board......................................................................................................................6-15 6.10 Replacing the Fan Tray...............................................................................................................................6-16 6.11 Replacing the Power Board.........................................................................................................................6-17 6.12 Replacing the SFP.......................................................................................................................................6-18 6.13 Replacing the ODU.....................................................................................................................................6-19 6.14 Replacing the IF Cable................................................................................................................................6-20

7 Database Backup and Restoration..........................................................................................7-1


7.1 NE Database....................................................................................................................................................7-2 7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually................................................................................................................7-3 viii Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-07-30)

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7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy................................................................................................................7-3 7.3.1 Setting the Default Backup Policy.........................................................................................................7-4 7.3.2 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy............................................................................................... 7-4 7.3.3 Executing the Backup Policy of the Device...........................................................................................7-5 7.3.4 Suspending the Backup Policy of the Device........................................................................................ 7-6 7.4 Restoring the Database....................................................................................................................................7-6

8 Supporting Task.........................................................................................................................8-1
8.1 Hardware Loopback........................................................................................................................................8-3 8.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters........................................................................................................8-3 8.2.1 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Cartridge Cleaners......................................................................8-3 8.2.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Lens Tissue.................................................................................8-6 8.2.3 Cleaning Fiber Adapters by Using Optical Cleaning Sticks..................................................................8-7 8.3 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events..................................................................... 8-8 8.3.1 Checking the NE Status..........................................................................................................................8-8 8.3.2 Checking the Board Status.....................................................................................................................8-9 8.3.3 Browsing Current Alarms....................................................................................................................8-10 8.3.4 Browsing Abnormal Events.................................................................................................................8-10 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events................................................................................................8-11 8.3.6 Browsing History Alarms.....................................................................................................................8-12 8.3.7 Browsing History Performance Events................................................................................................8-13 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records..........................................................8-13 8.4 Querying a Report.........................................................................................................................................8-14 8.4.1 Querying the Board Information Report .............................................................................................8-14 8.4.2 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report ....................................................................8-15 8.4.3 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report.............................................................................8-15 8.5 Software Loopback.......................................................................................................................................8-16 8.5.1 Setting Loopback for the SDH Optical Interface Board......................................................................8-16 8.5.2 Setting Loopback for the Tributary Board...........................................................................................8-18 8.5.3 Setting a Loopback for the Ethernet Interface Board...........................................................................8-20 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board.......................................................................................................8-21 8.5.5 Locating a Fault by Performing Loopback Operations........................................................................8-24 8.6 Reset..............................................................................................................................................................8-25 8.6.1 Cold Reset............................................................................................................................................8-25 8.6.2 Warm Reset..........................................................................................................................................8-26 8.7 PRBS Test.....................................................................................................................................................8-27 8.7.1 Performing a PRBS Test for the Tributary Board................................................................................8-27 8.7.2 Performing a PRBS Test for the IF Board...........................................................................................8-29 8.8 Querying the License Capacity.....................................................................................................................8-31 8.9 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser............................................................................................................8-31 8.10 Setting the ALS Function............................................................................................................................8-32 8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function.....................................................................................................8-32 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs............................................................................8-33 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ix

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

8.13 Querying the Impedance of an E1 Channel.................................................................................................8-34 8.14 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring................................................................................8-34 8.15 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port................................................................................................8-36 8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit...............................................................8-37

A Alarm Reference.......................................................................................................................A-1
A.1 Alarm List (in Alphabetical Order)...............................................................................................................A-2 A.2 Alarm List (Classified by Logical Boards)...................................................................................................A-9 A.2.1 CST.......................................................................................................................................................A-9 A.2.2 CSH....................................................................................................................................................A-10 A.2.3 IF1.......................................................................................................................................................A-11 A.2.4 IFU2....................................................................................................................................................A-11 A.2.5 IFX2....................................................................................................................................................A-12 A.2.6 SL1D...................................................................................................................................................A-12 A.2.7 EM6T..................................................................................................................................................A-12 A.2.8 EM6F..................................................................................................................................................A-13 A.2.9 SP3S/SP3D.........................................................................................................................................A-13 A.2.10 AUX.................................................................................................................................................A-13 A.2.11 PIU....................................................................................................................................................A-14 A.2.12 FAN..................................................................................................................................................A-14 A.2.13 ODU.................................................................................................................................................A-14 A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures................................................................................................................A-14 A.3.1 A_LOC...............................................................................................................................................A-14 A.3.2 AM_DOWNSHIFT............................................................................................................................A-15 A.3.3 APS_FAIL..........................................................................................................................................A-16 A.3.4 APS_INDI..........................................................................................................................................A-17 A.3.5 APS_MANUAL_STOP.....................................................................................................................A-19 A.3.6 AU_AIS..............................................................................................................................................A-20 A.3.7 AU_LOP.............................................................................................................................................A-21 A.3.8 B1_EXC.............................................................................................................................................A-22 A.3.9 B1_SD................................................................................................................................................A-24 A.3.10 B2_EXC...........................................................................................................................................A-26 A.3.11 B2_SD..............................................................................................................................................A-28 A.3.12 B3_EXC...........................................................................................................................................A-31 A.3.13 B3_SD..............................................................................................................................................A-33 A.3.14 BD_NOT_INSTALLED..................................................................................................................A-35 A.3.15 BD_STATUS...................................................................................................................................A-36 A.3.16 BIOS_STATUS................................................................................................................................A-38 A.3.17 BIP_EXC..........................................................................................................................................A-39 A.3.18 BIP_SD.............................................................................................................................................A-40 A.3.19 BOOTROM_BAD............................................................................................................................A-42 A.3.20 BUS_ERR.........................................................................................................................................A-43 A.3.21 CFCARD_FAILED..........................................................................................................................A-44 x Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 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A.3.22 CFCARD_FULL..............................................................................................................................A-45 A.3.23 CFCARD_OFFLINE........................................................................................................................A-47 A.3.24 CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED..........................................................................................................A-48 A.3.25 CONFIG_NOSUPPORT..................................................................................................................A-49 A.3.26 COMMUN_FAIL.............................................................................................................................A-50 A.3.27 DBMS_ERROR...............................................................................................................................A-52 A.3.28 DBMS_PROTECT_MODE.............................................................................................................A-54 A.3.29 DOWN_E1_AIS...............................................................................................................................A-55 A.3.30 E1_LOC............................................................................................................................................A-56 A.3.31 E1_LOS............................................................................................................................................A-57 A.3.32 ETH_CFM_LOC..............................................................................................................................A-58 A.3.33 ETH_CFM_MISMERGE.................................................................................................................A-60 A.3.34 ETH_CFM_RDI...............................................................................................................................A-62 A.3.35 ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI..................................................................................................................A-64 A.3.36 ETH_EFM_DF.................................................................................................................................A-66 A.3.37 ETH_EFM_EVENT.........................................................................................................................A-67 A.3.38 ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK.................................................................................................................A-68 A.3.39 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT.................................................................................................................A-69 A.3.40 ETH_LOS.........................................................................................................................................A-71 A.3.41 ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP.................................................................................................................A-72 A.3.42 EXT_SYNC_LOS............................................................................................................................A-74 A.3.43 FAN_AGING...................................................................................................................................A-75 A.3.44 FAN_FAIL.......................................................................................................................................A-75 A.3.45 FLOW_OVER..................................................................................................................................A-76 A.3.46 HARD_BAD....................................................................................................................................A-77 A.3.47 HP_CROSSTR.................................................................................................................................A-79 A.3.48 HP_LOM..........................................................................................................................................A-80 A.3.49 HP_RDI............................................................................................................................................A-81 A.3.50 HP_REI.............................................................................................................................................A-82 A.3.51 HP_SLM...........................................................................................................................................A-83 A.3.52 HP_TIM............................................................................................................................................A-84 A.3.53 HP_UNEQ........................................................................................................................................A-85 A.3.54 HPAD_CROSSTR...........................................................................................................................A-86 A.3.55 IF_CABLE_OPEN...........................................................................................................................A-87 A.3.56 IF_INPWR_ABN.............................................................................................................................A-89 A.3.57 IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED..........................................................................................................A-90 A.3.58 IN_PWR_HIGH...............................................................................................................................A-91 A.3.59 IN_PWR_LOW................................................................................................................................A-92 A.3.60 J0_MM.............................................................................................................................................A-94 A.3.61 K1_K2_M.........................................................................................................................................A-95 A.3.62 K2_M................................................................................................................................................A-96 A.3.63 LAG_BWMM..................................................................................................................................A-98 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei 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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000) A.3.64 LAG_DOWN...................................................................................................................................A-99 A.3.65 LAG_MEMBER_DOWN..............................................................................................................A-100 A.3.66 LASER_CLOSED..........................................................................................................................A-102 A.3.67 LASER_MOD_ERR......................................................................................................................A-102 A.3.68 LASER_MOD_ERR_EX...............................................................................................................A-104 A.3.69 LCS_LIMITED..............................................................................................................................A-105 A.3.70 LCS_MISMATCH.........................................................................................................................A-106 A.3.71 LICENSE_LOST............................................................................................................................A-108 A.3.72 LOOP_ALM...................................................................................................................................A-109 A.3.73 LP_CROSSTR................................................................................................................................A-111 A.3.74 LP_R_FIFO....................................................................................................................................A-112 A.3.75 LP_RDI...........................................................................................................................................A-113 A.3.76 LP_REI...........................................................................................................................................A-114 A.3.77 LP_RFI...........................................................................................................................................A-114 A.3.78 LP_SIZE_ERR...............................................................................................................................A-115 A.3.79 LP_SLM.........................................................................................................................................A-116 A.3.80 LP_T_FIFO....................................................................................................................................A-117 A.3.81 LP_TIM..........................................................................................................................................A-118 A.3.82 LP_UNEQ......................................................................................................................................A-119 A.3.83 LPS_UNI_BI_M.............................................................................................................................A-120 A.3.84 LSR_NO_FITED............................................................................................................................A-121 A.3.85 LTI..................................................................................................................................................A-122 A.3.86 MS_AIS..........................................................................................................................................A-123 A.3.87 MS_CROSSTR...............................................................................................................................A-124 A.3.88 MS_RDI.........................................................................................................................................A-125 A.3.89 MS_REI..........................................................................................................................................A-126 A.3.90 MSAD_CROSSTR.........................................................................................................................A-127 A.3.91 NESOFT_MM................................................................................................................................A-128 A.3.92 MULTI_RPL_OWNER.................................................................................................................A-130 A.3.93 MW_BER_EXC.............................................................................................................................A-131 A.3.94 MW_BER_SD................................................................................................................................A-132 A.3.95 MW_FEC_UNCOR.......................................................................................................................A-133 A.3.96 MW_LIM.......................................................................................................................................A-137 A.3.97 MW_LOF.......................................................................................................................................A-139 A.3.98 MW_RDI........................................................................................................................................A-144 A.3.99 NESF_LOST..................................................................................................................................A-145 A.3.100 NESTATE_INSTALL..................................................................................................................A-147 A.3.101 NP1_MANUAL_STOP................................................................................................................A-148 A.3.102 NP1_SW_FAIL............................................................................................................................A-149 A.3.103 NP1_SW_INDI.............................................................................................................................A-150 A.3.104 POWER_ALM.............................................................................................................................A-151 A.3.105 POWER_ABNORMAL...............................................................................................................A-152

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A.3.106 R_F_RST......................................................................................................................................A-154 A.3.107 R_LOC.........................................................................................................................................A-155 A.3.108 R_LOF..........................................................................................................................................A-156 A.3.109 R_LOS..........................................................................................................................................A-158 A.3.110 R_S_ERR.....................................................................................................................................A-159 A.3.111 RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF......................................................................................A-161 A.3.112 RADIO_MUTE............................................................................................................................A-162 A.3.113 RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH........................................................................................................A-163 A.3.114 RADIO_RSL_HIGH....................................................................................................................A-164 A.3.115 RADIO_RSL_LOW.....................................................................................................................A-165 A.3.116 RADIO_TSL_HIGH....................................................................................................................A-166 A.3.117 RADIO_TSL_LOW.....................................................................................................................A-167 A.3.118 RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL....................................................................................................A-168 A.3.119 RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR.........................................................................................................A-169 A.3.120 RELAY_ALARM_MINOR.........................................................................................................A-170 A.3.121 RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE.......................................................................................................A-171 A.3.122 RP_LOC.......................................................................................................................................A-172 A.3.123 RPS_INDI.....................................................................................................................................A-173 A.3.124 RS_CROSSTR.............................................................................................................................A-175 A.3.125 RTC_FAIL...................................................................................................................................A-176 A.3.126 S1_SYN_CHANGE.....................................................................................................................A-177 A.3.127 SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT..............................................................................................A-178 A.3.128 SWDL_AUTOMATCH_INH......................................................................................................A-179 A.3.129 SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH.................................................................................................A-179 A.3.130 SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL.............................................................................................................A-180 A.3.131 SWDL_INPROCESS...................................................................................................................A-181 A.3.132 SWDL_NEPKGCHECK..............................................................................................................A-182 A.3.133 SWDL_PKG_NOBDSOFT..........................................................................................................A-183 A.3.134 SWDL_PKGVER_MM................................................................................................................A-184 A.3.135 SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL........................................................................................................A-184 A.3.136 SYNC_C_LOS.............................................................................................................................A-185 A.3.137 T_ALOS.......................................................................................................................................A-186 A.3.138 T_F_RST......................................................................................................................................A-187 A.3.139 T_LOC..........................................................................................................................................A-188 A.3.140 TEMP_ALARM...........................................................................................................................A-189 A.3.141 THUNDERALM..........................................................................................................................A-191 A.3.142 TU_AIS........................................................................................................................................A-191 A.3.143 TU_LOP.......................................................................................................................................A-193 A.3.144 UP_E1_AIS..................................................................................................................................A-194 A.3.145 VOLT_LOS..................................................................................................................................A-195 A.3.146 WRG_BD_TYPE.........................................................................................................................A-196 A.3.147 WRG_DEV_TYPE.......................................................................................................................A-197 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xiii

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000) A.3.148 XPIC_LOS...................................................................................................................................A-198

B Abnormal Event Reference.....................................................................................................B-1


B.1 Major Abnormal Performance Event List......................................................................................................B-2 B.2 Abnormal Performance Events and Handling Procedures.............................................................................B-2 B.2.1 Intermediate Frequency 1+1 Protection Switching...............................................................................B-2 B.2.2 N+1 Protection Switching.....................................................................................................................B-4 B.2.3 SNCP Switching...................................................................................................................................B-6 B.2.4 Linear MS Switching............................................................................................................................B-8 B.2.5 System Control Board Switching........................................................................................................B-10 B.2.6 RMON Performance Value Below the Lower Limit..........................................................................B-12 B.2.7 RMON Performance Value Above the Upper Limit..........................................................................B-13

C Performance Event Reference................................................................................................C-1


C.1 Performance Events (by Event Type)............................................................................................................C-2 C.1.1 SDH/PDH Performance Events............................................................................................................C-2 C.1.2 Radio Performance Events....................................................................................................................C-4 C.1.3 Other Performance Events....................................................................................................................C-6 C.2 Performance Events (by Logical Board)........................................................................................................C-7 C.2.1 CST/CSH..............................................................................................................................................C-8 C.2.2 IF1.........................................................................................................................................................C-8 C.2.3 IFU2....................................................................................................................................................C-10 C.2.4 IFX2....................................................................................................................................................C-12 C.2.5 SL1D...................................................................................................................................................C-14 C.2.6 SP3S/SP3D.........................................................................................................................................C-16 C.2.7 ODU....................................................................................................................................................C-17 C.3 Performance Events and Handling Procedures............................................................................................C-18 C.3.1 AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT......................................................................................................C-18 C.3.2 ATPC_P_ADJUST and ATPC_N_ADJUST.....................................................................................C-19 C.3.3 AUPJCHIGH, AUPJCLOW, and AUPJCNEW.................................................................................C-20 C.3.4 BDTEMPMAX, BDTEMPMIN, and BDTEMPCUR........................................................................C-21 C.3.5 FEC_BEF_COR_ER, FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT and FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT........................C-21 C.3.6 HPBBE, HPES, HPSES, HPCSES, and HPUAS...............................................................................C-22 C.3.7 HPFEBBE, HPFEES, HPFESES, HPFECSES, and HPFEUAS........................................................C-23 C.3.8 IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES, and IF_UAS.............................................................................C-24 C.3.9 LPBBE, LPES, LPSES, LPCSES, and LPUAS..................................................................................C-25 C.3.10 LPFEBBE, LPFEES, LPFESES, LPFECSES, and LPFEUAS........................................................C-27 C.3.11 MSBBE, MSES, MSSES, MSCSES, and MSUAS..........................................................................C-28 C.3.12 MSFEBBE, MSFEES, MSFESES, MSFECSES, and MSFEUAS...................................................C-29 C.3.13 QPSKWS, QAMWS16, QAMWS32, QAMWS64, QAMWS128, and QAMWS256.....................C-30 C.3.14 RPLMAX, RPLMIN, and RPLCUR................................................................................................C-31 C.3.15 RSBBE, RSES, RSSES, RSCSES, and RSUAS..............................................................................C-31 C.3.16 RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN, RSL_CUR, and RSL_AVG......................................................................C-33 C.3.17 RSOOF and RSOFS..........................................................................................................................C-33 xiv Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Issue 05 (2010-07-30)

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C.3.18 RLHTT, RLLTT, TLHTT, TLLTT..................................................................................................C-34 C.3.19 TPLMAX, TPLMIN, and TPLCUR.................................................................................................C-35 C.3.20 TSL_MAX, TSL_MIN, TSL_CUR, and TSL_AVG.......................................................................C-36 C.3.21 TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, and TUPJCNEW................................................................................C-36

D RMON Event Reference.........................................................................................................D-1


D.1 List of RMON Alarm Entries........................................................................................................................D-2 D.2 List of RMON Performance Entries..............................................................................................................D-2 D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures......................................................................................................D-4 D.3.1 ETHCOL.............................................................................................................................................. D-4 D.3.2 ETHDROP............................................................................................................................................D-5 D.3.3 ETHEXCCOL...................................................................................................................................... D-6 D.3.4 ETHFCS...............................................................................................................................................D-7 D.3.5 ETHFRG...............................................................................................................................................D-8 D.3.6 ETHJAB...............................................................................................................................................D-9 D.3.7 ETHLATECOL....................................................................................................................................D-9 D.3.8 ETHOVER.........................................................................................................................................D-11 D.3.9 ETHUNDER.......................................................................................................................................D-11 D.3.10 RXBBAD.........................................................................................................................................D-12 D.3.11 TXDEFFRM.....................................................................................................................................D-13

E Alarm Management..................................................................................................................E-1
E.1 NE Alarm Management..................................................................................................................................E-2 E.2 Board Alarm Management.............................................................................................................................E-2 E.2.1 Setting the Alarm Level........................................................................................................................E-3 E.2.2 Alarm Suppression................................................................................................................................E-3 E.2.3 Alarm Auto-Report................................................................................................................................E-3 E.2.4 Alarm Reversion....................................................................................................................................E-3 E.2.5 Setting of the Bit Error Alarm Threshold..............................................................................................E-4 E.2.6 AIS Insertion.........................................................................................................................................E-4 E.2.7 UNEQ Insertion.....................................................................................................................................E-5

F Performance Event Management............................................................................................F-1


F.1 NE Performance Event Management.............................................................................................................F-2 F.2 Board Performance Event Management.........................................................................................................F-2

G Alarm Suppression Relationship.........................................................................................G-1 H Glossary.....................................................................................................................................H-1


H.1 0-9..................................................................................................................................................................H-2 H.2 A-E................................................................................................................................................................ H-2 H.3 F-J..................................................................................................................................................................H-7 H.4 K-O..............................................................................................................................................................H-10 H.5 P-T...............................................................................................................................................................H-12 H.6 U-Z..............................................................................................................................................................H-16 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xv

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap...............................................................................................................1-7 Figure 1-2 Slanting optical interface..................................................................................................................1-11 Figure 1-3 Level optical interface......................................................................................................................1-11 Figure 1-4 Hoisting heavy objects......................................................................................................................1-15 Figure 1-5 Slanting a ladder...............................................................................................................................1-16 Figure 1-6 Ladder top being one meter higher than the roof.............................................................................1-16 Figure 2-1 Toggle lever switch............................................................................................................................2-2 Figure 4-1 Main procedure of emergency maintenance.......................................................................................4-3 Figure 4-2 Field troubleshooting sub-procedure..................................................................................................4-5 Figure 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure.....................................................................................................5-4 Figure 5-2 General procedure for troubleshooting the service interruption.........................................................5-6 Figure 5-3 Field troubleshooting sub-procedure..................................................................................................5-8 Figure 5-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the radio link....................................................................................5-14 Figure 5-5 Procedure for troubleshooting bit errors...........................................................................................5-22 Figure 5-6 Procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications........................................................................5-26 Figure 5-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH equipment........................................5-30 Figure 5-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH equipment........................................5-32 Figure 5-9 Procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults .....................................................................5-35 Figure 5-10 Procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event .......................................................5-37 Figure 5-11 Procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults..............................................................................5-39 Figure 6-1 Removing a board (1) ........................................................................................................................6-3 Figure 6-2 Removing a board (2) ........................................................................................................................6-4 Figure 6-3 Removing the System control Switch&Clock board..........................................................................6-4 Figure 6-4 Removing a board (3) ........................................................................................................................6-4 Figure 6-5 Inserting a board (1)...........................................................................................................................6-6 Figure 6-6 Inserting a board (2)...........................................................................................................................6-6 Figure 6-7 Inserting a board (3)...........................................................................................................................6-7 Figure 8-1 Using the CLETOP cassette cleaner...................................................................................................8-4 Figure 8-2 Dragging the fiber tip slightly on one cleaning area ..........................................................................8-5 Figure 8-3 Dragging the fiber tip slightly on the other cleaning area..................................................................8-5 Figure 8-4 Cleaning the fiber with the lens tissue ...............................................................................................8-6 Figure 8-5 Optical interface inloop....................................................................................................................8-16 Figure 8-6 Optical interface outloop..................................................................................................................8-17 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xvii

Figures

OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000) Figure 8-7 VC-4 path outloop............................................................................................................................8-17

Figure 8-8 VC-4 path inloop..............................................................................................................................8-17 Figure 8-9 Tributary inloop................................................................................................................................8-19 Figure 8-10 Tributary outloop............................................................................................................................8-19 Figure 8-11 Ethernet port inloop........................................................................................................................8-20 Figure 8-12 IF port inloop..................................................................................................................................8-21 Figure 8-13 IF port outloop................................................................................................................................8-22 Figure 8-14 Composite port inloop....................................................................................................................8-22 Figure 8-15 Composite port outloop..................................................................................................................8-22 Figure 8-16 Service trail.....................................................................................................................................8-24 Figure 8-17 PRBS test in the tributary direction................................................................................................8-27 Figure 8-18 PRBS test in the cross-connect direction .......................................................................................8-28 Figure 8-19 PRBS test of the IF board...............................................................................................................8-29 Figure 8-20 Schematic diagram of Ethernet port mirroring...............................................................................8-35

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Tables

Tables
Table 1-1 Warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950...........................................................................1-3 Table 4-1 Description of the main procedure of emergency maintenance...........................................................4-4 Table 4-2 Field maintenance operation sheet.......................................................................................................4-4 Table 4-3 Description of the field troubleshooting sub-procedure.......................................................................4-6 Table 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure......................................................................................................5-5 Table 5-2 Description of the general procedure for troubleshooting the service interruption.............................5-7 Table 5-3 Description of the field troubleshooting sub-procedure.......................................................................5-9 Table 5-4 Causes of radio link faults..................................................................................................................5-12 Table 5-5 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the radio link........................................................5-15 Table 5-6 Causes of bit errors.............................................................................................................................5-20 Table 5-7 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting bit errors...............................................................5-23 Table 5-8 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications............................................5-27 Table 5-9 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH equipment........... 5-31 Table 5-10 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH equipment......... 5-33 Table 5-11 Common faults of Ethernet services................................................................................................5-34 Table 5-12 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults ...................................... 5-36 Table 5-13 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event ...........................5-38 Table 5-14 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults..................................................5-40 Table 6-1 Part replacement description ...............................................................................................................6-1 Table A-1 Alarm list............................................................................................................................................A-2 Table B-1 Major performance event list..............................................................................................................B-2 Table C-1 Pointer justification performance events............................................................................................C-2 Table C-2 Regenerator section error performance events...................................................................................C-2 Table C-3 Multiplex section error performance events.......................................................................................C-3 Table C-4 Higher order path error performance events.......................................................................................C-3 Table C-5 Lower order path error performance events.......................................................................................C-4 Table C-6 Radio power performance events.......................................................................................................C-4 Table C-7 FEC performance events....................................................................................................................C-5 Table C-8 Radio link error performance events..................................................................................................C-5 Table C-9 ATPC performance events..................................................................................................................C-6 Table C-10 AM performance events...................................................................................................................C-6 Table C-11 Optical power performance events...................................................................................................C-6 Table C-12 Board temperature performance events............................................................................................C-7 Issue 05 (2010-07-30) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. xix

Tables

OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000) Table C-13 Board temperature performance events............................................................................................C-8 Table C-14 Pointer justification performance events..........................................................................................C-8 Table C-15 Regenerator section error performance events.................................................................................C-8 Table C-16 Multiplex section error performance events.....................................................................................C-9 Table C-17 Higher order path error performance events.....................................................................................C-9 Table C-18 FEC performance events................................................................................................................C-10 Table C-19 Board temperature performance events..........................................................................................C-10 Table C-20 Lower order path error performance events...................................................................................C-10 Table C-21 FEC performance events................................................................................................................C-11 Table C-22 Radio link error performance events..............................................................................................C-11 Table C-23 AM performance events.................................................................................................................C-11 Table C-24 Board temperature performance events..........................................................................................C-12 Table C-25 Lower order path error performance events...................................................................................C-12 Table C-26 FEC performance events................................................................................................................C-13 Table C-27 Radio link error performance events..............................................................................................C-13 Table C-28 AM performance events.................................................................................................................C-13 Table C-29 Board temperature performance events..........................................................................................C-14 Table C-30 Pointer justification performance events........................................................................................C-14 Table C-31 Regenerator section error performance events...............................................................................C-14 Table C-32 Multiplex section error performance events...................................................................................C-15 Table C-33 Higher order path error performance events...................................................................................C-15 Table C-34 Optical power performance events.................................................................................................C-16 Table C-35 Board temperature performance events..........................................................................................C-16 Table C-36 Pointer justification performance events........................................................................................C-16 Table C-37 Lower order path error performance events...................................................................................C-17 Table C-38 Radio power performance events...................................................................................................C-17 Table C-39 ATPC performance events..............................................................................................................C-18 Table D-1 List of RMON alarm entries...............................................................................................................D-2 Table D-2 List of RMON performance entries ...................................................................................................D-3 Table E-1 Setting of the bit error alarm threshold...............................................................................................E-4 Table E-2 Setting of the AIS insertion.................................................................................................................E-4 Table E-3 Setting of the UNEQ insertion............................................................................................................E-5 Table F-1 Board performance event management function.................................................................................F-2 Table G-1 Suppression relationship between intra-board alarms........................................................................G-1 Table G-2 Suppression relationship between intra-board alarms........................................................................G-2

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1
About This Chapter

Safety Precautions

This topic describes the safety precautions that you must follow when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices. 1.1 General Safety Precautions This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices. 1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment. 1.3 Electrical Safety This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current, power cables, fuses, and ESD. 1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device. 1.5 Storage Batteries This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries. 1.6 Radiation This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers. 1.7 Working at Heights This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights. 1.8 Mechanical Safety This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans, and carrying heavy objects. 1.9 Other Precautions This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables, and routing cables.

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1.1 General Safety Precautions


This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.

All Safety Precautions


To ensure the safety of humans and a device, follow the marks on the device and all the safety precautions in this document when installing, operating, and maintaining a device. The "CAUTION", "WARNING", and "DANGER" marks in this document do not cover all the safety precautions that must be followed. They are supplements to the safety precautions.

Local Laws and Regulations


When operating a device, always comply with the local laws and regulations. The safety precautions provided in the documents are in addition/supplementary to the local laws and regulations.

Basic Installation Requirements


The installation and maintenance personnel of Huawei devices must receive strict training and be familiar with the proper operation methods and safety precautions before any operation.
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Only trained and qualified personnel are permitted to install, operate, and maintain a device. Only certified professionals are permitted to remove the safety facilities, and to troubleshoot and maintain the device. Only the personnel authenticated or authorized by Huawei are permitted to replace or change the device or parts of the device (including software). The operating personnel must immediately report the faults or errors that may cause safety problems to the person in charge.

Grounding Requirements
The grounding requirements are applicable to the device that needs to be grounded.
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When installing the device, always connect the grounding facilities first. When removing the device, always disconnect the grounding facilities last. Ensure that the grounding conductor is intact. Do not operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed grounding conductor. The device must be connected to the PGND permanently. Before operating the device, check the electrical connections of the device, and ensure that the device is properly grounded.

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Human Safety
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When there is a risk of a lightning strike, do not operate the fixed terminal or touch the cables. When there is risk of a lightning strike, unplug the AC power connector. Do not use the fixed terminal or touch the terminal or antenna connector.
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NOTE

1 Safety Precautions

The preceding requirements apply to wireless fixed station terminals.


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To avoid electric shocks, do not connect safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits to telephone-network voltage (TNV) circuits. Do not look into optical ports without eye protection. Otherwise, human eyes may be hurt by laser beams. Before operating the device, wear an ESD protective coat, ESD gloves, and an ESD wrist strap. In addition, you need to get off the conductive objects, such as jewelry and watches, to prevent electric shock and burn. In case of fire, escape from the building or site where the device is located and press the fire alarm bell or dial the telephone number for fire alarms. Do not enter the burning building again in any situation.

Device Safety
l

Before any operation, install the device firmly on the ground or other rigid objects, such as on a wall or in a rack. When the system is working, ensure that the ventilation hole is not blocked. When installing the front panel, use a tool to tighten the screws firmly, if required. After installing the device, clean up the packing materials.

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1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols


Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment. Table 1-1 lists the warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950 and their meanings. Table 1-1 Warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950 Symbol Indication This symbol is for anti-static protection. A notice with this symbol indicates that you should wear an anti-static wrist strap or glove when you touch a board. Otherwise, you may cause damage to the board.
CLASS 1 LASER PRODUCT

This symbol is for the laser class. A notice with this symbol indicates the class of the laser. Avoid direct exposure to the laser beams. Otherwise, it may damage you eyes or skin.

LASER RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CLASS 1M LASER PRODUCT

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Symbol

Indication A notice with this symbol indicates where the subrack is grounded.

ATTENTION
CLEAN PERIODICALLY

A notice with this symbol indicates that the air filter should be cleaned periodically.

DON'T TOUCH THE FAN LEAVES BEFORE THEY SLOW DOWN !

This symbol is for fan safety. A notice with this symbol indicates that the fan leaves should not be touched when the fan is rotating.

1.3 Electrical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current, power cables, fuses, and ESD.

High Voltage

DANGER
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A high-voltage power supply provides power for device operations. Direct human contact with the high voltage power supply or human contact through damp objects can be fatal. Unspecified or unauthorized high voltage operations could result in fire or electric shock, or both.

Thunderstorm
The requirements apply only to wireless base stations or devices with antennas and feeders.

DANGER
Do not perform operations on high voltage, AC power, towers, or backstays in stormy weather conditions.

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High Leakage Current

WARNING
Before powering on a device, ground the device. Otherwise, the safety of humans and the device cannot be ensured. If a high leakage current mark is labeled near the power connector of the device, you must connect the PGND terminal on the shell to the ground before connecting the device to an A/C input power supply. This is to prevent the electric shock caused by leakage current of the device.

Power Cables

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cable with a live line. Transient contact between the core of the power cable and the conductor may generate electric arc or spark, which may cause fire or eye injury.
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Before installing or removing power cables, you must power off the device. Before connecting a power cable, you must ensure that the label on the power cable is correct.

Device with Power On

DANGER
Installing or removing a device is prohibited if the device is on.

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cables of the equipment when it is powered on.

Short Circuits
When installing and maintaining devices, place and use the associated tools and instruments in accordance with regulations to avoid short-circuits caused by metal objects.

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CAUTION
To avoid short-circuits when using a tool (such as a screwdriver), do not place the tool on the ventilation plate of the subrack.

CAUTION
Prevent any screws from dropping into the subrack or chassis to avoid short-circuits.

Fuse

WARNING
If the fuse on a device blows, replace the fuse with a fuse of the same type and specifications to ensure safe operation of the device.

Electrostatic Discharge

CAUTION
The static electricity generated by the human body may damage the electrostatic sensitive components on the board, such as the large-scale integrated circuit (LSI).
l

The human body can generate static electromagnetic fields in the following situations: physical movement, clothing friction, friction between shoes and the ground, plastics in the hand. Such static electromagnetic effects can remain for an appreciable time. Before operating a device, circuit boards, or ASICs, wear an ESD wrist strap that is properly grounded. The ESD wrist strap can prevent the electrostatic-sensitive components from being damaged by the static electricity in the human body.

Figure 1-1 shows the method of wearing an ESD wrist strap.

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Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas


This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.

DANGER
Do not place or operate devices in an environment of flammable or explosive air or gas. Operating an electronic device in an environment of flammable gas causes a severe hazard.

1.5 Storage Batteries


This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.

DANGER
Before operating a storage battery, you must read the safety precautions carefully and be familiar with the method of connecting a storage battery.
l

Incorrect operations of storage batteries cause hazards. During operation, prevent any shortcircuit, and prevent the electrolyte from overflowing or leakage. If the electrolyte overflows, it causes potential hazards to the device. The electrolyte may corrode metal parts and the circuit boards, and ultimately damage the circuit boards. A storage battery contains a great deal of energy. Misoperations may cause a short-circuit, which leads to human injuries.
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Basic Precautions
To ensure safety, note the following points before installing or maintaining the storage battery:
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Use special insulation tools. Wear an eye protector and take effective protection measures. Wear rubber gloves and a protection coat to prevent the hazard caused by the overflowing electrolyte. When handling the storage battery, ensure that its electrodes are upward. Leaning or reversing the storage battery is prohibited. Before installing or maintaining the storage battery, ensure that the storage battery is disconnected from the power supply that charges the storage battery.

Short-Circuit

DANGER
A battery short-circuit may cause human injuries. Although the voltage of an ordinary battery is low, the instantaneous high current caused by a short-circuit emits a great deal of energy. Avoid any short-circuit of batteries caused by metal objects. If possible, disconnect the working battery before performing other operations.

Hazardous Gas

CAUTION
Do not use any unsealed lead-acid storage battery. Lay a storage battery horizontally and fix it properly to prevent the battery from emitting flammable gas, which may cause fire or device erosion. Working lead-acid storage batteries emit flammable gas. Therefore, ventilation and fireproofing measures must be taken at the sites where lead-acid storage batteries are placed.

Battery Temperature

CAUTION
If a battery overheats, the battery may be deformed or damaged, and the electrolyte may overflow. When the temperature of the battery is higher than 60C, you need to check whether the electrolyte overflows. If the electrolyte overflows, take appropriate measures immediately.
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Battery Leakage

CAUTION
In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up appropriately. When handling a leaky battery, protect against the possible damage caused by the acid. When you find the electrolyte leaks, you can use the following substances to counteract and absorb the leaking electrolyte:
l l

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up as recommended by the battery manufacturer and any local regulations for acid disposal. If a person contacts battery electrolyte, clean the skin that contacts the battery electrolyte immediately by using water. In case of a severe situation, the person must be sent to a hospital immediately.

1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers. 1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes. Hence, you must exercise caution when using optical fibers. 1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure. 1.6.3 Forbidden Areas The topic describes requirements for a forbidden area. 1.6.4 Laser This topic describes safety precautions for lasers. 1.6.5 Microwave When installing and maintaining the equipment of Huawei, follow the safety precautions of microwave to ensure the safety of the human body and the equipment.

1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers


The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes. Hence, you must exercise caution when using optical fibers.

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DANGER
When installing or maintaining an optical interface board or optical fibers, avoid direct eye exposure to the laser beams launched from the optical interface board or fiber connectors. The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes.

Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Optical Interfaces

CAUTION
If fiber connectors or flanges are contaminated, optical power commissioning is seriously affected. Therefore, the two endfaces and flange of every external fiber must be cleaned before the fiber is led into the equipment through the ODF for being inserted into an optical interface on the equipment. The fiber connectors and optical interfaces of the lasers must be cleaned with the following special cleaning tools and materials:
l

Special cleaning solvent: It is preferred to use isoamylol. Propyl alcohol, however, can also be used. It is prohibited that you use alcohol and formalin. Non-woven lens tissue Special compressed gas Cotton stick (medical cotton or long fiber cotton) Special cleaning roll, used with the recommended cleaning solvent Special magnifier for fiber connectors

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For cleaning steps, see Task Collection "Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters" in the OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Maintenance and Troubleshooting.

Replacing Optical Fibers


When replacing an optical fiber, cover the fiber connector of the unused optical fiber with a protective cap.

Connecting Optical Fibers


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Use an attenuator if the optical power is excessively high. A high received optical power damages the optical interface. Directly connect an attenuator to a slanting optical interface. Install the attenuator on the IN port instead of the OUT port. Do not directly connect an attenuator to the level optical interface. Use the optical distribution frame (ODF) to connect an attenuator to a level optical interface.

Figure 1-2 shows a slanting optical interface, and Figure 1-3 shows a level optical interface.
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Figure 1-2 Slanting optical interface

Slanting optical interface

Figure 1-3 Level optical interface

Level optical interface

1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure


This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure.

DANGER
Danger indicates a hazard that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

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WARNING
Warning indicates a hazard that, if not avoided, could result in moderate or serious injury.

CAUTION
Caution indicates a hazard that, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. If multiple transmit antennas are installed on a tower or backstay, keep away from the transmit directions of the antennas when you install or maintain an antenna locally.

CAUTION
Ensure that all personnel are beyond the transmit direction of a working antenna.

1.6.3 Forbidden Areas


The topic describes requirements for a forbidden area.
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Before entering an area where the electromagnetic radiation is beyond the specified range, the associated personnel must shut down the electromagnetic radiator or stay at least 10 meters away from the electromagnetic radiator, if in the transmit direction. A physical barrier and an eye-catching warning flag should be available in each forbidden area.

1.6.4 Laser
This topic describes safety precautions for lasers.

WARNING
When handling optical fibers, do not stand close to, or look into the optical fiber outlet directly without eye protection. Laser transceivers are used in the optical transmission system and associated test tools. The laser transmitted through the bare optical fiber produces a small beam of light, and thus it has very high power density and is invisible to human eyes. When a beam of light enters eyes, the eyes may be damaged. In normal cases, viewing an un-terminated optical fiber or a damaged optical fiber without eye protection at a distance greater than 150 mm does not cause eye injury. Eye injury may occur, however, if an optical tool such as a microscope, magnifying glass, or eye loupe is used to view an un-terminated optical fiber.
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Safety Instructions Regarding Lasers


To avoid laser radiation, obey the following instructions:
l

All operations should be performed by authorized personnel who have completed the required training courses. Wear a pair of eye-protective glasses when you are handling lasers or fibers. Ensure that the optical source is switched off before disconnecting optical fiber connectors. Do not look into the end of an exposed fiber or an open connector when you are not sure whether the optical source is switched off. Use an optical power meter to measure the optical power and ensure that the optical source is switched off. Before opening the front door of an optical transmission device, ensure that you are not exposed to laser radiation. Do not use an optical tool such as a microscope, a magnifying glass, or an eye loupe to view the optical connector or fiber that is transmitting optical signals.

l l l

Instructions Regarding Fiber Handling


Read and abide by the following instructions before handling fibers:
l l

Only trained personnel are permitted to cut and splice fibers. Before cutting or splicing a fiber, ensure that the fiber is disconnected from the optical source. After disconnecting the fiber, cap to the fiber connectors.

1.6.5 Microwave
When installing and maintaining the equipment of Huawei, follow the safety precautions of microwave to ensure the safety of the human body and the equipment.

WARNING
Strong radio frequency can harm the human body. When installing or maintaining an aerial on the tower or mast that is installed with multiple aerials, switch off the transmitter in advance.

1.7 Working at Heights


This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.

WARNING
When working at heights, be cautious to prevent objects from falling down. The requirements for working at heights are as follows:
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The personnel who work at heights must be trained. Carry and handle the operating machines and tools with caution to prevent them from falling down. Safety measures, such as wearing a helmet and a safety belt, must be taken. Wear cold-proof clothes when working at heights in cold areas. Check all lifting appliances thoroughly before starting the work, and ensure that they are intact.

l l l

1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects This topic describes the safety precautions for hoisting heavy objects that you must follow when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices. 1.7.2 Using Ladders This topic describes safety precautions for using ladders.

1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects


This topic describes the safety precautions for hoisting heavy objects that you must follow when installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices.

WARNING
When heavy objects are being hoisted, do not walk below the cantilever or hoisted objects.
l l

Only trained and qualified personnel can perform hoisting operations. Before hoisting heavy objects, check that the hoisting tools are complete and in good condition. Before hoisting heavy objects, ensure that the hoisting tools are fixed to a secure object or wall with good weight-bearing capacity. Issue orders with short and explicit words to ensure correct operations. Ensure that the angle between the two cables is less than or equal to 90 degrees during the lifting, as shown in Figure 1-4.

l l

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Figure 1-4 Hoisting heavy objects

1.7.2 Using Ladders


This topic describes safety precautions for using ladders.

Checking Ladders
l

Before using a ladder, check whether the ladder is damaged. After checking that the ladder is in good condition, you can use the ladder. Before using a ladder, you should know the maximum weight capacity of the ladder. Avoid overweighing the ladder.

Placing Ladders
The proper slant angle of the ladder is 75 degrees. You can measure the slant angle of the ladder with an angle square or your arms, as shown in Figure 1-5. When using a ladder, to prevent the ladder from sliding, ensure that the wider feet of the ladder are downward, or take protection measures for the ladder feet. Ensure that the ladder is placed securely.

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Figure 1-5 Slanting a ladder

Climbing Up a Ladder
When climbing up a ladder, pay attention to the following points:
l

Ensure that the center of gravity of your body does not deviate from the edges of the two long sides. Before operations, ensure that your body is stable to reduce risks. Do not climb higher than the fourth rung of the ladder (counted from up to down).

l l

If you want to climb up a roof, ensure that the ladder top is at least one meter higher than the roof, as shown in Figure 1-6. Figure 1-6 Ladder top being one meter higher than the roof

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1.8 Mechanical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans, and carrying heavy objects.

Drilling Holes

WARNING
Do not drill holes on the cabinet without prior permission. Drilling holes without complying with the requirements affects the electromagnetic shielding performance of the cabinet and damages the cables inside the cabinet. In addition, if the scraps caused by drilling enter the cabinet, the printed circuit boards (PCBs) may be short-circuited.
l l

Before drilling a hole on the cabinet, remove the cables inside the cabinet. Wear an eye protector when drilling holes. This is to prevent eyes from being injured by the splashing metal scraps. Wear protection gloves when drilling holes. Take measures to prevent the metallic scraps from falling into the cabinet. After the drilling, clean up the metallic scraps.

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Sharp Objects

WARNING
Wear protection gloves when carrying the device. This is to prevent hands from being injured by the sharp edges of the device.

Fans
l

When replacing parts, place the objects such as the parts, screws, and tools properly. This is to prevent them from falling into the operating fans, which damages the fans or device. When replacing the parts near fans, keep your fingers or boards from touching operating fans before the fans are powered off and stop running. Otherwise, the hands or the boards are damaged.

Carrying Heavy Objects


Wear protection gloves when carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent hands from being hurt.

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WARNING
l

The carrier must be prepared for load bearing before carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent the carrier from being strained or pressed by the heavy objects. When you pull a chassis out of the cabinet, pay attention to the unstable or heavy objects on the cabinet. This is to prevent the heavy objects on the cabinet top from falling down, which may hurt you. Generally, two persons are needed to carry a chassis. It is prohibited that only one person carries a heavy chassis. When carrying a chassis, the carriers should stretch their backs and move stably to avoid being strained. When moving or lifting a chassis, hold the handles or bottom of the chassis. Do not hold the handles of the modules installed in the chassis, such as the power modules, fan modules, and boards.

1.9 Other Precautions


This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables, and routing cables.

Removing and Inserting a Board

CAUTION
When inserting a board, wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves, and handle the board gently to avoid distorting pins on the backplane.
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Slide the board along the guide rails. Do not contact one board with another to avoid short-circuits or damage. When holding a board in hand, do not touch the board circuits, components, connectors, or connection slots of the board to prevent damage caused by ESD of the human body to the electrostatic-sensitive components.

Binding Signal Cables

CAUTION
Bind the signal cables separately from the high-current or high-voltage cables.

Routing Cables
In the case of extremely low temperature, heavy shock or vibration may damage the plastic skin of the cables. To ensure the construction safety, comply with the following requirements:
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1 Safety Precautions

When installing cables, ensure that the environment temperature is above 0C. If the cables are stored in a place where the ambient temperature is below 0C, transfer them to a place at room temperature and store the cables for more than 24 hours before installation. Handle the cables gently, especially in a low-temperature environment. Do not perform any improper operations, for example, pushing the cables down directly from a truck.

High Temperature

WARNING
If the ambient temperature exceeds 55C, the temperature of the front panel surface marked the flag may exceed 70C. When touching the front panel of the board in such an environment, you must wear the protection gloves.

IF Cables

WARNING
Before installing or removing an IF cable, you must turn off the power switch of the IF board.

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Guides to High-Risk Operations

About This Chapter


This chapter provides guides to the operations that may cause injury on human bodies and damage on the equipment if they are misconducted during the commissioning and maintenance of microwave equipment. 2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch. When you turn on or turn off the toggle lever switch, perform the operations in strict compliance with the guidelines. Otherwise, the IF board may be damaged. 2.2 Operation Guide to the IF Jumper Before removing or installing an IF jumper, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the body injury may be caused, and the IF board or the ODU may be damaged. 2.3 Operation Guide to the IF Cable Before removing or installing an IF cable, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the body injury may be caused, and the IF board or the ODU may be damaged. 2.4 Operation Guide to the IF Board Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the IF board or the ODU may be damaged.

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2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch


The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch. When you turn on or turn off the toggle lever switch, perform the operations in strict compliance with the guidelines. Otherwise, the IF board may be damaged.

Position and Description of the Toggle Lever Switch


The toggle lever switch resides on the IF board and controls the power that is fed to the ODU, as shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-1 Toggle lever switch

O: OFF

I : ON

Turning On the Toggle Lever Switch


1. Pull the toggle lever switch out slightly.

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2.

Turn it to the left.

3.

Release the toggle lever switch.

Turning Off the Toggle Lever Switch


1. Pull the toggle lever switch out slightly.

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2.

Turn it to the right.

3.

Release the toggle lever switch.

2.2 Operation Guide to the IF Jumper


Before removing or installing an IF jumper, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the body injury may be caused, and the IF board or the ODU may be damaged.

Procedure
Step 1 Turn off the ODU power switch on the IF board. For details, see 2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch.

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DANGER
Do not remove the IF jumper before the ODU is powered off! Step 2 Remove or install the IF jumper. ----End

2.3 Operation Guide to the IF Cable


Before removing or installing an IF cable, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the body injury may be caused, and the IF board or the ODU may be damaged.

Procedure
Step 1 Turn off the ODU power switch on the IF board. For details, see 2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch.

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DANGER
Do not remove or install the IF cable before the ODU is powered off! Step 2 Install or remove the IF cable. ----End

2.4 Operation Guide to the IF Board


Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR. Otherwise, the IF board or the ODU may be damaged.

Procedure
Step 1 Turn off the ODU power switch on the IF board. For details, see 2.1 Operation Guide to the Toggle Lever Switch.

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DANGER
Do not remove or install the IF board before the ODU is powered off! Step 2 Disconnect the IF jumper or IF cable. Step 3 Remove or install the IF board. ----End

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3
About This Chapter

Routine Maintenance

The routine maintenance operations are performed to detect and rectify hidden faults before the hidden faults result in the damage to the equipment and thus affect the services. 3.1 Routine Maintenance Items Routine maintenance items are classified into three categories: routine maintenance items carried out through the NMS, field maintenance items for indoor equipment, and field maintenance items for outdoor equipment. 3.2 Operation Guide to the Routine Maintenance Items This topic describes the operation guidelines to each routine maintenance item.

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3.1 Routine Maintenance Items


Routine maintenance items are classified into three categories: routine maintenance items carried out through the NMS, field maintenance items for indoor equipment, and field maintenance items for outdoor equipment.

Routine Maintenance Items Carried Out Through the NMS


Maintenance Item Recomm ended Mainten ance Cycle Every day Every day Every week Every week Every week Every week Every week Half a year Remarks

3.2.1 Checking the NE Status 3.2.2 Browsing the Current Alarms 3.2.3 Browsing the History Alarms 3.2.4 Browsing the Abnormal Events 3.2.5 Browsing Current Performance Events 3.2.6 Browsing the History Performance Events 3.2.7 Browsing the History Transmit Power and Receive Power 3.2.8 Testing the IF 1+1 Switching

Applies only to the equipment that is configured in 1+1 protection mode. During the 1+1 protection switching (< 200 ms), the protected services are interrupted. Hence, it is recommended that you perform the 1+1 protection switching when the traffic is light. Applies only to the equipment that is configured in N+1 protection mode.

3.2.9 Testing the IF N+1 Switching

Half a year

Field Maintenance Items for Indoor Equipment


Maintenance Item 3.2.10 Checking the Telecommunications Room Recommended Maintenance Cycle Every two months Remarks -

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Field Maintenance Items for Outdoor Equipment


Maintenance Item Recommended Maintenance Cycle Half a year Half a year Half a year Half a year Half a year Remarks

3.2.11 Checking the ODU 3.2.12 Checking the Hybrid Coupler 3.2.13 Checking the Antenna 3.2.14 Checking the IF Cable 3.2.15 Checking the LOS Condition

Carry out a complete check after a level-8 or higher hurricane, an earthquake, or other exceptional circumstances.

3.2 Operation Guide to the Routine Maintenance Items


This topic describes the operation guidelines to each routine maintenance item. 3.2.1 Checking the NE Status This topic describes how to check the NE status. By periodically checking the NE status, you can detect the NE faults in time. 3.2.2 Browsing the Current Alarms A current alarm is an alarm that is not cleared. Periodically browsing the current alarms helps in detecting and rectifying faults in time. 3.2.3 Browsing the History Alarms A history alarm is an alarm that is cleared. Periodically browsing and storing the history alarm information helps in locating and rectifying faults. 3.2.4 Browsing the Abnormal Events This topic describes how to browse the abnormal events. An abnormal event is an abnormality that arises in the system at a particular time and not an abnormality that persists for a long time. Periodically browsing the abnormal events helps in detecting equipment faults in time. 3.2.5 Browsing Current Performance Events Periodically browsing the performance events helps you to check the long-term running status of the equipment. Hence, the latent hazards can be detected and cleared in time. The count of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time. 3.2.6 Browsing the History Performance Events Periodically browsing and storing the history performance events helps in locating faults. 3.2.7 Browsing the History Transmit Power and Receive Power By periodically browsing the history transmit power and receive power, you can know the change trend of the history transmit power and receive power, which provides references for troubleshooting the radio link. 3.2.8 Testing the IF 1+1 Switching Periodically testing the IF 1+1 switching helps in checking whether switchings can be performed on the equipment normally.
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3.2.9 Testing the IF N+1 Switching Periodically testing the IF N+1 switching helps in checking whether switchings can be performed on the equipment normally. 3.2.10 Checking the Telecommunications Room Periodically checking the telecommunications room not only ensures that the equipment can operate normally in appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, but also reduces the fault rate and increases the service life of the equipment. 3.2.11 Checking the ODU Periodically checking the ODU helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the ODU in time. 3.2.12 Checking the Hybrid Coupler Periodically checking the hybrid coupler helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the hybrid coupler in time. 3.2.13 Checking the Antenna Periodically checking the antenna helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the antenna in time. 3.2.14 Checking the IF Cable Checking the IF cable periodically helps you detect the faults in and hidden troubles of the IF cable in a timely manner. 3.2.15 Checking the LOS Condition Periodically checking the LOS condition of the transmission link helps to detect hidden LOS obstacles on the transmission link.

3.2.1 Checking the NE Status


This topic describes how to check the NE status. By periodically checking the NE status, you can detect the NE faults in time.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
NOTE

By default, the color of the NE icon on the NMS indicates the NE status.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the NE icon in the Main Topology.
TIP

In the toolbar of the Main Topology, click the icon, and click the Legend tab in the window that is displayed on the right. By moving the vertical scrolling bar, you can view all the status legends of the NE.

The NE icon should be green. In other cases, you can infer as follows:
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Gray: indicates that the communication between the NE and the NMS is interrupted. Purple: indicates that the NE status is unknown. Red: indicates that a critical alarm is generated. Orange: indicates that a major alarm is generated. Yellow: indicates that a minor alarm is generated. Light blue: indicates that a warning is generated.

Step 2 Double-click the NE. Then, the NE Panel is displayed. The NE should be in Running Status.
NOTE

If the NE is in another state, query the current alarms based on A Alarm Reference.

Step 3 Click the

icon. Then, the legend description is displayed.

Step 4 Check the running status of the boards by referring to the legend description. If a board is running normally, the board icon should be green. ----End

Postrequisite
If the NE status indicates that alarms exist on the NE, check the current alarms to locate the faults on the NE.

3.2.2 Browsing the Current Alarms


A current alarm is an alarm that is not cleared. Periodically browsing the current alarms helps in detecting and rectifying faults in time.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Current Alarm from the Main Menu.
TIP

In the toolbar, click the

icon to browse the current alarms.

Then, the Filter dialog box is displayed. Step 2 Set the alarm filter conditions according to the requirements. Click OK. Then, the filtered alarms are displayed in the Current Alarms window. Step 3 Select Display latest alarms. Step 4 Browse the displayed alarms.
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Step 5 Select the newly generated alarms, record the details about the alarms, and click Acknowledge. Step 6 Notify the fault handling personnel of the alarms in time. ----End

Related Information
You can browse the network-wide alarms based on alarm severity, by clicking the alarm indicators in the upper right corner.
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You can click You can click You can click You can click
NOTE

(red) to browse the network-wide current critical alarms. (orange) to browse the network-wide current major alarms. (yellow) to browse the network-wide current minor alarms. (light blue) to browse the network-wide current warnings.

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By default, the number in the icon of each indicator indicates the number of network-wide current alarms of the specific severity that are not cleared. If a square frame is displayed around an alarm indicator, it indicates that there are unacknowledged alarms.

3.2.3 Browsing the History Alarms


A history alarm is an alarm that is cleared. Periodically browsing and storing the history alarm information helps in locating and rectifying faults.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse History Alarm from the Main Menu. Then, the Filter dialog box is displayed. Step 2 Set the alarm filter conditions according to the requirements. 1. Click the Basic Setting tab. Specify the parameters, including Generated Time and Cleared Time.
NOTE

The start time should be the time when the last history alarm browsing operation was performed, and the end time should be the current time.

2.

Click OK.

Then, the filtered alarms are displayed in the History Alarms window.
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Step 3 Browse the displayed history alarms. ----End

3.2.4 Browsing the Abnormal Events


This topic describes how to browse the abnormal events. An abnormal event is an abnormality that arises in the system at a particular time and not an abnormality that persists for a long time. Periodically browsing the abnormal events helps in detecting equipment faults in time.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Event from the Main Menu. Then, the Filter dialog box is displayed. Step 2 Set the event filter conditions according to the requirements. Click OK. Then, the filtered abnormal events are displayed in the Events window. Step 3 Select Display latest events. Step 4 Browse the abnormal events. For details on how to handle an abnormal event, see B.2 Abnormal Performance Events and Handling Procedures. ----End

Related Information
Compared with an alarm, an abnormal event has only the occurrence time and has no clearance time.

3.2.5 Browsing Current Performance Events


Periodically browsing the performance events helps you to check the long-term running status of the equipment. Hence, the latent hazards can be detected and cleared in time. The count of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time.

Prerequisite
l

The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.
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Tools, Equipment, Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu, and then select Current Performance Data. Step 2 Select one or multiple NEs from the left pane, and click Step 3 Select All in Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 4 Select 15-Minute in the Monitor Period field. Step 5 Select Gauge, select Select All in the displayed tab page, and select Display Current Value and Display Maximum and Minimum Values in the right pane. Step 6 Click Query to browse the current performance events. Compared with the history records, the gauge indicators, such as board temperature, do not change drastically. Step 7 Select Count, select Select All in the displayed tab page, and select Display Continuous Severely Errored Seconds in the right pane. Step 8 Click Query to browse the current performance events. In normal cases, no bit error performance events are displayed, and the number of pointer justification events is less than six per day on each port. Step 9 Redefine the time span by setting Monitor Period to 24-Hour. Step 10 Repeat Step 5 to Step 8 to query the performance events in a period of 24 hours. ----End .

3.2.6 Browsing the History Performance Events


Periodically browsing and storing the history performance events helps in locating faults.

Prerequisite
l

The performance monitoring function must be enabled. If the performance monitoring function is not enabled, see 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs and enable the function. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu. Click the History Performance Data tab.
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Step 2 Select one or multiple NEs from the left pane, and click Step 3 Select All in Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 4 Set Monitor Period to 15-Minute.

Step 5 Specify the start time and end time of a specific time span. The time span ranges from the time when the last history performance event browsing operation was performed to the current time. Step 6 Specify Data Source.
NOTE

If this is the first browsing operation, you should select Query from NE and Save to Database. Otherwise, you should select Query from NMS. As a result, the history performance databases on the NMS and NE are synchronized.

Step 7 Select Gauge, select Select All in the displayed tab page, and select Display Current Value and Display Maximum and Minimum Values in the right pane. Step 8 Click Query to browse the history performance events. Step 9 Set Monitor Period to 24-Hour. Step 10 Repeat Step 5 to Step 8 to query the history performance events that occur during the period of 24 hours. ----End

Related Information
Currently, U2000 can query six 24-hour history performance events and sixteen 15-minute history performance events from the NE side and query the history performance data of months from the NMS side.

3.2.7 Browsing the History Transmit Power and Receive Power


By periodically browsing the history transmit power and receive power, you can know the change trend of the history transmit power and receive power, which provides references for troubleshooting the radio link.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the ODU whose history transmit power and receive power need to be queried from the Object Tree and choose Configuration > Performance Graph Analyse from the Function Tree. Step 2 Specify the start time and the end time of a specific time span.
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The time span ranges from the last routine maintenance time to the current time. Step 3 Set Monitoring Period to 15M. Step 4 Click Draw. Then, the history transmit and receive power curve of the ODU in the specified time span is displayed. Step 5 Analyze the power curve. If the receive power fading of two adjacent points exceeds 20 dB and the weather does not change, contact the troubleshooting engineers. ----End

3.2.8 Testing the IF 1+1 Switching


Periodically testing the IF 1+1 switching helps in checking whether switchings can be performed on the equipment normally.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
l

In this task, the IF 1+1 switching is performed manually. That is, the IF 1+1 switching is an HSB switching (switching of the equipment). During the 1+1 protection switching (< 200 ms), the protected services are interrupted. Hence, you are recommended to perform the IF 1+1 protection switching when the traffic is light. Before you perform the switching, ensure that the standby equipment is normal. If the switching fails, contact Huawei engineers for troubleshooting.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and choose Configuration > IF 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree. Step 2 In Protection Group, select the IF 1+1 protection group that is to be switched over. Step 3 In Slot Mapping Relation, right-click the main IF board and choose Manual to Protection from the shortcut menu. Step 4 Click OK to start the protection switching. Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 6 Click Query Switch Status to check the protection switching status. After the switching is completed, the Switching Status of Device of the main IF board should be Manual Switching. At this time, in Protection Group, the main IF board on the equipment side is the standby board. Step 7 After the equipment runs normally for a period, query the current alarms and performance events. There should be no new alarms or performance events.
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Step 8 Repeat Step 1 to Step 2. Step 9 In Slot Mapping Relation, right-click the IF board and choose Clear from the shortcut menu. Step 10 Click OK to switch the services back to the main IF board. Step 11 Close the dialog box that is displayed. Step 12 Click Query Switch Status to check the protection switching status. Then, in Protection Group, Switching Status of Device of the main IF board should be Normal. Step 13 After the equipment runs normally for a period, query the current alarms and performance events. There should be no new alarms or performance events. ----End

3.2.9 Testing the IF N+1 Switching


Periodically testing the IF N+1 switching helps in checking whether switchings can be performed on the equipment normally.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
l

This task is performed as an exercise switching to check whether the NE can implement the IF N+1 switching. Hence, the service signals are actually not switched. Before you perform the switching, ensure that the standby equipment is working properly. If the switching fails, contact Huawei engineers for troubleshooting.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE and choose Configuration > N+1 Protection from the Function Tree. Step 2 In Slot Mapping Relation, right-click a working unit and choose Exercise from the shortcut menu. The system displays a prompt message, indicating that the switching command is issued successfully. Step 3 Click Query Switch Status to check the protection switching status. The status of the working unit should be Exercise. Step 4 Repeat Step 1. Step 5 In Slot Mapping Relation, right-click the protection unit or a working unit and choose Clear from the shortcut menu.
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The system displays a prompt message, indicating that the switching command is issued successfully. Step 6 Click Query Switch Status to check the protection switching status. The status of the working unit should be Normal. ----End

3.2.10 Checking the Telecommunications Room


Periodically checking the telecommunications room not only ensures that the equipment can operate normally in appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, but also reduces the fault rate and increases the service life of the equipment.

Prerequisite
None.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Procedure
Step 1 Record the reading of the thermometer in the telecommunications room. The normal temperature should be between -5C and +55C. Step 2 Record the reading of the humidity meter in the telecommunications room. The normal humidity should be between 5% and 95%. Step 3 Check whether the telecommunications room meets the disaster protection requirements. Ensure the following points:
l

There are portable foam fire extinguishers in the telecommunications room. The fire extinguishers should be in their service life. There is no rain leakage or water penetration in the telecommunications room. There are no mice or insects in the telecommunications room.

l l

Step 4 Clean the telecommunications room. Ensure that there is no dust on the cabinets, on the equipment shelves, in the equipment, on the desks, or on the floor. The equipment should be tidy. ----End

3.2.11 Checking the ODU


Periodically checking the ODU helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the ODU in time.

Prerequisite
None.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Procedure
Step 1 Ensure that the ODU is located within the protected area of the lightning arrester. In plain areas, the lightning arrester protects the areas within an angle of 45 under it. In mountainous areas and the areas where lightning frequently occurs, the lightning arrester protects the area within an angle of 30 under it. Step 2 Ensure that the ODU is properly fixed on the antenna. Step 3 Ensure that the ODU is not damaged. Step 4 Ensure that the interface between the ODU and the hybrid coupler/antenna is waterproof. Step 5 Ensure that the protection grounding cable of the ODU is firmly and reliably grounded. ----End

3.2.12 Checking the Hybrid Coupler


Periodically checking the hybrid coupler helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the hybrid coupler in time.

Prerequisite
None.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Procedure
Step 1 Ensure that the hybrid coupler is located within the protected area of the lightning arrester. In plain areas, the lightning arrester protects the areas within an angle of 45 under it. In mountainous areas and the areas where lightning frequently occurs, the lightning arrester protects the area within an angle of 30 under it. Step 2 Ensure that the hybrid coupler is properly fixed on the antenna. Step 3 Ensure that the hybrid coupler is not damaged. Step 4 Ensure that the interface between the hybrid coupler and the antenna is waterproof. Step 5 Ensure that the interface between the hybrid coupler and the ODU is waterproof. ----End

3.2.13 Checking the Antenna


Periodically checking the antenna helps in detecting the faults and hidden troubles of the antenna in time.
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Prerequisite
None.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Procedure
Step 1 Ensure that the antenna is located within the protected area of the lightning arrester. In plain areas, the lightning arrester protects the areas within an angle of 45 under it. In mountainous areas and the areas where lightning frequently occurs, the lightning arrester protects the area within an angle of 30 under it. Step 2 Ensure that the antenna is reliably fixed on the pole. Step 3 Ensure that the antenna radome is not damaged. Step 4 Ensure that there is no accumulated water in the antenna. Step 5 Ensure that the fastening bolts are fastened. Ensure that the azimuth angle and the elevation angle of the antenna meet the design requirements Step 6 In the case of separate mounting, ensure that the installation parts are installed firmly and that the connectors are fastened. Step 7 Check and ensure that the interface of the feed boom is sealed and waterproofed properly. ----End

3.2.14 Checking the IF Cable


Checking the IF cable periodically helps you detect the faults in and hidden troubles of the IF cable in a timely manner.

Prerequisite
None.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the IF cable.
l l l l

The IF cable must not be bent or twisted. There must be no bare copper wire. The bending radius of the IF cable must be larger than 30 cm. The IF cables are bound in accordance with IF Cable Routing and Binding Specifications specified in the Installation Reference. The feeder clip or binding strap is not loose.

Step 2 Check the connectors of the IF cable.


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3 Routine Maintenance

The connectors of the IF cable must be securely connected to the ODU. The connectors of the IF cable must be waterproof.

Step 3 Check the grounding of the IF cable.


l l

The grounding clip must be waterproof. The grounding cable must be routed from top downwards. The angle between the grounding cable and the IF cable must not be more than 15 degrees.

----End

3.2.15 Checking the LOS Condition


Periodically checking the LOS condition of the transmission link helps to detect hidden LOS obstacles on the transmission link.

Prerequisite
None.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Telescope.

Procedure
Step 1 Use the telescope to search for the antenna at the opposite end from a location nearby the local antenna. No buildings or mountains exist on the transmission link, which may block the LOS. Step 2 Check whether the spanning tree in the transmission path blocks the LOS. Step 3 Check whether any new buildings exist in the transmission path. ----End

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4 Emergency Maintenance

4
About This Chapter

Emergency Maintenance

Emergency maintenance operations are performed in the case of emergencies or natural factors that may result in emergencies during the operation of the equipment. 4.1 Definition of Emergency In the case of the microwave equipment, an emergency refers to the interruption of microwave services. 4.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance Emergency maintenance operations are performed to restore the services quickly. This is different from troubleshooting, whose purposes are to locate and rectify the faults. 4.3 Procedure of Emergency Maintenance The procedure of emergency maintenance consists of a main procedure and a sub-procedure for field troubleshooting.

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4.1 Definition of Emergency


In the case of the microwave equipment, an emergency refers to the interruption of microwave services.

4.2 Purposes of Emergency Maintenance


Emergency maintenance operations are performed to restore the services quickly. This is different from troubleshooting, whose purposes are to locate and rectify the faults.

4.3 Procedure of Emergency Maintenance


The procedure of emergency maintenance consists of a main procedure and a sub-procedure for field troubleshooting.
NOTE

In the case of emergency events, the customers in China can contact the 24-hour technical support center of Huawei at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

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Main Procedure of Emergency Maintenance


Figure 4-1 Main procedure of emergency maintenance
Start

Is there an incorrect operation? No


Is there any backup transmission resource?

Yes Cancel the operation

Yes

Switch the service to the backup resource

No Yes Is the power down? No Yes 2 Troubleshoot the switching failure Contact the power supply engineer

Is the service configured with protection? No

Is there any alarm on the NE? No

Yes

3 Clear the alarm

4 Is the Ethernet service interrupted? No Yes Troubleshoot the Ethernet service fault

Is the interconnection faulty? No Locate the fault by performing loopback operations section by section

Yes

Troubleshoot the interconnection fault

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the service restored? Yes

Is the service restored? Yes 5 Check the troubleshooting result

No

Contact Huawei engineers

End

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Table 4-1 Description of the main procedure of emergency maintenance Comment No. 1 Description The common incorrect operations are as follows:
l l l l l l

Modifying the data configuration Performing loopback operations Shutting down the laser Muting the ODU Changing boards/cables Loading the software

2 3

Faults owing to external factors, including the power supply, optical fibers, environment, and terminal equipment (such as switch devices) The procedure is as follows: 1. Check the NE status. 2. If the NE is unreachable to the NMS, perform the field troubleshooting according to Figure 4-2. If alarms are reported on the NE, browse the current alarms.

Generally, the following alarms can be cleared on the NMS: APS_MANUAL_STOP, APS_FAIL, BD_NOT_INSTALLED, DBMS_ERROR, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, J0_MM, LOOP_ALM, LPS_UNI_BI_M, LP_SIZE_ERR, LP_SLM, LP_TIM, LP_UNEQ, NESOFT_MM, NESF_LOST, RADIO_MUTE, WRG_BD_TYPE, and WRG_DEV_TYPE. After the fault is rectified, proceed as follows: 1. Check the alarms, and ensure that the system is running normally. 2. Assign personnel to monitor the operation of the system during the peak service hour, ensuring that subsequent faults can be handled in time. 3. Fill in the field maintenance operation sheet, record the fault symptoms and troubleshooting results, and then send them to Huawei. Table 4-2 shows the field maintenance operation sheet.

Table 4-2 Field maintenance operation sheet Maintained on Actual Step Step in the Entire Procedure Maintained by Troubleshooting Result Remarks

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Field Troubleshooting Sub-Procedure


Figure 4-2 Field troubleshooting sub-procedure
Start

Obvious equipment Yes damage? No

Repair or replace the equipment

Is the PWR indicator on the PIU on?


2 Yes Browse alarms locally by using the LCT 3 Equipment alarm? No 4 Radio link alarm? No 5 Yes Yes

No

Troubleshoot the power input

Clear the alarm

Clear the alarm

High order path alarm?


No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Low order path alarm?


No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Faulty interconnection with SDH/ PDH equipment?


No

Yes

7 Clear the alarm

Ethernet service fault?


No

Yes

8 Clear the alarm

Locate the fault by performing loopback operations section by section

Proceed to the next step

No

Is the service restored?

Yes End

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Table 4-3 Description of the field troubleshooting sub-procedure Comment No. 1 Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether the air circuit breaker for the input power is off. If the air circuit breaker is automatically turned off, locate the cause (such as short circuits or insufficient fuse capacity), and rectify the fault accordingly. 2. Check the power cables, especially the connectors of the power cables. If the power cables or connectors of the power cables are incorrect, replace the power cables or remake the connectors of the power cables. 3. Check the voltage and polarization of the input power. If the voltage or polarization of the input power does not meet the requirements, contact the power engineers for troubleshooting.
NOTE The fuse capacity can be no less than 20A. The standard voltage of the input power is -48 V and the permitted voltage ranges from -38.4 V to -57.6 V.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Connecting the Web LCT to the IDU. 2. Creating NEs by Using the Search Method. 3. Logging In to an NE. 4. Checking Alarms.
NOTE If you fail to log in to the created NE, ensure that the operations you performed are correct, and then locate and rectify the fault according to the indicators of the System control Switch&Clock board. For details about the indicators, see the OptiX RTN 950 Hardware Description.

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l l l l l l l l

HARD_BAD POWER_ALM FAN_FAIL BD_STATUS NESF_LOST TEMP_ALARM RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW IF_INPWR_ABN IF_CABLE_OPEN VOLT_LOS

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Comment No. 4

Description Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l l l l l l

MW_LIM MW_LOF R_LOS R_LOF R_LOC MS_AIS AU_AIS AU_LOP B1_EXC B2_EXC MW_BER_EXC

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l

HP_LOM B3_EXC HP_UNEQ

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l

TU_AIS TU_LOP BIP_EXC LP_UNEQ T_ALOS E1_LOC

7 8

See 5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment or 5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment. See 5.8 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults.

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5 Troubleshooting

5
About This Chapter

Troubleshooting

This guide describes the general troubleshooting procedure and the methods of rectifying the common faults. 5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices. 5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions The service interruption fault indicates the service transmission failure due to an equipment fault or a link fault. 5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link When an NE reports MW_LOF or MW_FEC_UNCOR due to failure or performance deterioration of a radio link, there is a radio link fault. 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services When an NE reports an alarm or a performance event on the IF board, regenerator section (RS), multiplex section (MS), higher order path (HP), or lower order path (LP), there are bit errors in services. 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications When an NE reports a large number of justification events about the administrative unit (AU) pointer or the tributary unit (TU) pointer, there are pointer justification faults. 5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting SDH services with other SDH equipment. 5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting PDH services with other PDH equipment. 5.8 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service deterioration.
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5.9 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults If orderwire calls cannot get through when services are normal, there is an orderwire fault.

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5.1 General Troubleshooting Procedure


When handling a fault, make a detailed record of the fault phenomena. The customers in China can contact our 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

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General Troubleshooting Procedure


Figure 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure

Start
1

Record the fault phenomena

Caused by external factors? No

Yes

Other troubleshooting procedures

Analyze fault causes and locate the fault

Is the fault rectified?


4

Yes

No Report to Huawei

Make a solution together

Attempt to rectify the fault

No

Is the service restored? Yes Observe the operation

No

Is the fault rectified? Yes Fill in the troubleshooting report

End

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Table 5-1 General troubleshooting procedure Comment No. 1 Description When recording the fault phenomena, make a true and detailed record of the entire process of the fault. Record the exact time when the fault occurs and the operations performed before and after the fault occurs. Save the alarms, performance events, and other important information. Faults owing to external factors, including the power supply, cables, environment, and terminal equipment (such as switch devices) If the fault is caused by the equipment, see 5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions. The customers in China can contact the 24-hour technical support center at 400-830-2118, and the customers in areas outside China can contact the local Huawei offices.

2 3 4

5.2 Troubleshooting Service Interruptions


The service interruption fault indicates the service transmission failure due to an equipment fault or a link fault.

Fault Causes
l

The operation is improper. The configuration data changes, the loopback is performed, the cable is replaced, or the board is replaced.

l l

The transmission NE or link is faulty. The interconnection is improper. If the transmission equipment functions normally and the connection is normal, check whether the interconnection between the transmission equipment is proper and whether the switch equipment is faulty.

Fault Locating Methods


1. 2. Check the operations before the service interruption to determine whether the service interruption results from an incorrect operation. Query alarms on the centralized NMS or the NMS that is used on the site, and then locate the fault based on the alarm analysis. If multiple NEs report alarms, analyze the alarms in the following order: equipment alarm, line alarm, higher order path alarm, and lower order path alarm. 3. If the fault cannot be located through the alarm analysis method, locate the fault by performing loopback section by section or replacing the corresponding parts.
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CAUTION
If the fault cannot be rectified immediately, restore the services quickly by adjusting the service route or performing a forced switching.

Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-2 General procedure for troubleshooting the service interruption
Start

Incorrect operation?

Yes

Cancel the operation

No

Service interrupted by external causes? No


Query NE status and alarms by using the centralized NMS

Yes

Contact related departments to solve the problem

NE access successful and alarms cleared? No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Rectify the fault on site

Proceed with the next step

No Service restored?

Yes

End

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Table 5-2 Description of the general procedure for troubleshooting the service interruption Comment No. 1 Description The common incorrect operations are as follows:
l l l l l l

Modifying the data configuration Loopback Shutting down the laser Muting the ODU Changing the board or cable Loading the software

2 3 4

Faults owing to external factors, including the power supply, cables, environment, and terminal equipment (such as switch devices) For details, see 8.3.1 Checking the NE Status and 8.3.3 Browsing Current Alarms. Generally, the following alarms can be cleared on the NMS: APS_MANUAL_STOP, APS_FAIL, BD_NOT_INSTALLED, DBMS_ERROR, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, J0_MM, LOOP_ALM, LPS_UNI_BI_M, LP_SIZE_ERR, LP_SLM, LP_TIM, LP_UNEQ, NESOFT_MM, NESF_LOST, NESTATE_INSTALL, RADIO_MUTE, WRG_BD_TYPE, and WRG_DEV_TYPE.

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Figure 5-3 Field troubleshooting sub-procedure


Start

Obvious equipment Yes damage? No

Repair or replace the equipment

Is the PWR indicator on the PIU on?


2 Yes Browse alarms locally by using the LCT 3 Equipment alarm? No 4 Radio link alarm? No 5 Yes Yes

No

Troubleshoot the power input

Clear the alarm

Clear the alarm

High order path alarm?


No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Low order path alarm?


No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Faulty interconnection with SDH/ PDH equipment?


No

Yes

7 Clear the alarm

Ethernet service fault?


No

Yes

8 Clear the alarm

Locate the fault by performing loopback operations section by section

Proceed to the next step

No

Is the service restored?

Yes End

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Table 5-3 Description of the field troubleshooting sub-procedure Comment No. 1 Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether the air circuit breaker for the input power is off. If the air circuit breaker is automatically turned off, locate the cause (such as short circuits or insufficient fuse capacity), and rectify the fault accordingly. 2. Check the power cables, especially the connectors of the power cables. If the power cables or connectors of the power cables are incorrect, replace the power cables or remake the connectors of the power cables. 3. Check the voltage and polarization of the input power. If the voltage or polarization of the input power does not meet the requirements, contact the power engineers for troubleshooting.
NOTE The fuse capacity can be no less than 20A. The standard voltage of the input power is -48 V and the permitted voltage ranges from -38.4 V to -57.6 V.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Connecting the Web LCT to the IDU. 2. Creating NEs by Using the Search Method. 3. Logging In to an NE. 4. Checking Alarms.
NOTE If you fail to log in to the created NE, ensure that the operations you performed are correct, and then locate and rectify the fault according to the indicators of the System control Switch&Clock board. For details about the indicators, see the OptiX RTN 950 Hardware Description.

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l l l l l l l l

HARD_BAD POWER_ALM FAN_FAIL BD_STATUS NESF_LOST TEMP_ALARM RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW IF_INPWR_ABN IF_CABLE_OPEN VOLT_LOS

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Comment No. 4

Description Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l l l l l l

MW_LIM MW_LOF R_LOS R_LOF R_LOC MS_AIS AU_AIS AU_LOP B1_EXC B2_EXC MW_BER_EXC

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l

HP_LOM B3_EXC HP_UNEQ

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l l l

TU_AIS TU_LOP BIP_EXC LP_UNEQ T_ALOS E1_LOC

7 8

See 5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment or 5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment. See 5.8 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults.

Experience and Summary


The maintenance personnel need to perform the routine maintenance operations periodically, to detect and rectify faults before the faults affect the services and thus to reduce the equipment fault rate.

5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link


When an NE reports MW_LOF or MW_FEC_UNCOR due to failure or performance deterioration of a radio link, there is a radio link fault.
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Context
The key to locating a radio link fault is to check whether the transmit power and the receive power are normal and whether there is an external interference. In the following two cases, the transmit power is abnormal. The first case is that the transmit power exceeds the range that the ODU supports. The second case is that the difference between the actual transmit power and the preset value is more than 2 dB when the ATPC is disabled. The relevant alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l l l

RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW TSL_CUR TSL_MAX TSL_MIN TSL_AVG


NOTE

For the range of the transmit power, see the OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Product Description.

In the following two cases, the receive power is abnormal. In the first case, the receive power is lower than the normal value (Normal value = Planned value - 3 dB). In the second case, the receive power is lower than the receiver sensitivity or higher than the free space receive power due to fading. The relevant alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l l l

RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW RSL_CUR RSL_MAX RSL_MIN RSL_AVG


NOTE

In the case of the radio link whose AM function is enabled, the receiver sensitivity is the specific receiver sensitivity at the guaranteed capacity. For details on the receiver sensitivity, see the OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Product Description.

Generally, external interference is classified into co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference.
l

Co-channel interference refers to crosstalk from two different radio transmitters that use the same frequency channel. Hence, the entire spectrum may be affected. Adjacent channel interference refers to signal impairment to one frequency, due to presence of another signal on a nearby frequency. Hence, a part of the spectrum is affected.

Interference is closely related to the frequency. Hence, the radio link may be faulty in one direction if interference exists on the radio link.

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Fault Causes
Table 5-4 Causes of radio link faults Fault The transmit power is abnormal. The receive power is always lower than the normal value. Common Fault Cause The ODU is faulty.
l

The antenna direction is not adjusted properly. The antennas have different polarization directions. There is a mountain or building in the transmit direction. The antenna is faulty or the connection between the antenna and the ODU is abnormal (for example, the waveguide interface of the ODU is wet or the flexible waveguide is not connected properly). The ODU is faulty.

The receive power is abnormal due to slow up fading. The receive power is abnormal due to slow down fading. The receive power is abnormal due to fast fading. The receive power is normal, but faults occur on the radio link intermittently.

There is external interference. The fading margin is insufficient. The multipath fading is fast. There is external interference.

NOTE

Based on the RSL, fading is classified into up fading and down fading.
l

Up fading The RSL is higher than the RSL in the free space. The difference can be 10-odd decibels. Down fading The RSL is lower than the RSL after free space fading. The difference can be tens of decibels.

Based on the fading time, fading is classified into fast fading and slow fading.
l

Fast fading The fading lasts from several milliseconds to tens of seconds. Slow fading The fading lasts from tens of seconds to several hours.

Generally, slow down fading and fast fading are caused by factors related to the transmission link. Hence, the radio link may be faulty in both directions in the case of slow down fading or fast fading.

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Fault Locating Methods


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check whether the ODU is muted, powered off, or looped back. Check whether the data configuration is correct. Check whether the ODU and the IF board are faulty. If the transmit power is abnormal, replace the ODU. If the receive power is abnormal, analyze and locate the causes according to the fading type. If the receive power is normal but faults occur on the radio link intermittently, check whether there is interference before you proceed. If the transmit power and receive power are normal, perform loopback operations.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-4 Procedure for troubleshooting the radio link
Start

Incorrect operation? No

Yes

Cancel the operation

ODU or IF related alarm? No

Yes Clear the alarm

No Transmit power normal? Yes

3 Rectify the fault

RSL always lower than the normal value?


No Slow up fading causes abnormal RSL? No

Yes

4 Rectify the fault

Yes

5 Rectify the fault

Slow down fading causes abnormal RSL?


No

Yes

6 Rectify the fault

Fast fading causes abnormal RSL?


No

Yes

7 Rectify the fault

Radio link faulty in one direction?


No 9 Perform loopback operations

Yes

8 Rectify the fault

Proceed to the next step

No

Is the fault rectified? Yes End

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Table 5-5 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the radio link Comment No. 1 Rectify incorrect operations. Description Check the following points:
l l l l

Check whether the ODU is powered off. Check whether the ODU is muted. Check whether the IF board is looped back. Check whether the data configuration at the transmit end is the same as the data configuration at the receive end. Check whether the data configuration matches the types of the ODU and the hybrid coupler.

Pay special attention to the following alarms: 2 Rectify equipment faults. l VOLT_LOS
l l l l l l l l l l

CONFIG_NOSUPPORT HARD_BAD TEMP_ALARM IF_INPWR_ABN RADIO_MUTE RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW IF_CABLE_OPEN

3 Troubleshoot the anomaly of the transmit power.

Replace the ODU.

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Comment No. 4 Troubleshoot the anomaly that the receive power is lower than the normal value.

Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. If the receive power decreases sharply and does not recover, check the installation of the antenna. Ensure that the azimuth angle of the antenna meets the requirement. Check whether the antenna is aligned properly. Check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction is not aligned properly, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 2. If the difference between the receive power of the main ODU and standby ODU at one end of the 1+1 HSB radio link is beyond the range from 0 dB to 9 dB (in the case of an unbalanced hybrid coupler) or beyond the range from 0 dB to 5 dB (in the case of a balanced hybrid coupler), perform 1+1 HSB switching or replace the ODUs and hybrid coupler to narrow down the fault to a specific part. 3. If the difference between the RSL at the receive end and transmit end is larger than 10 dB, replace the ODUs to check whether the main or standby ODU is faulty. 4. Check whether the setting of the polarization direction of the antenna is correct. Rectify the wrong polarization direction. 5. Replace the ODUs and hybrid coupler to narrow down the fault to a specific part. 6. Check whether there is a mountain or building in the transmit direction. 7. Check whether the gains of the antennas at the receive and transmit ends comply with the specifications. Replace the antenna whose gain does not comply with the specifications.

5 Troubleshoot slow up fading.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether there is co-channel interference. 1. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. 2. Check the RSL at the local end. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel interference that may affect the long-term availability and performance of the system. 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. 3. Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to reduce the interference.

6 Troubleshoot slow down fading.

Contact the network planning department to make the following changes:


l l l l

Increase the installation height of the antenna. Reduce the transmission distance. Increase the antenna gain. Increase the transmit power.

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Comment No. 7 Troubleshoot fast fading.

Description Contact the network planning department to make the following changes:
l

Adjust the position of the antenna to block the reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, thus reducing the multipath fading. Adjust the RF configuration to change the radio link to the 1+1 SD mode. In the case of a 1+1 SD radio link, adjust the height difference between two antennas to ensure that the receive power of one antenna is higher than the receive power of the other antenna. Increase the fading margin, by replacing the original antennas with antennas of a larger diameter or increasing the transmit power of the original antennas.

8 Troubleshoot interference.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether there is co-channel interference. 1. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. 2. Check the RSL at the local end. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel interference that may affect the long-term availability and performance of the system. 2. Check whether there is adjacent channel interference. 1. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. 2. Adjust the microwave working mode at the local end and use the minimum channel spacing. 3. Decrease the receive frequency at the local end by a half of the channel spacing. 4. Test and record the RSL. 5. Increase the receive frequency at the local end, with a step of 0.5 MHz or 1 MHz. Record the RSL accordingly until the receive frequency is equal to the original receive frequency plus a half of the channel spacing. 6. Compare the recorded RSL values, and check whether the RSL in a certain spectrum is abnormal if the received frequency is within the permitted range. 3. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. 4. Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to reduce the interference.

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Comment No. 9 Perform loopback operations to locate the fault.

Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Perform an inloop at the IF port. If the fault persists after the inloop is performed, replace the IF board. 2. Check whether the cable connector is made in accordance with specifications. If any cable connectors do not comply with the specifications, see the Installation Reference and remake cable connectors. 3. Check whether the IF cable is soggy, broken, or pressed. If yes, replace the IF cable. 4. Replace the ODU. If the fault is rectified after the ODU is replaced, it indicates that the ODU is faulty.

Experience and Summary


l

During the commissioning, ensure that the antenna is aligned properly, to prevent possible incipient faults. Periodically collect and analyze the data about the changes in the transmit power and receive power so that you can detect and then rectify the incipient faults accordingly in time.

5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services


When an NE reports an alarm or a performance event on the IF board, regenerator section (RS), multiplex section (MS), higher order path (HP), or lower order path (LP), there are bit errors in services.

Fault Phenomena
The IF bit errors refer to the bit errors that the Hybrid IF board detects through the self-defined overhead byte in the microwave frame. The related alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l l l l

MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD IFBBE IFES IFSES IFCSES IFUAS

The RS bit errors refer to the bit errors that the line processing unit or the IF board that works in SDH mode through the B1 overhead byte in the RS overhead. The related alarms and performance events are as follows:
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B1_EXC B1_SD RS_CROSSTR RSBBE RSES RSSES RSCSES RSUAS


NOTE

The IF board that works in PDH mode may also detect the previous RS bit error alarms and performance events. In this case, the IF board detects bit error alarms and performance events in the PDH microwave frame through the self-defined B1 byte.

The MS bit errors refer to the bit errors that the line board detects through the B2 byte in the MS overhead. The related alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l l l l l

B2_EXC B2_SD MS_CROSSTR MSBBE MSES MSSES MSCSES MSUAS

The HP bit errors refer to the bit errors that the line processing unit or the IF board that works in SDH mode through the B3 byte in the HP overhead. The related alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l l l l l

B3_EXC B3_SD HP_CROSSTR HPBBE HPES HPSES HPCSES HPUAS

The LP bit errors refer to the bit errors that the tributary board or Hybrid IF board detects through the V5 byte in the VC-12 overhead. The related alarms and performance events are as follows:
l l l l

BIP_EXC BIP_SD LP_CROSSTR LPBBE


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LPES LPSES LPCSES LPUAS

Fault Causes
Table 5-6 Causes of bit errors Fault There are IF bit errors. Common Fault Cause
l

The radio link is faulty. Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, the radio link is faulty. The IF board at the local end or opposite end is faulty. The line is faulty.

There are RS bit errors.

The common causes for bit errors on the optical line are as follows: the optical fiber line, the optical power is abnormal, the fiber performance deteriorates, or the fiber connector is not clean. In the case of bit errors on the radio link, check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, the radio link is faulty.

The line processing unit or IF board is faulty. The clock unit is faulty. The quality of the clock over the network declines. When the quality of the clock over the network declines, a pointer justification event occurs.

l l

There are not any RS bit errors but there are MS bit errors or HP bit errors.

The line processing unit or IF board is faulty. The quality of the clock over the network declines. When the quality of the clock over the network declines, a pointer justification event occurs.

The working temperature of the line processing unit or IF board is excessively high.
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Fault There are only LP bit errors.

Common Fault Cause


l l l

The tributary board is faulty. The cross-connect unit is faulty. The working temperature of the board is excessively high. The working temperature of the crossconnect unit is excessively high. There is a power surge or an external interference source, or the equipment is not properly grounded. (This cause does not need to be considered during the troubleshooting of a Hybrid IF board.)

Fault Locating Methods


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Analyze the equipment alarms and performance events that are related to bit errors. When there are many types of alarms and performance events on a service path, first analyze RS bit errors, then MS bit errors, HP bit errors, and finally LP bit errors. When multiple paths have bit errors, first check whether the overlapping part of the service paths is faulty. If you fail to locate the fault by analyzing the alarms and performance events, perform loopback operations section by section. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate with new ones.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-5 Procedure for troubleshooting bit errors
Start

2
Is there an equipment alarm? No Yes Clear the alarm

3
Is there a pointer justification event? No Yes Troubleshoot the pointer justification SDH optical interface board

Troubleshoot RS bit errors on the SDH optical interface board

Is there an RS bit error alarm or a performance event?

Yes

If the alarming board is IF board

No

4
Troubleshoot RS bit errors on the IF board

Is there an MS/ HP alarm or performance event? No

5
Yes Troubleshoot MS/HP bit errors

6
Is there an LP alarm? No Locate the fault by performing loopback operations section by section Yes Troubleshoot LP bit errors

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified? Yes End

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Table 5-7 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting bit errors Comment No. 1 Description Pay special attention to the following alarms:
l l

TEMP_ALARM HARD_BAD

2 3

See 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications. The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether the line board reports the B1_EXC, B1_SD, or RS_CROSSTR alarm. 2. Interchange the Tx fiber core and the Rx fiber core at both ends of the service path. If bit errors change after the exchange, it indicates that the fiber is faulty. Otherwise, the equipment at both ends of the service path is faulty. 3. In the case of a fiber fault, check whether the fiber between the equipment and the ODF and the section of the fiber that is led out of the telecommunications room are pressed. In addition, check whether the fiber connectors are clean. 4. In the case of faults at both ends of the service path, use a fiber jumper to loop back the optical ports. If the fault persists after the loopback, the line board may be faulty. 5. In the case of faults at both ends of the service path, you can also replace the board where the line unit is located or interchange between the board and another board of the same type that is working normally. If the alarm changes after the exchange, it indicates that the board is faulty.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Check whether the IF board reports the MW_FEC_UNCOR, RPS_INDI, B1_EXC, B1_SD, or RS_CROSSTR alarm. 2. If the MW_FEC_UNCOR and RPS_INDI alarms are reported, see 5.3 Troubleshooting the Radio Link and rectify the fault. 3. If none of the alarms occurs, replace the IF board.

The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Perform a loopback on the line board that reports the alarm. If the fault persists after the loopback, replace the line board. If the fault is rectified after the loopback, replace the line board at the transmit end. 2. If you fail to rectify the fault by replacing the line board, check whether there is a power surge or an external interference source or whether the equipment is not properly grounded.

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Comment No. 6

Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Replace the board where the services are configured based on how the service paths that have bit errors overlap each other. 2. If you fail to rectify the fault by replacing the board, check whether there is a power surge or an external interference source or whether the equipment is not properly grounded.

Experience and Summary


l

During the routine maintenance, check bit error performance events periodically and handle them in time. To locate a fault, prefer the method of analyzing alarms and performance events to the method of performing loopback operations and the method of replacing the parts.

5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications


When an NE reports a large number of justification events about the administrative unit (AU) pointer or the tributary unit (TU) pointer, there are pointer justification faults.

Fault Phenomena
When the position of the first byte of the VC-4 in the AU-4 payload changes, the AU pointer makes a justification accordingly. The performance events related to the AU pointer justification are as follows:
l l l

AUPJCHIGH AUPJCLOW AUPJCNEW


NOTE

The AU pointer justification is made at an upstream NE but is detected and reported at a downstream NE.

When the service is configured to be at the VC-12 level, apply the reframing process to terminate the AU pointer justification. The terminating method is to transform the AU pointer justification into the TU pointer justification. The performance events related to the TU pointer justification are as follows:
l l l

TUPJCHIGH TUPJCLOW TUPJCNEW


NOTE

The TU pointer justification is made at the NE where the AU pointer is transformed into the TU pointer, but is detected and reported by the tributary board of the NE where services are terminated.

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Fault Causes
l

The clock sources or the clock source levels are configured incorrectly. As a result, there are two clock sources on the same network or a timing loop occurs. The fiber connections are incorrect. As a result, a timing loop occurs. The quality of the clock source declines, the clock unit is faulty, or there are other clockrelated faults. The tributary board is faulty (only for the TU pointer justification).

l l

Fault Locating Methods


When there are both AU pointer justifications and TU pointer justifications on a service path, first handle the AU pointer justifications and then the TU pointer justifications. Fault AU pointer justification Fault Locating Method 1. Analyze and clear clock alarms. 2. Rectify the incorrect data configuration and incorrect fiber connections. 3. Change the clock configuration to locate the station whose clock is asynchronous with the entire network. 4. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate with new ones. TU pointer justification 1. Analyze and clear clock alarms. 2. Rectify the incorrect data configuration and incorrect fiber connections. 3. Change the clock and service configuration to locate the station whose clock is asynchronous with the entire network. 4. Replace the parts whose performance may deteriorate with new ones.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-6 Procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications
Start

Is there a clock-related alarm? No Check the clock configuration

Yes

Clear the alarm

Incorrect configuration? No Check the fiber connection

Yes

Modify the data configuration

Incorrect fiber connection? No

Yes Reconnect the fibers

4
An AU pointer justification event? Yes Locate the NE whose clock is out of synchronization

5
Locate the faulty board

No

6
A TU pointer justification event? Yes Locate the NE whose clock is out of synchronization

7
Locate the faulty board

No

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified?

Yes End

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Table 5-8 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting pointer justifications Comment No. 1 Description Pay special attention to the following alarms:
l l l l l l

TEMP_ALARM HARD_BAD LTI SYNC_C_LOS S1_SYN_CHANGE EXT_SYNC_LOS

Check the following points:


l l

Check whether there are two clock reference sources on the entire network. Check whether a timing loop is generated.

Query ECC routes to check whether the fibers are connected correctly. Check the fiber connections in the east and west directions of the NE that reports the pointer justification event. The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Locate a VC-4 channel that reports an AU pointer justification event. 2. Along the service source direction of the VC-4 channel, locate the source NE of the entire VC-4 service (not the source NE of a timeslot in the VC-4). 3. Set the clock of the source NE to the free-run mode. Set the other NEs to trace the clock of the source NE along the direction of the VC-4 service. 4. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the line board that is the first to report the AU pointer justification of the VC-4 path. The clock of the remote NE to which the line board is connected is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the remote NE that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the clock signal to the remote NE, and the clock unit of the remote NE, may be faulty. 5. Set the clock of the sink NE to the free-run mode. Set the other NEs to trace the clock of the sink NE along the direction of the VC-4 service. 6. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the line board that is the first to report the AU pointer justification of the VC-4 path. The clock of the remote NE to which the line board is connected is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the NE that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the clock signal to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may be faulty. 7. Compare the results and find out the common points.

Replace the possibly faulty boards.

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Comment No. 6

Description The troubleshooting procedure is as follows: 1. Modify the service configuration to ensure that the NE where the clock reference source functions as the central NE and that the other NEs have the E1 services of the central NE. 2. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the NE that is the first to report the TU pointer justification event. The clock of the NE is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the NE that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the clock signal to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may be faulty. 3. Modify the configuration data to ensure that all the NEs trace the clock along the other direction. 4. Along the clock tracing direction, locate the NE that is the first to report the TU pointer justification event. The clock of the NE is asynchronous with the reference clock. Hence, the line board on the NE that receives the clock signal, the line board that sends the clock signal to the NE, and the clock unit of the NE, may be faulty. 5. Compare the results and find out the common points.
NOTE This method is also applicable to locating an AU pointer justification event.

Replace the possibly faulty boards. In the case of a TU pointer justification event, check whether the line board, the clock board, and the tributary board are faulty.

Experience and Summary


On a properly synchronized network, there are few pointer justifications (less than six per day on each port). Hence, monitoring the pointer of an SDH transmission system is an effective way to check the synchronization status of the system.

5.6 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with SDH Equipment


An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting SDH services with other SDH equipment.

Fault Causes
l

The VC-12 numbering method of the OptiX equipment is different from the numbering method of the equipment of certain vendors. The OptiX equipment applies the timeslot numbering method. The numbering formula is: VC-12 number = TUG-3 number + (TUG-2 number - 1) x 3 + (TU-12 number - 1) x 21. This method is also called as the method of numbering by order.

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Certain equipment applies the line numbering method. The numbering formula is: VC-12 number = (TUG-3 number - 1) x 21 + (TUG-2 number - 1) x 3 + TU-12 number. This method is also called as the interleaved method.
l l

The overhead bytes at both ends are inconsistent. The indexes of the SDH interfaces do not meet the requirements.
NOTE

In the case of interconnection with ATM or Ethernet equipment, the common cause for an interconnection failure is that the service is not set to the VC-4 pass-through service and thus the overheads are processed in the terminating mode instead of the pass-through mode.

Fault Locating Methods


Analyze the fault phenomena and alarms that are generated on the equipment. Check the possible fault causes one after another.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-7 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH equipment
Start

Interconnected with ATM/ IP equipment?

Yes

Set the interconnected service to be the VC-4 passthrough service

No Query the VC-12 numbering method of the interconnected equipment

Line numbering?

Yes

Modify the data configuration. and use the line numbering method to set the VC-12

No

An alarm related to the overhead settings? No

Yes

Clear the alarm

Test the indexes of interfaces

Do the interfaces meet relevant standards? No Handle the faults of the local equipment

Yes

Troubleshoot the faults on the interconnected equipment

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified?

Yes

End

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Table 5-9 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with SDH equipment Comment No. 1 Description Pay special attention to the following alarms:
l l l l l

J0_MM HP_TIM LP_TIM HP_SLM LP_SLM

Common indexes of the optical interfaces are as follows:


l l l l

Mean launched optical power Receiver sensitivity Overload optical power Permitted frequency deviation of the input interface

Experience and Summary


To rectify an interconnection fault, you must be familiar with the characteristics of the interfaces on the interconnected equipment.

5.7 Troubleshooting the Interconnection with PDH Equipment


An interconnection fault occurs when the NE fails in transmitting PDH services with other PDH equipment.

Fault Causes
l l l l

There is an impedance mismatch between interfaces. The equipment is not grounded properly. The cable performance deteriorates. The indexes of the PDH interfaces do not meet the requirements.

Fault Locating Methods


Analyze the fault phenomena and alarms that are generated on the equipment. Check the possible fault causes one after another.

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Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-8 Procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH equipment
Start 1 Check the impedance of the interfaces

Is there an Yes impedance mismatch? No 2 Is the cable a coaxial cable? No 3 Check the cables Yes

Replace the cable or the tributary board

Check the grounding

Is in good conditions?

No

Adjust the cables

Yes Test the indexes of interfaces

Do the interfaces meet standards? Yes Troubleshoot the faults on the local equipment

No

Troubleshoot the faults on the interconnected equipment

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified?

Yes

End

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Table 5-10 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting the interconnection with PDH equipment Comment No. 1 2 Description Check the impedance of the E1 path. Ensure that the impedance of the E1 path is consistent with the cable type. Check the following points:
l

Check whether all the equipment and the DDF in the telecommunications room are jointly grounded. Check whether the shielding layers of the coaxial cable connectors on the DDF are connected to the protection ground. Check whether the shielding layers of coaxial cables are grounded in the same manner.

NOTE Disconnect all the signal cables between the interconnecting equipment sets. Use a multimeter to measure the level between the shielding layers of the coaxial cables at the receive and transmit ends of the PDH equipment and the level between the shielding layers of the coaxial cables at the receive and transmit ends of the equipment at the opposite end. If the potential difference is large (about 0.5 V), the fault may be caused due to the improper grounding.

Check the following points:


l l l

Check whether the wires of the cable are correctly connected. Check whether the cable is broken or pressed. Check whether the cable signal is interfered (for example, when the trunk cable is bound with the power cable, the cable signal is interfered by the power signal).
NOTE Checking the cables involves checking the cables from the DDF to the client side and checking the cables from the DDF to the transmission equipment side.

Check the following indexes:


l l l l

Input jitter tolerance Permitted frequency deviation of the input interface Output jitter Output frequency deviation

Experience and Summary


In the case of interconnection with PDH equipment, improper grounding is the most common cause for an interconnection failure.

5.8 Troubleshooting Ethernet Service Faults


An Ethernet service fault may be the Ethernet service interruption or Ethernet service deterioration.
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Prerequisite
The Ethernet service interruption indicates that the Ethernet service is completely interrupted. The Ethernet service deterioration indicates that the Ethernet service is abnormal. For example, the network access speed is low, the equipment delay is long, the packet loss occurs, or incorrect packets exist in the received or transmitted data.

Fault Phenomena
The Ethernet service interruption indicates that the Ethernet service is completely interrupted. The Ethernet service deterioration indicates that the Ethernet service is abnormal. For example, the network access speed is low, the equipment delay is long, the packet loss occurs, or incorrect packets exist in the received or transmitted data. Table 5-11 Common faults of Ethernet services Symptom Ethernet services are interrupted. Alarm HARD_BAD, TEMP_ALARM, MWRG_BD_TYPE, or BD_STATUS COMMUN_FAIL, LAG_DOWN ETH_LOS, ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK, or LOOP_ALM LASER_MOD_ERR Ethernet services are degraded. HARD_BAD or TEMP_ALARM FLOW_OVER or LAG_MEMBER_DOWN AM_DOWNSHIFT Board EM6F or EM6T

EM6F or EM6T EM6F or EM6T

EM6F EM6F or EM6T EM6F or EM6T IFU2 or IFX2

Fault Causes
l

The possible human factors are as follows:


An Ethernet board loopback or a transmission line loopback occurs. The parameter settings of the Ethernet ports, such as the port enabled state, working mode, and flow control, are different from the parameter settings of the Ethernet ports on the interconnected equipment. The service configuration is incorrect.

l l

The equipment at the local end is faulty. The line board is faulty or has bit errors.
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5 Troubleshooting

When the AM function is enabled, the Ethernet service bandwidth decreases due to the downward AM switch. The interconnected equipment is faulty. The network cable is faulty. The external electromagnetic interference is severe.

l l l

Fault Locating Methods


1. 2. 3. Rectify the human-caused faults such as a loopback and a data configuration error. Locate the fault cause according to the equipment alarms. Locate the fault cause according to the RMON performance events and alarms.

Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-9 Procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults
Start

1 1

Incorrect operation? No

Yes

Cancel this operation

An equipment alarm or alarm on the radio link?

Yes Clear the alarm

No 3 Yes Clear the alarm


Query the port and service traffic and analyze the fault causes

An Ethernet alarm? No

A loop formed by the E-LAN service trails?

Yes Release the loop

No

Any bnormal RMON performance events?

Yes

Troubleshoot the fault according to the flow of handling RMON performance events

No Fault on the opposite equipment? No Troubleshoot equipment faults by performing loopbacks section by section or replacing boards Proceed with the next step No Is the fault rectified? Yes Yes Troubleshoot faults on the opposite equipment

End

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Table 5-12 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting Ethernet service faults Comment No. 1 Description Check the following points:
l l l

Whether a loopback is set for the Ethernet port Whether a loopback is set for the transmission line Whether the parameter settings of the Ethernet port, such as the port enabled state, working mode, and flow control, are the same as the parameter settings of the Ethernet port on the interconnected equipment Check whether the Ethernet protocol and the Ethernet service configuration (especially the attributes of the Ethernet port) are correct.

Pay special attention to the following equipment alarms:


l l l l l l l l l l l l

POWER_ALM FAN_FAIL HARD_BAD BD_STATUS NESF_LOST TEMP_ALARM RADIO_RSL_HIGH RADIO_RSL_LOW RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW IF_INPWR_ABN AM_DOWNSHIFT MW_LIM MW_LOF MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD MW_RDI MW_FEC_UNCOR

Pay special attention to the following line alarms:


l l l l l l

Pay special attention to the following alarms:


l l l l

ETH_LOS LAG_DOWN LAG_MEMBER_DOWN FLOW_OVER

Querying the AM Status, and check whether sufficient service bandwidth is available in the current microwave working mode. If not, replan the service data of the site.
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Comment No. 5

Description If the ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK alarm is reported after the configuring the Advanced Attributes of Ethernet Interfaces operation is performed, it indicates that the network to which Ethernet ports are connected has loops. For RMON performance events, see the Feature Description.

Figure 5-10 Procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event


Start 1 View the statistics group performance on an Ethernet port

Is there any FCS error? No Is there any collision or fragment? No Are broadcast packets excessive? No

Yes

Rectify the fault of line bit errors

Yes

Check the working mode of the port

Yes

Handle the problem on excessive broadcast packets

Use a meter to perform the test

Is the test passed? No 5 Is it a MTU setting problem? No Rectify the equipment fault by loopback section by section or replacing the board

Yes

Rectify the fault of the interconnected equipment

Yes

Modify the MTU value

Proceed with the next step

No

Is the fault rectified? Yes

End

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Table 5-13 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting an RMON performance event Comment No. 1 2 Description View the statistics group performance on an Ethernet port to obtain the realtime performance statistics data of the Ethernet port. The troubleshooting procedure is as follows:
l

Check the Ethernet cable. If the Ethernet cable is not qualified, replace it with a new one. Change the Ethernet port that accesses the services on the Ethernet board. If the new port does not have the RMON performance of an FCS error, it indicates that the hardware of the original port is faulty. Otherwise, the hardware of the Ethernet port on the equipment at the opposite end is faulty.

Check the following points:


l l

Whether the port operating rates on the equipment at both ends are the same Whether the working modes (full duplex or half duplex) of the Ethernet port on the equipment at both ends are the same Whether the Ethernet port is set to auto-negotiation mode at one end and the Ethernet port is set to full duplex mode at the opposite end (When the Ethernet port is set to auto-negotiation mode at one end, the Ethernet port must not be set to full duplex mode at the opposite end.)

Check for the cause for excessive broadcast packets (for example, you have set the loopback for the Ethernet interface board or set the VB filtering table incorrectly) and solve the problem. If the problem is caused on the equipment at the opposite end, set the threshold of broadcast packet suppression for an Ethernet port to reduce broadcast packets. Test the MTU of the network by using a test meter. The maximum frame length that is set for a port should be longer than the MTU of the network.

Experience and Summary


To troubleshoot an Ethernet service fault, you must be familiar with the characteristics, working mode, and configured protocols of interfaces on the Ethernet equipment.

5.9 Troubleshooting Orderwire Faults


If orderwire calls cannot get through when services are normal, there is an orderwire fault.

Fault Causes
l l l l

The phone set is set incorrectly. The phone line is connected incorrectly. The orderwire is configured incorrectly. The orderwire unit is faulty.
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l l

5 Troubleshooting

The system control unit is faulty. The line unit or radio link is faulty.

Fault Locating Methods


l

Check whether the phone set is set correctly, whether the phone line is connected correctly, and whether the orderwire is configured correctly. Replace the possibly faulty board to locate the fault.

Troubleshooting Procedure
Figure 5-11 Procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults
Start

Check the phone setting

Is the phone correctly set? Yes

No

Modify the phone setting

Is the phone line correctly connected? Yes


2

No

Reconnect the phone line

Check the orderwire configuration

Is the configuration correct? Yes Replace the possibly faulty board

No

Modify the configuration

No Proceed with the next step

Is the fault rectified?

Yes

End

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Table 5-14 Description of the procedure for troubleshooting orderwire faults Comment No. 1 Description Check the following points:
l

Check whether the ring current switch "RING" on the phone set is set to "ON". Check whether the dialing mode switch is set to "T", namely, the dual tone multi-frequency mode. An orderwire phone set should be in on-hook state when it is not in communication, and the upper-right red indicator in the front view of the orderwire phone set should be off. If the red indicator is on, it indicates that the phone set is in off-hook state. Press the "TALK" button in the front of phone set to hook it up. In certain occasions, the maintenance personnel press the "TALK" button is pressed by mistake. As a result, the phone set stay in off-hook state all the time and the orderwire call from the other NEs cannot get through.

Check the following points:


l l l l

Whether all orderwire phone numbers on a subnet are of the same length Whether all orderwire phone numbers on a subnet are unique Whether the overhead bytes of all the NEs on a subnet are the same Whether the orderwire port is set correctly

Replace the boards where the orderwire unit, system control unit, and line unit are located to locate the fault.

Experience and Summary


To troubleshoot orderwire faults, you must check the orderwire phone periodically.

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6
About This Chapter
Background Information
Table 6-1 Part replacement description Part Name SL1D SP3D and SP3S EM6T and EM6F IF1, IFU2, and IFX2 CF card CST and CSH AUX FAN PIU Operation

Part Replacement

Part replacement is a method frequently used to locate faults. The replacement operation varies according to the specific part type.

Tool
l l l

6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical Interface Board 6.4 Replacing the PDH Interface Board 6.5 Replacing the Ethernet Interface Board 6.6 Replacing the IF Board 6.7 Replacing the CF Card 6.8 Replacing the System Control, Switch&Clock Board 6.9 Replacing the Auxiliary Board 6.10 Replacing the Fan Tray 6.11 Replacing the Power Board

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

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Part Name ODU

Operation 6.13 Replacing the ODU

Tool
l l l l

Ejector lever (torque wrench) U2000 Silicon Waterproof adhesive tape Ejector lever Electro-technical knife File Installation parts and accessories of the connector IF cable Waterproof adhesive tape

Replacing the IF cable

6.14 Replacing the IF Cable

l l l l

l l

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6.1 Removing a Board


Removing a board is a basic operation for replacing a board.

Procedure
Step 1 Insert one end of the ESD wrist strap into the ESD connector on the cabinet. Wear the ESD wrist strap. Step 2 Optional: If cables are connected to the board, make labels for the cables and then remove the cables. Step 3 Remove the board. l Remove the fan tray assembly.
2

Remove the other boards. 1. Loosen the screws on the panel of the board. Figure 6-1 Removing a board (1)

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2.

Hold the left and right ejector levers with hands. Push them outwards to disengage the board from the backplane. Figure 6-2 Removing a board (2)

NOTE

As shown in Figure 6-3, there is a tack switches on each ejector lever of the System control Switch&Clock board. To remove the System control Switch&Clock board, you need to push the tack switches when pulling the ejector levers outward.

Figure 6-3 Removing the System control Switch&Clock board

3.

Pull out the board gently along the slot guide rail. Figure 6-4 Removing a board (3)

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CAUTION
Remove the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from colliding.

Step 4 Put the removed board into the antistatic box or bag. ----End

6.2 Inserting a Board


Inserting a board is a basic operation for replacing a board.

Procedure
Step 1 Insert one end of the ESD wrist strap into the ESD connector on the cabinet. Wear the ESD wrist strap. Step 2 Insert the board. l Insert the fan tray assembly.
2

Insert the other boards. 1. 2. Hold the ejector levers on the panel with both hands. Push them outwards so that the angle between the ejector lever and the panel is about 45 degrees. Push the board gently along the slot guide rail until the board cannot slide further.

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Figure 6-5 Inserting a board (1)

CAUTION
Insert the board slowly to prevent the components on the boards from colliding. 3. Press the two ejector levers inward with force. Figure 6-6 Inserting a board (2)

4.

Tighten screws on the panel.

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Figure 6-7 Inserting a board (3)

Step 3 Optional: If cables are connected to the board, recover the original cable connections according to the labels that are made previously. ----End

6.3 Replacing the SDH Optical Interface Board


When the SDH optical interface board is replaced, the unprotected services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must know the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be replaced. The spare SDH optical interface board must be available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with SNCP, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection channel. 1.
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Query the SNCP protection group.


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2.

Perform the forced switching, if the port on the board functions as the current working channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, and the state of the current protection channel is normal or SD.

Step 3 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with linear MSP, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection channel. 1. 2. Query the linear MSP group. Perform the forced switching, if the port on the board functions as the current working channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, and the state of the current protection channel is normal or SD.

Step 4 Remove the board. Step 5 Check whether the version and SFP type of the spare board are the same as the version and SFP type of the board to be replaced. Step 6 Insert the board. Step 7 After the board starts to work, check the STAT indicator on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 8 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms on the board. Step 9 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed on the board, release the forced switching. Step 10 Optional: If the linear MSP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced switching. ----End

6.4 Replacing the PDH Interface Board


When the PDH interface board is replaced, the services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must know the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Remove the board. Step 3 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. Step 4 Insert the board. Step 5 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 6 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms on the board. ----End

6.5 Replacing the Ethernet Interface Board


When the Ethernet interface board is replaced, the unprotected services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must know the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Remove the board. Step 3 Check and ensure that the board version and the model of the SFP module on the spare board are the same as the board version and the model of the SFP module on the board to be replaced. Step 4 Insert the board. Step 5 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 6 Query the current alarms of the board.
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There should be no new alarms on the board. ----End

6.6 Replacing the IF Board


When the IF board is replaced, the unprotected services on the board are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must know the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Optional: If the services on the board are configured with SNCP, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection channel. 1. 2. Query the SNCP protection group. If the port on the board functions as the current working channel, the current protection channel is not on the board, perform the forced switching.

Step 3 Optional: If the services on the radio link are configured with 1+1 protection, switch the service to the protection IF board. 1. 2. Query the IF 1+1 protection group. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 4 Optional: If the services on the radio link are configured with N+1 protection, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection IF board. 1. 2. Query the IF N+1 protection group. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the forced switching.

Step 5 If the IF board is configured with the XPIC function, see Setting the State of an ODU Transmitter and mute the ODU at the opposite end. Step 6 Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board to be replaced.

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CAUTION
To turn off the ODU-PWR switch, you need to pull the switch lever outwards slightly and then set the switch to the "O" position. Step 7 Remove the board. Step 8 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. Step 9 Ensure that the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the spare IF board is turned off. Step 10 Insert the board. Step 11 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 12 Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board.

CAUTION
To turn on the ODU-PWR switch, you need to pull the switch lever outwards slightly and then set the switch to the "I" position. Step 13 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms on the board. Step 14 Optional: If the forced SNCP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced switching. Step 15 Optional: If the forced protection switching has been performed for the radio link, release the forced switching. Step 16 If the IF board is configured with the XPIC function, see Setting the State of an ODU Transmitter and unmute the ODU at the opposite end. ----End

6.7 Replacing the CF Card


If the NE is configured with only one System control Switch&Clock board, all the services are interrupted during the replacement of the CF card.

Prerequisite
l l l

You must be aware of the impact of CF card replacement. You must know the specific position of the CF card to be replaced. You must be a user with "NE maintainer" authority or higher.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l

ESD wrist strap U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Optional: If the board is configured with 1+1 protection, ensure that the services are switched from the current working board to the protection board. 1. 2. See 8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit, and ensure that the current working board functions as the protection board. If the board functions as the current working board, perform the manual switching.

Step 3 Remove the board. Step 4 Remove the CF card according to the illustration in the following figure.

Step 5 Check the spare CF card. Step 6 Install the spare CF card according to the illustration in the following figure.

Step 7 Insert the board. Step 8 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 9 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms.
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Step 10 Optional: If the manual switching has been performed on the board, release the manual switching. ----End

6.8 Replacing the System Control, Switch&Clock Board


All the services are interrupted during the period of replacing the System control Switch&Clock board, if the NE is configured with only one System control Switch&Clock board.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must be aware of the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to learn about the version of the board to be replaced.

Impact on System
If no protection board is available, the replacement of the System control Switch&Clock board results in service interruption.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Context
NOTE

After the NE database is restored successfully, a cold reset is automatically performed on the NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Replace the System control Switch&Clock board. Option If... Description Then...

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Option

Description

One System control Switch&Clock board is 1. Notify the onsite maintenance personnel to configured remove the board. 2. Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board (including the patch version) are correct.
NOTE If the spare board and the board to be replaced have different patch versions, contact Huawei engineers for loading correct patches.

3. Remove the CF card from the original board and then install the CF card to the spare board. For details about how to install the CF card, see 6.7 Replacing the CF Card.
NOTE After the NE starts up normally, the STAT indicator on the board is green, and the PROG indicator on the board is off.

4. Insert the spare board into the chassis. 5. Press and hold the CF RCV button on the board for 8 seconds so that the board automatically restores the NE databases, system parameters, software packages, and NE logs from the CF card.
NOTE
l In the process of restoring the NE database,

the PROG indicator on the board blinks green for about 20 minutes.
l If the database restoration is successful, the

NE resets automatically. After the NE resets successfully, the STAT indicator is on and green and the PROG indicator is off.
l If the database restoration fails, the NE does

not reset, and the PROG is off. In this case, contact Huawei technical support engineers for rectifying the fault.

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Option

Description

Two System control Switch&Clock boards 1. Before replacing the main system control are configured board, switch the system control unit and cross-connect unit to the protection board. For details, see 8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit.
NOTE Replacing the standby system control board does not need to switch the system control unit and cross-connect unit to the protection board.

2. Remove the board to be replaced. 3. Check whether the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. 4. Insert the spare board. 5. Wait for about 10 minutes to complete the backup of the data on the main and standby system control units. 6. Switch the system control unit and crossconnect unit to the working board. For details, see 8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit. Step 3 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms. ----End

6.9 Replacing the Auxiliary Board


When the auxiliary board is replaced, the services on the auxiliary board are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l

You must know the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Remove the board. Step 3 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. Step 4 Insert the board. Step 5 After the board starts to work, check the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 6 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms on the auxiliary board. ----End

6.10 Replacing the Fan Tray


The IDU cannot perform air cooling in the process of replacing the fan tray. Therefore, you need to replace the fan tray quickly.

Prerequisite
l l l

You must be aware of the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. The spare board must be made available, and the version and type of the spare board must be the same as those of the board to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to learn about the version of the board to be replaced. You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Precautions

WARNING
Do not touch the blades until the fan has stopped rotating.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.
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Step 2 Move the cables away from the front panel of the fan tray assembly. Step 3 Remove the board. Step 4 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. Step 5 Insert the board. Step 6 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. Step 7 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms. ----End

6.11 Replacing the Power Board


If another power board works normally during the replacement period, the services at the IDU are not affected.

Prerequisite
l l l

You must be aware of the impact of board replacement. You must know the specific position of the board to be replaced. The spare chassis must be made available, and the version and type of the spare chassis must be the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. The chassis is configured with the power board and the fan tray. You can query the board manufacturing information to learn about the version of the board to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Precautions

WARNING
Before replacing the board, you must turn off the power switch of the PDU. Do not connect the interface to the power plug. After inserting the PIU properly, insert the power plug, and then turn on the power switch of the PDU.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board.
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Step 2 Notify the onsite maintenance personnel to turn off the output power switch on the equipment. Step 3 Remove the cables connected to the board. Step 4 Remove the power board gently and horizontally along the guide rail. Step 5 Check and ensure that the version and type of the spare board are the same as the version and type of the board to be replaced. Step 6 Insert the spare board steadily along the guide rail. Step 7 Reconnect the cables between the board and the power supply equipment. Step 8 Notify the onsite maintenance personnel to turn on the output power switch on the equipment. Step 9 After the board starts to work, observe the indicators on the board. The STAT indicator should be on and green. ----End

6.12 Replacing the SFP


When the small form pluggable (SFP) is replaced, the unprotected services on the optical/ electrical port are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l l l

You must know the impact of SFP replacement. You must know the specific position of the SFP to be replaced. You must know the service protection and protection channels of the SFP to be replaced. The spare SFP must be available, and the version and type of the spare SFP must be the same as the version and type of the SFP to be replaced. You can query the board manufacturing information to obtain the version of the SFP to be replaced.

Context
NOTE

The SL1D can be equipped with the SFP to provide 2xSTM-1 optical interfaces. The EM6F can be equipped with the SFP to provide 2xGE optical interfaces or 2xGE electrical interfaces.

Tools, Equipment and Materials


l l l

ESD wrist strap Screwdriver U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms of the board. Step 2 Optional: If SNCP is configured for services at the optical interface, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection channel. 1.
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2.

If the port on the local board functions as the working channel, the protection channel does not involve the local board, and the protection channel is in the normal or SD state, perform forced switching.

Step 3 Optional: If linear MSP is configured for services at the optical interface, ensure that the services are already switched to the protection channel. 1. 2. Query the status of the linear MSP group. If the port on the local board functions as the working channel, the protection channel does not involve the local board, and the protection channel is in the normal or SD state, perform forced switching.

Step 4 Record the cable connections of the SFP, and then disconnect cables. Step 5 Check the types of the spare SFP and the SFP to be replaced. Step 6 Reconnect cables based on the record. Step 7 Query the current alarms of the board. There should be no new alarms on the board. Step 8 Optional: If the forced switching has been performed on the board, release the forced switching. Step 9 Optional: If the linear MSP switching has been performed for the services, release the forced switching. ----End

6.13 Replacing the ODU


When the ODU is replaced, the unprotected services on the ODU are interrupted.

Prerequisite
l l

You must know the impact of ODU replacement. You must know the specific positions of the ODU to be replaced and the IF board connected to the ODU. The spare ODU must be at hand, whose type must be the same as the type of the ODU to be replaced.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l l

Ejector lever (torque spanner) U2000 Silicon Waterproof adhesive tape

Precautions
Before you replace an ODU that is installed on the coupler, power off the ODU to be replaced, but do not power off or mute the other ODU. Otherwise, the services may be affected. The interface of the coupler ejects little RF radiation, thus meeting the safety standards for microwave radiation.
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Procedure
Step 1 Query the current alarms on the ODU and then record the results. Step 2 Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board. Step 3 Remove the IF cable and the PGND cable from the ODU. Step 4 Remove the ODU. Option If... You need to remove the ODU with a waveguide interface You need to remove the ODU with a coaxial interface Description Then... Loosen the four latches of the ODU and disconnect the ODU from the antenna, the hybrid coupler, or ODU adapter. Remove the ODU from the post.

You need to remove the RTN XMC ODU Loosen the captive screws on the ODU and disconnect the ODU from the antenna, the hybrid coupler, or ODU adapter. Step 5 Ensure the type of the spare ODU is the same as the type of the ODU to be replaced. Step 6 Install the ODU. Option If... You need to install a new ODU with a waveguide interface You need to install a new ODU with a coaxial interface Description Then... See the RTN 600 ODU Quick Installation Guide. See the RTN 600 ODU Quick Installation Guide.

You need to install a new RTN XMC ODU See the RTN XMC ODU Installation Guide. Step 7 Connect the PGND cable and the IF cable to the ODU. Step 8 Waterproof the IF interface on the ODU. Step 9 Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board. Step 10 After the ODU starts to work, check the ODU indicator and LINK indicator on the IF board. The ODU indicator and LINK indicator should be on and green. Step 11 Query the current alarms of the ODU. There should be no new alarms on the ODU. ----End

6.14 Replacing the IF Cable


When the IF cable is replaced, the unprotected services on the IF cable are interrupted.
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Prerequisite
l l

You must know the impact of IF cable replacement. You must know the specific positions of the IF cable to be replaced and the IF board connected to the IF jumper. In the case of the RG-8U IF cable or the 1/2-inch IF cable, an IF jumper is required to connect the IF cable to the IDU and both ends of the IF cable should be terminated with type-N connectors. In the case of the 5D IF cable, the IF cable is connected directly to the IDU and the cable end connecting to the IDU should be terminated with the TNC connector and the cable end connecting to the ODU should be terminated with the type-N connector.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l l l l l

Multimeter Ejector lever Electro-technical knife File Installation parts and accessories of the connector IF cable Waterproof adhesive tape

Procedure
Step 1 Query and record the current alarm of the IDU. Step 2 Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board. Step 3 Disconnect the IF cable from the IF jumper and from the ODU. Step 4 Use a multimeter to test the connectivity of the IF cable to determine whether you need to make new connectors for the IF cable or replace the IF cable with a new one. If... You need to make new connectors for the IF cable Then... See the Installation Reference and make new connectors for the IF cable.

You need to replace the IF cable with a new Replace the IF cable with a new one. one Step 5 Connect the IF cable to the IF jumper and to the ODU. Step 6 Waterproof the connectors at the two ends of the IF cable with the waterproof adhesive tape. Step 7 Turn on the ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board. Step 8 After the ODU starts to work, check the ODU and LINK indicators on the IF board. The ODU indicator and LINK indicator should be on and green. Step 9 Query the current alarms of the IDU. There should be no new alarms on the IDU. ----End
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7 Database Backup and Restoration

Database Backup and Restoration

About This Chapter


The OptiX RTN 950 supports database backup and restoration through the NMS. 7.1 NE Database An NE database stores the communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and configuration data of an NE in a certain structure to facilitate the relevant query and modification, hence ensuring that the data can be restored after the NE is reset. 7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually The NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from being damaged due to certain risky operations such as replacing a faulty system control, crossconnect, and timing board or upgrading the software, you need to manually back up the database on a regular basis and before performing any risk operation. 7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy You can set the policy of backing up a database to realize the function of periodically backing up the database. 7.4 Restoring the Database If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database files that are saved previously.

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7.1 NE Database
An NE database stores the communication data, security data, alarm data, performance data, and configuration data of an NE in a certain structure to facilitate the relevant query and modification, hence ensuring that the data can be restored after the NE is reset. An NE database includes the following types:
l

Memory database (MDB) The data in the MDB varies according to the configuration and is lost when the system control unit is reset or when the NE is powered off.

Dynamic random database (DRDB) The DRDB automatically stores the data that is checked successfully. The DRDB is resident in the reserved memory. Hence, the data in the DRDB is not lost when a warm reset is performed on the system control unit. The data, however, is lost when a cold reset is performed on the system control unit or when the NE is powered off.

Flash database (FDB) The FDB includes FDB0 and FDB1. The FDB is resident in the flash memory on the board. Hence, the data in the FDB is permanently stored.

After being delivered to the system control unit, the NE configuration data is stored in the MDB. After checking the NE configuration data successfully, the system control unit automatically copies the data from the MDB to the DRDB and delivers the board configuration data generated after successful check to the relevant board. The NE supports two backup schemes:
l

Five minutes after the data configuration on the NE is completed, the NE backs up the DRDB database into the FDB0 and FDB1 databases of the flash memory. The NE backs up the DRDB database into the FDB0 and FDB1 databases of the flash memory at an interval of 30 minutes.

After the NE is restarted because of power-off, the system control unit checks whether the configuration data in the DRDB is available. If yes, the system control unit restores the data. If the configuration data in the DRDB is damaged, the system control unit restores the data from FDB0 or FDB1. The system control, switching and timing board on the OptiX RTN 950 is installed with a CF card. When automatically copying data to the FDB, the DRDB in the system control unit copies the data to the database on the CF card accordingly. On the CF card, NE databases, system parameters (including NE-IP, NE-ID, and subnet mask), software packages, and NE logs are stored. After the CRV button on the system control, switching and timing board is pressed and held for eight seconds, the data stored on the CF card is loaded to the board. To synchronize the data on the CF card with the NE databases, system parameters, and NE logs on the system control, switching and timing board, the regular backup function needs to be enabled.
NOTE

The software packages on the CF card are updated with those on the system control, switching and timing board during package diffusion. Therefore, no automatic or manual operation is performed to synchronize the software packages. When the system control, switching and timing board and the CF card have different software packages or data, the SWDL_PKGVER_MM alarm is reported.

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7.2 Backing Up the Database Manually


The NE configuration data is stored in the database of an NE. To prevent the database from being damaged due to certain risky operations such as replacing a faulty system control, crossconnect, and timing board or upgrading the software, you need to manually back up the database on a regular basis and before performing any risk operation.

Prerequisite
l l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu. Step 2 In NE View, click Search. Step 3 In the Search Device(s) dialog box, set the search conditions and search for the NE that requires database backup. Step 4 Close the Search Device(s) dialog box. Step 5 Click Backup.
NOTE

You can select multiple NEs to back up the data at one time.

Step 6 Set the data backup path to NMS Server or NMS Client according to the requirements.
NOTE

If NMS Client is selected, you can click

to set the path in which the client data is stored.

Step 7 Click Start to start backing up the NE data. In NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of backing up the data. After the data backup is successful, Operation Status displays a message, indicating that the operation is successful. ----End

7.3 Setting the Database Backup Policy


You can set the policy of backing up a database to realize the function of periodically backing up the database. 7.3.1 Setting the Default Backup Policy Through this task, you can set the default backup policy for all the NEs on the network. 7.3.2 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy
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Through this task, you can set the backup policy for a specific NE. 7.3.3 Executing the Backup Policy of the Device Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the running state. 7.3.4 Suspending the Backup Policy of the Device Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the suspended state.

7.3.1 Setting the Default Backup Policy


Through this task, you can set the default backup policy for all the NEs on the network.

Prerequisite
l l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The backup policy refers to the method of backing up the data stored in the flash memory of NEs to the databases of the NMS.

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > Default Policy from the Main Menu. Then, the Default Policy dialog box is displayed. Step 2 Click Backup Policy, and set Period, Day, Time, and Policy Status.
NOTE

l l

If Policy Status is set to Running, the NMS performs the backup operation within the specified period, day, and time. If Policy Status is set to Suspended, the backup policy is still in the Paused state although the policy period reaches the specified period, day, and time.

Step 3 Click OK, and close the dialog box. ----End

7.3.2 Setting the User-Defined Backup Policy


Through this task, you can set the backup policy for a specific NE.

Prerequisite
l l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. You must log in to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
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Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > NE Software Management > User-Defined Policy from the Main Menu. Then, the User-Defined Policy dialog box is displayed. Step 2 In the NE Tree, set NE type and Device Version. In NE View, the version, name, and IP address of the selected NE are displayed. Step 3 Optional: Click to import the IP addresses of the NEs.

The imported IP addresses of the NEs are displayed in Device View. Step 4 Optional: Click to export the IP address information of the NEs.

The IP addresses of the selected NEs are stored in the specified location. Step 5 In NE Table, select one or more NEs. Step 6 Click Next. Then, the User-Defined Policy dialog box is displayed. Step 7 Set Period, Day, Time, and Policy Status.
NOTE

l l

If Policy Status is set to Running, the NMS performs the backup operation within the specified period, day, and time. If Policy Status is set to Suspended, the backup policy is still in the Paused state although the policy period reaches the specified period, day, and time.

Step 8 Click Finish. Step 9 Close the prompt dialog box. ----End

7.3.3 Executing the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the running state.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu. The NE Data Backup/Restoration window is displayed. Step 2 In NE View, click Search.
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Then, the Search Device(s) dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Set the search conditions to search for the NEs that need to execute the backup policy. Step 4 Close the Search Device(s) dialog box. Step 5 Select and right-click the NE. Choose Backup Policy > Run Policy from the shortcut menu. Step 6 Close the prompt dialog box. ----End

7.3.4 Suspending the Backup Policy of the Device


Through this task, you can set the backup policy of a device to the suspended state.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu. The NE Data Backup/Restoration window is displayed. Step 2 In NE View, click Search. Then, the Search Device(s) dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Set the search conditions to search for the NEs that need to execute the backup policy. Step 4 Close the Search Device(s) dialog box. Step 5 Select and right-click the NE. Choose Backup Policy > Suspend Policy from the shortcut menu. Step 6 Close the prompt dialog box. ----End

7.4 Restoring the Database


If the database is damaged, you can restore the NE database by using the database files that are saved previously.

Prerequisite
l l l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher. The data to be restored must be backed up. You must log in to the NE.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, choose Administration > NE Software Management > NE Data Backup/ Restoration from the Main Menu. The NE Data Backup/Restoration window is displayed. Step 2 In NE View, click Search. Then, the Search Device(s) dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Set the search conditions to search for the NEs that need to restore databases. Step 4 Close the Search Device(s) dialog box. Step 5 Select the NE whose data needs to be recovered, and click Recover. Then, the Recover dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Select Browse in File Name. Then, the Select File dialog box is displayed. Step 7 Select files from NMS Server or NMS Client, and then choose the files to be recovered. Click OK. Step 8 In the Recover dialog box, click Start. Step 9 Click Yes in the prompt dialog box. The system starts recovering the selected data files on the specified NE. In the NE list of NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of recovering the data. After the data is recovered, Operation Status displays a message, indicating that the operation is successful. Step 10 In NE View, right-click the NE and choose Activation Database from the shortcut menu. The Activation Database dialog box is displayed. Step 11 Click Start to start activating the database.
NOTE

Do not select Deliver to Board.

In NE View, Operation Status indicates the progress of activating the database. After the database is activated, Operation Status indicates that the operation is successful. ----End

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8 Supporting Task

8
About This Chapter

Supporting Task

This topic describes the common maintenance operations. 8.1 Hardware Loopback Hardware loopback refers to the loopback operation performed by changing the physical connection. 8.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters The optical connectors are easily contaminated in the maintenance process. The minute dust particles that can be seen only in the microscope can also affect the quality of optical signals. In this case, the system performance deteriorates. Hence, the fiber connectors or adapters that are terminated need to be cleaned in time. 8.3 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events The U2000 is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the network layer. 8.4 Querying a Report You can obtain the version, manufacture, and microwave link information of all the boards by querying the corresponding report. 8.5 Software Loopback Software loopback refers to the loopback operation that is implemented by using the NMS. During software loopback, you need not visit the engineering site. Hence, software loopback is used more widely than hardware loopback. 8.6 Reset Reset is an important method of troubleshooting software faults. Reset is classified into cold reset, warm reset. 8.7 PRBS Test The pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) test is an important method of network maintenance and self-check. 8.8 Querying the License Capacity You can check whether the loaded license file meets the requirements by querying the license capacity.
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8.9 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser When performing operations such as testing a fiber cut, you can set the on/off state of the laser rather than removing and re-inserting the optical fiber on site. 8.10 Setting the ALS Function The SDH optical interface board supports the automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function. This function enables the board to turn off a laser when the board does not transmit services, the optical fiber is faulty, or the received optical signals are lost. 8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function To protect the communication between the NMS and NE against improper operations, an NE supports the automatic release of the ODU muting, software loopback, and other operations that require you to exercise caution. The automatic release time is five minutes by default. You can set whether to enable the automatic release function and the automatic release time through the NMS. 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs By default, the performance monitoring of NEs is enabled. You can disable or enable this function manually and set the period of the performance monitoring of NEs manually. 8.13 Querying the Impedance of an E1 Channel The impedance of an E1 channel is 75 ohms or 120 ohms, which cannot be set through the NMS. 8.14 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring To monitor and analyze the Ethernet packets at a port, you can enable the port mirroring function so that the received or transmitted packets on the port are duplicated to another Ethernet port to which the Ethernet tester is connected. Then, you can monitor and analyze the packets. 8.15 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port Through the operation, you can learn about the attributes of an Ethernet port, such as rate, MAC address, and actual working mode. 8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the Cross-Connect Unit When the OptiX RTN 950 is configured with two system control, cross-connect, and timing boards, you can manually switch the system control unit and the cross-connect unit as required.

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8.1 Hardware Loopback


Hardware loopback refers to the loopback operation performed by changing the physical connection.

Background Information
Hardware loopback is classified into optical cable loopback, PDH cable loopback, and Ethernet port loopback.
l

Optical cable loopback indicates that the receive and transmit optical fibers are connected through a fiber jumper on the ODF. In certain occasions, an optical attenuator is added based on the actual situation, to prevent the optical board from being damaged by the excessive receive optical power. PDH cable loopback indicates that the receive and transmit PDH cables are connected through a short-circuiting cable or connector on the DDF. Ethernet port loopback indicates that the receive and transmit service signals on one Ethernet port are looped back through a special loopback Ethernet cable.

8.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters


The optical connectors are easily contaminated in the maintenance process. The minute dust particles that can be seen only in the microscope can also affect the quality of optical signals. In this case, the system performance deteriorates. Hence, the fiber connectors or adapters that are terminated need to be cleaned in time. 8.2.1 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Cartridge Cleaners When there are special cartridge cleaners (such as the CLETOP cassette cleaner), use them for cleaning the fiber connectors. 8.2.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Lens Tissue When there is no cartridge cleaners, use the lens tissue for cleaning fiber connectors. 8.2.3 Cleaning Fiber Adapters by Using Optical Cleaning Sticks The fiber adapters need to be cleaned with optical cleaning sticks. This topic describes the method of cleaning fiber adapters on the optical interface board. The same method can be used to clean fiber adapters on the optical attenuators and flanges.

8.2.1 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Cartridge Cleaners


When there are special cartridge cleaners (such as the CLETOP cassette cleaner), use them for cleaning the fiber connectors.

Prerequisite
l l

Disconnect both ends of the fiber. Ensure that there is no laser light on the fiber connectors. Inspect the fiber connector with a fiber microscope to ensure that the fiber connectors are contaminated.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Cartridge cleaner

Procedure
Step 1 Press down and hold the lever. Then, the shutter slides back and exposes a new cleaning area. Figure 8-1 Using the CLETOP cassette cleaner

Step 2 Position the fiber tip slightly against the cleaning area and drag the fiber tip slightly in the downward direction.

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Figure 8-2 Dragging the fiber tip slightly on one cleaning area

Step 3 Repeat the same in the other cleaning area in the same direction as Step 2. Figure 8-3 Dragging the fiber tip slightly on the other cleaning area

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Step 4 Release the lever to close the cleaning area. ----End

8.2.2 Cleaning Fiber Connectors by Using Lens Tissue


When there is no cartridge cleaners, use the lens tissue for cleaning fiber connectors.

Prerequisite
l l

Disconnect both ends of the fiber. ensure that there is no laser light on the fiber connectors. Inspect the fiber connector with a fiber microscope to ensure that the fiber connectors are contaminated.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

Clean solvent Non-woven lens tissue Special compressed gas


NOTE

l l l

The isoamylol is preferred as the clean solvent, and the propyl can also be used as the clean solvent. Do not use alcohol or formalin. The fiber cleaning tissue or lint-free wipes can substitute the non-woven lens tissue. The special cleaning roll can substitute the special compressed gas.

Procedure
Step 1 Place a small amount of cleaning solvent on the lens tissue. Step 2 Drag the fiber tip slightly on the lens tissue. Figure 8-4 Cleaning the fiber with the lens tissue

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Step 3 Repeat Step 2 several times on the areas of the lens tissue that have not been used. Step 4 Use the compressed gas to blow the fiber tip. When using compressed gas, note the following points:
l

First spray it into the air because the initial spray of condensation may contain certain sediment. Ensure that the injector nozzle is as close as possible to (but does not toubch) the connector surface.

----End

8.2.3 Cleaning Fiber Adapters by Using Optical Cleaning Sticks


The fiber adapters need to be cleaned with optical cleaning sticks. This topic describes the method of cleaning fiber adapters on the optical interface board. The same method can be used to clean fiber adapters on the optical attenuators and flanges.

Prerequisite
l

Before you clean the fiber adapter, remove the optical fiber and shut down the laser. For details about how to shut down a laser, see 8.9 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser. Inspect the fiber adapter with a fiber microscope to ensure that the fiber adapter is contaminated.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l l l

Optical cleaning sticks Clean solvent Special compressed gas


NOTE

l l l l

In the case of the SC and FC optical interface, use the cleaning stick with a diameter of 2.5 mm. In the case of the LC optical interface, use the cleaning stick with a diameter of 1.25 mm. The medical cotton or long fiber cotton can substitute the optical cleaning stick. The isoamylol is preferred as the clean solvent, and the propyl can also be used as the clean solvent. Do not use alcohol or formalin. The special cleaning roll can substitute the special compressed gas.

Procedure
Step 1 Apply a small amount of cleaning solvent on the optical cleaning stick. Step 2 Touch the adapter gently with the optical cleaning stick and turn the stick clockwise four to five times. Ensure that there is direct contact between the stick tip and fiber tip so that the solvent can clean the adapter tip. Step 3 Use the compressed gas to blow the fiber adapter. When using compressed gas, note the following points:
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l

OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

First spray the compressed gas into the air because the initial spray of condensation gas may contain some sediment. Ensure that the injector nozzle is as close as possible to (but does not touch) the inner surface of the connector.

----End

8.3 Browsing Alarms, Abnormal Events, and Performance Events


The U2000 is used to browse alarms, abnormal events, and performance events at the network layer. 8.3.1 Checking the NE Status You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the NE status. 8.3.2 Checking the Board Status You can learn about the board status in a visual manner by checking the slot diagram. 8.3.3 Browsing Current Alarms You can find the faults that occur on the equipment by browsing current alarms. 8.3.4 Browsing Abnormal Events You can find the faults that occur on the equipment in a specific time by browsing abnormal events. An abnormal event refers to an exception that occurs on the system at a particular time rather than an exception that persists for a certain time of period. 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH performance events.The counter of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time. 8.3.6 Browsing History Alarms You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing history alarms. A history alarm refers to an alarm that is already cleared. 8.3.7 Browsing History Performance Events You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing history performance events. 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records You can learn about the threshold-crossing information of the performance events of an NE by browsing the performance event threshold-crossing records.

8.3.1 Checking the NE Status


You can learn about the basic information such as whether the NE fails to communicate with the NMS and whether any alarms are reported by checking the NE status.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.
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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
NOTE

By default, the color of the NE icon on the NMS indicates the NE status.

Procedure
Step 1 Check the NE icon on the Main Topology. The NE icon is green. The other colors indicate the following situations:
l l l l l l

Gray: indicates that the communication between the NE and the NMS is interrupted. Purple: indicates that the NE status is unknown. Red: indicates that a critical alarm is generated. Orange: indicates that a major alarm is generated. Yellow: indicates that a minor alarm is generated. Light blue: indicates that a warning is generated.

Step 2 Double-click the NE. The slot diagram is displayed. The NE is in Running Status. Step 3 Click the ----End icon. The legend description is displayed.

8.3.2 Checking the Board Status


You can learn about the board status in a visual manner by checking the slot diagram.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 On the Main Topology, double-click the desired NE. The NE Panel is displayed. The NE is in Running Status. Step 2 Click the icon. The legend description is displayed.

Step 3 In the NE Explorer, click the NE Panel tab. Step 4 Check the running status of the boards based on the legend description. If a board is running normally, the board icon is green. ----End
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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

8.3.3 Browsing Current Alarms


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment by browsing current alarms.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Current Alarm from the Main Menu. Step 2 In the Filter dialog box, click the Alarm Source tab. Step 3 Optional: Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click Step 4 Click OK. Step 5 Browse the displayed alarms. Step 6 Select the newly generated alarms, record the details of the alarms, and click OK. Step 7 Notify the troubleshooting personnel to clear the alarms in time. For the details, see A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures. ----End .

Related Information
A current alarm refers to an alarm that is not cleared. You can browse the network-wide alarms based on the alarm severity by clicking the alarm indicators in the upper right corner.
l l l l

You can click You can click You can click You can click
NOTE

(red) to browse the network-wide critical alarms. (orange) to browse the network-wide major alarms. (yellow) to browse the network-wide minor alarms. (light-blue) to browse the network-wide warning alarms.

By default, the number shown by each indicator indicates the number of current network-wide alarms, which are not cleared, of the specific severity.

8.3.4 Browsing Abnormal Events


You can find the faults that occur on the equipment in a specific time by browsing abnormal events. An abnormal event refers to an exception that occurs on the system at a particular time rather than an exception that persists for a certain time of period.
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Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse Event from the Main Menu. Step 2 In the Filter dialog box, click the Event Source tab. Step 3 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click Step 4 Click OK. Step 5 Browse the abnormal events. For details on how to handle an abnormal event, see B.2 Abnormal Performance Events and Handling Procedures. ----End .

Related Information
Being different from an alarm that has both the occurrence time and the clearance time, an abnormal event has only the occurrence time.

8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events


You can know the running status of the equipment by browsing current SDH/PDH performance events.The counter of current performance events measures all the performance events that arise between the start time of the monitoring period and the current time.

Prerequisite
l

The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu, and then click the Current Performance Data tab. Step 2 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click
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Step 3 Select All in Monitored Object Filter Condition. Step 4 Select 15-Minute in the Monitor Period field. Step 5 Click the Count tab, and then select Display Continuous Severely Errored Seconds. Step 6 Click Query to browse the current performance events. In normal cases, no bit error performance events should be displayed, and the number of pointer justification events should be less than six per day. Step 7 Click the Gauge tab, select All for the performance event type, and then select Display Current Value and Display Maximum and Minimum Values in the right pane. Step 8 Click Query to browse the displayed performance events. In normal cases, compared with the history records, the gauge indicators, such as the board temperature, do not change drastically. Step 9 Re-define the time span by setting Monitor Period to 24-Hour. Step 10 Repeat Step 5 through Step 8 to query the current performance events in a period of 24 hours. ----End

8.3.6 Browsing History Alarms


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing history alarms. A history alarm refers to an alarm that is already cleared.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Fault > Browse History Alarms from the Main Menu. Step 2 Optional: In the Filter dialog box, click the Basic Settings tab. 1. 2. 3. 4. In Severity, select the alarm severity to be queried. In Type, select the alarm type. In Generated Time, specify the alarm generation time. In Cleared Time, specify the alarm clearance time. The time span starts from the time when the last history alarm browsing operation was performed to the current time. Step 3 In the Filter dialog box, click the Alarm Source tab. Step 4 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click Step 5 Click OK.
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Step 6 Browse the displayed history alarms. ----End

8.3.7 Browsing History Performance Events


You can know the faults that occur on the equipment in a past period of time by browsing history performance events.

Prerequisite
l

The performance monitoring function must be enabled. For details about how to enable the performance monitoring function, see 8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs. You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the main menu, and then click the History Performance Data tab. Step 2 Select one or more NEs from the left pane, and click .

Step 3 Set the parameters, such as Monitored Object Filter Condition, Monitor Period, Data Source. Step 4 Click the Gauge tab, and set Performance Event Type. Step 5 Click the Count tab, and set Performance Event Type. Step 6 Click Query. ----End

8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records


You can learn about the threshold-crossing information of the performance events of an NE by browsing the performance event threshold-crossing records.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Browse the performance event threshold-crossing records that is displayed.
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Step 2 Choose Performance > Browse SDH Performance from the Main Menu. Step 3 Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click Step 4 Click the Performance Threshold-Crossing Record tab. Step 5 Set the parameters such as Monitored Object Filter Condition, Monitor Period, and Performance Event Type. Step 6 Click Query. ----End .

8.4 Querying a Report


You can obtain the version, manufacture, and microwave link information of all the boards by querying the corresponding report. 8.4.1 Querying the Board Information Report You can obtain the PCB version, logic version, and software version of each board by querying the board information report. 8.4.2 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP module by querying the board manufacturing information report. 8.4.3 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report You can obtain the the current and recent transmit/receive power of microwave links by querying the microwave link information report.

8.4.1 Querying the Board Information Report


You can obtain the PCB version, logic version, and software version of each board by querying the board information report.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Inventory > Physical Inventory > Board from the Main Menu. Step 2 In Physical Inventory, click the Board List tab. Step 3 Click Filter. In Set Board Filter Criteria window, set the board attributes that need to be queried. Click OK. Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. Then, you can save and archive the board information as a text file. ----End
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8.4.2 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report


You can obtain the manufacturing information about each board and the SFP module by querying the board manufacturing information report.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Inventory > Project Document > Board Manufacture Information from the Main Menu. Step 2 In Board Manufacture Information, click the Board Manufacture Information tab. Step 3 Select one or multiple NEs from the left pane, and click .

Step 4 Optional: Click Save As. Then, you can save and archive the board manufacturing information as a text file. ----End

8.4.3 Querying the Microwave Link Information Report


You can obtain the the current and recent transmit/receive power of microwave links by querying the microwave link information report.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE monitor authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In Main Menu, choose Inventory > Microwave Report > Microwave Link Report. Step 2 In the left pane of the Microwave Link Information Report tab page, choose one or more NEs, and click .

Step 3 Optional: Click Save As. Then, you can save and archive the microwave link information report as a text file. ----End
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8.5 Software Loopback


Software loopback refers to the loopback operation that is implemented by using the NMS. During software loopback, you need not visit the engineering site. Hence, software loopback is used more widely than hardware loopback. 8.5.1 Setting Loopback for the SDH Optical Interface Board The SDH optical interface board supports the optical interface inloop/outloop and the VC-4 path inloop/outloop. 8.5.2 Setting Loopback for the Tributary Board The tributary board supports the tributary inloop and outloop. 8.5.3 Setting a Loopback for the Ethernet Interface Board The Ethernet interface board supports the Ethernet port inloop (at the MAC layer and PHY layer). 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board Loopbacks on the IF board are classified into IF port loopback, composite port loopback, and IF_ETH port MAC loopback. The IF1 board supports the IF port inloop, and IF port outloop. The IFU2 board supports the IF port inloop, IF port outloop, composite port inloop, composite port outloop, and IF_ETH port MAC inloop. The IFX2 board supports the IF port inloop, IF port outloop, composite port inloop, composite port outloop, and IF_ETH port MAC inloop. 8.5.5 Locating a Fault by Performing Loopback Operations Loopback is a common method of locating the fault.

8.5.1 Setting Loopback for the SDH Optical Interface Board


The SDH optical interface board supports the optical interface inloop/outloop and the VC-4 path inloop/outloop.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The optical interface inloop is a process wherein the signals over an SDH port are looped back at the overhead processing unit towards the backplane. Figure 8-5 Optical interface inloop
SDH optical interface board SDH

Backplane

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The optical interface outloop is a process wherein the signals over an SDH port are looped back at the overhead processing unit towards the remote equipment. Figure 8-6 Optical interface outloop
Backplane SDH optical interface board SDH

The VC-4 path outloop is a process wherein the signals on a VC-4 path are looped back at the logic processing unit towards the remote equipment. Figure 8-7 VC-4 path outloop
Backplane SDH optical interface board VC-4

The VC-4 path inloop is a process wherein the signals on a VC-4 path are looped back at the logic processing unit towards the backplane. Figure 8-8 VC-4 path inloop
Backplane SDH optical board VC-4

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Precautions

CAUTION
l l

The services may be interrupted at the port or on the path where the loopback is performed. A software loopback may be released automatically after a certain period (five minutes, by defaults). For details, see 8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the SDH optical interface board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > SDH Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select By Function, and select the loopback mode from the drop-down list. To Perform... Optical interface loopback VC-4 path loopback Choose... Optical(Electrical) Interface Loopback VC4 Loopback

Step 4 Set the loopback status of the port or path based on the requirements. Step 5 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Click OK. Step 7 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

8.5.2 Setting Loopback for the Tributary Board


The tributary board supports the tributary inloop and outloop.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The tributary inloop is a process wherein the signals over a PDH port are looped back at the coding/decoding unit towards the backplane.
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Figure 8-9 Tributary inloop

Backplane

PDH interface board PDH

The tributary outloop is a process wherein the signals on a tributary path are looped back at the PDH interface board of the local IDU towards the remote equipment. Figure 8-10 Tributary outloop

Backplane PDH interface board PDH

Precautions

CAUTION
The services may be interrupted on the port or on the path where the loopback is performed.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the PDH interface board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > PDH Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select By Function, and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down list. Step 4 Set the loopback status of the path based on the requirements. Step 5 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 6 Click OK.
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Step 7 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

8.5.3 Setting a Loopback for the Ethernet Interface Board


The Ethernet interface board supports the Ethernet port inloop (at the MAC layer and PHY layer).

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The Ethernet port MAC inloop is a process wherein the Ethernet physical signals are looped back at the service processing module of the board at the MAC layer towards the backplane. The Ethernet port PHY inloop is a process wherein the Ethernet frame signals are looped back at the interface module of the board at the PHY layer towards the backplane. Figure 8-11 Ethernet port inloop
Backplane Ethernet service processing board

MAC

PHY

Precautions

CAUTION
l l

A loopback operation results in service interruption. A software loopback may be released automatically after a certain period (five minutes, by defaults). For details, see 8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function.

Procedure
Step 1 Select an Ethernet processing board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Select the corresponding function options from the Function Tree based on the loopback type.
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To Perform...

Choose...

PHY loopback 1. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree. 2. Click the Advanced Attributes tab. MAC loopback 1. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree. 2. Click the Advanced Attributes tab. Step 3 Set the loopback status of the port based on the requirements. Step 4 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 5 Click OK. Step 6 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board


Loopbacks on the IF board are classified into IF port loopback, composite port loopback, and IF_ETH port MAC loopback. The IF1 board supports the IF port inloop, and IF port outloop. The IFU2 board supports the IF port inloop, IF port outloop, composite port inloop, composite port outloop, and IF_ETH port MAC inloop. The IFX2 board supports the IF port inloop, IF port outloop, composite port inloop, composite port outloop, and IF_ETH port MAC inloop.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The IF port inloop is a process wherein the IF signals are looped back at the modem unit towards the backplane. Figure 8-12 IF port inloop
Backplane IF signal IF board

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The IF port outloop is a process wherein the IF signals are looped back at the modem unit of the board towards the remote equipment. Figure 8-13 IF port outloop

Backplane

IF board IF signal

The composite port inloop is a process wherein the microwave baseband signal is looped back at the MUX/DEMUX unit of the board towards the backplane. Figure 8-14 Composite port inloop
Backplane IF board

Microwave baseband signal

The composite outloop is a process wherein the microwave baseband signal is looped back at the MUX/DEMUX unit of the board towards the remote equipment. Figure 8-15 Composite port outloop
Backplane IF board Microwave baseband signal

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Precautions

CAUTION
l l

The services may be interrupted at the port or on the path where the loopback is performed. A software loopback may be released automatically after a certain period (five minutes, by defaults). For details, see 8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function. To perform the software loopback on the standby IF board of the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group, switch the standby IF board to the working state forcedly. Otherwise, the operation may fail. Before performing the loopback operation for the IFU2/IFX2 board, disable the AM function at both ends of the radio link.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the corresponding operation object from the Object Tree. Option To Perform... IF port loopback Composite port loopback MAC loopback Description Choose... IF board Hybrid IF board NE

Step 2 Select the corresponding function options from the Function Tree based on the loopback type. Option To Perform... IF port loopback Description Choose... 1. Choose Configuration > IF Interface from the Function Tree. 2. Select By Function. 3. Choose IF Port Loopback from the drop-down list. 4. Select the port where the loopback needs to be performed and set IF Port Loopback. Composite port loopback 1. Choose Configuration > Digital Interface from the Function Tree. 2. Select By Function. 3. Choose Optical(Electrical) Interface Loopback from the drop-down list. 4. Select the port where the loopback needs to be performed and set Optical (Electrical) Interface Loopback.

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Option MAC loopback

Description 1. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Microwave Interface from the Function Tree. 2. Select Advanced Attributes. 3. Select the port where the loopback needs to be performed and set MAC Loopback.

Step 3 Click Apply. Then, the Confirm dialog box is displayed. Step 4 Click OK to close the dialog box. Then, a dialog box is displayed. Step 5 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

8.5.5 Locating a Fault by Performing Loopback Operations


Loopback is a common method of locating the fault.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Service Trail
Figure 8-16 shows how to locate a fault by performing a loopback operation. Figure 8-16 Service trail
PDH tributary board Cross-connect IF board board ODU ODU SDH IF Cross-connect tributary board board board

NE1

NE2

PDH Cross-connect tributary board board

IF board

ODU

ODU

IF Cross-connect board board

SDH tributary board

NE4

NE3

Optical cable

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Procedure
Step 1 If the services are available on the radio links, perform the inter-station loopbacks to narrow down the fault to a specific hop. 1. Set the outloops for the SDH optical interface boards on NE2 and NE3, and then perform the inter-station loopbacks to locate the fault.

Step 2 After the fault is located on the specific radio link, perform the intra-station loopbacks to narrow down the fault to a specific NE or board. 1. 2. 3. Set inloop for the IF board on the NEs at both ends of the radio link where the fault occurs, to check whether the service receiver or the radio link is faulty. If the fault is located in the service receiver, set outloop for the PDH tributary board to check whether the interface board or cross-connect board is faulty. If the radio link is faulty, replace the IF board and ODU to check whether the IF board or ODU is faulty.

----End

8.6 Reset
Reset is an important method of troubleshooting software faults. Reset is classified into cold reset, warm reset. 8.6.1 Cold Reset Cold reset is a process wherein the board software is reset and the board is re-initiated. The software of each board runs as a software module in the CPU on the system control, crossconnect, and timing board. During the board initialization, the FPGA, if any, is re-loaded. 8.6.2 Warm Reset Warm reset is a process wherein the board software is reset but the board is not re-initiated. The software of each board runs as a software module in the CPU on the integrated board of the system control unit, cross-connect unit, and timing unit.

8.6.1 Cold Reset


Cold reset is a process wherein the board software is reset and the board is re-initiated. The software of each board runs as a software module in the CPU on the system control, crossconnect, and timing board. During the board initialization, the FPGA, if any, is re-loaded.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

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Precautions

CAUTION
Cold reset causes service interruption because it is similar to the procedure of removing and inserting a board.

Procedure
Step 1 In NE Panel, right-click the board where the cold reset needs to be performed. Step 2 Choose Cold Reset from the shortcut menu. Then, the Warning dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Click OK. Step 4 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End

8.6.2 Warm Reset


Warm reset is a process wherein the board software is reset but the board is not re-initiated. The software of each board runs as a software module in the CPU on the integrated board of the system control unit, cross-connect unit, and timing unit.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
During warm reset, the board software is reset but the services are not interrupted.

Procedure
Step 1 In NE Panel, right-click the board where the warm reset needs to be performed. Step 2 Choose Warm Reset from the shortcut menu. Then, the Warning dialog box is displayed. Step 3 Click OK. Step 4 Close the dialog box that is displayed. ----End
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8.7 PRBS Test


The pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) test is an important method of network maintenance and self-check. 8.7.1 Performing a PRBS Test for the Tributary Board If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test system on the tributary board. 8.7.2 Performing a PRBS Test for the IF Board If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test system on the IF board.

8.7.1 Performing a PRBS Test for the Tributary Board


If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test system on the tributary board.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The OptiX RTN 950 supports the PRBS test in the tributary direction and in the cross-connect direction. The PRBS test in the tributary direction can be performed to check the connection between the tributary board and the DDF, as shown in Figure 8-17. Figure 8-17 PRBS test in the tributary direction
DDF frame PDH interface board PRBS Transmitter 1 PRBS Recevicer 1 Loopback at the DDF frame

The PRBS test in the cross-connect direction can be performed to check the connection between the tributary board and the remote NE, as shown in Figure 8-18.
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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

Figure 8-18 PRBS test in the cross-connect direction


a) IF board working as the line board PDH interface board PRBS transmitter 1 PRBS receiver 2 IN Cross-connect board IF board OUT IF board

NE at the local end 1 VC-4 inloop or composite port inloop 2 IF port inloop 3 IF port outloop

NE at the opposite end

b) Line board working as the SDH optical interface board PDH interface board PRBS transmitter 1 PRBS receiver 2 IN Cross-connect board OUT SDH optical interface board

NE at the local end 1 VC-4 inloop 2 Port inloop 3 Port outloop

NE at the opposite end

Precautions

CAUTION
l l

During the PRBS test, the services in the tested path are interrupted. The PRBS test can be performed only in one path and in one direction at one time.

Procedure
Step 1 Set the loopback at the proper location. For details, see Figure 8-17 and Figure 8-18. Step 2 Select the E1 interface board from the Object Tree. Step 3 Choose Configuration > PRBS Test from the Function Tree. Step 4 Select the port to be tested.
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Step 5 Set Duration and Measured in Time.


NOTE

l l

The PRBS test supports three time units: one second, 10 minutes, and one hour. A maximum of 255 test cycles is permissible for the PRBS test.

Step 6 Optional: Select Accumulating Mode. Step 7 Click Start to Test. A prompt is displayed. Step 8 Click OK. Step 9 When Process is displayed as 100%, click Query to check the test result.
NOTE

The result of a PRBS test can be normal, error, or invalid.


l l l

Invalid: indicates that no bit is received. In this case, the curve is yellow. Normal: indicates that the path is in normal state. In this case, the number of PRBSs is zero, and the curve is green. Error: indicates that the path has errors. In this case, the number of total PRBSs is a non-zero number, and the curve is red.

----End

8.7.2 Performing a PRBS Test for the IF Board


If a special test tool is unavailable, you can perform the PRBS test by using the embedded test system on the IF board.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
Figure 8-19 PRBS test of the IF board

IF board PRBS transmitter

ODU

ODU

IF board

1 PRBS transmitter

NE at the local end

NE at the opposite end 1 IF port outloop

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CAUTION
l l l

During the PRBS test, the services in the tested path are interrupted. The PRBS test can be performed only in one path and in one direction at one time. Before you perform the PRBS test for the standby IF board of a 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection group, you must switch the standby IF board to the working state. The standby IF unit does not support the PRBS test. To test the standby radio link, you need to power off the main ODU and perform the PRBS test on the main IF board. In this case, the PRBS signals are sent out of the standby IF board through the protection bus, thus implementing the PRBS test of the radio link.

Procedure
Step 1 Perform an outloop on the IF board. For details, see 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Step 2 Select the IF board from the Object Tree. Step 3 Choose Configuration > PRBS Test from the Function Tree. Step 4 Select the port to be tested. Step 5 Set Duration and Measured in Time.
NOTE

l l

The time unit of the PRBS test can be one second, 10 minutes, or one hour. A maximum of 255 test cycles is permissible for the PRBS test.

Step 6 Optional: Select Accumulating Mode. Step 7 Click Start to Test. A prompt is displayed. Step 8 Click OK. Step 9 When Process is displayed as 100%, click Query to check the test result.
NOTE

The result of a PRBS test can be normal, error, or invalid.


l l l

Invalid: indicates that no bit is received. In this case, the curve is yellow. Normal: indicates that the path is in normal state. In this case, the number of PRBSs is zero, and the curve is green. Error: indicates that the path has errors. In this case, the number of total PRBSs is a non-zero number, and the curve is red.

----End

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8.8 Querying the License Capacity


You can check whether the loaded license file meets the requirements by querying the license capacity.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Step 2 Choose Configuration > License Management. Step 3 Click Query, browse the license capacity of the NE. ----End

8.9 Setting the On/Off State of the Laser


When performing operations such as testing a fiber cut, you can set the on/off state of the laser rather than removing and re-inserting the optical fiber on site.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired SDH optical interface board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > SDH Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select By Function. Step 4 Select Laser Switch from the drop-down list. Step 5 Select a port, and then set Laser Switch. Step 6 Click Apply. A confirmation dialog box is displayed. Step 7 Click OK.
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A prompt is displayed. Step 8 Click OK. ----End

8.10 Setting the ALS Function


The SDH optical interface board supports the automatic laser shutdown (ALS) function. This function enables the board to turn off a laser when the board does not transmit services, the optical fiber is faulty, or the received optical signals are lost.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired SDH optical interface board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > Automatic Laser Shutdown from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select a port, and then set Automatic Shutdown to Enabled. Step 4 Click Apply to save the settings. ----End

8.11 Setting the Automatic Release Function


To protect the communication between the NMS and NE against improper operations, an NE supports the automatic release of the ODU muting, software loopback, and other operations that require you to exercise caution. The automatic release time is five minutes by default. You can set whether to enable the automatic release function and the automatic release time through the NMS.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Configuration > NE Batch Configuration > Automatic Disabling of NE Function from the Main Menu.
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Step 2 Select the desired NE from the Object Tree. Click

Step 3 In Automatic Disabling of NE Function, set Auto Disabling and Auto Disabling Time (min). Step 4 Click Apply to complete the settings for the automatic release function. ----End

8.12 Configuring the Performance Monitoring Status of NEs


By default, the performance monitoring of NEs is enabled. You can disable or enable this function manually and set the period of the performance monitoring of NEs manually.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree, and then choose Performance > NE Performance Monitoring Time from the Function Tree. Step 2 Configure the parameters of the performance monitoring of NEs. 1. 2. 3. Select 15-Minute or 24-Hour. Select Enabled or Disabled in Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring. Set the start time and end time of the performance monitoring of NEs.
NOTE

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Generally, both Set 15-Minute Monitoring and Set 24-Hour Monitoring are enabled. You can specify the start time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enable in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area. You can specify the end time of the performance monitoring function, only after selecting Enable and then selecting To in the Set 15-Minute Monitoring or Set 24-Hour Monitoring area.

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4.

Click Apply, and then close the dialog box that is displayed.

----End

8.13 Querying the Impedance of an E1 Channel


The impedance of an E1 channel is 75 ohms or 120 ohms, which cannot be set through the NMS.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select a PDH tributary board from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > PDH Interface from the Function Tree. Step 3 Select By Board/Port(Channel). Step 4 Select Port in the list. Step 5 Select a port, and check Port Impedance. ----End

8.14 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring


To monitor and analyze the Ethernet packets at a port, you can enable the port mirroring function so that the received or transmitted packets on the port are duplicated to another Ethernet port to which the Ethernet tester is connected. Then, you can monitor and analyze the packets.
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8 Supporting Task

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Context
The OptiX RTN 950 supports the mirroring, monitoring, and analyzing of the Ethernet packets that are received or transmitted on the port. Figure 8-20 Schematic diagram of Ethernet port mirroring
Ethernet processing unit Mirroring port Ethernet equipment Duplication Monitoring port Ethernet tester

To monitor the data in different directions, port mirroring can be performed in the ingress direction and in the egress direction.
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In the ingress direction Also in the upstream direction. The equipment duplicates the packets received from the mirroring port to the observing port, and then transmits the packets from the observing port to the Ethernet tester.

In the egress direction Also in the downstream direction. The equipment duplicates the packets transmitted by the mirroring port to the observing port, and then transmits the packets from the observing port to the Ethernet tester.
NOTE

The Ethernet packets at Ethernet ports and IF_ETH ports can be monitored through the port mirroring function.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired NE from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > Port Mirroring from the Function Tree. Step 3 Click New. Set Direction, Mirror Listener Port, and Listened Port.

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Step 4 Click OK. Step 5 Choose Configuration > Ethernet Interface Management > Port Mirroring from the Function Tree. ----End

8.15 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port


Through the operation, you can learn about the attributes of an Ethernet port, such as rate, MAC address, and actual working mode.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Instruments, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Query the attributes of the FE or GE port. 1. 2. 3. 4. In NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree. Click the Advanced Attributes tab. Check the parameters such as Port Physical Parameters, Transmitting Rate, and Receiving Rate.

Step 2 Optional: Querying the attributes of the IF_ETH port. 1. 2. 3. 4. In NE Explorer, select the required NE from the Object Tree. Choose Configuration > Interface Management > Microwave Interface from the Function Tree. Click the Advanced Attributes tab. Check the parameters such as Transmitting Rate and Receiving Rate.

----End
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8.16 Switching the System Control Unit and the CrossConnect Unit
When the OptiX RTN 950 is configured with two system control, cross-connect, and timing boards, you can manually switch the system control unit and the cross-connect unit as required.

Prerequisite
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the desired NE from the Object Tree. Step 2 Choose Configuration > Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree. Step 3 In 1+1 Protection List, select Cross-Connect Protection Pair. Step 4 Perform the 1+1 protection switching on the board. Option If... Active Board is set to Working Board Active Board is set to Protection Board Step 5 In the prompt that is displayed, click OK. ----End Description Then... Click Working/Protection Switching. Click Restore Working/Protection.

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A Alarm Reference

Alarm Reference

Alarms are important indicators when abnormalities occur on the equipment. This topic describes all the possible alarms on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these alarms. A.1 Alarm List (in Alphabetical Order) The following table lists all the possible alarms generated by the OptiX RTN 950 in alphabetical order. A.2 Alarm List (Classified by Logical Boards) This part lists the alarms that are reported by each board. A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures This topic describes all the alarms on the OptiX RTN 950 in alphabetical order and how to handle these alarms.

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A.1 Alarm List (in Alphabetical Order)


The following table lists all the possible alarms generated by the OptiX RTN 950 in alphabetical order. Table A-1 Alarm list Alarm Name A_LOC AM_DOWNSHIFT APS_FAIL APS_INDI APS_MANUAL_STOP AU_AIS AU_LOP B1_EXC B1_SD B2_EXC B2_SD B3_EXC B3_SD BD_NOT_INSTALLED Description Add to bus - loss of clock The downshift of the AM scheme The MS protection switching fails The MS protection switching occurs The MSP protocol is stopped manually AU alarm indication AU loss of pointer Regenerator section (B1) excessive errors Regenerator section (B1) signal degraded Multiplex section (B2) excessive errors Multiplex section (B2) signal degraded Higher order path (B3) excessive errors Higher order path (B3) signal degraded Slot not installed with the corresponding logical board Board not in position BIP excessive errors BIP signal degrade BIOS status Alarm Severity Major Major Major Major Minor Major Major Minor Minor Major Minor Major Minor Minor

BD_STATUS BIP_EXC BIP_SD BIOS_STATUS


A-2

Major Minor Minor Major


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Alarm Name BOOTROM_BAD BUS_ERR CFCARD_FAILED CFCARD_FULL CFCARD_OFFLINE CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED CONFIG_NOSUPPORT COMMUN_FAIL DBMS_ERROR DBMS_PROTECT_MODE DOWN_E1_AIS E1_LOC E1_LOS MULTI_RPL_OWNER

Description BOOTROM data check failure Bus Errors CF card operation failed CF card capacity full CF card offline Reading and writing the CF card disabled Configuration not supported The inter-board communication failure Database error Database in protection mode 2M down signal alarm indication Loss of E1 uplink clock Loss of 2M line signal The ring network contains several RPL_OWNER nodes The loss of connectivity Misconnection Remote end CCM packet receiving failure Error frame alarm Negotiation failure The performance event reported on the opposite NE The loopback The fault on the opposite NE

Alarm Severity Major Critical Major Major Major Major Major Major Major Critical Major Major Minor Minor

ETH_CFM_LOC ETH_CFM_MISMERGE ETH_CFM_RDI ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI ETH_EFM_DF ETH_EFM_EVENT

Critical Critical Minor Critical Major Major

ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK ETH_EFM_REMFAULT

Major Critical

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Alarm Name ETH_LOS ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP

Description The loss of Ethernet port connection MAC port loopback of point-to-point OAM protocol The loss of the external clock source An alarm of the aged fan The fan is faulty The data flow received by the Ethernet port exceeds the threshold Hardware error Higher order path performance over threshold Higher order path loss of multiframe Higher order path remote defect indication Higher order path remote error indication Higher order path signal label mismatch Higher order path trace identifier mismatch Higher order path unequipped Higher order path adaptation performance over threshold IF cable disconnected Abnormal input IF power of the ODU Preset IF working mode not supported Input power too high

Alarm Severity Critical Major

EXT_SYNC_LOS FAN_AGING FAN_FAIL FLOW_OVER

Critical Minor Major Minor

HARD_BAD HP_CROSSTR

Critical Minor

HP_LOM HP_RDI HP_REI HP_SLM HP_TIM HP_UNEQ HPAD_CROSSTR

Major Minor Warning Minor Minor Minor Minor

IF_CABLE_OPEN IF_INPWR_ABN IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED IN_PWR_HIGH

Major Major Major Critical

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Alarm Name IN_PWR_LOW J0_MM K1_K2_M K2_M LAG_BWMM

Description Input power too low Trace identifier mismatch K1 and K2 mismatch K2 mismatch The bandwidth inconsistency in the LAG group The LAG is unavailable A member port of a link aggregation group (LAG) is unavailable The laser is shut down The type of the pluggable optical module on the board does not match the type of the optical interface The type of the pluggable optical module on the board does not match the type of the optical interface Service capacity configured for the NE beyond the authorization range of the license Boards in a protection group are loaded with inconsistent license files The NE fails to detect the license file A loop occurs Threshold crossing of performance in the lower order path FIFO overflow on the receiving side of the lower order path

Alarm Severity Critical Minor Minor Minor Major

LAG_DOWN LAG_MEMBER_DOWN

Major Minor

LASER_CLOSED LASER_MOD_ERR

Major Major

LASER_MOD_ERR_EX

Major

LCS_LIMITED

Major

LCS_MISMATCH

Major

LICENSE_LOST LOOP_ALM LP_CROSSTR

Major Minor Minor

LP_R_FIFO

Minor

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Alarm Name LP_RDI

Description Lower order path remote receiving defect indication Lower order path remote error indication Lower order path remote failure indication TU size error Lower order path signal label mismatch FIFO overflow on the transmission side of the lower order path Lower order path trace identifier mismatch Lower order path unequipped Mismatch in unidirectional operation and bidirectional operation in linear MSP Laser not installed The synchronization sources are lost Multiplex section alarm indication Multiplex section performance over threshold Multiplex section remote defect indication Multiplex section remote error indication Multiplex section adaptation performance over threshold Master and slave software different alarm

Alarm Severity Minor

LP_REI LP_RFI LP_SIZE_ERR LP_SLM LP_T_FIFO

Minor Minor Minor Minor Minor

LP_TIM LP_UNEQ LPS_UNI_BI_M

Minor Minor Minor

LSR_NO_FITED LTI MS_AIS MS_CROSSTR

Critical Major Major Minor

MS_RDI MS_REI MSAD_CROSSTR

Minor Warning Minor

NESOFT_MM

Major

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Alarm Name MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD MW_FEC_UNCOR MW_LIM MW_LOF MW_RDI NESF_LOST NESTATE_INSTALL NP1_MANUAL_STOP NP1_SW_FAIL NP1_SW_INDI POWER_ALM POWER_ABNORMAL R_F_RST R_LOC R_LOF R_LOS

Description Excessive microwave link bit errors Microwave link signal degradation Microwave FEC uncorrectable Microwave link identifier mismatch Loss of microwave frame Microwave link remote defect indication Loss of NE software NE in the installation state N+1 protection protocol manually disabled N+1 protection switching failed N+1 protection switching indication Power module alarm A power supply failure Receiving FIFO reset Receive loss of clock Receive loss of frame Receive loss of signal the signals on the receive line side Receive signal error Insufficient radio fading margin Radio transmission mute The antennas are not aligned Too high radio receive power

Alarm Severity Minor Minor Minor Major Critical Minor Critical Critical Minor Major Major Major Major Minor Critical Critical Critical

R_S_ERR RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_I NSUFF RADIO_MUTE RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH RADIO_RSL_HIGH

Critical Minor Warning Minor Critical

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Alarm Name RADIO_RSL_LOW RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR RELAY_ALARM_MINOR RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE RP_LOC RPS_INDI RS_CROSSTR

Description Too low radio receive power Too high radio transmit power Too low radio transmit power Critical alarm input Major alarm input Minor alarm input Warning alarm input Loss of receive phaselock ring clock Microwave protection switching alarm Regenerator section performance threshold crossing The real-time clock (RTC) on the system control board fails Reference source change in S1_Mode The activation timeout of the software package The automatic match function is disabled The board software version and the running software version are inconsistent The commission operation on the NE fails The package diffusion is in process on the NE Files of the package stored in the flash memory of the NE are lost

Alarm Severity Critical Critical Critical Critical Major Minor Ignor Major Major Minor

RTC_FAIL

Major

S1_SYN_CHANGE SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT SWDL_AUTOMATCH_INH SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH

Major Critical Minor Critical

SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL SWDL_INPROCESS SWDL_NEPKGCHECK

Minor Warning Critical

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Alarm Name SWDL_PKG_NOBDSOFT

Description Certain board software is missing from the software package during the full package diffusion Consistency check of the software package version fails The rollback on the NE fails Synchronous source level loss E1 interface loss of analog signal Transmit FIFO reset Transmit loss of clock Temperature over threshold The lightning protection failure TU alarm indication TU loss of pointer 2M up signal alarm indication Loss of voltage Wrong board type Wrong device type Loss of XPIC signal

Alarm Severity Minor

SWDL_PKGVER_MM

Critical

SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL SYNC_C_LOS T_ALOS T_F_RST T_LOC TEMP_ALARM THUNDERALM TU_AIS TU_LOP UP_E1_AIS VOLT_LOS WRG_BD_TYPE WRG_DEV_TYPE XPIC_LOS

Minor Warning Major Minor Major Minor Minor Major Major Minor Major Major Critical Critical

A.2 Alarm List (Classified by Logical Boards)


This part lists the alarms that are reported by each board.

A.2.1 CST
APS_FAIL APS_INDI APS_MANUA L_STOP BD_NOT_INS TALLED BD_STATUS

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BOOTROM_B AD DBMS_ERRO R K2_M NESF_LOST POWER_ALM

CFCARD_FAI LED DBMS_PROTE CT_MODE LCS_MISMAT CH NESTATE_IN STALL RPS_INDI

CFCARD_FUL L EXT_SYNC_L OS LPS_UNI_BI_ M NP1_MANUA L_STOP RTC_FAIL

CFCARD_OFF LINE HARD_BAD LTI NP1_SW_FAIL S1_SYN_CHA NGE SWDL_INPRO CESS SYNC_C_LOS -

CFCARD_W_ R_DISABLED K1_K2_M NESOFT_MM NP1_SW_INDI SWDL_ACTIV ATED_TIMEO UT SWDL_NEPK GCHECK TEMP_ALAR M -

SWDL_AUTO MATCH_INH SWDL_PKG_ NOBDSOFT WRG_BD_TY PE

SWDL_CHGM NG_NOMATC H SWDL_PKGV ER_MM WRG_DEV_T YPE

SWDL_COMM IT_FAIL SWDL_ROLL BACK_FAIL BIOS_STATU S

A.2.2 CSH
APS_FAIL BOOTROM_B AD DBMS_ERRO R K2_M NESOFT_MM NP1_SW_INDI SWDL_ACTIV ATED_TIMEO UT SWDL_NEPK GCHECK APS_INDI CFCARD_FAI LED DBMS_PROTE CT_MODE LAG_BWMM NESF_LOST POWER_ALM SWDL_AUTO MATCH_INH SWDL_PKG_ NOBDSOFT APS_MANUA L_STOP CFCARD_FUL L EXT_SYNC_L OS LCS_MISMAT CH NESTATE_IN STALL RPS_INDI SWDL_CHGM NG_NOMATC H SWDL_PKGV ER_MM BD_NOT_INS TALLED CFCARD_OFF LINE HARD_BAD LPS_UNI_BI_ M NP1_MANUA L_STOP RTC_FAIL SWDL_COMM IT_FAIL SWDL_ROLL BACK_FAIL BD_STATUS CFCARD_W_ R_DISABLED K1_K2_M LTI NP1_SW_FAIL S1_SYN_CHA NGE SWDL_INPRO CESS SYNC_C_LOS

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TEMP_ALAR M

WRG_BD_TY PE

WRG_DEV_T YPE

BIOS_STATU S

A.2.3 IF1
AU_AIS B2_SD HP_CROSSTR HP_TIM LICENSE_LOS T MS_REI MW_RDI T_LOC AU_LOP B3_EXC HP_LOM HP_UNEQ LOOP_ALM MSAD_CROS STR R_LOC TEMP_ALAR M B1_EXC B3_SD HP_RDI IF_CABLE_OP EN MS_AIS MW_FEC_UN COR R_LOF VOLT_LOS B1_SD BD_STATUS HP_REI IF_MODE_UN SUPPORTED MS_CROSSTR MW_LIM R_LOS WRG_BD_TY PE B2_EXC HARD_BAD HP_SLM LCS_LIMITED MS_RDI MW_LOF RS_CROSSTR -

A.2.4 IFU2
AM_DOWNSH IFT HARD_BAD LP_RDI MW_FEC_UN COR R_LOF WRG_BD_TY PE BD_STATUS IF_CABLE_OP EN LP_REI MW_LIM TEMP_ALAR M MW_CFG_MI SMATCH BIP_EXC LCS_LIMITED LP_UNEQ MW_LOF TU_AIS BIP_SD LICENSE_LOS T MW_BER_EX C MW_RDI TU_LOP BUS_ERR LOOP_ALM MW_BER_SD R_LOC VOLT_LOS -

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A.2.5 IFX2
AM_DOWNSH IFT HARD_BAD LP_RDI MW_FEC_UN COR R_LOF WRG_BD_TY PE BD_STATUS IF_CABLE_OP EN LP_REI MW_LIM TEMP_ALAR M XPIC_LOS BIP_EXC LCS_LIMITED LP_UNEQ MW_LOF TU_AIS MW_CFG_MI SMATCH BIP_SD LICENSE_LOS T MW_BER_EX C MW_RDI TU_LOP BUS_ERR LOOP_ALM MW_BER_SD R_LOC VOLT_LOS -

A.2.6 SL1D
AU_AIS B2_SD HP_CROSSTR HP_TIM LASER_CLOS ED MS_CROSSTR R_LOF AU_LOP B3_EXC HP_LOM HP_UNEQ LASER_MOD_ ERR_EX MS_RDI R_LOS B1_EXC B3_SD HP_RDI IN_PWR_HIG H LOOP_ALM MS_REI RS_CROSSTR B1_SD BD_STATUS HP_REI IN_PWR_LOW LSR_NO_FITE D MSAD_CROS STR T_LOC B2_EXC HARD_BAD HP_SLM J0_MM MS_AIS R_LOC WRG_BD_TY PE

A.2.7 EM6T
BD_STATUS ETH_CFM_UN EXPERI ETH_LOS COMMUN_FA IL ETH_EFM_DF ETHOAM_SE LF_LOOP ETH_CFM_LO C ETH_EFM_EV ENT FLOW_OVER ETH_CFM_MI SMERGE ETH_EFM_LO OPBACK HARD_BAD ETH_CFM_RD I ETH_EFM_RE MFAULT LAG_DOWN

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LAG_MEMBE R_DOWN

LOOP_ALM

MULTI_RPL_ OWNER

TEMP_ALAR M

WRG_BD_TY PE

A.2.8 EM6F
BD_STATUS ETH_CFM_UN EXPERI ETH_LOS LAG_MEMBE R_DOWN MULTI_RPL_ OWNER COMMUN_FA IL ETH_EFM_DF ETHOAM_SE LF_LOOP LASER_MOD_ ERR TEMP_ALAR M ETH_CFM_LO C ETH_EFM_EV ENT FLOW_OVER WRG_BD_TY PE ETH_CFM_MI SMERGE ETH_EFM_LO OPBACK HARD_BAD LOOP_ALM ETH_CFM_RD I ETH_EFM_RE MFAULT LAG_DOWN LSR_NO_FITE D -

A.2.9 SP3S/SP3D
A_LOC E1_LOC LP_CROSSTR LP_SIZE_ERR R_F_RST TU_AIS BD_STATUS E1_LOS LP_R_FIFO LP_SLM R_S_ERR TU_LOP BIP_EXC HARD_BAD LP_RDI LP_T_FIFO RP_LOC UP_E1_AIS BIP_SD HPAD_CROSS TR LP_REI LP_TIM T_ALOS WRG_BD_TY PE DOWN_E1_AI S LOOP_ALM LP_RFI LP_UNEQ T_F_RST -

A.2.10 AUX
BD_STATUS HARD_BAD RELAY_ALA RM_CRITICA L RELAY_ALA RM_IGNORE RELAY_ALA RM_MAJOR -

RELAY_ALA RM_MINOR

WRG_BD_TY PE

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A.2.11 PIU
BD_STATUS POWER_ABNORM AL THUNDERALM WRG_BD_TYPE

A.2.12 FAN
BD_STATUS FAN_AGING FAN_FAIL POWER_ALM WRG_BD_TYP E

A.2.13 ODU
BD_STATUS LOOP_ALM RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH RADIO_TSL_LOW CONFIG_NOSUPP ORT POWER_ALM RADIO_RSL_HIG H TEMP_ALARM HARD_BAD RADIO_FADING_ MARGIN_INSUFF RADIO_RSL_LOW WRG_BD_TYPE IF_INPWR_ABN RADIO_MUTE RADIO_TSL_HIG H -

A.3 Alarms and Handling Procedures


This topic describes all the alarms on the OptiX RTN 950 in alphabetical order and how to handle these alarms.

A.3.1 A_LOC
Description
The A_LOC is an alarm indicating that a clock signal is lost in the uplink bus.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the A_LOC alarm occurs, the services carried by the board are interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Board failure occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board where the tributary unit that reports the alarm is located. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.2 AM_DOWNSHIFT
Description
The AM_DOWNSHIFT is an alarm indicating the downshift of the AM scheme. This alarm occurs when the AM scheme is downshifted from the highest-efficiency scheme to the lowerefficiency scheme. When the AM scheme is upshifted from the lower-efficiency scheme to the highest-efficiency scheme, this alarm is cleared.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm occurs, the transmission capacity is reduced.

Possible Causes
The possible cause of the AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm is that working channels are degraded.
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Cause 1: The external factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channels. Cause 2: There are interferences around the working channels. Cause 3: The ODU at the transmit end has abnormal transmit power.
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Cause 4: The ODU at the receive end has abnormal receive power.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The external factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channels. (1) When the external factors (for example, the climate) cause the degradation of the working channels, the downshift of the AM scheme is normal. Hence, no measures should be taken to handle the alarm. Step 2 Cause 2: There are interferences around the working channels. (1) Eliminate the interferences around the working channels. Step 3 Cause 3: The ODU at the transmit end has abnormal transmit power. (1) Use the NMS to check whether the transmit power of the ODU at the transmit end is normal. For details on troubleshooting at the transmit end, see Troubleshooting Microwave Links. Step 4 Cause 4: The ODU at the receive end has abnormal receive power. (1) Use the NMS to check whether the receive power of the ODU at the receive end is normal. For details on troubleshooting at the receive end, see Troubleshooting Microwave Links. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.3 APS_FAIL
Description
The APS_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the MS protection switching fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name

Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the type of the protection group.


l l

0x01: linear MS protection 0x02: ring MS protection

Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


When the APS_FAIL alarm occurs, the services cannot be switched. If the current paths are unavailable, the services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The parameters of the MSP protocol are set incorrectly. Cause 2: The parameters of the MSP protocol are lost.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The parameters of the MSP protocol are set incorrectly. (1) Check whether the parameters of the MSP protocol are set correctly. If... The parameters are set incorrectly The parameters are set correctly Step 2 Cause 2: The parameters of the MSP protocol are lost. (1) Check whether the MSP protocol is normal on the network. (2) Check whether the MSP protocol is normal on the network. For details, see Enabling/ Disabling the linear MSP protocol. If... Then... Then... Set the parameters correctly. Go to the next step.

The alarm is cleared after the protocol is End the alarm handling. restarted The alarm persists after the protocol is restarted ----End Contact Huawei engineers to handle the alarm.

Related Information
None.

A.3.4 APS_INDI
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Description
The APS_INDI is an alarm indicating that the MS protection switching occurs.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the type of the protection group.


l l

0x01: linear MS protection. 0x02: ring MS protection.

Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


During the switching ( 50 ms), the service is interrupted. After the switching is complete, the services are restored to normal. In the case of 1:N protection, after the switching starts and before the switching is complete, the extra traffic is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The linear MS protection switching occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The linear MS protection switching occurs. (1) Query the linear MSP group. (2) Check whether the MSP protocol is in the manual switching state, forced switching state, or locked switching state. If yes, release the switching and check whether the alarm is cleared. (3) Check whether the MSP protocol is in the automatic switching state. Do as follows: a. Handle the R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC, or B2_SD alarm that the equipment reports. After the alarms are cleared, wait until the MSP protocol is changed from the automatic switching state to the normal state. Then, check whether the APS_INDI alarm is cleared.
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b. c.

Check whether the service board configured with the MSP protocol is faulty. If yes, replace the faulty board and then check whether the APS_INDI alarm is cleared. Check whether the currently working system control and cross-connect board is faulty. If the currently working system control and cross-connect board is faulty and a protection system control and cross-connect board is available, switch the service to the protection system control and cross-connect board and replace the faulty system control and cross-connect board. Then, check whether the APS_INDI alarm is cleared.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.5 APS_MANUAL_STOP
Description
The APS_MANUAL_STOP is an alarm indicating that the MSP protocol is stopped manually.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the type of the protection group.


l l

0x01: linear MS protection. 0x02: ring MS protection.

Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


When the APS_MANUAL_STOP alarm occurs, the MSP protocol may fail and thus the protection switching may fail.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The MSP protocol is stopped manually.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The MSP protocol is stopped manually. (1) Enable/Disable the linear MSP protocol. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.6 AU_AIS
Description
The AU_AIS is an alarm indicating the administrative unit (AU). This alarm occurs when the board detects the AU pointer of all 1s for three consecutive frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the AU_AIS alarm occurs, the service in the AU-4 path that reports the alarm is interrupted. If the service is configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The opposite NE inserts the AU_AIS alarm. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty. Cause 3: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite NE inserts the AU_AIS alarm. If... The alarm that triggers the AU_AIS insertion occurs
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Then... Clear the alarm immediately.


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If... No such alarms that trigger the AU_AIS insertion occur Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty.

Then... Go to Cause 2.

(1) Replace the board where the line unit is located or the IF board. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

(2) Replace the system control board on the opposite NE. Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.7 AU_LOP
Description
The AU_LOP is an alarm indicating the loss of the AU pointer. This alarm occurs when a board detects the AU pointer of invalid values or with the NDF for eight consecutive frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the AU_LOP alarm occurs, the service in the AU-4 path that reports the alarm is interrupted. If the service is configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty. Cause 2: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

(2) Replace the system control board on the opposite NE. Step 2 Cause 2: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.8 B1_EXC
Description
The B1_EXC is an alarm indicating that the B1 errors (in the regenerator section) exceed the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the B1 errors exceed the preset B1_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default). An IF board that works in PDH mode may also report this alarm. This alarm is detected by using the self-defined overhead byte B1 in PDH microwave frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the B1_EXC alarm occurs, the services on the port are interrupted.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board).
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Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3 dB) of the receiver sensitivity. (2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel. If... Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber. (3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... The clock may become asynchronous and B1 errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

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If...

Then...

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The board of the SDH line unit on the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the NE by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.9 B1_SD
Description
The B1_SD is an alarm indicating that the signal degrades due to the excessive B1 errors (in the regenerator section). This alarm occurs when the board detects that the B1 errors exceed the preset B1_SD alarm threshold (10-6 by default) but do not reach the preset B1_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default). An IF board that works in PDH mode may also report this alarm. This alarm is detected by using the self-defined overhead byte B1 in PDH microwave frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Service alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the B1_SD alarm occurs, the service performance on the port degrades. If the alarm is reported by an IF board and the equipment is configured with the 1+1 FD/SD protection, the HSM switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

l l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3 dB) of the receiver sensitivity (2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel. If... Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber (3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).
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(1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... The clock may become asynchronous and errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The SDH optical line board of the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the NE by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.10 B2_EXC
Description
The B2_EXC is an alarm indicating that the B2 errors (in the multiplex section) exceed the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of B2 errors exceeds the preset B2_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default).
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the port are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

l l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3 dB) of the receiver sensitivity (2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel to locate the fault. If... Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber
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(3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... The clock may become asynchronous and errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The board of the SDH line unit on the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the NE by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.11 B2_SD
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Description
The B2_SD is an alarm indicating that the signal degrades due to the excessive B2 errors (in the multiplex section). This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of B2 errors exceeds the preset B2_EXC alarm threshold (10-6 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service performance on the port degrades. If the alarm is reported by an IF board and the equipment is configured with the 1+1 FD/SD protection, the HSM switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

l l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3dB) of the receiver sensitivity (2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel to locate the fault.
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If...

Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber (3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... The clock may become asynchronous and errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The SDH optical/electrical line board of the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the station by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.
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A.3.12 B3_EXC
Description
The B3_EXC is an alarm indicating that the B3 errors (in the higher order path) exceed the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of B3 errors exceeds the preset B3_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the B3_EXC alarm occurs, the service on the path that reports the alarm is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3 dB) of the receiver sensitivity
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(2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel to locate the fault. If... Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber (3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR or RPS_INDI alarm is reported. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... In this case, the clock may become asynchronous and errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The board of the SDH line unit on the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the NE by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End
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Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.13 B3_SD
Description
The B3_SD is an alarm indicating that the signal degrades due to the excessive B3 errors (in the higher order path). This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of B3 errors exceeds the preset B3_SD alarm threshold (10-6 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service performance on the port degrades. If the alarm is reported by an IF board and the equipment is configured with the 1+1 FD/SD protection, the HSM switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).

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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) Check whether the transmit power at the opposite end and the receive power at the local end meet the specifications of the optical interfaces. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events.

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If...

Then...

The transmit power of the opposite NE is Replace the board where the SDH over low optical interface unit is located on the opposite NE. The transmit power of the opposite NE is The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. normal, but the receive power of the local NE is close to the value (for example, within 3 dB) of the receiver sensitivity (2) Exchange the core fibers of the optical cables in the receive and transmit directions of a channel to locate the fault. If... Then...

The errors vary with the change of the fiber The fiber is faulty. Go to the next step. The errors do not vary with the change of the Ensure that the board is normal. fiber (3) If the fiber is faulty, check whether the fiber jumper from the equipment to the optical distribution frame (ODF) and the fiber that is led out of the equipment room are pressed, and whether the fiber connector is dirty. If yes, replace the fiber jumper or fiber connector. Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The network clock quality degrades. (1) Check the network clock status of the NE that reports the alarm. If... The clock source of the local NE is different from the clock source of the opposite NE Then... In this case, the clock may become asynchronous and errors may occur. Reconfigure the clock source, and ensure that the clock is synchronized on the local NE and opposite NE.

The clock of the local NE and the clock This may cause errors and even service of the opposite NE form a timing loop interruption. In this case, reconfigure the clock source and release the timing loop. Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) The SDH optical/electrical line board of the local NE is faulty. Loop back the optical interfaces of the station by using a fiber jumper to locate the fault. If... Then...

The fault is not rectified after the optical Replace the board where the tributary interfaces are looped back unit that reports the alarm is located on the local NE. The fault is rectified after the optical interfaces are looped back Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE.

Step 5 Cause 5: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an IF board).
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(1) Perform an inloop for the multiplexing interface of the IF board on the local NE. If... The fault is not rectified after the multiplexing interface is looped back Then... Replace the IF board that reports the alarm on the local NE.

The fault is rectified after the multiplexing Replace the IF board that reports the interface is looped back alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.14 BD_NOT_INSTALLED
Description
The BD_NOT_INSTALLED is an alarm indicating that the physical board is installed in a certain slot, but the logical board is not added.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Meaning Indicates the ID of the slot.

Impact on the System


When the BD_NOT_INSTALLED alarm occurs, the physical board in this slot cannot work.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The logical board is not added in the corresponding logical slot. Cause 2: The physical board is installed incorrectly during the replacement of boards.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The logical board is not added in the corresponding logical slot. (1) Configure the logical board. Step 2 Cause 2: The physical board is installed incorrectly during the replacement of boards. (1) Check whether the physical board is installed in the correct slot. If not, reinstall the physical board in the correct slot. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.15 BD_STATUS
Description
The BD_STATUS is an alarm indicating that the board is not in position.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the BD_STATUS alarm occurs, the board that reports the alarm fails to work.

Possible Causes
If the alarm is reported by a board of the IDU, the possible causes are as follows:
l

Cause 1 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board is installed in an incorrect slot. Cause 2 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board and the backplane are not connected properly. Cause 3 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The slot is faulty. Cause 4 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board is faulty.

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If the alarm is reported by the ODU, the possible causes are as follows:
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Cause 1 of the alarm reported by the ODU: The other alarms are generated. Cause 2 of the alarm reported by the ODU: The ODU is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board is installed in an incorrect slot. (1) Check whether the logical slot and physical slot of the board that reports the alarm are consistent. For details, see 8.3.2 Checking the Board Status. If... The board that reports the alarm is installed in an incorrect slot The board that reports the alarm is installed in a correct slot Then... Install the board in a correct slot. Ensure that the board and the backplane are connected properly.

Step 2 Cause 2 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board and the backplane are not connected properly. (1) Remove and insert the board that reports the alarm. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is removed and inserted The alarm persists after the board is removed and inserted Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Ensure that the board is normal.

Step 3 Cause 3 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The slot is faulty. (1) Contact Huawei engineers to handle the fault of the slot.
TIP

Generally, the slot becomes faulty due to the broken pin or bent pin. Remove the board, and use a torch to observe whether there is any broken pin or bent pin.

(2) If an idle slot is available, insert the board in the idle slot and add the board again. Then, the board can work normally. Step 4 Cause 4 of the alarm reported by a board of the IDU: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Ensure that the slot is normal.

Step 5 Cause 1 of the alarm reported by the ODU: The other alarms are generated. (1) Query whether the IF board reports the HARD_BAD, BD_STATUS, IF_CABLE_OPEN, or VOLT_LOS alarm. If... The IF board reports any of the preceding alarms Then... Clear the alarm immediately.

The IF board does not report any of the Replace the board that reports the alarm. preceding alarms
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Step 6 Cause 2 of the alarm reported by the ODU: The ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.16 BIOS_STATUS
Description
The BIOS_STATUS is an alarm indicating that the board is in BIOS state.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
Name Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Meaning Indicates the higher eight bits of the dual-byte ID of the board that is in BIOS state. Indicates the lower eight bits of the dual-byte ID of the board that is in BIOS state.

Parameters 3 to 5 Parameters 3 to 5 are reserved, and their values are always 0xff.

Impact on the System


When the alarm occurs, services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The board is reset for three times continuously. Cause 2: The board software is lost. Cause 3: The board software becomes abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Perform a cold reset on the standby SCC, cross-connect, and clock board that reports the alarm, and then check whether the alarm is cleared. Step 2 If the alarm persists, remove the standby SCC, cross-connect, and clock board, and then reseat the board.
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Step 3 If the alarm persists, replace the board. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.17 BIP_EXC
Description
The BIP_EXC is an alarm indicating that the BIP errors exceed the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of BIP-2 errors (in byte V5) exceeds the preset BIP_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the BIP_EXC alarm occurs, the service on the path that reports the alarm is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). Cause 3: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board).

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). (1) Check whether the performance degradation alarm occurs on the STM-1 path or radio link along which the E1 service signal travels. If yes, clear the alarm immediately. The common line performance degradation alarms are as follows: B1_EXC, B1_SD, B2_EXC, B2_SD, B3_EXC, B3_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR, RPS_INDI, MW_BER_EXC, and MW_BER_SD. If... There is any of the preceding alarms
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Then... Clear the alarm immediately.


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If... No such alarms occur

Then... Ensure that the board is normal.

Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). (1) Check whether any alarm occurs on the tributary board or IF board that transmits the service signal. If yes, clear the alarm immediately. Step 3 Cause 3: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). (1) Replace the board where the E1 service unit is located. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the system control and cross-connect board.

Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). (1) Replace the Hybrid IF board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists ----End Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the system control and cross-connect board.

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.18 BIP_SD
Description
The BIP_SD is an alarm indicating that the signal degrades due to the BIP errors. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the number of BIP-2 errors (in byte V5) exceeds the preset BIP_SD alarm threshold (10-6 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the BIP_SD alarm occurs, the service on the path that reports the alarm degrades.
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Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). Cause 3: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board).

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). (1) Check whether the performance degradation alarm occurs on the STM-1 path or radio link along which the E1 service signal travels. If yes, clear the alarm immediately. The common line performance degradation alarms are as follows: B1_EXC, B1_SD, B2_EXC, B2_SD, B3_EXC, B3_SD, MW_FEC_UNCOR, RPS_INDI, MW_BER_EXC, and MW_BER_SD. If... There is any of the preceding alarms No such alarms occur Then... Clear the alarm immediately. Ensure that the board is normal.

Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). (1) Check whether any alarm occurs on the tributary board or IF board that transmits the service signal. If... An alarm occurs No alarm occurs Then... Clear the alarm immediately. Ensure that the board is normal.

Step 3 Cause 3: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by an E1 service board). (1) Replace the board where the E1 service unit is located. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the system control and cross-connect board.

Step 4 Cause 4: The board is faulty (if the alarm is reported by a Hybrid IF board). (1) Replace the Hybrid IF board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists ----End
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Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the system control and cross-connect board.

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

Related Information
Handle the errors of TDM services.

A.3.19 BOOTROM_BAD
Description
The BOOTROM_BAD is an alarm indicating that the BOOTROM data consistency check fails. This alarm occurs when the BOOTROM data is damaged during a periodical check by the system.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Parameter 2, Parameter 3 Meaning The value is always 0x01. Indicates the type of the BOOTROM damage.
l l

0x00, 0x01: damage of the basic BIOS 0x00, 0x02: damage of the extended BIOS

Parameter 4, Parameter 5

The values are always 0xff 0xff.

Impact on the System


When the BOOTROM_BAD alarm occurs, it indicates that errors occur in the system database processing. The system configuration may be lost. As a result, the failure indication is returned for certain query and setting commands, and certain system functions cannot work.
l

When the NE is already started, the BOOTROM_BAD alarm does not affect the system and services. If the BOOTROM_BAD alarm occurs and a hard reset is performed on a board, the board fails to load the BIOS and cannot be started.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The basic BIOS is damaged. Cause 2: The extended BIOS is damaged.
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Cause 3: The BOOTROM database is damaged.

Procedure
Step 1 Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.20 BUS_ERR
Description
The BUS_ERR is an alarm of bus errors. This alarm occurs when the bus becomes abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the type of bus errors.
l l l l l l l l l

0x01: BUS_LOS. 0x02: BUS_OOF. 0x03: BUS_LOF. 0x04: BUS_OOA. 0x05: BUS_RX_DOWN. 0x06: BUS_TX_DOWN. 0x07: BUS_SPI_DOWN. 0x08: BUS_SCI_ERR. 0x09: BUS_OPP_CLK_LOC.

Parameter 2

Indicates the ID of the bus that has errors.

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Impact on the System


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When the BUS_ERR alarm occurs, the services that travel along the faulty bus are interrupted or have errors. The HARD_BAD alarm suppresses the report of the BUS_ERR alarm.

Possible Causes
The possible causes of the BUS_ERR alarm are as follows:
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Cause 1: The board is not properly inserted. Cause 2: Board failure occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The board is not properly inserted. (1) Remove and insert the board. Step 2 Cause 2: Board failure occurs. (1) Perform a hard reset on the board that reports the alarm. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Replace the board that reports the alarm.

Related Information
None.

A.3.21 CFCARD_FAILED
Description
The CFCARD_FAILED is an alarm indicating that the operation on the CF card fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the CFCARD_FAILED alarm occurs, the database cannot be backed up to the CF card or be restored from the CF card. This alarm may cause rollback of the package loading upgrade.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The CF card fails to be initialized. Cause 2: The file system of the CF card does not match. Cause 3: The system control and communication board is faulty, and the file system of the CF card fails to be created.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The CF card fails to be initialized. Cause 2: The file system of the CF card does not match. (1) Replace the CF card and check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Yes No Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 3.

Step 2 Cause 3: The system control and communication board is faulty, and the file system of the CF card fails to be created. (1) Check whether the HARD_BAD alarm occurs on the system control and communication board. (2) If yes, perform a cold reset on the system control and communication board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Yes No ----End Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the system control and communication board.

Related Information
None.

A.3.22 CFCARD_FULL
Description
The CFCARD_FAILED is an alarm indicating that all capacity of the CF card is used

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Parameter 3 Parameter 4 Meaning Indicates the slot number of the board where the CFCARD_FULL alarm is reported. Indicates the CF card number. Indicates the partition number of the CF card. Different bits correspond to different partitions. If the bit is 1, it indicates that this alarm is reported in this partition. If the bit is 0, it indicates that this alarm is not reported in this partition.
l l l

bit[0] corresponds to SFS1. bit[1] corresponds to SFS2. bit[2] corresponds to SFS3.

NOTE Bit (0) is the least significant bit.

Parameters 5, Parameter 6 Reserved.

Impact on the System


In the case of the CFCARD_FULL alarm, services are not affected. The CFCARD_FULL alarm is reported to indicate that all capacity of the CF card is used and the new configuration data cannot be saved.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The used capacity of the partitions of the CF card crosses the threshold, which is 80% of the capacity.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The used capacity of the partitions of the CF card crosses the threshold, which is 80% of the capacity. (1) Replace the CF card with one of a larger capacity. For details, see 6.7 Replacing the CF Card. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.3.23 CFCARD_OFFLINE
Description
The CFCARD_OFFLINE is an alarm indicating that the CF card is out of service.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the CFCARD_OFFLINE alarm occurs, the database cannot be backed up to the CF card or be restored from the CF card. This alarm may cause rollback of the package loading upgrade.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The CF card is not inserted. Cause 2: The CF card is in poor contact with the system control and communication board. Cause 3: The CF card is faulty. Cause 4: The system control and communication board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The CF card is not inserted. (1) Check whether the CF card is installed on the system control and communication board. If... No Yes Then... Install the CF card. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The CF card is in poor contact with the system control and communication board. (1) Check whether the CF card is loosened. If yes, re-insert the CF card. (2) Check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Yes No
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Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 3.


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Step 3 Cause 3: The CF card is faulty. (1) Replace the CF card. (2) Check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Yes No Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 4.

Step 4 Cause 4: The system control and communication board is faulty. (1) Check whether the HARD_BAD alarm occurs on the system control and communication board. (2) If yes, perform a cold reset on the system control and communication board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. (3) If the alarm persists, replace the system control and communication board. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.24 CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED
Description
The CFCARD_W_R_DISABLED is an alarm indicating that reading and writing the CF card are disabled.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the CFCARD_R_R_DISABLED alarm occurs, the system is not affected. In this case, however, reading and writing the CF card are disabled. Consequently, the database cannot be backed up to the CF card or be restored from the CF card. This alarm may cause rollback of the package loading upgrade.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Hold the button on the CF card for more than five seconds.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Hold the button on the CF card for more than 5 seconds. (1) Press the button on the CF card again for more than 5 seconds. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.25 CONFIG_NOSUPPORT
Description
The CONFIG_NOSUPPORT is an alarm indicating that the configuration is not supported. This alarm is reported if the ODU detects that the specified parameters do not meet the requirements of the ODU.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates that the configuration data does not meet the requirements.
l l l l l l

0x01: The frequency is set incorrectly. 0x02: The T/R spacing is set incorrectly. 0x03: The transmit power is set incorrectly. 0x04: The ATPC threshold is set incorrectly. 0x05: The bandwidth is set incorrectly. 0x06: The modulation mode is set incorrectly.

Impact on the System


When the CONFIG_NOSUPPORT alarm occurs, the ODU fails to work normally. If the equipment is configured with the 1+1 FD protection, the active ODU generates the CONFIG_NOSUPPORT alarm. In this case, the IF 1+1 protection switching may be triggered.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The type and configuration parameters of the ODU do not match the requirements.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The type and configuration parameters of the ODU do not match the requirements. (1) Determine the parameter that does not meet the requirement according to the alarm parameter. Then, handle the fault accordingly. If... Then...

The alarm parameter takes a value from Perform the operation described in Step 0x01 to 0x03 1.2. The alarm parameter takes a value from Perform the operation described in Step 0x04 to 0x06 1.3. (2) Check whether the parameters of the ODU interface meet the requirements of network planning. For details, see Setting the Parameters of ODU Ports. If... The parameters meet the requirements of network planning The parameters do not meet the requirements of network planning Then... Use the ODU of the proper model. Modify the ODU interface parameters.

(3) Check whether the parameters of the IF interface meet the requirements of network planning. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If... Then...

The parameters meet the requirements of Replace the IF board. network planning The parameters do not meet the requirements of network planning Modify the IF interface parameters. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.26 COMMUN_FAIL
Description
The COMMUN_FAIL is an alarm indicating the inter-board communication failure. This alarm is reported when the communication between a board and the SCC board is interrupted.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the ID of the port. The value is always 0x01.

Parameter 2, Parameter 3 Indicates the ID of the path on which the alarm is generated. Parameter 2 is always 0x00. Parameter 3 has the following meanings:
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0x03: inter-board Ethernet communication

Parameter 4, Parameter 5 Parameters 4 and 5 are reserved, and their values are always 0xFF.

Impact on the System


The NE configuration cannot be delivered to the board or the board cannot work. Consequently, the services cannot be configured or the protection switching function is unavailable.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: A certain board is reset. Cause 2: A board and the backplane are connected improperly. Cause 3: A certain board is faulty. Cause 4: A slot is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: A certain board is reset. (1) After you reset the board, the alarm disappears automatically. Step 2 Cause 2: A board and the backplane are connected improperly. (1) Remove and insert the alarmed board. For details, see 6.1 Removing a Board and 6.2 Inserting a Board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared.

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If... The alarm disappears after the board is removed and inserted The alarm persists after the board is replaced. Step 3 Cause 3: A certain board is faulty.

Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Clear the alarm according to the solution for the alarm that is generated when a board is faulty.

(1) Replace the board that reports the alarm, and then check whether the alarm is cleared. For details, see 6 Part Replacement. If... The alarm disappears after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Step 4 Cause 3: A slot is faulty. (1) Contact Huawei engineers to handle the faulty slot.
TIP

Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Clear the alarm according to the solution for the alarm that is generated when a slot is faulty.

The slot becomes faulty due to broken pins or bent pins. Remove the board, and use a torch to check whether any pins are broken or bent.

(2) If an idle slot is available, insert the board in the idle slot, and then update the data on the NMS so that the board can work normally. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.27 DBMS_ERROR
Description
The DBMS_ERROR is an alarm indicating that errors occur in the processing of the system database.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the
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following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning
l l l l l

Parameter 1 Indicates the types of the database errors. 0x01: The input parameters are illegal. 0x02: The database files do not exist. 0x03: The database memory area numbers are incorrect. 0x04: The database overwriting occurs. 0x05: Errors occur in the header information check in the database backup area. 0x06: Errors occur in the FAT table structure check in the database storage area. 0x07: Errors occur in the database check in the database backup area. 0x08: Recovering the database fails. 0x09: The database ID is invalid. 0x0A: The databases are different. 0x0B: The data is unchecked. 0x0E: The semaphore handle is invalid. 0x0F: Errors occur in applying for memory. 0x10: Errors occur in releasing memory. 0x12: Transmitting the message capsule fails. 0x13: The starting and ending records of the database are incorrect. 0x14: The database is null. 0x15: The flag is incorrectly set. 0x16: The input command parameters are incorrect. 0x17: Non-backup database. 0x18: The database is in the protection mode. 0x19: The configuration is not verified.

l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

Parameter 2 Indicates the errored data storage area.


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0x00: database in fdb0 0x01: database in fdb1 0x02: database in drdb

Parameter 3 Indicates the ID of the errored database.


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0x00: all databases in the entire storage area. 0x01-0xff: ID of the errored database

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Impact on the System


When the DBMS_ERROR alarm occurs, it indicates that errors occur in the system database processing. The system configuration may be lost. As a result, the failure indication is returned for certain query and setting commands, and certain system functions cannot work.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The database processing fails or the database is damaged. Cause 2: Board failure occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The database processing fails or the database is damaged. (1) Reset the system control board. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is reset The alarm persists after the board is reset Step 2 Cause 2: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board. ----End Then... End the fault handling. Ensure that the system control board is normal.

Related Information
None.

A.3.28 DBMS_PROTECT_MODE
Description
The DBMS_PROTECT_MODE is an alarm indicating that the system database is in protection mode.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the DBMS_PROTECT_MODE alarm occurs, it indicates that errors occur in the system database processing. The system configuration may be lost. As a result, the failure indication is returned for certain query and setting commands, and certain system functions cannot work.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The data enters the protection mode due to frequent resets of the NE software.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The data enters the protection mode due to frequent resets of the NE software. (1) Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.29 DOWN_E1_AIS
Description
The DOWN_E1_AIS is an alarm of the 2 Mbit/s downlink signal. This alarm occurs when the tributary board detects the 2 Mbit/s downlink signal of all 1s.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Parameter 2Parameter 3 Meaning 0x01, indicates optical interface number. Indicates the number of the path.

Impact on the System


When the DOWN_E1_AIS alarm occurs, the E1 signal in the path that reports the alarm is unavailable.
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Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The opposite NE transmits the E1_AIS alarm. Cause 2: On the local NE, the receive unit of the tributary board or the system control and cross-connect board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite NE transmits the E1_AIS alarm. (1) Check whether the opposite NE reports the UP_E1_AIS or T_ALOS alarm. If... Then...

The opposite NE reports the UP_E1_AIS Clear the alarm immediately. or T_ALOS alarm The opposite NE does not report the UP_E1_AIS or T_ALOS alarm Ensure that the board on the local NE is normal.

Step 2 Cause 2: On the local NE, the receive unit of the tributary board or the system control and crossconnect board is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the tributary unit that reports the alarm is located. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Then...

The alarm is cleared The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. The alarm persists ----End Replace the system control and cross-connect board on the local NE.

Related Information
None.

A.3.30 E1_LOC
Description
The E1_LOC is an alarm indicating that the uplink 2M clock is lost. This alarm occurs when the tributary board fails to extract the clock from the E1 signal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the E1_LOC occurs, the service is not affected.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The opposite NE is faulty. Cause 2: The wiring sequence of the cable is incorrect. Cause 3: The receive unit of the tributary board on the local NE is faulty. Cause 4: The input E1 signal has an abnormal waveform.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite NE is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault on the opposite NE. Step 2 Cause 2: The wiring sequence of the cable is incorrect. (1) Redo the cable. Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the tributary board on the local NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the line unit is located. Step 4 Cause 4: The input E1 signal has an abnormal waveform. (1) Check whether any external interference causes the abnormal waveform of the E1 signal. If... There is the external interference There is no external interference ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Contact Huawei engineers.

Related Information
None.

A.3.31 E1_LOS
Description
The E1_LOS is an alarm indicating the loss of the E1 signal. This alarm occurs when the tributary board detects the uplink E1 signal of all 0s.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the E1_LOS alarm occurs, the E1 service is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The cable is not connected or the cable is faulty. Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty. Cause 3: The tributary board on the local NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The cable is not connected or the cable is faulty. (1) Check whether the cable is connected properly. If... The cable is not connected properly The cable is prepared incorrectly Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault on the opposite NE. Step 3 Cause 3: The tributary board on the local NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the tributary unit is located. ----End Then... Connect the cable properly. Redo the cable.

Related Information
None.

A.3.32 ETH_CFM_LOC
Description
The ETH_CFM_LOC is an alarm indicating the loss of connectivity. This alarm occurs when the system fails to receive the CCM packet from the remote MEP in 3.5 connectivity check (CC) periods successively.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical
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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2, Parameter 3, Parameter 4 (Port) Parameter 5, Parameter 6 (VLAN ID) Parameter 7 (Direction) Meaning Indicates the ID of the port that reports the alarm. Indicates the VLAN ID of the MEP. Indicates the direction of the local MEP.
l l l

0x00: The port is direction insensitive. 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

Parameter 8 (Level)

Indicates the MD level of the local MEP.


l l l l l l l l

0x00: consumer MEP level (low) 0x01: consumer MEP level (medium) 0x02: consumer MEP level (high) 0x03: provider MEP level (low) 0x04: provider MEP level (high) 0x05: operator MEP level (low) 0x06: operator MEP level (medium) 0x07: operator MEP level (high)

NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameter 9, Parameter 10 (RMEPID)

Indicates the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


l

When the ETH_CFM_LOC alarm occurs, the LB and LT detection functions of IEEE 802.1ag ETH-OAM are unavailable. The service between the relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line between the local standard MEP and the remote standard MEP is interrupted. Cause 2: The Ethernet service in the maintenance association (MA) to which the local MEP belongs is faulty. Cause 3: Serious congestion occurs on the network.

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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line between the local standard MEP and the remote standard MEP is interrupted. (1) Check whether the physical links (such as network cables and fibers) between the standard MEPs are connected properly. If... The physical links are connected improperly The physical links are connected properly Then... Connect the physical links properly. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The Ethernet service in the maintenance association (MA) to which the local MEP belongs is faulty. (1) Check whether Ethernet service in the maintenance association (MA) to which the local MEP belongs is configured correctly. If... Then...

The service is configured incorrectly Modify the configuration of the service to ensure consistency at two ends. The service is configured correctly Go to Cause 3.

Step 3 Cause 3: Serious congestion occurs on the network. (1) Check the utilization of bandwidth. If the bandwidth is exhausted, increase the bandwidth or eliminate the source that transmits a large amount of invalid data. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.33 ETH_CFM_MISMERGE
Description
The ETH_CFM_MISMERGE is an alarm indicating an incorrect connection. This alarm occurs when the system receives the CCM packet whose MA mismatches or whose priority is lower.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2, Parameter 3, Parameter 4 (Port) Parameter 5, Parameter 6 (VLAN ID) Parameter 7 (Direction)

Meaning Indicates the ID of the port that reports the alarm. Indicates the VLAN ID of the MEP. Indicates the direction of the local MEP.
l l l

0x00: The port is direction insensitive. 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

Parameter 8 (Level)

Indicates the MD level of the local MEP.


l l l l l l l l

0x00: consumer MEP level (low) 0x01: consumer MEP level (medium) 0x02: consumer MEP level (high) 0x03: provider MEP level (low) 0x04: provider MEP level (high) 0x05: operator MEP level (low) 0x06: operator MEP level (medium) 0x07: operator MEP level (high)

NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameter 9, Parameter 10

Indicates the ID of the local MEP.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_CFM_MISMERGE alarm occurs, the service between the relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted, and the data flow may be routed incorrectly.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The names of the maintenance domain and the maintenance alliance that the standard MEPs correspond to are inconsistent. Cause 2: The levels of the maintenance domains that the standard MEPs correspond to are different. Cause 3: The physical connection is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The names of the maintenance domain and the maintenance alliance that the standard MEPs correspond to are inconsistent. (1) Check whether the names of the maintenance domain and the maintenance alliance that the standard MEPs correspond to are consistent.

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If...

Then...

The names are inconsistent Set the other names of maintenance domain and maintenance alliance to ensure consistency at both ends. The names are consistent Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The levels of the maintenance domains that the standard MEPs correspond to are different. (1) Check whether the MD levels of the standard MEPs are the same. If... Then...

The levels are different Set the MD levels again to ensure consistency at both ends. The levels are the same Go to Cause 3. Step 3 Cause 3: The physical connection is incorrect. (1) Check the physical connection of the Ethernet service route and rectify the fault of the physical connection if any. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.34 ETH_CFM_RDI
Description
The ETH_CFM_RDI is an alarm indicating the CCM packet with RDI received from the remote MEP. This alarm occurs when the system receives the CCM packet with RDI from the remote MEP.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2, Parameter 3, Parameter 4 (Port)
A-62

Meaning Indicates the ID of the port that reports the alarm.


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Name Parameter 5, Parameter 6 (VLAN ID) Parameter 7 (Direction)

Meaning Indicates the VLAN ID of the MEP. Indicates the direction of the local MEP.
l l l

0x00: The port is direction insensitive. 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

Parameter 8 (Level)

Indicates the MD level of the local MEP.


l l l l l l l l

0x00: consumer MEP level (low). 0x01: consumer MEP level (medium). 0x02: consumer MEP level (high). 0x03: provider MEP level (low). 0x04: provider MEP level (high). 0x05: operator MEP level (low). 0x06: operator MEP level (medium). 0x07: operator MEP level (high).

NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameter 9, Parameter 10 (RMEPID)

Indicates the ID of the remote MEP.

Impact on the System


l

When the ETH_CFM_RDI alarm occurs, the loopback (LB) and link trace (LT) detection functions of IEEE 802.1ag ETH-OAM are unavailable. The service between the relevant standard MEPs may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The remote MEP fails to receive the correct CCM packet. Cause 2: The software is reset or the other software fault occurs at the remote MEP.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The remote MEP fails to receive the correct CCM packet. (1) Determine the port that reports the alarm according to the alarm parameter. (2) Check whether the remote MEP that is connected to the port reports the ETH_CFM_MISMERGE, ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI, or ETH_CFM_LOC alarm. If... Any of the preceding alarms occurs No such alarms occur Then... Clear the alarm at the remote end. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The software is reset or the other software fault occurs at the remote MEP.
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(1) Check whether the equipment at the remote MEP is reset. If... The equipment is reset Then... Rectify the fault and then end the alarm handling.

The equipment is not reset Perform a warm reset on the board where the remote MEP is located. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.35 ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI
Description
The ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI is an alarm indicating the errored frame. This alarm occurs when the system receives invalid CCM packets.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2, Parameter 3, Parameter 4 (Port) Parameter 5, Parameter 6 (VLAN ID) Parameter 7 (Direction) Meaning Indicates the ID of the port that reports the alarm. Indicates the VLAN ID of the MEP. Indicates the direction of the local MEP.
l l l

0x00: The port is direction insensitive. 0x01: The port is in the ingress direction. 0x02: The port is in the egress direction.

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Name Parameter 8 (Level)

Meaning Indicates the MD level of the local MEP.


l l l l l l l l

0x00: consumer MEP level (low) 0x01: consumer MEP level (medium) 0x02: consumer MEP level (high) 0x03: provider MEP level (low) 0x04: provider MEP level (high) 0x05: operator MEP level (low) 0x06: operator MEP level (medium) 0x07: operator MEP level (high)

NOTE Consumer indicates the user, provider indicates the supplier, and operator indicates the carrier.

Parameter 9, Parameter 10

Indicates the ID of the local MEP.

Impact on the System


l

When the ETH_CFM_UNEXPERI alarm occurs, the LB and LT detection functions of IEEE 802.1ag ETH-OAM are unavailable. The service may become abnormal due to the loop.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: No remote MEP is configured. Cause 2: The configuration of the MEPs at both ends are inconsistent. For example, the connectivity check (CC) periods are different, and the IDs of the MEPs are in conflict. Cause 3: The service is looped back and the looped packet is received. Cause 4: A software fault occurs at the MEP at the transmit end.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: No remote MEP is configured. (1) Check whether the remote MEP is configured. If not, configure the remote MEP first. Step 2 Cause 2: The configuration of the MEPs at both ends are inconsistent. For example, the connectivity check (CC) periods are different, and the IDs of the MEPs are in conflict. (1) Check whether the CC periods set at the MEPs are the same. If... Then...

The CC periods are different Change the CC periods to ensure consistency at both ends. The CC periods are the same Go to the next step. (2) Check whether the IDs of the MEPs in the maintenance domain are in conflict.
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If... The IDs are in conflict The IDs are not in conflict

Then... Change the conflicting IDs. Go to Cause 2.

Step 3 Cause 3: The service is looped back and the looped packet is received. (1) Check whether any loop exists at each IP port of the service trail. If yes, release the loop and clear the alarm. Step 4 Cause 4: A software fault occurs at the MEP at the transmit end. (1) Perform a warm reset on the Ethernet board where the remote MEP is located. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.36 ETH_EFM_DF
Description
The ETH_EFM_DF is an alarm indicating negotiation failure. This alarm occurs when the pointto-point OAM protocol negotiation fails at the Ethernet port.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the reason why the negotiation fails.


l l l

0x01: The local link is faulty. 0x02: The local end fails to receive any OAM packets in a specified period. 0x03: The OAM settings of the opposite end do not meet the requirements of the local end. 0x04: The OAM settings of the local end do not meet the requirements of the opposite end.
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Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_Discover alarm occurs, the service at the port that reports the alarm may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The physical port of the local end is faulty. Cause 2: The point to point OAM protocol is not enabled at the opposite end. Cause 3: The OAM configuration at both ends is inconsistent.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The physical port of the local end is faulty. (1) Check whether the physical port is faulty. If yes, replace the board where the Ethernet port is located. Step 2 Cause 2: The point to point OAM protocol is not enabled at the opposite end. (1) Enable the point to point OAM protocol at the opposite end. Step 3 Cause 3: The OAM configuration at both ends is inconsistent. (1) Reconfigure the point to point OAM protocol and ensure the consistency at both ends. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.37 ETH_EFM_EVENT
Description
The ETH_EFM_EVENT is an alarm indicating the performance event reported on the opposite NE. This alarm occurs when the local end receives the link error indication packet (OAMPDUM) from the opposite end.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name Parameter 1

Meaning Indicates the type of the link event.


l l l l

0x01: errored symbol period. 0x02: errored frame. 0x03: errored frame period. 0x04: errored frame seconds summary.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_EVENT alarm occurs, the service at the port that reports the alarm may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The physical port at the local end is faulty. Cause 2: The equipment at the opposite end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The physical port at the local end is faulty. (1) Check whether the physical port is faulty. If yes, replace the board where the Ethernet port is located. Step 2 Cause 2: The equipment at the opposite end is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault of the equipment at the opposite end. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.38 ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK
Description
The ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK is an alarm indicating the loopback. This alarm occurs when the local end initiates a loopback or responds to a loopback request from the opposite end.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the
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following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the state of the loopback.
l l

0x01: The local end initiates a loopback. 0x02: The local end responds to a loop request from the opposite end.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_LOOPBACK alarm occurs, the service at the port that reports the alarm is looped back.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The local end initiates a loopback. Cause 2: The opposite end initiates a loopback.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local end initiates a loopback. (1) According to the alarm parameter, it is determined that the local end initiates a loopback. Determine the causes of the loopback initiated at the local end and release the loopback as soon as possible. Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite end initiates a loopback. (1) According to the alarm parameter, it is determined that the opposite end initiates a loopback. Determine the causes of the loopback initiated at the opposite port and release the loopback as soon as possible. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.39 ETH_EFM_REMFAULT
Description
The ETH_EFM_REMFAULT is an alarm indicating the fault on the opposite NE. This alarm occurs when the local end receives the fault indication packet (OAMPDUM) from the opposite end.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the fault type at the opposite end.
l l l

0x01: link fault. 0x02: dying gasp. 0x03: critical event.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_EFM_REMFAULT alarm occurs, the service at the port that reports the alarm may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The opposite NE is reset. Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite NE is reset. (1) Check whether the opposite NE is reset frequently. If... The opposite NE is reset frequently Then... Rectify the fault on the opposite NE.

The opposite NE is not reset frequently Reset the opposite NE, and the alarm is cleared. Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.40 ETH_LOS
Description
The ETH_LOS is an alarm indicating the loss of Ethernet port connection.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the ETH_LOS alarm occurs, the service at the port that reports the alarm is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The negotiation fails because the transmit port and receive port work in different modes. Cause 2: The cable or fiber is faulty. Cause 3: The opposite NE is faulty.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The negotiation fails because the transmit port and receive port work in different modes. (1) Check whether the transmit port and receive port work in the same mode. If... Then...

The transmit port and receive port work Correctly set the working modes of the in different modes transmit port and receive port. The transmit port and receive port work Go to Cause 2. in the same mode Step 2 Cause 2: The cable or fiber is faulty. (1) Check the network cable or fiber jumper connected to the port that reports the alarm. If... The network cable is loose or damaged Then... Connect the network cable properly or replace the damaged network cable.

The connector of the fiber jumper is dirty Clean the connector. The connector is loosely connected or damaged
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Insert the connector properly or replace the damaged fiber jumper.


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If... The connection is normal Step 3 Cause 3: The opposite NE is faulty.

Then... Go to Cause 3.

(1) Check whether any fault occurs on the equipment interconnected with the port that reports the alarm. If... The equipment is faulty Then... Rectify the fault.

The equipment is normal Replace the board that reports the alarm on the local NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.41 ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP
Description
The ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP is an alarm indicating the loopback of the MAC port that runs the point-to-point OAM protocol. This alarm occurs when the MAC port of a board receives the OAM protocol packet sent by the port itself or the board after the loop detection function is enabled.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Environmental alarms

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the loopback type.
l l

0x01: self-loop of the port. 0x02: self-loop of the board.


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Impact on the System


When the ETHOAM_SELF_LOOP alarm occurs, a network storm may occur due to the loopback.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The cable connected to the port is self-looped, or the port is accessed to a LAN that has a loopback, or the PHY/MAC loopback is manually configured at the port. Cause 2: Two ports of the board are connected through cables or two ports of the board are accessed to the same LAN.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the loopback type according to Parameter 4, and then handle the loopback accordingly. If... The value of Parameter 4 is 0x01 The value of Parameter 4 is 0x02 Then... Go to Cause 1. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 1: The cable connected to the port is self-looped, or the port is accessed to a LAN that has a loopback, or the PHY/MAC loopback is manually configured at the port. If... The PHY/MAC loopback is manually configured at the port The cable connected to the port is selflooped The port is accessed to a LAN that has a loopback Then... Manually release the PHY/MAC loopback (or wait five minutes for the automatic release by the NE). Then, the self-loop is released. Connect the cable properly to release the selfloop. Release the loopback on the LAN, or break the connection between the port and the LAN, to release the self-loop.

Step 3 Cause 2: Two ports of the board are connected through cables or two ports of the board are accessed to the same LAN. (1) Check whether two ports of the board are connected through cables or whether two ports of the board are accessed to the same LAN. If... The two ports are connected through cables The two ports are accessed to the same network ----End Then... Disconnect the cables to release the selfloop. Break the connection between a port and the LAN to release the self-loop.

Related Information
None.
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A.3.42 EXT_SYNC_LOS
Description
The EXT_SYNC_LOS is an alarm of the loss of the external clock source.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


l

When the EXT_SYNC_LOS alarm occurs, if only the external clock source and internal clock source are configured in the clock source priority list, the NE traces the internal clock source after the external clock source is lost and enters the free-run state 24 hours later. If another valid clock source of higher priority and good quality is configured in the clock source priority list, however, the clock protection switching occurs.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The external clock source is configured in the clock source priority list, but the external clock source cannot be detected or become invalid.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The external clock source is configured in the clock source priority list, but the external clock source cannot be detected or become invalid. (1) Check whether the equipment that provides the external clock source is faulty. If... The equipment is faulty The equipment is normal Then... Rectify the fault. Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the cable that connects the external clock source is normal. If... The cable is abnormal The cable is normal ----End Then... Replace the cable. Replace the board that reports the alarm.

Related Information
None.
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A.3.43 FAN_AGING
Description
The FAN_AGING is an alarm of the aged fan. This alarm occurs when the fan runs at a speed lower than 80% of the rated value.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the ID of the fan that reports the alarm.

Impact on the System


When the FAN_AGING alarm occurs, it indicates that the NE has an over high temperature, which affects the long-time NE operation.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The fan is aged.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The fan is aged. (1) Replace the fan. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.44 FAN_FAIL
Description
The FAN_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the fan is faulty.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the fan. The values 0x01 to 0x06 separately represent each fan.

Impact on the System


When the FAN_FAIL alarm occurs, the heat dissipation of the system is affected.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The board and the backplane are connected improperly. Cause 2: Fan failure occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The board and the backplane are connected improperly. (1) Remove the fan board. Clean the dust on the fan and reinsert the fan board. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is removed and inserted The alarm persists after the board is removed and inserted Step 2 Cause 2: Fan failure occurs. (1) Replace the fan board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.45 FLOW_OVER
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Description
The FLOW_OVER is an alarm indicating that the data flow received by the Ethernet port exceeds the threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the FLOW_OVER alarm occurs, the extra data may be discarded by the port.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The traffic threshold of the local port is very low. Cause 2: The opposite end transmits excessive data flow.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The traffic threshold of the local port is very low. (1) Increase the traffic threshold of the local port to a value that is lower than the rate of the local port. Step 2 Cause 2: The opposite end transmits excessive data flow. (1) Configure the QoS policies at the opposite end to reduce the data flow that the opposite end transmits. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.46 HARD_BAD
Description
The HARD_BAD is an alarm indicating hardware errors.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

Parameter 1 Indicates the cause of the fault. 0x01: The power module is working abnormally. 0x02: The board is installed improperly. 0x03: 38 MHz system clock 1 is abnormal. 0x04: 38 MHz system clock 2 is abnormal. 0x05: The 2 MHz clock source is abnormal. 0x06: The digital phase-locked loop is abnormal. 0x07: The 38 MHz service clock is lost. 0x08: The bus is abnormal. 0x09: The TPS protection board is abnormal. 0x0A: The primary crystal oscillator stops oscillating. 0x0B: The frequency offset of the primary crystal oscillator is excessive. 0x0C: The secondary crystal oscillator stops oscillating. 0x0D: The processor (CPU/DSP/coprocessor) is faulty. 0x0E: The storage components are faulty. 0x0F: The programmable logic device is faulty. 0x10: The SDH components are faulty. 0x11: The data communication components are faulty. 0x12: The clock components are faulty. 0x13: The interface components are faulty. 0x14: The power components are faulty. 0x15: The other fault occurs. 0x16: The analog phase-locked loop is abnormal. 0x17: The 32 MHz clock is unavailable. 0x18: The 66 MHz clock is unavailable. 0x19: The 25 MHz clock is unavailable. 0x1A: The ring of cross-connect chip is damaged.

Impact on the System


The board that reports the alarm fails to work. If the board is configured with the 1+1 protection, the protection switching may be triggered.
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Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The board and the backplane are connected improperly. Cause 2: Board failure occurs. Cause 3: The slot is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The board and backplane are connected improperly. (1) Remove and insert the board that reports the alarm. For details, see 6.1 Removing a Board and 6.2 Inserting a Board. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is removed and inserted The alarm persists after the board is removed and inserted Step 2 Cause 2: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm, and then check whether the alarm is cleared. For details, see 6 Part Replacement. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Step 3 Cause 3: The slot is faulty. (1) Contact Huawei engineers to handle the faulty slot.
TIP

Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Ensure that the board is normal.

Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Ensure that the slot is normal.

Generally, the slot becomes faulty due to the broken pin or bent pin. Remove the board, and use an electric torch to observe whether there is any broken pin or bent pin.

(2) If an idle slot is available, insert the board in the idle slot and add the board again. Then, the board can work normally. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.47 HP_CROSSTR
Description
The HP_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that the higher order path error crosses the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the performance event that the higher order path error crosses the preset threshold.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:
l l

0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


When the HP_CROSSTR alarm occurs, a large number of errors occur in the service, and the service may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The higher order path error crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The higher order path error crosses the preset threshold. (1) Check the threshold crossing records to find out the performance event that the higher order path error crosses the preset threshold. For details, see 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records. (2) Handle the threshold-crossing performance event. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.48 HP_LOM
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Description
The HP_LOM is an alarm indicating the loss of the higher order path multiframe. This alarm occurs when the board detects that byte H4 is inconsistent with the expected multiframe sequence.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the HP_LOM alarm occurs, the service on the path that reports the alarm is interrupted. If the services are configured with protection, the protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty. Cause 2: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit unit of the opposite NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... Then...

The alarm is cleared The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. The alarm persists Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board on the opposite NE.

Step 2 Cause 2: The receive unit of the local NE is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.49 HP_RDI
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Description
The HP_RDI is an alarm indicating the higher order path remote receive failure. This alarm occurs when the board detects that bit 5 of byte G1 is 1.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the HP_RDI occurs, the service on the local NE is not affected. The service received by the opposite NE, however, is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the higher order path remote receive failure.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the higher order path remote receive failure. (1) Clear the alarms such as HP_LOM and B3_EXC that the AU-4 path reports on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.50 HP_REI
Description
The HP_REI is an alarm indicating the higher order path remote error. This alarm occurs when the board detects that bits 1-4 of G1 take a value from 1 to 8.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning
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Alarm Type Communication alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service on the local station is not affected. The service received by the opposite station, however, has errors.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the higher order path remote errors.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the higher order path remote receive failure. (1) Handle the HP_BBE performance event that the AU-4 path reports on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.51 HP_SLM
Description
The HP_SLM is an alarm indicating the lower order path label mismatch. This alarm occurs when the board detects the C2 byte mismatch.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


None.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The C2 byte received by the local NE does not match with the C2 byte transmitted by the remote NE.
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Cause 2: Configuration data is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The C2 byte received by the local NE does not match with the C2 byte transmitted by the remote NE. (1) Configure the same service type at the source and sink of the AU-4 path. For details, see Configuring Overhead Bytes. Step 2 Cause 2: Configuration data is incorrect. (1) If the port that reports the alarm is the SDH port that is interconnected with the ATM/ Ethernet equipment, configure the service as VC-4 pass-through service. For details, see Creating Cross-Connections of SNCP Services. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.52 HP_TIM
Description
The HP_TIM is an alarm indicating the higher order path trace identifier mismatch. This alarm occurs when the board detects the J1 byte mismatch.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If the service is configured with the protection that considers the HP_TIM alarm as a trigger condition, the protection switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The receivable J1 byte on the local NE does not match with the J1 byte transmitted on the opposite NE. Cause 2: Configuration data is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The receivable J1 byte on the local NE does not match with the J1 byte transmitted on the opposite NE.
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(1) Disable the receivable J1 byte on the local NE or set the receivable J1 byte on the local NE to the same as the transmitted J1 byte on the opposite NE. For details, see Configuring VC-4 POHs. Step 2 Cause 2: Configuration data is incorrect. (1) If the port that reports the alarm is the SDH port that is interconnected with the ATM/ Ethernet equipment, configure the service as VC-4 pass-through service. For details, see Creating Cross-Connections of SNCP Services or Creating the Cross-Connections of Pointto-Point Services. If... Then...

The alarm is cleared after the configuration The fault is rectified. End the alarm is changed handling. The alarm persists after the configuration is changed Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the cross-connections are configured correctly at the intermediate nodes where the service travels. If not, reconfigure the cross-connections. For details, see Creating Cross-Connections of SNCP Services or Creating the Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.53 HP_UNEQ
Description
The HP_UNEQ is an alarm indicating the unequipped higher order path. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the C2 byte is 0.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name Parameter 1

Meaning Indicates the ID of the line port that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by port 1 of the related board.

Parameter 2, Parameter 3 Indicates the ID of the AU-4 path that reports the alarm. For example, 0x00 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by path 1 of the SDH signal.

Impact on the System


When the HP_UNEQ alarm occurs, the service in the AU-4 path that reports the alarm is unavailable. If the service is configured with the protection that considers the alarm as a trigger condition, the protection switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The line port at the local NE is configured with services, but the corresponding line port at the opposite NE is not configured with services. Cause 2: Byte C2 is set to 0 at the opposite NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The line port at the local NE is configured with services, but the corresponding line port at the opposite NE is not configured with services. (1) Configure line services on the opposite NE. For details, see Creating Cross-Connections of SNCP Services or Creating the Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services. Step 2 Cause 2: Byte C2 is set to 0 at the opposite NE. (1) Change the setting of byte C2. For details, see Configuring VC-4 POHs. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.54 HPAD_CROSSTR
Description
The HPAD_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that the higher order path adaptation performance crosses the threshold. This alarm occurs when a board detects that the performance event of TU pointer justification crosses the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Service alarm

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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:
l l

0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


When the HPAD_CROSSTR alarm occurs, bit errors may occur in the service.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The performance event of TU pointer justification crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The performance event of TU pointer justification crosses the preset threshold. (1) Check the threshold crossing records to find out the performance event of TU pointer justification that crosses the preset threshold. For details, see 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records. (2) Handle the threshold-crossing performance event. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.55 IF_CABLE_OPEN
Description
The IF_CABLE_OPEN is an alarm indicating that the IF cable is open.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the IF_CABLE_OPEN alarm occurs, the service on the IF port that reports the alarm is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The IF cable is loose or faulty. Cause 2: The IF port on the IF board is damaged. Cause 3: The power module of the ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The IF cable is loose or faulty. (1) Check whether the connector of the IF cable is loose or whether the connector is made properly. The connectors to be checked include the connector between the IF fiber jumper and the IF board, the connector between the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable, and the connector between the IF cable and the ODU. If... The connector is loose The connector is made improperly None of the above Then... Connect the connector tightly. Make a new IF cable connector. Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the surface of the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable is damaged, and test the connectivity between the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable. For details, see Testing the connectivity between cables. If... The cable does not meet the requirement The cable meets the requirement Then... Replace the cable with a qualified one. Go to Cause 2 or Cause 3.

Step 2 Cause 2: The IF port on the IF board is damaged. (1) Replace the IF board that reports the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The power module of the ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU connected to the IF board that reports the alarm. ----End

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Related Information
NOTE

When rectifying the faults of the IF cable, IF port, and ODU, you must turn off the ODU before the operation. You can turn on the ODU only after the operation is complete.

A.3.56 IF_INPWR_ABN
Description
The IF_INPWR_ABN is an alarm indicating that the power that the IF cable inputs into the ODU is abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning
l l

0x01: input power of the ODU is over high. 0x02: input power of the ODU is over low.

Impact on the System


When the IF_INPWR_ABN alarm occurs, the service on the ODU is interrupted. If the 1+1 protection is configured, the 1+1 HSB switching is triggered.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The IF board is faulty. Cause 2: The IF cable is faulty. Cause 3: The ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The IF board is faulty. (1) Replace the IF board connected to the ODU that reports the alarm. Step 2 Cause 2: The IF cable is faulty. (1) Check whether the connector of the IF cable is loose or whether the connector is made properly.
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The connectors to be checked include the connector between the IF fiber jumper and the IF board, the connector between the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable, and the connector between the IF cable and the ODU. If... The connector is loose The connector is made improperly None of the above Then... Connect the connector tightly. Terminate the IF cable with connectors again. Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the surface of the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable is damaged or deformed, and test the connectivity between the IF fiber jumper and the IF cable. For details, see Testing the Connectivity of the IF Cable. If... The cable does not meet the requirement The cable meets the requirement Then... Replace the cable with a qualified one. The IF board or ODU may be faulty.

Step 3 Cause 3: The ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
The logical slot of the ODU is the slot ID of the IF board connected to the ODU plus 20.

A.3.57 IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED
Description
The IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED is an alarm indicating that the configured IF working mode is not supported. This alarm occurs if the board is not loaded with the FPGA file that supports the configured IF working mode.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example,
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Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the ID of the FPGA file that is loaded to the board.
l l

0x01 indicates that FPGA file 250 is loaded. 0x02 indicates that FPGA file 002 is loaded.

Impact on the System


When the IF_MODE_UNSUPPORTED alarm occurs, the service on the IF port that reports the alarm is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The board is not loaded with the FPGA file that supports the configured IF working mode, or the FPGA file that supports the configured IF working mode is damaged.

Procedure
l

Cause 1: The board is not loaded with the FPGA file that supports the configured IF working mode, or the FPGA file that supports the configured IF working mode is damaged. 1. Contact Huawei engineers to upgrade the software and the FPGA file.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.58 IN_PWR_HIGH
Description
The IN_PWR_HIGH is an alarm indicating that the input optical power is over high.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the IN_PWR_HIGH alarm occurs, the service at the optical interface that reports the alarm has errors.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The transmit power of the opposite NE is over high. Cause 2: The model of the selected optical module is incorrect. Cause 3: The optical module at the receive end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit power of the opposite site is over high. (1) Browse current performance events, and query the performance event of the transmit optical power on the opposite NE. If... Then...

The transmit optical power does not meet Contact Huawei engineers to replace the the requirement optical module. The transmit optical power meets the requirement Add a proper attenuator to reduce the receive optical power.

Step 2 Cause 2: The model of the selected optical module is incorrect. (1) Query the board manufacturing information report, and check whether the models of the SFP optical modules used at both ends are correct. If... The models are incorrect The models are correct Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module. Go to Cause 3.

Step 3 Cause 3: The optical module at the receive end is faulty. (1) Use the optical power meter to test the receive optical power, and check whether the receive optical power meets the requirement. If yes, contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module. ----End

Related Information
The optical power threshold set for the IN_PWR_HIGH alarm is lower than the overload point. SDH Optical Interface Performance.

A.3.59 IN_PWR_LOW
Description
The IN_PWR_LOW is an alarm indicating that the input optical power is over low.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the IN_PWR_LOW alarm occurs, the service at the optical interface that reports the alarm has errors.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The transmit power of the opposite NE is over low. Cause 2: The model of the selected optical module is incorrect. Cause 3: The optical module at the receive end is faulty. Cause 4: The fiber performance degrades.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The transmit power of the opposite NE is over low. (1) Browse current performance events, and query the performance event of the transmit optical power on the opposite NE. If... Then...

The transmit optical power does not meet Contact Huawei engineers to replace the the requirement optical module. The transmit optical power meets the requirement Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The model of the selected optical module is incorrect. (1) Query the board manufacturing information report, and check whether the models of the SFP optical modules used at both ends are correct. If... The models are incorrect The models are correct Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module. Go to Cause 3.

Step 3 Cause 3: The optical module at the receive end is faulty. (1) Use the optical power meter to test the receive optical power, and check whether the receive optical power meets the requirement.

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If... The receive optical power meets the requirement

Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module.

The receive optical power does not meet the Go to Cause 4. requirement Step 4 Cause 4: The fiber performance degrades. (1) Clean fiber connectors and adapters. If... The alarm is cleared after the connector is cleaned The alarm persists after the connector is cleaned ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Replace the fiber.

Related Information
The optical power threshold set for the IN_PWR_LOW alarm is higher than the sensitivity point. SDH Optical Interface Performance.

A.3.60 J0_MM
Description
The J0_MM is an alarm indicating the trace identifier mismatch. This alarm occurs when the board detects the J0 byte mismatch.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


None.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The receivable J0 byte on the local NE does not match the transmitted J0 byte on the opposite NE.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The receivable J0 byte on the local NE does not match the transmitted J0 byte on the opposite NE. (1) Disable the receivable J0 byte on the local NE. For details, see Configuring RSOHs. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.61 K1_K2_M
Description
The K1_K2_M is an alarm indicating the K1/K2 byte mismatch. This alarm occurs when the board detects inconsistent channel numbers that the transmitted K1 byte (bits 5-8) and the received K2 byte (bits 1-4) indicate.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning
l l

Parameter 1 Indicates the protection group type. 0x01: linear MS protection. 0x02: ring MS protection.

Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


When the K1_K2_M alarm occurs, the MSP protocol may fail and thus the protection switching may fail.

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Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The switching modes configured at both ends are single-ended switching and dualended switching separately. Cause 2: The fiber connection is incorrect. Cause 3: Board failure occurs.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The switching modes configured at both ends are single-ended switching and dualended switching separately. (1) Check whether the switching modes at both ends are the same. If... The switching modes are different The switching modes are the same Step 2 Cause 2: The fiber connection is incorrect. (1) Check whether the fiber connection is correct. For example, the fiber at the receive or transmit port may be incorrectly connected, or disconnected. If... The fiber connection is incorrect The connection is correct Step 3 Cause 3: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Replace the board that reports the alarm. Then... Connect the fiber properly. Go to Cause 3. Then... Configure the switching modes as the same. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.62 K2_M
Description
The K2_M is an alarm indicating the K2 byte mismatch. This alarm occurs when the board detects that the protection mode indicated by the received K2 (bit 5) is different from the protection mode of the NE.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning
l l

Parameter 1 Indicates the protection group type. 0x01: linear MS protection. 0x02: ring MS protection.

Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


When the K2_M alarm occurs, the MSP protocol may fail and thus the protection switching may fail.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: Two NEs of the linear MSP group are configured with different protection modes (1+1 or 1:N). Cause 2: The MSP protocol is stopped when the protection switching occurs. Cause 3: The fiber connection is incorrect. Cause 4: Board failure occurs.

l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Two NEs of the linear MSP group are configured with different protection modes (1 +1 or 1:N). (1) Query the status of the linear MSP, and check whether two NEs of the linear MSP group are configured with different protection modes (1+1 or 1:1). If... The protection modes are different The protection modes are the same Then... Configure the protection modes as the same. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The MSP protocol is stopped when the protection switching occurs. (1) Query the status of the linear MSP, and check whether the MSP protocol is stopped on the opposite NE.
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If...

Then...

The protocol is stopped Restart the MSP protocol on the opposite NE. For details, see Starting/Stopping the Linear MSP Protocol. The protocol is running Go to Cause 3. Step 3 Cause 3: The fiber connection is incorrect. (1) Check whether the fiber connection is correct. For example, the fiber at the receive or transmit port may be incorrectly connected, or disconnected. If... The connection is incorrect The connection is correct Step 4 Cause 4: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board where the line unit is located on the opposite NE. Then, check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared The alarm persists ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Replace the board that reports the alarm. Then... Connect the fiber properly Go to Cause 4.

Related Information
None.

A.3.63 LAG_BWMM
Description
LAG_BWMM is an alarm indicating the bandwidth inconsistency in the LAG group.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The configuration of the LAG is invalid.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: In the LAG group, the license capacities of the ports differ from each other.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: In the LAG group, the license capacities of the ports differ from each other. (1) Query the license capacities of the ports of the LAG group by using the NMS. (2) If the license capacities of the ports differ from each other, reload a license file of an appropriate capacity. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.64 LAG_DOWN
Description
The LAG_DOWN alarm is an alarm indicating that the link aggregation group (LAG) is unavailable. This alarm occurs when the LAG does not have activated members.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LAG_DOWN alarm occurs, the service at the member port of the LAG is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: All the member ports of the aggregation group are invalid for the same causes as the LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: All the member ports of the LAG are invalid for the same causes as the LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm. (1) Determine the port that reports the alarm according to the alarm parameter.
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(2) Rectify the fault at each member port according to the description of LAG_MEMBER_DOWN. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.65 LAG_MEMBER_DOWN
Description
The LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm is an alarm indicating that a member port of a link aggregation group (LAG) is unavailable. This alarm occurs when a member port of an LAG can neither be activated nor function as a protection port.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the board that reports the alarm. Parameter 3 Indicates the ID of the subboard that reports the alarm. The value is always 0xff.

Parameter 4, Parameter 5 Indicates the ID of the port that reports the alarm. Parameter 6 Indicates the cause that makes the port unavailable.
l l l l

0x01: The port link is faulty or disabled. 0x02: The port fails to receive the LACP packets. 0x03: The port works in half-duplex mode. 0x04: The port is self-looped.

Impact on the System


When the LAG_MEMBER_DOWN alarm occurs, the faulty member port of the LAG cannot share the service load, and the service is not transmitted or received through this port.
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Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The port link is faulty or disabled. Cause 2: The port receives no LACP packets. Cause 3: The port works in half-duplex mode. Cause 4: The port is self-looped.

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the port that reports the alarm and the cause of the alarm according to the alarm parameters. If... The value of Parameter 4 is 0x01 The value of Parameter 4 is 0x02 The value of Parameter 4 is 0x03 The value of Parameter 4 is 0x04 Then... Perform the operations described in step Step 2. Perform the operations described in step Step 3. Perform the operations described in step Step 4. Perform the operations described in step Step 5.

Step 2 Cause 1: The port link is faulty or disabled. (1) On the NMS, check whether the port in the LAG is enabled. For details, see Querying the Protocol Information of the LAG. If... The port is not enabled The port is enabled Then... Enable the port in the LAG. Go to the next step.

(2) Check the link status of all ports and check whether the ETH_LOS alarm is reported. If... The alarm is reported Then... Clear the ETH_LOS alarm immediately and rectify the fault of the port link.

The alarm is not reported Go to Cause 2. Step 3 Cause 2: The port receives no LACP packets. (1) Check whether the local port and the remote port transmit the LACP packets. For details, see Querying the Protocol Information of the LAG. If the LACP packets are not transmitted, configure the ports at two ends to ensure that the packets can be normally transmitted. Step 4 Cause 3: The port works in half-duplex mode. (1) On the NMS, check whether the port in the LAG is enabled. For details, see Querying the Protocol Information of the LAG. If the port is in half-duplex mode, change the working mode of the port into full-duplex. Step 5 Cause 4: The port is self-looped. (1) Check whether the port is self-looped. For details, see 8.15 Querying the Attributes of an Ethernet Port. If the port is self-looped, release the self-loop. For details, see 8.5.3 Setting a Loopback for the Ethernet Interface Board. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.3.66 LASER_CLOSED
Description
The LASER_CLOSED is an alarm indicating that the laser is shut down. This alarm occurs when the laser is shut down by using the NMS.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LASER_CLOSED alarm occurs, the optical interface fails to carry services.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The laser on the local NE is shut down by using the NMS.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The laser on the local NE is shut down by using the NMS. (1) Find out the cause of shutting down the laser and start up the laser as soon as possible. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.67 LASER_MOD_ERR
Description
The LASER_MOD_ERR is an alarm indicating that the type of the pluggable optical module on the board does not match the type of the optical interface.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LASER_MOD_ERR alarm occurs, the performance of the optical interface degrades and serious degradation even causes service interruption.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The optical module installed at the optical interface does not match the rate of the optical interface. Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. Cause 3: Board failure occurs. Cause 4: The small form-factor pluggable (SFP) module does not match the interface type.

l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The optical module installed at the optical interface does not match the rate of the optical interface. (1) Check whether the optical module installed at the optical interface matches the rate of the optical interface. For details, see 8.4.2 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report . If... The optical module does not match the rate of the optical interface The optical module matches the rate of the optical interface Step 2 Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. (1) Replace the faulty optical module. If... The alarm is cleared after the optical module is replaced The alarm persists after the optical module is replaced Step 3 Cause 3: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. Step 4 Cause 4: The SFP module does not match the interface type.
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Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module with one that matches the rate of the optical interface. Go to Cause 2.

Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 3.

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(1) Replace the existing SFP module with a proper SFP module. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.68 LASER_MOD_ERR_EX
Description
The LASER_MOD_ERR is an alarm indicating that the type of the pluggable optical module on the board does not match the type of the optical interface.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LASER_MOD_ERR_EX alarm occurs, the performance of the optical interface degrades and serious degradation even causes service interruption.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The optical module installed at the optical interface does not match the rate of the optical interface. Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. Cause 3: Board failure occurs. Cause 4: The small form-factor pluggable (SFP) module does not match the interface type.

l l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The optical module installed at the optical interface does not match the rate of the optical interface. (1) Check whether the optical module installed at the optical interface matches the rate of the optical interface. For details, see 8.4.2 Querying the Board Manufacturing Information Report .

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If... The optical module does not match the rate of the optical interface The optical module matches the rate of the optical interface Step 2 Cause 2: The optical module is faulty. (1) Replace the faulty optical module. If...

Then... Contact Huawei engineers to replace the optical module with one that matches the rate of the optical interface. Go to Cause 2.

Then... End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 3.

The alarm is cleared after the optical module is replaced The alarm persists after the optical module is replaced Step 3 Cause 3: Board failure occurs. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. Step 4 Cause 4: The SFP module does not match the interface type. (1) Replace the existing SFP module with a proper SFP module. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.69 LCS_LIMITED
Description
The LCS_LIMITED is an alarm indicating that the configuration capacity of an NE exceeds the capacity authorized by the license file.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name

Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the alarm cause.


l l l

0x01: The service capacity exceeds the capacity authorized by the license file. 0x02: The AM license file is not loaded. 0x03: In the case of IF protection, the bandwidth at the standby port authorized by the license file is lower than the bandwidth at the main port authorized by the license file.

Impact on the System


When the LCS_LIMITED alarm occurs, the change of radio service capacity cannot take effect on the NE.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The services configured on the NE exceed the capacity authorized by the license file. Cause 2: The AM configuration on the NE exceeds the limit authorized by the license file. Cause 3: In the case of IF protection, the bandwidth at the standby port authorized by the license file is lower than the bandwidth at the main port authorized by the license file.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Query the capacity of the license by using the NMS. Step 2 Cause 1: The services configured on the NE exceed the capacity authorized by the license file. (1) Check whether the radio service configuration exceeds the capacity of the license. If yes, delete the excessive cross-connections of radio services. Step 3 Cause 2: The AM configuration on the NE exceeds the limit authorized by the license file. (1) Check the AM enabling status. If the license does not allow the AM to be enabled, set the AM function to disabled. Step 4 Cause 3: In the case of IF protection, the bandwidth at the standby port authorized by the license file is lower than the bandwidth at the main port authorized by the license file. (1) Check whether the capacities that are authorized by the license files for the main and standby IF boards in an IF protection group are consistent with the capacities specified in the contract. If not, contact Huawei technical support engineers to reload correct license files. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.70 LCS_MISMATCH
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Description
The LCS_MISMATCH is an alarm indicating that boards in a protection group are loaded with inconsistent license files.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the type of the protection group. 0x03: N+1 IF protection Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


None.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The boards in a protection group are loaded with inconsistent license files.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the capacity of the license on the NMS to obtain the capacities that are authorized by the license files for all the IF boards in the protection group. Step 2 Check whether the capacities that are authorized by the license files for all the IF boards in the protection group are consistent with the capacities specified in the contract. If not, contact Huawei technical support engineers to reload correct license files. ----End

Related Information
The license files of all the IF boards in the N+1 protection group must be consistent.
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A.3.71 LICENSE_LOST
Description
The LICENSE_LOST is an alarm indicating that the NE fails to detect the license file.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the type of the license file.
l l l

0x01: AM license 0x02: Hybrid license 0x03: TDM license

Impact on the System


When the LICENSE_LOST alarm occurs, the functions authorized by the license file cannot take effect.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The license file is lost or is not loaded.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The license file is lost or is not loaded. (1) Contact Huawei engineers to reload the license file to the NE. ----End

Related Information
The NE calculates the radio service capacity according to the service cross-connections on the IF board.
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A.3.72 LOOP_ALM
Description
The LOOP_ALM is an alarm indicating that a loop occurs.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name Parameter 1

Meaning Indicates the type of loopback.


l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

0x00: optical/electrical port inloop. 0x01: optical/electrical port outloop. 0x02: path inloop. 0x03: path outloop. 0x04: loopback on the user side. 0x05: loopback on the multiplexing side. 0x06: SPI inloop. 0x07: SPI outloop. 0x08: ATM layer inloop. 0x09: ATM layer outloop. 0x0A: PHY layer inloop. 0x0B: PHY layer outloop. 0x0C: MAC layer inloop. 0x0D: MAC layer outloop. 0x0E: VC-4 timeslot inloop. 0x0F: VC-4 timeslot outloop. 0x10: VC-3 timeslot inloop. 0x11: VC-3 timeslot outloop. 0x12: VC-12 timeslot inloop. 0x13: VC-12 timeslot outloop. 0x14: IF outloop. 0x15: IF inloop. 0x16: RF inloop. 0xFF: any of the preceding loopback modes.

Impact on the System


When the LOOP_ALM alarm occurs, the looped port or path cannot carry services.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: A loop is performed on the local NE.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: A loop is performed on the local NE. (1) Determine the type of loopback according to the alarm parameter. (2) Find out the cause of the loopback, and set the loopback status of the port that reports the alarm to Non-Loopback.
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For details, see 8.5 Software Loopback. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.73 LP_CROSSTR
Description
The LP_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that the lower order path error crosses the threshold. This alarm occurs when the board detects the performance event that the lower order path error crosses the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:
l l

0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


When the LP_CROSSTR alarm occurs, a large number of errors occur in the service, and the service may even be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The lower order path error crosses the preset threshold.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The lower order path error crosses the preset threshold. (1) Check the threshold crossing records to find out the performance event that the lower order path error crosses the preset threshold. (2) Handle the threshold-crossing performance event. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.74 LP_R_FIFO
Description
The LP_R_FIFO is an alarm indicating that the FIFO overflows on the transmit side of the lower order path.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LP_R_FIFO alarm occurs, the service has errors.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The clock of the local NE is not synchronized with the clock of the opposite NE. Cause 2: Board failure occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The clock of the local NE is not synchronized with the clock of the opposite NE. (1) Browse current performance events, and check whether the performance event of TU pointer justification occurs on the local NE and the opposite NE. If... The TU pointer justification occurs Then... Handle the performance event. For details, see C.3.21 TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, and TUPJCNEW.
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If... The TU pointer justification does not occur Step 2 Cause 2: Board failure occurs.

Then... Go to Cause 2.

(1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.75 LP_RDI
Description
The LP_RDI is an alarm indicating the lower order path remote receive failure. This alarm occurs when the board detects that bit 8 of byte V5 is 1.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LP_RDI occurs, the service on the local NE is not affected. The service received by the opposite NE, however, is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote receive failure.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote receive failure. (1) Handle the lower order path alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.76 LP_REI
Description
The LP_REI is an alarm indicating the lower order path remote error. This alarm occurs when the board detects that bits 3 of V5 is 1.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LP_REI alarm occurs, the service on the local NE is not affected. The service received by the opposite NE, however, has errors.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote errors.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote errors. (1) Handle the LP_BBE performance event on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.77 LP_RFI
Description
The LP_RFI is an alarm indicating the lower order path remote failure. This alarm occurs when the board detects that bits 4 of V5 is 1.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the LP_RFI alarm occurs, the service on the local NE is not affected. The alarm only indicates that the lower order paths on the opposite NE cannot carry services.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote failure.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local NE detects the message that is returned by the opposite NE and indicates the lower order path remote failure. (1) Handle the lower order path alarm on the opposite NE. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.78 LP_SIZE_ERR
Description
The LP_SIZE_ERR is an alarm indicating that the size of the TU pointer is incorrect.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the board are interrupted.
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Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The configuration of the mapping structure at the local end or remote end is incorrect. Cause 2: The tributary board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The configuration of the mapping structure at the local end or remote end is incorrect. (1) Check whether the types of the add/drop services configured on the board at the local end or remote end are the same as the service types supported by the board. For details, see Querying TDM Services. If... The service types are different The service types are the same Step 2 Cause 2: The tributary unit is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the faulty tributary unit is. ----End Then... Change the configuration data. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.79 LP_SLM
Description
The LP_SLM is an alarm indicating that a mismatched signal label is detected in the lower order path. This alarm is reported when the board detects a signal label mismatch between the V5 bytes.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services in the lower order path are unavailable.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The signal label contained in the V5 byte that is received by the local station does not match with the signal label contained in the V5 byte that is transmitted by the remote station.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The signal label contained in the V5 byte that is received by the local station does not match with the signal label contained in the V5 byte that is transmitted by the remote station. (1) Modify the signal label contained in the V5 byte that is to be received by the local station or is to be transmitted by the remote station. Ensure that the signal labels at both ends match with each other. For details, see Configuring VC-12 POHs. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.80 LP_T_FIFO
Description
The LP_T_FIFO is an alarm indicating that the FIFO overflows on the transmission side of the lower order path.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Bit errors occur in the services.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. (1) Use an SDH analyzer to check whether the frequency offset of the input signal is within 50 ppm.
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If... The frequency offset is very large The frequency offset is within 50 ppm Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm.. ----End

Then... Troubleshoot the remote site. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.81 LP_TIM
Description
The LP_TIM is an alarm indicating a mismatched trace identifier is detected in the lower order path. This alarm is reported when the board detects a mismatch between the J2 bytes at both ends.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


None.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The J2 byte to be received by the local station does not match with the J2 byte to be transmitted by the remote station. Cause 2: The data configuration at the intermediate nodes is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The J2 byte to be received by the local station does not match with the J2 byte to be transmitted by the remote station. (1) Set the byte mode of the J2 byte to be received by the local station to the disable mode. Alternatively, set the J2 byte to be received by the local station to match with the J2 byte to be transmitted by the remote station. For details, see Configuring VC-12 POHs. Step 2 Cause 2: The data configuration at the intermediate nodes is incorrect.
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(1) Check whether the cross-connections of the intermediate nodes where the service travels are configured correctly. If not, reconfigure the cross-connections. For details, see Querying TDM Services. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.82 LP_UNEQ
Description
The LP_UNEQ is an alarm indicating that the lower order path is unequipped. This alarm is reported when the board detects that the V5 byte signal label is 0.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services in the path are unavailable. If the services are configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
The data configuration is incorrect.
l

Cause 1: The tributary path at the local station is configured with services, but the tributary path at the remote station is not configured with services. Cause 2: The cross-connection configuration at the intermediate nodes is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The tributary path at the local station is configured with services, but the tributary path at the remote station is not configured with services. (1) Check whether the tributary path at the remote station is configured with services. For details, see Querying TDM Services. If... The tributary path at the remote station is not configured with services
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Then... Configure services for the tributary path at the remote station.
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If... The tributary path at the remote station is configured with services

Then... Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The cross-connection configuration at the intermediate nodes is incorrect. (1) Check whether the cross-connection configuration at the intermediate nodes is correct. If not, reconfigure the cross-connections. For details, see Querying TDM Services. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.83 LPS_UNI_BI_M
Description
The LPS_UNI_BI_M is an alarm indicating that switching modes (single-ended or dual-ended) at both ends of the linear MSP do not match with each other.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1 Indicates the type of the protection group. 0x01: linear MS protection. Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


The system performs protection switching in single-ended mode.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The linear MSP is configured incorrectly.
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The LPS_UNI_BI_M alarm is generated only when the following conditions are met:
l

The switching modes (single-ended or dual-ended) at the local and remote stations are different. The last three bits of the K2 byte are set to the indicated mode. The type of the protocol is set to a restructure protocol.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The linear MSP is configured incorrectly. (1) Change the MSP switching modes at both ends, and ensure that they are the same. For details, see Querying the Status of the Linear MSP. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.84 LSR_NO_FITED
Description
The LSR_NO_FITED is an alarm indicating that the SFP optical module is not installed.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The optical interface fails to carry services.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The laser of the local station is not installed.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The SFP optical module of the local station is not installed. (1) Find out why the SFP optical module is not installed, and contact Huawei technical support engineers for the installation. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.3.85 LTI
Description
The LTI is an alarm indicating that the synchronization sources are lost. This alarm is reported when all the synchronization sources for the NE are lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning The value is always 0x01.

Impact on the System


The clock enters the free-run mode and loses synchronization with other NE clocks.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The clock configuration is incorrect. Cause 2: All the clock sources in the clock source priority table fail.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The clock configuration is incorrect. (1) Check whether the data in the clock source priority table meets the network planning requirement. For details, see Querying the Clock Synchronization Status. If... The configuration is incorrect The configuration is correct Then... Correct the configurations. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: All the clock sources in the clock source priority table fail.
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(1) Troubleshoot the synchronization sources based on the clock source priority table. If... The synchronization source is the external clock The synchronization source is the line clock The synchronization source is the IF clock The synchronization source is the tributary clock The synchronization source is the Ethernet clock ----End Then... Handle the EXT_SYNC_LOS alarm. Handle the alarm that occurs on the line board. Handle the alarm that occurs on the IF board. Handle the alarm that occurs on the tributary board. Handle the alarm that occurs on the Ethernet board.

Related Information
None.

A.3.86 MS_AIS
Description
The MS_AIS is an alarm indicating multiplex section alarms. This alarm is reported when the board detects that bits 6-8 of the K2 byte in the three consecutive frames are 111.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the line port are interrupted. If the services are configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The transmit unit at the opposite station is faulty. Cause 2: The receive unit at the local station is faulty.
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Procedure
l

Cause 1: The transmit unit at the opposite station is faulty. 1. Replace the line board at the opposite site based on the type of the board that reports the alarm. If... Then...

The line board reports the alarm Replace the line board at the opposite end. The IF board reports the alarm 2. Replace the IF board at the opposite end.

Replace the board and then check whether the alarm is cleared. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... End the fault handling. Go to the next step.

3.

Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board at the opposite end. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... End the fault handling. Go to Cause 2.

Cause 2: The receive unit at the local station is faulty. 1. Replace the board that reports the alarm.

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.87 MS_CROSSTR
Description
The MS_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that a performance indicator of the multiplex section crosses the threshold. This alarm is reported when the board detects that the MS BER performance indicator crosses the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the
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following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:
l l

0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


A large number of bit errors occur in the services, and the services may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The MS BER performance indicator crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The MS BER performance indicator crosses the preset threshold. (1) Check the threshold crossing records of MS BER performance events to find out the performance event that crosses the preset threshold. For details, see 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records. (2) Handle the performance event that crosses the threshold. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.88 MS_RDI
Description
The MS_RDI is an alarm indicating that data reception at the remote end of the multiplex section fails. This alarm is reported when the board detects that bits 6-8 of the K2 byte are 110.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


The services on the local station are not affected. The services received by the opposite station, however, are interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local station receives a message from the opposite station, and the message indicates that data reception at the remote end of the multiplex section fails.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local station receives a message from the opposite station, and the message indicates that data reception at the remote end of the multiplex section fails. (1) Rectify the fault that occurs on the opposite station. The possible alarms are as follows:
l l l l l

MS_AIS R_LOS R_LOF B2_EXC B2_SD

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.89 MS_REI
Description
The MS_REI is an alarm indicating that bit errors occur on the remote end of the multiplex section. This alarm is reported when the board detects that the M1 byte is non-zero.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the local station is not affected. The services received by the opposite station, however, has bit errors.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local station receives a message from the opposite station, and the message indicates that bit errors occur on the remote end of the multiplex section.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local station receives a message from the opposite station, and the message indicates that bit errors occur on the remote end of the multiplex section. (1) Handle the MS_BBE performance event on the port of the opposite station. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.90 MSAD_CROSSTR
Description
The MSAD_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that the adaptation performance indicator of the multiplex section crosses the threshold. This alarm is reported when the board detects that an AU pointer adaptation performance indicator crosses the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:
l l

0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


Bit errors may occur in the services.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: An AU pointer adaptation performance indicator crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: An AU pointer adaptation performance indicator crosses the preset threshold. (1) Check the threshold crossing records of the AU pointer adaptation performance events to find out the performance event that crosses the preset threshold. For details, see 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records. (2) Handle the performance event that crosses the threshold. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.91 NESOFT_MM
Description
The NESOFT_MM is an alarm indicating that the first software system is different from the second software system. This alarm is reported when the NE detects that the first software system and the second software system of the system control, cross-connect, and timing board mismatch with each other.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the location of the file.
l l

0x01: the files in the flash memory 0x02: the software that is currently running

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Name

Meaning

Parameter 2, Parameter 3 Indicate the IDs of the inconsistent files in the flash memory of the system control board if the value of Parameter 1 is 0x01,
l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

0x01: FPGA of the system control board in ofs1 0x02: FPGA of the system control board in ofs2 0x03: ofs1/hwx/nesoft.hwx 0x04: ofs2/hwx/nesoft.hwx 0x05: ofs1/hwx/ne.ini 0x06: ofs2/hwx/ne.ini 0x07: ofs1/hwx/ocp.ini 0x08: ofs2/hwx/ocp.ini 0x09: ofs1/fpga/if1_002.pga 0x0a: ofs2/fpga/if1_002.pga 0x0b: ofs1/fpga/if1_250.pga 0x0c: ofs2/fpga/if1_250.pga 0x0d: ofs1/fpga/sl1d.pga 0x0e: ofs2/fpga/sl1d.pga 0x0f: ofs1/fpga/sl91ifu2.pga 0x10: ofs2/fpga/sl91ifu2.pga 0x11: ofs1/fpga/sl91ifx2.pga 0x12: ofs2/fpga/sl91ifx2.pga 0x13: ofs1/fpga/sl91aux.pga 0x14: ofs2/fpga/sl91aux.pga 0x15: ofs1/hwx/lusoft.hwx 0x16: ofs2/hwx/lusoft.hwx 0x17: ofs1/hwx/lusoft.ini 0x18: ofs2/hwx/lusoft.ini 0x19: ofs1/fpga/sl91em6t.pga 0x1a: ofs2/fpga/sl91em6t.pga 0x1b: ofs1/fpga/pvg610.pga 0x1c: ofs2/fpga/pvg610.pga 0x1d: ofs1/fpga/pvg610x.pga 0x1e: ofs2/fpga/pvg610x.pga

Indicate the IDs of the inconsistent files in the currently running software if the value of Parameter 1 is 0x02.
l l l

0x01: NeSoft(D) 0x02: Platform(D) 0x03: BIOS


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Name

Meaning
l l l

0x04: ExtBios 0x05: Logic 0x06: Dsp

Parameter 4, Parameter 5 Indicate the cause of the alarm.


l

0x04: The file versions in the master and slave areas of a single system control board are inconsistent. 0x08: The file versions in the active and standby system control boards are inconsistent, or that the files in the corresponding directories of the active and standby system control boards have different names. 0x0c: The file versions in the master and slave areas of a single system control board are inconsistent and the file versions on the active and standby system control boards are also inconsistent.

Impact on the System


If the currently running software is lost, the backup software fails to take over. If no NE software exists in the flash memory, the system is unable to restart after power-off or reset.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The software fails to be loaded.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The software fails to be loaded. (1) Contact the Huawei technical support engineers to reload the software. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.92 MULTI_RPL_OWNER
Description
The MULTI_RPL_OWNER is an alarm indicating that the ring network contains several RPL_OWNER nodes.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor
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Alarm Type Communication alarm

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Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Meaning Indicate the ID of the ERPS instance.

Impact on the System


The ERPS protection fails.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The related data is configured incorrectly.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The related data is configured incorrectly. (1) Reconfigure the ERPS protection. For details, see Creating Ethernet Ring Protection Instances. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.93 MW_BER_EXC
Description
The MW_BER_EXC is an alarm indicating that excessive bit errors occur on the radio link. This alarm is reported when the bit errors on the radio link exceed the specified threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the MW_BER_EXC alarm occurs, the service on the port is interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy. Cause 2: The receive unit at the local station is faulty. Cause 3: The transmit unit at the opposite station is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy. (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 2 Cause 2: The receive unit at the local station is faulty. (1) Replace the IF board. Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit unit at the opposite station is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault in the transmit unit at the opposite station. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.94 MW_BER_SD
Description
The MW_BER_SD is an alarm indicating that signal deteriorates on the radio link. This alarm is reported when the bit errors on the radio link exceed the specified threshold (10-6 by default) but does not reach the MW_BER_EXC alarm threshold (10-3 by default).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service performance on the port deteriorates. If the equipment is configured with 1+1 FD/ SD protection, switching on the channel side may be triggered.
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Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy. Cause 2: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy. (1) Check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If yes, clear the alarm. Step 2 Cause 2: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. (1) Replace the IF board. Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. (1) Rectify the fault in the transmit unit of the opposite station. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.95 MW_FEC_UNCOR
Description
The MW_FEC_UNCOR is an alarm indicating that radio frames forward error correction (FEC) encoding cannot be corrected.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Bit errors occur in the services. If the equipment is configured with 1+1 FD/SD protection, HSM channel protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The receive power of the ODU is abnormal. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. Cause 3: The receive unit of the local station is faulty.
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Cause 4: An interference event occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The receive power of the ODU is abnormal. (1) At the local end, check whether the receive power of the ODU is normal. If yes, determine the abnormality and take proper measures. For details, see Querying the History Transmit Power and Receive Power If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity Then... Follow the steps: 1. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth of the antenna meets the requirement. 2. Check the antenna direction. Check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 3. Check whether the setting of the polarization direction of the antenna is correct. Adjust the incorrect polarization direction. 4. Check whether the antenna gain at both the transmit and receive ends meets the specifications. Replace the antennas that do not meet the requirement. 5. Check whether any mountain or building obstacle exists in the transmit direction. If yes, contact the network planning department for proper modification of the planning design, hence preventing the block of the mountain or building obstacle.

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If...

Then...

The RSL is higher than the specified RSL Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: of the network. The offset value is tens of 1. Check whether any co-channel interference decibels. The duration is from tens of occurs. seconds to several hours. a. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. b. Check the RSL at the local end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel interference that may affect the long-term availability and errored-second performance of the system. 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. 3. Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to minimize the interference. The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours. Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes:
l l l l

Increase the installation height of the antenna. Reduce the transmission distance. Increase the antenna gain. Increase the transmit power.

If the RSL is lower than or higher than Fast fading occurs. Contact the network planning the specified RSL of the network and if department to make the following changes: the duration is from several milliseconds l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the to tens of seconds. reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, thus reducing the multipath fading.
l

Adjust the RF configuration to make the links in the 1+1 SD configuration. If the links are configured with the 1+1 SD protection, adjust the height offset between two antennas to make the receive power of one antenna stronger than the receive power of the other antenna. Increase the fading margin.

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Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. Locate the fault by looping back the opposite station and excluding the position one by one. Follow the steps: (1) Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite end. For details, see 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite end is rectified after the loopback. If... The fault at the opposite end is not rectified The fault at the opposite end is rectified Then... Replace the IF board. Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the cable connector is prepared according to the requirement. If any cable connector does not meet the requirement, make a new connector. (3) Check whether the IF cable is wet, broken, or pressed. Replace the cable that does not meet the requirement. (4) Then, check whether the fault at the opposite end is rectified. If... Then...

The fault at the opposite end is not rectified Replace the ODU at the opposite end. The fault at the opposite end is rectified End the alarm handling.

Step 3 Cause 3: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. Locate the fault by looping back the opposite station and excluding the position one by one. Follow the steps: (1) Perform an inloop on the IF port at the local end. For details, see 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the local end is rectified after the loopback. If... The fault at the opposite end is not rectified The fault at the opposite end is rectified Then... Replace the IF board. Go to the next step.

(2) Check whether the cable connector is prepared according to the requirement. If any cable connector does not meet the requirement, make a new connector. (3) Check whether the IF cable is wet, broken, or pressed. Replace the cable that does not meet the requirement. (4) Then, check whether the fault at the opposite end is rectified. If... The fault at the opposite end is not rectified The fault at the opposite end is rectified Step 4 Cause 4: An interference event occurs. (1) Check whether any co-channel interference occurs. a. b. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. Check the RSL at the local end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel
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Then... Replace the ODU at the local end. End the alarm handling.

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interference that may affect the long-term availability and errored-second performance of the system. (2) Check whether any adjacent channel interference occurs. a. b. c. d. e. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. Adjust the radio working mode at the local end and use the minimum channel spacing. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. Decrease the received frequency at the local end by a half of the channel spacing. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. Test and record the RSL. Increase the received frequency at the local end, with a step length of 0.5 MHz or 1 MHz, and record the RSL accordingly until the received frequency is equal to the original received frequency plus a half of the channel spacing. Compare the recorded RSLs, and check whether the RSL in a certain spectrum is abnormal if the received frequency is within the permitted range.

f.

(3) Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. (4) Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to minimize the interference. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.96 MW_LIM
Description
The MW_LIM is an alarm indicating that a mismatched radio link identifier is detected. This alarm is reported if an IF board detects that the link ID in the radio frame overheads is inconsistent with the specified link ID.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


After the IDU IF board reports the MW_LIM alarm, the IF board inserts the AIS alarm into the received signal. Then, the services on the radio link are interrupted. If the services are configured with SNCP, the protection switching may be triggered.
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Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The link ID of the local station does not match with the link ID of the opposite station. Cause 2: The services on other radio links are received due to the incorrect configuration of the radio link receive frequency at the local or opposite station. Cause 3: The antenna receives the radio from the other stations, because the direction of the antenna is set incorrectly. Cause 4: The polarization direction of the XPIC is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The link ID of the local station does not match with the link ID of the opposite station. (1) Check whether the link ID of the local station matches with the link ID of the opposite station. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If not, set the link IDs of the two stations to the same value according to the requirements of the networking planning. Step 2 Cause 2: The services on other radio links are received due to the incorrect configuration of the radio link receive frequency at the local or opposite station. (1) Check whether the receive and transmit frequencies of the local station are consistent with the receive and transmit frequencies of the opposite station. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If not, set the receive and transmit frequencies of the two stations again. Step 3 Cause 3: The antenna receives radio signals from the other stations, because the direction of the antenna is set incorrectly. (1) Adjust the direction of the antenna and ensure that the antennas at both ends are aligned. Step 4 Cause 4: The polarization direction of the XPIC is incorrect. (1) If XPIC protection groups are configured, check whether the XPIC configuration is correct. For details, see Creating an XPIC Protection Group. a. Check whether the settings of IFX board in polarization direction-V and polarization direction-H meet the requirement of the planning. If... The polarization direction does not meet the requirement of the planning The polarization direction meets the requirement of the planning b. Then... Delete the working XPIC group that is configured incorrectly and create the other working XPIC group again. Go to the next step.

Check whether Link ID-V and Link ID-H meet the requirement of the planning. If... The link ID does not meet the requirement of the planning Then... Reset the ID of the radio link of the IFX2 board according to the planning. For details, see Creating an XPIC Working Group.
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The link ID meets the requirement of the planning

Go to the next step.

(2) Check and modify the IFX2 board and ODU, and the mapping relationship between the ODU and the feed bottom. Ensure that the IFX2 boards in the polarization direction V of the two ends are interconnected with each other through the radio link in the polarization direction V, and the IFX2 boards in the polarization direction H of the two ends are interconnected with each other through the radio link in the polarization direction H. ----End

Related Information
The MW_LIM alarm is generated due to the inconsistency between the specified link ID and the received link ID. When the MW-LOF alarm is generated on the link, the received link ID is a random value. In this case, the link ID is invalid. The MW-LIM alarm is also suppressed by the MW-LOF alarm.

A.3.97 MW_LOF
Description
The MW_LOF is an alarm indicating that the radio frame is lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services are interrupted. If the system is configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The other alarms are generated. Cause 2: In the case of TDM radio services, the IF working modes at the local station and the opposite station are different. In the case of Hybrid radio services, the channel bandwidth and modulation modes at the local station and the opposite station are different. Cause 3: The operating frequency of the ODU at the local station is inconsistent with the operating frequency of the ODU at the opposite station. Cause 4: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. Cause 5: The receive unit of the local station is faulty.
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Cause 6: The receive power of the ODU is abnormal. Cause 7: An interference event occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The other alarms are generated. (1) Check whether any alarms are generated in the equipment of the local station. If yes, take priority to clear them. The relevant alarms are as follows:
l l l l l l l

HARD_BAD VOLT_LOS IF_CABLE_OPEN BD_STATUS RADIO_RSL_LOW CONFIG_NOSUPPORT TEMP_ALARM

Step 2 Cause 2: In the case of TDM radio services, the IF working modes at the local station and the opposite station are different. In the case of Hybrid radio services, the channel bandwidth and modulation modes at the local station and the opposite station are different. (1) In the case of TDM radio services, check whether the working mode of the IF board at the local station is consistent with the working mode of the IF board at the opposite station. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If not, reset the working mode of the IF board according to the network planning. In the case of Hybrid radio services, check whether the channel bandwidth and modulation modes are the same at both ends. If not, change the channel bandwidth and modulation modes according to the network planning. For details, see Configuring Hybrid/AM Attributes. Step 3 Cause 3: The operating frequency of the ODU at the local station is inconsistent with the operating frequency of the ODU at the opposite station. (1) Ensure that the type of the ODU at the local station is consistent with the type of the ODU at the opposite station. (2) Reset the operating frequency of the ODU according to the network planning. For details, see Setting the Transmit Frequency Attribute of the ODU. Set the transmit frequency of the local station to the same as the receive frequency of the opposite station. Then, set the receive frequency of the local station to the same as the transmit frequency of the opposite station. Step 4 Cause 4: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. (1) Check whether any alarms are generated in the equipment of the local station. If yes, take priority to clear them. The relevant alarms are as follows:
l l l

HARD_BAD BD_STATUS VOLT_LOS


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IF_CABLE_OPEN RADIO_MUTE RADIO_TSL_HIGH RADIO_TSL_LOW TEMP_ALARM

(2) Locate the fault by looping back the opposite station. Follow the steps: a. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the opposite end. For details, see 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the opposite end is rectified after the loopback. If... The fault at the opposite end is not rectified The fault at the opposite end is rectified b. c. d. Then... Replace the IF board. Go to the next step.

Check whether the cable connector is prepared according to the requirement. If any cable connector does not meet the requirement, make a new connector. Check whether the IF cable is wet, broken, or pressed. Replace the cable that does not meet the requirement. Then, check whether the fault at the opposite end is rectified.

Step 5 Cause 5: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. (1) Locate the fault by looping back the opposite station. Follow the steps: a. Perform an inloop on the IF port at the local end. For details, see 8.5.4 Setting Loopback for the IF Board. Check whether the fault at the local end is rectified after the loopback. If... The fault at the opposite end is not rectified The fault at the opposite end is rectified b. c. d. Then... Replace the IF board. Go to the next step.

Check whether the cable connector is prepared according to the requirement. If any cable connector does not meet the requirement, make a new connector. Check whether the IF cable is wet, broken, or pressed. Replace the cable that does not meet the requirement. Check whether the fault at the local end is rectified.

Step 6 Cause 6: The receive power of the ODU is abnormal. (1) At the local station, check whether the receive power of the ODU is abnormal. For details, see Browse history performance events. If yes, determine the abnormality and take proper measures.

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If... The RSL is lower than the receiver sensitivity

Then... Follow the steps: 1. Check the installation of the antenna to ensure that the azimuth of the antenna meets the requirement. 2. Check the antenna direction. Check whether the received signal is from the main lobe. If the antenna direction does not meet the requirement, adjust the antenna in a wide range. 3. Check whether the setting of the polarization direction of the antenna is correct. Adjust the incorrect polarization direction. 4. Check whether the antenna gain at both the transmit and receive ends meets the specifications. Replace the antennas that does not meet the requirement. 5. Check whether any mountain or building obstacle exists in the transmit direction. If yes, contact the network planning department for proper modification of the planning design, hence preventing the block of the mountain or building obstacle.

The RSL is higher than the specified RSL Slow up fading occurs. Follow the steps: of the network. The offset value is tens of 1. Check whether any co-channel interference decibels. The duration is from tens of occurs. seconds to several hours. a. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. b. Check the RSL at the local end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel interference that may affect the long-term availability and errored-second performance of the system. 2. Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. 3. Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to minimize the interference.

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If... The RSL is lower than the specified RSL of the network. The offset value is tens of decibels. The duration is from tens of seconds to several hours.

Then... Slow down fading occurs. Generally, the radio link may be faulty in both directions, because slow fading is imposed by the transmission path. Contact the network planning department to make the following changes:
l l l l

Increase the installation height of the antenna. Reduce the transmission distance. Increase the antenna gain. Increase the transmit power.

If the RSL is lower than or higher than Fast fading occurs. Contact the network planning the specified RSL of the network and if department to make the following changes: the duration is from several milliseconds l Adjust the position of the antenna to block the to tens of seconds. reflected wave or make the reflection point fall on the ground that has a small reflection coefficient, thus reducing the multipath fading.
l

Adjust the RF configuration to make the links in the 1+1 SD configuration. If the links are configured with the 1+1 SD protection, adjust the height offset between two antennas to make the receive power of one antenna stronger than the receive power of the other antenna. Increase the fading margin.

Step 7 Cause 7: An interference event occurs. Follow the steps: (1) Check whether any co-channel interference occurs. a. b. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. Check the RSL at the local end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. If the RSL exceeds -90 dBm, it indicates that there is co-channel interference that may affect the long-term availability and errored-second performance of the system. Mute the ODU at the opposite end. Adjust the radio working mode at the local end and use the minimum channel spacing. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. Decrease the received frequency at the local end by a half of the channel spacing. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. Test and record the RSL.

(2) Check whether any adjacent channel interference occurs. a. b. c. d.

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e.

Increase the received frequency at the local end, with a step length of 0.5 MHz or 1 MHz, and record the RSL accordingly until the received frequency is equal to the original received frequency plus a half of the channel spacing. Compare the recorded RSLs, and check whether the RSL in a certain spectrum is abnormal if the received frequency is within the permitted range.

f.

(3) Use a spectrum analyzer to analyze the interference source. (4) Contact the spectrum management department to clear the interference spectrum or change plans to minimize the interference. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.98 MW_RDI
Description
The MW_RDI is an alarm indicating that there are defects at the remote end of the radio link. This alarm is reported when the IF board detects an RDI in the radio frame overheads.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If the local station is configured with the reverse switching function, the 1+1 switching is triggered on the IF board when the working and protection IF boards receive the MW_RDI alarm at the same time. This alarm also indicates that the services received by the opposite station are interrupted.

Possible Causes
After detecting a service alarm that is caused by the fault in a radio link, the receive station returns a radio link fault indication to the transmit station.

Procedure
Step 1 Clear the radio alarms that occur at the opposite station. The possible alarms are as follows:
l l

MW_LOF R_LOF
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R_LOC

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.99 NESF_LOST
Description
The NESF_LOST is an alarm indicating that the NE software is lost. This alarm is reported when the system control, cross-connect, and timing board detects that the NE software is lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning The value is always 0x01.

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Name

Meaning

Parameter 2, Parameter 3 Indicate the ID of the routine inspection object.


l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l

0x01: FPGA of the system control board in ofs1 0x02: FPGA of the system control board in ofs2 0x03: ofs1/hwx/nesoft.hwx 0x04: ofs2/hwx/nesoft.hwx 0x05: ofs1/hwx/ne.ini 0x06: ofs2/hwx/ne.ini 0x07: ofs1/hwx/ocp.ini 0x08: ofs2/hwx/ocp.ini 0x09: ofs1/fpga/if1_002.pga 0x0a: ofs2/fpga/if1_002.pga 0x0b: ofs1/fpga/if1_250.pga 0x0c: ofs2/fpga/if1_250.pga 0x0d: ofs1/fpga/sl1d.pga 0x0e: ofs2/fpga/sl1d.pga 0x0f: ofs1/fpga/sl91ifu2.pga 0x10: ofs2/fpga/sl91ifu2.pga 0x11: ofs1/fpga/sl91ifx2.pga 0x12: ofs2/fpga/sl91ifx2.pga 0x13: ofs1/fpga/sl91aux.pga 0x14: ofs2/fpga/sl91aux.pga 0x15: ofs1/hwx/lusoft.hwx 0x16: ofs2/hwx/lusoft.hwx 0x17: ofs1/hwx/lusoft.ini 0x18: ofs2/hwx/lusoft.ini 0x19: ofs1/fpga/sl91em6t.pga 0x1a: ofs2/fpga/sl91em6t.pga 0x1b: ofs1/fpga/pvg610.pga 0x1c: ofs2/fpga/pvg610.pga 0x1d: ofs1/fpga/pvg610x.pga 0x1e: ofs2/fpga/pvg610x.pga

Parameter 4

Indicates the specific alarm cause when a different bit is 1.


l l

0x01: If the first bit is 1, it indicates that the file does not exist. 0x02: If the second bit is 1, it indicates that verification of the file fails.

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Impact on the System


If the NE software does not exist in the active and standby areas, an NE cannot be restarted after it is powered off or reset.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: No new NE software is loaded after the existing NE software is erased. Cause 2: Loading the NE software is unsuccessful. Cause 3: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: No new NE software is loaded after the existing NE software is erased. Cause 2: Loading the NE software is unsuccessful. (1) Check whether the alarm is caused by the loading operation. If... The alarm is caused by the loading operation The alarm is not caused by the loading operation Step 2 Cause 3: The board is faulty. (1) For details, see 6.8 Replacing the System Control, Switch&Clock Board. ----End Then... Contact the Huawei technical support engineers to reload the software. Go to the next step.

Related Information
None.

A.3.100 NESTATE_INSTALL
Description
The NESTATE_INSTALL is an alarm indicating that the NE is in the install state.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


The NE fails to work.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The configuration data check fails.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The configuration data check fails. (1) Restore the data from the backup database. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.101 NP1_MANUAL_STOP
Description
The NP1_MANUAL_STOP is an alarm indicating that the N+1 protection protocol is disabled manually.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1, Parameter 2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


The N+1 protection may fail, or the protection switching may fail.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The N+1 protection protocol is disabled manually.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The N+1 protection protocol is disabled manually. (1) Start the N+1 protection protocol. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.102 NP1_SW_FAIL
Description
The NP1_SW_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the N+1 protection switching fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Meaning

Parameter 1, Parameter2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


The services cannot be switched. If the current paths are unavailable, the services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: The parameters of the N+1 protection for the node that reports the alarm are set incorrectly. Cause 2: The networkwide N+1 protection protocol runs abnormally.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The parameters of the N+1 protection for the node that reports the alarm are set incorrectly. (1) Check whether the parameters of the N+1 protection are set correctly according to the planning. For details, see Creating an N+1 Protection Group. If... Then...

The parameters of the N+1 protection are Set the parameters of the N+1 protection set incorrectly correctly. The parameters of the N+1 protection are Go to Cause 2. set correctly Step 2 Cause 2: The networkwide N+1 protection protocol runs abnormally. (1) Stop and restart the protocol manually. For details, see Starting/Stopping the N+1 Protection Protocol. If... Then...

The alarm is cleared after the protocol is End the alarm handling. restarted. The alarm persists after the protocol is restarted ----End Contact the Huawei technical support engineers to handle the alarm.

Related Information
None.

A.3.103 NP1_SW_INDI
Description
The NP1_SW_INDI is an alarm indicating that the N+1 protection switching is detected.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.
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Name

Meaning

Parameter1, Parameter2 Indicates the ID of the protection group that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by protection group 1.

Impact on the System


During the N+1 protection switching (not more than 50 ms), the services are interrupted. After the N+1 switching is complete, the services are restored to normal. After the switching starts and before the switching is complete, the extra traffic is interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The N+1 protection switching is performed.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The N+1 protection switching is performed. (1) Find out the cause of switching, and take appropriate measures. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.104 POWER_ALM
Description
The POWER_ALM is an alarm indicating that the power module is abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name

Meaning

Parameter 1 If the POWER_ALM alarm is reported on a board on the IDU, this parameter indicates the ID of the power module that reports the alarm. For example, 0x01 indicates that the alarm is reported by power module 1 of the board. If the POWER_ALM is reported on the ODU, this parameter indicates the type of the power fault.
l l

0x01: The -5 V power supply is faulty. 0x02: The power supply for the power amplifier is faulty. 0x01: under-voltage 0x02: over-voltage

Parameter 2

l l

Impact on the System


The power modules are configured with protection. If only one power module reports the POWER_ALM alarm, the system is not affected.

Possible Causes
If the alarm is reported on the board on the IDU, the possible causes are as follows:
l l

Cause 1: The input power or the PIU is abnormal. Cause 2: The power module is abnormal.

If the alarm is reported on the ODU, the cause is as follows:


l

The power module of the ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 (POWER_ALM reported on the board on the IDU) Cause 1: The input power or the PIU is abnormal. (1) Check whether alarms are reported on the PIU, If yes, clear these alarms immediately. Step 2 (POWER_ALM reported on the board on the IDU) Cause 2: The power module is abnormal. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. For details, see 6 Part Replacement. Step 3 (POWER_ALM reported on the ODU) Cause: The power module of the ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU. For details, see 6.13 Replacing the ODU. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.105 POWER_ABNORMAL
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Description
The POWER_ABNORMAL is an alarm indicating that the input power supply is abnormal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the voltage channel.
l l

0x01: the first channel of voltage 0x01: the second channel of voltage

Parameter 2

Indicates the type of the alarm.


l l l

0x00: voltage loss 0x01: undervoltage 0x02: overvoltage

Impact on the System


When the POWER_ABNORMAL alarm occurs, the power supply is abnormal, and thus the board may fail to work normally.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The power cable is cut, damaged, or incorrectly connected. Cause 2: The input power is abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The power cable is cut, damaged, or incorrectly connected. (1) Check whether the power cable is cut, damaged, or incorrectly connected. If the power cable is cut or damaged, replace it with a proper power cable. If the power cable is incorrectly connected, reconnect the power cable. Step 2 Cause 2: The input power is abnormal. (1) Contact the engineers for power supply to rectify the fault. ----End
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Related Information
None.

A.3.106 R_F_RST
Description
The R_F_RST is an alarm indicating that the receive FIFO is reset.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The clocks at both stations are not synchronous. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The clocks at both stations are not synchronous. (1) Query whether a TU pointer adaptation performance event is reported at both ends. For details, see 8.3.5 Browsing Current Performance Events. If... Then...

An AU pointer adaptation performance Handle the performance event. For details, event is reported see C.3.21 TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, and TUPJCNEW. An AU pointer adaptation performance Go to Cause 2. event is not reported Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.107 R_LOC
Description
The R_LOC is an alarm indicating that the clock is lost on the receive line side. This alarm is reported when the line board fails to extract clock signal from the line signal or the IF board fails to extract clock signal from the IF signal.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the line port or the IF port are interrupted. If the system is configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. (1) At the local end, perform an inloop on the port of the board that reports the alarm. For details, see 8.5 Software Loopback. If... The alarm persists after the loopback Then... Replace the local board that reports the alarm.

The alarm is cleared after the loopback Go to Cause 2. Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. (1) Replace the opposite board that reports the alarm. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced ----End
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Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Replace the cross-connect and timing board at the opposite end.

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Related Information
None.

A.3.108 R_LOF
Description
The R_LOF is an alarm indicating that frames are lost on the receive side. This alarm is reported when the OOF state lasts for three milliseconds.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Commucation alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services are interrupted. If the system is configured with protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: Certain alarms are generated (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. Cause 4: The receive unit of the local station is faulty.

l l

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain high-level alarms are generated (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) If the alarm is reported by the IF board, check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If... The alarm is generated The alarm is not generated Then... Take priority to clear the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm. Go to the next step.

(2) Set the inloop on the IF port that reports the alarm.
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If... The alarm persists after the inloop is performed The alarm is cleared after the inloop is performed

Then... Go to Cause 4. Go to Cause 3.

Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH optical interface board). (1) If the alarm is reported by an optical interface board, exchange the transmit and receive fiber jumpers at both ends. If... The alarm persists after the exchange The line port of the opposite station reports the R_LOF alarm Then... Go to Cause 3 or 4 Troubleshoot the optical fibers.

Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. (1) Replace the opposite board where the line unit is or the opposite IF board. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... The fault is rectified, and the alarm handling is complete. Go to the next step.

(2) Replace the system control and cross-connect board at the opposite end. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... The fault is rectified, and the alarm handling is complete. Go to Cause 4.

Step 4 Cause 4: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.109 R_LOS
Description
In the case of SDH boards, the R_LOS is an alarm indicating that the signals on the receive line side are lost. In the case of IF boards, the R_LOS is an alarm indicating that the radio frames on the receive line side are lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services are interrupted. If the system is configured with protection, the protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: Certain alarms are generated (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH line board). Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. Cause 4: The receive unit of the local station is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain alarms are generated (if the alarm is reported by an IF board). (1) If the alarm is reported by the IF board, check whether the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated. If... The alarm is generated The alarm is not generated Then... Take priority to clear the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm. Go to the next step.

(2) Set the inloop on the IF port that reports the alarm. If... The alarm persists after the inloop is performed
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Then... Go to Cause 4.

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If... The alarm is cleared after the inloop is performed

Then... Go to Cause 3.

Step 2 Cause 2: The line performance degrades (if the alarm is reported by an SDH line board). (1) If the alarm is reported by an optical interface board, exchange the transmit and receive fiber jumpers at both ends. If... The alarm persists after the exchange The line port of the opposite station reports the R_LOF alarm Then... Go to Cause 3 or 4 Troubleshoot the optical fibers.

Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit unit of the opposite station is faulty. (1) Replace the opposite board where the line unit is or the opposite IF board. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... The fault is rectified, and the alarm handling is complete. Proceed to the next step.

(2) Replace the system control and cross-connect board at the opposite end. If... The alarm is cleared after the board replacement The alarm persists after the board replacement Then... The fault is rectified, and the alarm handling is complete. Go to Cause 4.

Step 4 Cause 4: The receive unit of the local station is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.110 R_S_ERR
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Description
The R_S_ERR is an alarm indicating that the received signal has errors.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. (1) Check whether the tributary board supports the type of the input signal. If... Then...

The tributary board does not support the Change the type of the output signal of the type of the input signal. remote site. The tributary board supports the type of Go to the next step. the input signal. (2) Test the frequency offset of the input signal. If... The frequency offset is very large The frequency offset meets the requirement Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... Troubleshoot the remote site. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.
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A.3.111 RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF
Description
The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is an alarm indicating that the mean receive power of the ODUs are lower than the threshold of the receive power (the threshold value is about the receiver sensitivity + 14dB). When the receive power of the ODUs in consecutive six hours is lower than the threshold, the system reports the alarm. When the mean receive power of the ODUs becomes normal in three minutes after the alarm is reported, the alarm is cleared.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If the MW_LOF or MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is not generated, the service is not affected.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: The ODU fault of the transmit end causes the abnormal transmit power. Cause 2: The direction of the antenna is deflected. Cause 3: The transmission environment changes. Cause 4: The fade margin in the case of rain and fog in the network planning is insufficient.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The ODU fault of the transmit end causes the abnormal transmit power. (1) Check whether the ODU at the transmit end reports the RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm. If... The ODU at the transmit end reports the RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm Then... Handle the RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm.

The ODU at the transmit end does not report the Go to Cause 2. RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm Step 2 Cause 2: The direction of the antenna is deflected. (1) Check whether the direction of the antenna is deflected. If... The direction of the antenna is deflected
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If... The direction of the antenna is not deflected Step 3 Cause 3: The transmission environment changes.

Then... Go to Cause 3.

(1) Check whether the transmission environment changes. For example, check whether any building blocks the transmission and increases the link fading significantly. If... The transmission environment changes The transmission environment does not change Then... Contact the network planning department for re-planning the transmission trail. Go to Cause 4.

Step 4 Cause 4: The fade margin in the case of rain and fog in the network planning is insufficient. (1) If the alarm is reported frequently, contact the network planning department to increase the fade margin by re-planning the transmission trail. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.112 RADIO_MUTE
Description
The RADIO_MUTE is an alarm indicating that radio transmitter is muted.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The transmitter does not transmit services.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The other alarms are generated. Cause 2: The transmitter of the local station is muted manually. Cause 3: The IF board is faulty, causing abnormal IF output.
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Cause 4: The data output is abnormal because the ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The other alarms are generated. (1) Check whether the CONFIG_NOSUPPORT or IF_INPWR_ABN alarm is generated. If yes, take priority to clear the alarm. Step 2 Cause 2: The transmitter of the local station is muted manually. (1) Check whether the transmitter of the ODU is muted. For details, see Configuring the IF/ ODU Information of a Radio Link. If yes, cancel the muting operation. Then, set the transmitting status of the ODU to "Transmit". Step 3 Cause 3: The IF board is faulty, causing abnormal IF output. (1) Replace the IF Board. Step 4 Cause 4: The data output is abnormal because the ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU. ----End

Related Information
The number of the logical slot for the ODU is the number of the slot for the IF board connected to the ODU plus +20.

A.3.113 RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH
Description
The RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH is an alarm indicating that the antennas are not aligned. When the receive power is set on the NE, the NE enables the antenna alignment indication function. If the actual receive power of the ODU is beyond the range of preset receive power +/-3 dB, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported. Then, if the antennas are aligned for continuos 30 minutes, the antenna alignment indication function is disabled automatically. Afterwards, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is reported only when the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm is reported.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If the MW_LOF or MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is not generated, the service is not affected.
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Possible Causes
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Cause 1: Antennas are not aligned during the equipment commissioning. Cause 2: The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is reported when the NE is running.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Antennas are not aligned during the equipment commissioning. (1) Align the antennas, and ensure that the actual receive power is within the range of preset receive power +/-3 dB. Step 2 Cause 2: The RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF is reported when the NE is running. (1) Handle the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm. When the RADIO_FADING_MARGIN_INSUFF alarm is cleared, the RADIO_RSL_BEYONDTH alarm is cleared. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.114 RADIO_RSL_HIGH
Description
The RADIO_RSL_HIGH is an alarm indicating that the radio receive power is very high. This alarm is reported if the detected receive power is equal to or higher than the upper threshold of the ODU (-20 dBm).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service transmission is affected. If the system is configured with 1+1 protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty. Cause 2: There is a strong interference source nearby. Cause 3: The transmit power of the opposite ODU is very high.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty. (1) 6.13 Replacing the ODU. Step 2 Cause 2: There is a strong interference source nearby. (1) Check whether any nearby signal source transmits signals whose frequency is close to the specified range. If yes, check whether the signal source can be shut down or removed. If not, contact the network planning department for replanning the frequency. Step 3 Cause 3: The transmit power of the opposite ODU is very high (1) Reset the transmit power of the ODU at the opposite end. For details, see Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.115 RADIO_RSL_LOW
Description
The RADIO_RSL_LOW is an alarm indicating that the radio receive power is very low. This alarm is reported if the detected receive power is equal to or lower than the upper threshold of the ODU (-90 dBm).

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


If no MW_LOF or MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is generated, the services are not affected.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: Other alarms occur at the opposite station. Cause 2: The transmit power of the opposite station is very low. Cause 3: The local ODU is faulty. Cause 4: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Other alarms occur at the opposite station. Check whether any of the following alarms is generated in the equipment of the opposite station. If yes, take priority to clear the alarm.
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RADIO_MUTE CONFIG_NOSUPPORT RADIO_TSL_LOW BD_STATUS

Step 2 Cause 2: The transmit power of the opposite station is very low. (1) See Configuring the IF/ODU Information of a Radio Link. Check whether the transmit power of the opposite station is normal. If not, replace the ODU of the opposite station. Step 3 Cause 3: The local ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU at the local end. Step 4 Cause 4: Signal attenuation on the radio link is very heavy. (1) Browse history alarms and check whether the alarm is generated continuously. If the alarm is generated occasionally, contact the network planning department to change the design to increase the anti-fading performance. (2) Check whether the antennas at both ends are adjusted properly. If not, align the antennas again. (3) Check whether any mountain or building obstacle exists in the transmit direction. If yes, contact the network planning department for proper modification of the planning design, hence preventing the block of the mountain or building obstacle. (4) Check whether the polarization direction of the antenna, ODU, and hybrid coupler is set correctly. If not, correct the polarization direction. (5) Check whether the outdoor units such as antennas, combiner, ODU, and flexible waveguide are wet, damp, or damaged. If yes, replace the unit that is wet, damp, or damaged. For the operations, see 6 Part Replacement (6) Check whether the antenna gain at both the transmit and receive ends meets the requirement. If not, replace the antenna. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.116 RADIO_TSL_HIGH
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Description
The RADIO_TSL_HIGH is an alarm indicating that the radio transmit power is too high. This alarm is reported when the detected transmit power is higher than the upper power threshold of the ODU.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service transmission is affected. If the system is configured with 1+1 protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.117 RADIO_TSL_LOW
Description
The RADIO_TSL_LOW is an alarm indicating that the radio transmit power is very low. This alarm is reported when the detected transmit power is less than the lower power threshold of the ODU.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical
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Alarm Type Service alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service transmission is affected. If the system is configured with 1+1 protection, protection switching may be triggered.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The local ODU is faulty. (1) Replace the ODU. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.118 RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL
Description
The RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL is an alarm indicating the critical alarm inputs. This alarm occurs when the user sets the severity of an available alarm input to critical and there is such an alarm input.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the alarm input/output. The value ranges from 0x01 to 0x08.

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Impact on the System


When the RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL alarm occurs, it does not affect the operation of the board or the services on the NE.

Possible Causes
There is a critical alarm input.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause: There is a critical alarm input. (1) Check the alarm parameters and confirm the number of the alarm input/output. (2) Clear the alarms of the external equipment according to the defined meanings of the alarms. Then, the RELAY_ALARM_CRITICAL alarm is cleared. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.119 RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR
Description
The RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR is an alarm indicating the major alarm inputs. This alarm occurs when the user sets the severity of an available alarm input to major and there is such an alarm input.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the alarm input/output. The value ranges from 0x01 to 0x08.

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Impact on the System


When the RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR alarm occurs, it does not affect the operation of the board or the services on the NE.

Possible Causes
There is a major alarm input.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause: There is a major alarm input. (1) Check the alarm parameters and confirm the number of the alarm input/output. (2) Clear the alarms of the external equipment according to the defined meanings of the alarms. Then, the RELAY_ALARM_MAJOR alarm is cleared. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.120 RELAY_ALARM_MINOR
Description
The RELAY_ALARM_MINOR is an alarm indicating the minor alarm inputs. This alarm occurs when the user sets the severity of an available alarm input to minor and there is such an alarm input.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the alarm input/output. The value ranges from 0x01 to 0x08.

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Impact on the System


When the RELAY_ALARM_MINOR alarm occurs, it does not affect the operation of the board or the services on the NE.

Possible Causes
There is a minor alarm input.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause: There is a minor alarm input. (1) Check the alarm parameters and confirm the number of the alarm input/output. (2) Clear the alarms of the external equipment according to the defined meanings of the alarms. Then, the RELAY_ALARM_MINOR alarm is cleared. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.121 RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE
Description
The RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE is an alarm indicating the warning alarm inputs. This alarm occurs when the user sets the severity of an available alarm input to warning and there is such an alarm input.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning Indicates the number of the alarm input/output. The value ranges from 0x01 to 0x08.

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Impact on the System


When the RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE alarm occurs, it does not affect the operation of the board or the services on the NE.

Possible Causes
There is a warning alarm input.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause: There is a warning alarm input. (1) Check the alarm parameters and confirm the number of the alarm input/output. (2) Clear the alarms of the external equipment according to the defined meanings of the alarms. Then, the RELAY_ALARM_IGNORE alarm is cleared. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.122 RP_LOC
Description
The RP_LOC is an alarm indicating that the receiving phaselock ring clock is lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services on the board are interrupted.

Possible Causes
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Cause 1: The related data is configured incorrectly. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The related data is configured incorrectly.
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(1) Check whether the services are correctly configured. If... The services are configured incorrectly The services are configured correctly Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board. ----End Then... Reconfigure services. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.123 RPS_INDI
Description
The HSM_INDI is an alarm indicating that the radio protection switching is detected.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Parameter 2 Meaning Indicates the ID of the protection group. Indicates the type of protection switching. 0x01: HSB protection switching 0x02: HSM protection switching

Impact on the System


During the HSB protection switching, services are interrupted. After the HSB switching is complete, the services are restored to normal. During the HSM protection switching, no bit errors occur and the services are not affected.
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Possible Causes
l

The possible causes of HSB protection switching are as follows:


Cause 1: An external switching event occurs Cause 2: An automatic switching event occurs. Cause 3: A reverse switching event occurs. In the case of Hybrid radio, the automatic switching condition of the HSM is that the quality of the main channel degrades. In the case of SDH/PDH radio, an alarm that triggers HSM switching is reported on the radio link.

The possible causes of HSM protection switching are as follows:

Procedure
Step 1 Determine the type of the protection switching based on the alarm parameters. Step 2 Cause 1 of HSB switching: An external switching event occurs. That is, the NMS issues a command to trigger the switching. (1) Check whether the switching is the forced switching or manual switching. For details, see Querying the IF 1+1 Protection Status. If... Then...

The switching is the forced switching or Find the cause and release the switching manual switching immediately. The switching is not the forced switching or manual switching Go to Cause 2 of HSB switching.

Step 3 Cause 2 of HSB switching: An automatic switching event occurs. That is, the equipment is faulty, or the service is defective. (1) Check whether the following faults or alarms occur. If yes, rectify the faults or clear the alarms.
l l l l l

The hardware of the IF board or the ODU is faulty. VOLT_LOS RADIO_TSL_HIGH, RADIO_TSL_LOW, or RADIO_RSL_HIGH IF_INPWR_ABN or CONFIG_NOSUPPORT R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, or MW_LOF
NOTE

If the switching is non-revertive, the services are not automatically switched to the working path when the working path is restored to normal, and the RPS_INDI alarm persists. In this case, you need to manually switch the services from the protection path to the working path. The RPS_INDI alarm is cleared only when the switching is successful. If the switching is revertive, the services are automatically switched to the working path only when the specified wait-to-restore (WTR) time expires after the working path is restored to normal. The RPS_INDI alarm is cleared only when the switching is successful.

Step 4 Cause 3 of HSB switching: A reverse switching event occurs. (1) Query whether the active and standby IF boards report the MW_RDI alarm. If yes, take priority to clear the MW_RDI alarm.
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Step 5 Cause 1 of HSM switching: In the case of Hybrid radio, the quality of the main channel degrades. (1) Check whether the AM_DOWNSHIFT alarm is reported by an IF board. If the alarm is reported by an IF board, refer to AM_DOWNSHIFT to rectify the fault that causes the quality of the main channel to degrade. If the alarm is not reported by an IF board, the quality of the main channel degrades possibly due to the weather. In this case, you do not need to handle the problem, because this is a normal situation. Step 6 Cause 2 of HSM switching: In the case of SDH/PDH radio, an alarm that triggers HSM switching is reported on the radio link. (1) Check whether any alarm that triggers HSM switching is reported by an IF board of the IF 1+1 protection group. If yes, take priority to clear the alarm. HSM switching may be triggered by any of the following alarms:
l l l

R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, or MW_LOF MW_FEC_UNCOR B1_SD or B2_SD

----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.124 RS_CROSSTR
Description
The RS_CROSSTR is an alarm indicating that a regenerator section performance indicator crosses the threshold. This alarm is reported if a board detects that a regenerator section bit error performance event crosses the preset threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Service alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table.

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Name Parameter 1

Meaning Indicates the performance monitoring period:


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0x01: 15 minutes 0x02: 24 hours

Parameter 2, Parameter 3

Indicate the ID of a performance event that causes the alarm.

Impact on the System


A large number of bit errors occur in the services, and the services may be interrupted.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The regenerator section bit error performance indicator crosses the preset threshold.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The regenerator section bit error performance indicator crosses the preset threshold. (1) Find out the performance event that crosses the preset threshold. For details, see 8.3.8 Browsing the Performance Event Threshold-Crossing Records. (2) Handle the performance event that crosses the threshold. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.125 RTC_FAIL
Description
The RTC_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the real-time clock (RTC) on the system control board fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service is not affected.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The RTC on the system control board is abnormal.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The RTC on the system control board is abnormal. (1) Replace the system control, switching, and timing board. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.126 S1_SYN_CHANGE
Description
The S1_SYN_CHANGE is an alarm indicating that the clock source is switched in S1 byte mode.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example, Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning The value is always 0x01.

Impact on the System


If the new clock source has a lower quality, pointer justifications and bit errors are generated after the switching of clock source. As a result, the quality of services is affected.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The original clock source is lost when the SSM protocol or extended SSM protocol is enabled.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The original clock source is lost when the SSM protocol or extended SSM protocol is enabled. (1) Handle the SYNC_C_LOS alarm that is related to the original clock source. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.127 SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT
Description
The SWDL_ACTIVATED_TIMEOUT is an alarm indicating the activation timeout of the software package. During the package loading, the system reports the alarm if no data is submitted within 30 minutes after activation of the NE software or board software.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The NE does not perform the submit operation. As a result, the software in the two areas of the double-area boards on the NE is inconsistent.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The radio link is faulty. As a result, the NE involved in the package loading fails to receive the submit command.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The radio link is faulty. As a result, the NE involved in the package loading fails to receive the submit command. (1) Check whether the radio link is faulty. If... The radio link is faulty Then... Troubleshoot the radio link to ensure that the link between the nodes to be loaded is normal.
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If...

Then...

The radio link is normal Perform the package loading to the NE again. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.128 SWDL_AUTOMATCH_INH
Description
The SWDL_AUTOMATCH_INH is an alarm indicating that the automatic match function is disabled. When the automatic match function of the board is disabled, the system reports the alarm if the board cannot match the software from the system control board.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When a board whose version is not consistent with the software version of the NE is installed, the software versions of the whole NE are not consistent if the board cannot automatically match the software from the system control board. As a result, certain functions of the NE cannot run normally.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The automatic match function is disabled.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The automatic match function is disabled. (1) Contact the Huawei technical support engineers for troubleshooting. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.129 SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH
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Description
The SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH is an alarm of software inconsistency. After an NE is power recycled and the boards on the NE become online, if the system detects that the software version of any board is different from that in the software package on the SCC board, or detects that the CF card and flash memory on the SCC board are inconsistent in software packages, the system reports the SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH alarm.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH alarm is reported, certain functions of the NE may be affected because the board software version is inconsistent with the running software version.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The software package of the system control board does not match with the software version of the board after the system control board is replaced.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The software package of the system control board does not match with the software version of the board after the system control board is replaced. (1) Perform the package diffusion again on the NE where the SWDL_CHGMNG_NOMATCH alarm is reported. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.130 SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL
Description
The SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the commission operation on the NE fails. This alarm is reported when the commission operation fails in the package diffusion.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the SWDL_COMMIT_FAIL alarm occurs, the software versions in the two areas of the double-area board are inconsistent.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The loaded package is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The loaded package is incorrect. (1) Check whether the loaded package is correct. (2) Perform the package diffusion again on the NE where the alarm is reported. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.131 SWDL_INPROCESS
Description
The SWDL_INPROCESS is an alarm indicating that the package diffusion is in process on the NE.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


When the SWDL_INPROCESS alarm is reported, the operations, such as modifying configuration, uploading/downloading files, and backing up the database, are not allowed, because the software package is being loaded to the NE.

Possible Causes
The package diffusion is being performed on the NE.

Procedure
Step 1 The SWDL_INPROCESS alarm is cleared automatically after the loading or rollback is complete. Hence, this alarm can be neglected. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.132 SWDL_NEPKGCHECK
Description
The SWDL_NEPKGCHECK is an alarm of software inconsistency. This alarm is reported in the following two situations: the CF card and flash memory are inconsistent in software package and the flash memory has a software package; in a routine check (the check is not initiated by issuing commands), the system detects that some files are missing from the software package stored in the CF card or from the software package stored in the flash memory.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The NE may run abnormally because certain files of the package are missing.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Certain files of the package are missing and cannot be recovered.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain files of the package are missing and cannot be recovered. (1) Ensure that the loaded software package is correct. Perform the package diffusion again on the NE where the SWDL_NEPKGCHECK alarm is reported. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.133 SWDL_PKG_NOBDSOFT
Description
The SWDL_PKG_NOBDSOFT is an alarm indicating that certain board software is missing from the software package. This alarm is reported when the required software is missing from the software package during the automatic match of the board.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The board cannot perform automatic match, because the board software is missing from the software package. Thus, the board software version is inconsistent with the NE software version, and certain functions of the NE may be affected.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Certain board software is uninstalled during the software package loading.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain board software is uninstalled during the software package loading. (1) Add the required board software to the software package. Alternatively, perform the software package loading again. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.134 SWDL_PKGVER_MM
Description
The SWDL_PKGVER_MM is an alarm indicating that the consistency check on the software package version fails. This alarm is reported when the consistency check on the software package version fails.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The software version of the software package is inconsistent with the software version described in the software package. As a result, certain functions of the NE may be affected.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: The software version information in the description file of the software package is inconsistent with the actual software version information.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The software version information in the description file of the software package is inconsistent with the actual software version information. (1) Ensure that the loaded software package is correct. Perform the package diffusion again on the NE where the alarm is reported. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.135 SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL
Description
The SWDL_ROLLBACK_FAIL is an alarm indicating that the rollback on the NE fails. This alarm is reported when the rollback fails for any board on the NE.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Processing alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The board software version and the NE software version may mismatch, and certain functions of the NE may be affected.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Certain board software is uninstalled during the software package loading.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Certain board software is uninstalled during the software package loading. (1) Add the required board software to the software package. Alternatively, perform the software package loading again. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.136 SYNC_C_LOS
Description
The SYNC_C_LOS is an alarm indicating that the synchronization source is lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Warning Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The NE clock degrades or enters the free-run mode.
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Possible Causes
Cause 1: The clock source is lost.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The clock source is lost. (1) Troubleshoot the synchronization sources of the lost clock source based on the clock source priority table. If... The synchronization source is the external clock The synchronization source is the line clock The synchronization source is the IF clock The synchronization source is the tributary clock ----End Then... Handle the EXT_SYNC_LOS alarm. Handle the alarm that occurs on the line board. Handle the alarm that occurs on the IF board. Handle the alarm that occurs on the tributary board.

Related Information
None.

A.3.137 T_ALOS
Description
The T_ALOS is an alarm indicating that the 2 Mbit/s analog signal is lost at the specific port.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The 2Mbit/s services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l

Cause 1: No 2 Mbit/s services are accessed into the port.


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Cause 2: The opposite NE is faulty. Cause 3: The IF cable is faulty. Cause 4: The board that reports the alarm is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: No 2 Mbit/s services are accessed into the port. (1) Check whether the port that reports the alarm accesses the 2 Mbit/s service. If... Then...

The services are not accessed Access the services to the port or delete the unnecessary service configuration. The services are accessed Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The equipment at the opposite end is faulty. (1) Check whether the equipment at the opposite end is faulty. If... The equipment is faulty The equipment is normal Step 3 Cause 3: The IF cable is faulty. (1) Check whether the IF cable is faulty. If... The IF cable is faulty The IF cable is not faulty Step 4 Cause 4: The board that reports the alarm is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... Rectify the fault. Go to Cause 4. Then... Rectify the fault. Go to Cause 3.

Related Information
None.

A.3.138 T_F_RST
Description
The T_F_RST is an alarm indicating that the transmit FIFO is reset.

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Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services in the PDH path are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The frequency offset of the input signal is very large. (1) Measure the frequency offset of the input signal. If... The frequency offset is very large The frequency offset is within 50 ppm Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... Troubleshoot the remote site. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.139 T_LOC
Description
The T_LOC is an alarm indicating that the clock is lost on the transmit line side.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Communication alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The services in the AU-4 path that reports the alarm are interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The cross-connect and timing board is faulty. Cause 2: The line board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The cross-connect and timing board is faulty. (1) Replace the cross-connect and timing board at the local station. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Step 2 Cause 2: The line board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.140 TEMP_ALARM
Description
The TEMP_ALARM is an alarm indicating that the board temperature crosses the threshold.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Environmental alarm

Parameters
When you view an alarm on the network management system, select the alarm. In the Alarm Details field display the related parameters of the alarm. The alarm parameters are in the following format: Alarm Parameters (hex): parameter1 parameter2...parameterN, for example,
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Alarm Parameters (hex): 0x01 0x08. For details about each parameter, refer to the following table. Name Parameter 1 Meaning
l l

0x01: The temperature crosses the upper threshold. 0x02: The temperature crosses the lower threshold.

Impact on the System


The board fails to work normally.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The board temperature crosses the threshold. Cause 2: The temperature detection circuit of the board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The board temperature crosses the threshold. (1) If the alarm is reported by the ODU, take appropriate measures (for example, installing a sunshade) to control the temperature. (2) If the alarm is reported by the board on the IDU, check whether the temperature control devices, such as air-conditioners, work normally. If... The temperature control devices work abnormally The temperature control devices work normally Then... Adjust the temperature control devices. Go to the next step.

(3) Check whether the heat dissipation hole on the IDU is covered or blocked. If... The heat dissipation hole is covered or blocked Then... Clear or remove the covering materials or obstacles.

The heat dissipation hole is not covered or Go to Cause 2. blocked Step 2 Cause 2: The temperature detection circuit of the board is faulty. (1) If the ambient temperature is normal and no other heat dissipation problems exist, replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.
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A.3.141 THUNDERALM
Description
The THUNDERALM is an alarm indicating the lightning protection failure. If the system detects the lightning protection circuit fails, the THUNDERALM occurs.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Environment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


When the THUNDERALM occurs, the system operation and services are not affected, but the lightning protection function fails.

Possible Causes
The possible causes of the THUNDERALM alarm are as follows:
l l

Cause 1: The fuse tube of the lightning protection circuit is interrupted. Cause 2: The board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The fuse tube of the lightning protection circuit is interrupted. (1) Replace the fuse tube, and then check whether the alarm is cleared. Step 2 Cause 2: The board is faulty. (1) Replace the board that reports the THUNDERALM alarm. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.142 TU_AIS
Description
The AU_AIS is an alarm indicating that the TU has errors. This alarm is reported if a board detects that the signal in the TU path is all 1s.
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Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service in the TU path that reports the alarm is interrupted. If the service is configured with protection, the protection switching is also triggered.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. Cause 2: The line is faulty. Cause 3: The board at the opposite end is faulty. Cause 4: The board at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. (1) See Creating the Cross-Connections of Point-to-Point Services to check whether the SDH service data is incorrect. If... The SDH service data is incorrect The SDH service data is correct Step 2 Cause 2: The line is faulty. (1) Check whether a line alarm that causes AIS insertion is reported on the service trail.
NOTE

Then... Change the configuration data. Go to Cause 2.

For details about the line alarms that cause AIS insertion, see E.2.6 AIS Insertion.

If... The line alarm is reported No line alarms are reported

Then... Clear the line alarms that cause AIS insertion. Go to the next step.

(2) See 8.5 Software Loopback to locate whether the board at the local end or at the opposite end is faulty. If... The board at the opposite end is faulty The board at the local end is faulty
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Then... Go to Cause 3. Go to Cause 4.


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Step 3 Cause 3: The board at the opposite end is faulty. (1) Replace the faulty board at the opposite end. Step 4 Cause 4: The board at the local end is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the local line unit resides. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

(2) Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board at the local end. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced (3) Replace the board that reports the alarm. ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

Related Information
None.

A.3.143 TU_LOP
Description
The TU_LOP is an alarm indicating that the TU pointer is lost. This alarm is reported if a board detects that the TU-PTR value is an invalid pointer or NDF reversion in eight consecutive frames.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The service in the TU path that reports the alarm is interrupted. If the service is configured with protection, the protection switching is also triggered.
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Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The system control, cross-connect, and timing board is faulty. Cause 2: The tributary board is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The system control, cross-connect, and timing board is faulty. (1) Replace the system control, cross-connect, and timing board at the local end. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Step 2 Cause 2: The tributary board is faulty. (1) Replace the board where the tributary unit resides. ----End Then... The fault is rectified. End the alarm handling. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.144 UP_E1_AIS
Description
The UP_E1_AIS is an alarm indication of the 2 Mbit/s uplink signal. This alarm is reported when the tributary board detects that the 2 Mbit/s uplink signal is all 1s.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Minor Alarm Type Communication alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


E1 signals are unavailable.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: The opposite equipment transmits the AIS signal. Cause 2: The receive unit of the tributary board on the local equipment is faulty.
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Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The opposite equipment transmits the AIS signal. (1) Check whether the opposite equipment transmits the AIS signal. If... The opposite equipment transmits the AIS signal The opposite equipment does not transmit the AIS signal Then... Rectify the fault on the opposite equipment. Go to Cause 2.

Step 2 Cause 2: The receive unit of the tributary board on the local equipment is faulty. (1) Replace the alarmed board. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.145 VOLT_LOS
Description
The VOLT_LOS is an alarm indicating that the power voltage is unavailable.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The ODU that is connected to the IF board that reports this alarm fails to work.

Possible Causes
l l l

Cause 1: The output power is abnormal. Cause 2: The input power is abnormal. Cause 3: Lightning occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: The output power is abnormal.
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(1) Check the power switch of the ODU. If... The power switch is turned off The power switch is turned on Then... Turn on the power switch. Go to the next step.

(2) Use the multimeter to check the IF fiber jumper, IF cable, or ODU section by section for a short circuit. If... A short circuit exists Then... Replace the short-circuited component, and then replace the IF board that reports the alarm. Replace the IF board that reports the alarm.

No short circuits exist

CAUTION
If the alarm is reported due to a short circuit, replace the short-circuited cable or ODU, and then replace the IF board. Otherwise, the new IF board may be damaged again. Step 2 Cause 2: The input power is abnormal. (1) Replace the IF board that reports the alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: Lightning occurs. (1) Contact the engineers for power supply to check the grounding lightning facilities. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.146 WRG_BD_TYPE
Description
The WRG_BD_TYPE is an alarm indicating that the type of the board is incorrect.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Major
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Alarm Type Equipment alarm

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Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


The board fails to work.

Possible Causes
l l

Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. Cause 2: The board of an incorrect type is installed.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. (1) See Configuring the Logical Board to check whether the board type complies with the planning requirement. If... The board type does not meet the planning requirement The board type meets the planning requirement Step 2 Cause 2: The board of an incorrect type is installed. (1) Replace the board of an incorrect type. ----End Then... Change the configuration data. Go to Cause 2.

Related Information
None.

A.3.147 WRG_DEV_TYPE
Description
The WRG_DEV_TYPE is an alarm indicating that the type of the equipment is incorrect.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.
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Impact on the System


The equipment fails to work.

Possible Causes
Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. (1) By using the method of creating an NE, change the type of the NE so that it is consistent with the equipment type. ----End

Related Information
None.

A.3.148 XPIC_LOS
Description
The XPIC_LOS is an alarm indicating that the XPIC compensation signals are lost.

Attribute
Alarm Severity Critical Alarm Type Equipment alarm

Parameters
None.

Impact on the System


Bit errors may occur in the service at the port, and the service may even be interrupted.

Possible Causes
l l l l

Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect. Cause 2: The radio link is faulty. Cause 3: The XPIC cable is faulty. Cause 4: The IF board or ODU is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Cause 1: Configuration data is incorrect.
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(1) Check whether the XPIC function needs to be enabled. If not, see Setting IF Attributes to disable the XPIC function, and then perform a self-loop at the XPIC port on the board by using the XPIC cable. Step 2 Cause 2: The radio link is faulty. (1) Check whether the paired board that is connected to the IFX2 board through the XPIC cable reports the MW_LOF alarm. If yes, first clear the MW_LOF alarm. Step 3 Cause 3: The XPIC cable is faulty. (1) Check the connection of the XPIC cable. If... The cable is improperly connected The cable is properly connected Then... Connect the XPIC cable properly. Go to the next step.

(2) Test the make and break of the XPIC cable by using the multimeter. If the XPIC cable is damaged, replace it. Step 4 Cause 4: The IF board or ODU is faulty. Locate the fault by replacing the IF board or ODU. (1) Replace the paired board of the IFX2 board. The paired board of the IFX2 board refers to the other IFX2 board connected to the IFX2 board that reports the alarm through the XPIC cable. If... The alarm is cleared after the board is replaced The alarm persists after the board is replaced Then... End the alarm handling. Go to the next step.

(2) Replace the ODU that is connected to the paired IFX2 board. If... The alarm is cleared after the ODU is replaced The alarm persists after the ODU is replaced Then... End the alarm handling. Replace the IFX2 board that reports the alarm.

----End

Related Information
None.
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Abnormal Event Reference

Abnormal events are important indicators when abnormalities occur on the equipment. This topic describes all the possible important abnormal events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these events. B.1 Major Abnormal Performance Event List Abnormal events are important indicators when abnormalities occur on the equipment. This topic describes all the possible important abnormal events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these events. B.2 Abnormal Performance Events and Handling Procedures This topic describes all the important abnormal performance events on the OptiX RTN 950 in an alphabetical order and how to handle these abnormal performance events.

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B.1 Major Abnormal Performance Event List


Abnormal events are important indicators when abnormalities occur on the equipment. This topic describes all the possible important abnormal events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these events. Table B-1 Major performance event list Event Name B.2.1 Intermediate Frequency 1+1 Protection Switching B.2.2 N+1 Protection Switching B.2.3 SNCP Switching B.2.4 Linear MS Switching B.2.5 System Control Board Switching B.2.6 RMON Performance Value Below the Lower Limit B.2.7 RMON Performance Value Above the Upper Limit CST and CSH EM6F and EM6T Source CST and CSH

B.2 Abnormal Performance Events and Handling Procedures


This topic describes all the important abnormal performance events on the OptiX RTN 950 in an alphabetical order and how to handle these abnormal performance events. B.2.1 Intermediate Frequency 1+1 Protection Switching B.2.2 N+1 Protection Switching B.2.3 SNCP Switching B.2.4 Linear MS Switching B.2.5 System Control Board Switching B.2.6 RMON Performance Value Below the Lower Limit B.2.7 RMON Performance Value Above the Upper Limit

B.2.1 Intermediate Frequency 1+1 Protection Switching


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD switching occurs on the equipment.
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Attribute
Severity Major Type Service

Parameters
Name Protection Group ID Current Working Board Slot Current Working Board Sub Slot Meaning Indicates the ID of the protection group where the IF 1+1 protection switching occurs. Indicates the slot ID of the current working board. Indicates the slot ID of the current working board. The value is always 0xff. Current Working Port No. Current Active Board Indicates the ID of the working port. Indicates the current working board.
l l

Active on Working Board Active on Protection Board

Active Board Status

Indicates the current state of the working board.


l l l

Normal Failed MW_RDI

Standby Board Status

Indicates the current status of the protection board.


l l l

Normal Failed MW_RDI

Switching Request

Indicates the type of an IF 1+1 protection switching request.


l l l l l l l

No Request Automatic Switching Manual Switching Forced Switching Lockout of Switching Wait-to-Restore RDI Switching

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NOTE

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The parameter names and parameter values may vary with the version of the NMS.

Impact on System
l

During the HSB protection switching, services are interrupted. After the HSB switching is complete, the services are restored to normal. During the HSM protection switching, no bit errors occur and the services are not affected.

Related Alarms
When the IF 1+1 protection switching occurs, the RPS_INDI alarm is reported.

Possible Causes
l

The possible causes of the HSB protection switching are as follows:


The hardware of the ODU or IF unit at the local end is faulty. The working channel of the local end receives the MW_RDI alarm. The external switching, which is triggered by the switching command issued from the NMS software, occurs. The external switching includes lockout of switching, forced switching, and manual switching. In the case of Hybrid radio, the quality of the main channel degrades. In the case of SDH/PDH radio, an alarm that triggers the HSM switching is reported on the radio link. These alarms include R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, MW_LOF, MW_FEC_UNCOR, B1_SD, and B2_SD.

The possible causes of the HSM protection switching are as follows:


Procedure
Step 1 Rectify the fault according to the switching request type indicated by the parameter and the description in RPS_INDI. ----End

B.2.2 N+1 Protection Switching


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the N+1 protection switching occurs on the equipment.

Attribute
Severity Major Type Service

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Parameters
Name Protection Group ID Path Name ID Switching Request Meaning Indicates the ID of the protection group where the IF N+1 protection switching occurs. Indicates the ID of the path where the IF N+1 protection switching occurs. Indicates the type of an IF N+1 protection switching request.
l l l l l l l l l

Lockout of Protection Channel Forced Switching SF Switching SD Switching Manual Switching Wait-to-Restore Exercise Reverse Request No Request

Switching Status

Indicates the state of an N+1 protection group.


l l l l

Protocol Unstarted Idle Status Switching Status Protocol Starting

Protected Unit

Indicates the ID of the protected channel. The ID is 0xff if no switching is performed.

Switching Local/Remote End Indication

Indicates the local or remote switching.


l l

Local End Remote End

The switching status reason is changed

Indicates the cause of the IF N+1 protection switching.


l l l l

Local Request External Command K-byte request Timer expiry

NOTE

The parameter names and parameter values may vary with the version of the NMS.

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Impact on System
During the N+1 protection switching (not more than 50 ms), the services are interrupted. After the N+1 switching is complete, the services are restored to normal. After the switching starts and before the switching is complete, the extra services are interrupted.
NOTE

If the IF N+1 protection switching is caused by exercise switching, service signals are not switched actually because the exercise switching is used to check whether the NE can run the N+1 protocol normally.

Related Alarms
When the IF N+1 protection switching occurs, the NP1_SW_INDI alarm is reported.

Possible Causes
l

The external switching occurs.


Lockout of protection channel Forced switching Manual switching The hardware of the IDU or IF board is faulty. Focus on checking whether the HARD_BAD or BD_STATUS alarm is reported. The MW_LOF, R_LOC, R_LOF, R_LOS, MS_AIS, or B2_EXC alarm is reported on the working path.

The automatic switching occurs.

Procedure
Step 1 Rectify the fault according to the switching request type and the switching cause indicated by the parameters. If... The switching is caused by the external switching Then... Find the cause of the external switching, and then release the external switching immediately.

The switching is caused by the automatic Clear the alarm that triggers the automatic switching switching. ----End

B.2.3 SNCP Switching


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the SDH SNCP switching occurs in the service that is configured with the SNCP.

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Attribute
Severity Major Type Service

Parameters
Name Source Sink Status Meaning Indicates the service source of the SNCP protection group. Indicates the service sink of the SNCP protection group. Indicates the current working path.
l l

Working at protection channel Working at working channel

Switching Status

Indicates the switching status.


l l l l l l l l

Manual to Standby Force to Active Force to Standby Lockout Switching SF Switching SD Switching Wait-to-Restore Idle

Working Channel Current Status

Indicates the current status of the SNCP working path.


l l l

Normal SD SF

Protection Channel Current Status

Indicates the current status of the SNCP protection path.


l l l

Normal SD SF

NOTE

The parameter names and parameter values may vary with the version of the NMS.

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Impact on System
When the SNCP switching occurs, you must find the cause. If the related link is faulty, recover the link immediately. Ensure that the states of the SNCP working path and the SNCP protection path are NORMAL.

Possible Causes
l

The SDH SNCP switching is automatically triggered.


The hardware of the line board is faulty. The R_LOS, R_LOF, R_LOC, MS_AIS, B2_EXC, AU_LOP, AU_AIS, HP_LOM, MW_LOF (only when the IF board functions as the line board), MW_LIM (only when the IF board functions as the line board), B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_TIM (in the case of VC-4 services), HP_UNEQ (in the case of VC-4 services), TU_AIS (in the case of VC-12 services) or TU_LOP (in the case of VC-12 services), LP_UNEQ (Optional condition), LP_TIM (Optional condition), BIP_SD (Optional condition), BIP_EXC (Optional condition), or MW_BER_EXC (E1 services transmitted over the Hybrid microwave) alarm is reported. Forced switching Manual switching

The SDH SNCP switching is manually triggered.


Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, query the type of the SDH SNCP switching request. Step 2 Rectify the fault according to the switching request type. If... The SDH SNCP switching is automatically triggered The SDH SNCP switching is manually triggered ----End Then... Rectify the fault according to the related alarm, and eliminate the conditions of the automatic switching. Find the cause of the manual switching, and then release the manual switching immediately.

B.2.4 Linear MS Switching


Description
This abnormal event indicates that linear MSP switching occurs on the equipment that is configured with services.

Attribute
Severity Major Type Service

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Parameters
Name Protection Group ID Current Working Path Meaning Indicates the ID of the protection group where linear MSP switching occurs. Indicates the current working path of the linear MS.
l l

Working path Protection path

Linear MSP Switching Request

Indicates the type of a linear MSP switching request.


l l l l l l l l l l

Lock out protection channel Forced Switching Switch upon signal failure Switch upon signal degradation Manual Switching Wait-To-Restore Exercise Reverse Request Non-Revertive Request Not Requested

Switching Status

Indicates the switching state.


l l l l

Protocol Not Started Idle Switching Protocol Being Started

Switching Remote/Local End Indication

Indicates the remote or local end.


l l l

No Remote/Local End Local End Remote End

The switching status reason is changed

Indicates the cause of changing the switching state.


l l l l

Local Request External Command K Byte Request Timer Timeout

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Impact on the System


l

During the MSP switching (not more than 50 ms), the services are interrupted. After the MSP switching is complete, the services become normal. During the MSP switching, additional services are interrupted. When linear MSP switching occurs, fiber cut may occur or the terminal node may be invalid. You must rectify the fault immediately.

Related Alarms
When linear MSP switching occurs, the APS_INDI alarm may be reported.

Possible Causes
l

An external switching command such as manual, forced, or excise switching command is issued. Automatic switching occurs. After the R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, B2_EXC, B2_SD, B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_TIM (for VC-4 services), HP_UNEQ (for VC-4 services), TU_AIS (for VC-12 services), or TU_LOP (for VC-12 services) alarm is reported, the MSP group changes to the switching state, and the automatic switching alarm is reported.

The hardware or line is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Query the switching type and the protection group ID on the NMS. Step 2 Rectify the fault according to the switching request type. If... The switching is caused by external switching The switching is caused by automatic switching ----End Then... Find the cause of the external switching, and then clear manual switching as soon as possible. Clear the related alarm, and rectify the hardware or line fault.

B.2.5 System Control Board Switching


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the system control boards are external switched when the working system control board on the equipment that is configured with the 1+1 protection becomes faulty.

Attribute
Severity Major
B-10

Type Equipment
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Parameters
Name Group ID Protection Type Working Unit Protection Unit Current Working Unit Meaning Indicates the group ID. XC board protection. Indicates the slot ID of the current working board. Indicates the slot ID of the current protection board. Indicates the current status of the board.
l l

Work at protection unit Work at working unit

Switching Type

Indicates the switching type. External Switching

NOTE

The parameter names and parameter values may vary with the version of the NMS.

Impact on System
None.

Possible Causes
l

The switching is manually triggered.

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, check whether the manual switching operation is performed. If... The manual switching operation is performed on the NMS No manual switching operations are performed on the NMS ----End Then... Find the cause of the manual switching, and then release the manual switching immediately. Go to the next step.

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B.2.6 RMON Performance Value Below the Lower Limit


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the current RMON performance value is lower than the preset lower limit.

Attribute
Severity Minor Type Communication

Parameters
Name Performance ID Current Performance Value Lower Limit Meaning Indicates the ID of the current RMON performance event. Indicates the value of the current RMON performance event. Indicates the lower limit of the current RMON performance event.

Impact on System
Different abnormal performance events have different impacts on the system. For details, see D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures.

Related Alarms
Different alarms are reported when different RMON performance values are lower than the lower limits. For details, see D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures.

Possible Causes
The lower limit of a performance event is set to a non-zero value.

Procedure
Step 1 Set the lower limit of the performance event to 0. ----End

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B.2.7 RMON Performance Value Above the Upper Limit


Description
This abnormal event indicates that the current RMON performance value is higher than the preset upper limit.

Attribute
Severity Minor Type Communication

Parameters
Name Performance ID Current Performance Value Upper Limit Meaning Indicates the ID of the current RMON performance event. Indicates the value of the current RMON performance event. Indicates the upper limit of the current RMON performance event.

Impact on System
Different abnormal performance events have different impacts on the system. For details, see D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures.

Related Alarms
Different alarms are reported when different RMON performance values are higher than the upper limits. For details, see D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures.

Possible Causes
When the performance values of different abnormal RMON performance events are higher than the upper limits, the causes are different. For details, see D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures.

Procedure
Step 1 See D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures to handle different abnormal performance events. ----End
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C Performance Event Reference

Performance Event Reference

Performance events are important indicators when the equipment performance changes. This topic describes all the possible performance events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these performance events. C.1 Performance Events (by Event Type) The list is categorized based on the performance event type, and includes all the events of the OptiX RTN 950. C.2 Performance Events (by Logical Board) This part lists all the performance events that are reported by each board. C.3 Performance Events and Handling Procedures Based on the type of a performance event, this topic describes all the performance events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these performance events.

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C.1 Performance Events (by Event Type)


The list is categorized based on the performance event type, and includes all the events of the OptiX RTN 950. C.1.1 SDH/PDH Performance Events SDH performance events are classified into five types: pointer justification, regenerator section error, multiplex section error, higher order path error, and lower order path error. C.1.2 Radio Performance Events The radio performance events are performance events of the radio link bit errors, ATPC, AM, and power. C.1.3 Other Performance Events In addition to the SDH and radio performance events, the OptiX RTN 950 supports performance events of the optical power and the temperature.

C.1.1 SDH/PDH Performance Events


SDH performance events are classified into five types: pointer justification, regenerator section error, multiplex section error, higher order path error, and lower order path error. Table C-1 Pointer justification performance events Event Name AUPJCHIGH AUPJCLOW AUPJCNEW TUPJCHIGH TUPJCLOW TUPJCNEW Description Count of positive AU pointer justification Count of negative AU pointer justification Count of new AU pointer justifications Count of positive TU pointer justifications Count of negative TU pointer justifications Count of new TU pointer justifications

Table C-2 Regenerator section error performance events Event Name RSBBE RSES RSSES RSUAS RSCSES Description Regenerator section block of background error Regenerator section errored second Regenerator section severely errored second Regenerator section unavailable second Regenerator section consecutive severely errored second
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Event Name RSOFS RSOOF

Description Regenerator section out-of-frame second Regenerator section out of frame

NOTE

The regenerator section error performance events also occur in the case of the PDH radio. The PDH radio frame is detected through the overheads that are used for frame location and bit error detection.

Table C-3 Multiplex section error performance events Event Name MSBBE MSES MSSES MSCSES MSUAS MSFEBBE MSFEES MSFESES MSFECSES MSFEUAS Description Multiplex section block of background error Multiplex section errored second Multiplex section severely errored second Multiplex section consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section unavailable second Multiplex section far end block of background error Multiplex section far end errored second Multiplex section far end severely errored second Multiplex section far end consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section far end unavailable second

Table C-4 Higher order path error performance events Event Name HPBBE HPES HPSES HPCSES HPUAS Description Higher order path background block error Higher order path errored second Higher order path severely errored second Higher order path consecutive severely errored second Higher order path unavailable second

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Event Name HPFEBBE HPFEES HPFESES HPFECSES HPFEUAS

Description Higher order path far end background block error Higher order path far end errored second Higher order path far end severely errored second Higher order path far end consecutive severely errored second Higher order path far end unavailable second

Table C-5 Lower order path error performance events Event Name LPBBE LPES LPSES LPCSES LPUAS LPFEBBE LPFEES LPFESES LPFECSES LPFEUAS Description Lower order path block of background error Lower order path errored second Lower order path severely errored second Lower order path continuous severe bit error second Lower order path unavailable second Lower order path far end block of background error Lower order path far end errored second Lower order path far end severely errored second Lower order path far end consecutive severely errored second Lower order far end unavailable second

C.1.2 Radio Performance Events


The radio performance events are performance events of the radio link bit errors, ATPC, AM, and power. Table C-6 Radio power performance events Event Name TSL_MAX
C-4

Description Maximum value of radio transmit signal level


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Event Name TSL_MIN TSL_CUR TSL_AVG RSL_MAX RSL_MIN RSL_CUR RSL_AVG TLHTT

Description Minimum value of radio transmit signal level Current value of radio transmit signal level Average value of radio transmit signal level Maximum value of radio receive signal level Minimum value of radio receive signal level Current value of radio receive signal level Average value of radio receive signal level The duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the upper threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the lower threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the upper threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the lower threshold

TLLTT

RLHTT

RLLTT

Table C-7 FEC performance events Event Name FEC_BEF_COR_ER FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT Description FEC bit error rate before correction FEC uncorrected block count The number of bytes that are corrected through the FEC

Table C-8 Radio link error performance events Event Name IF_BBE IF_ES IF_SES IF_UAS
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Description Radio link background block errors Radio link errored seconds Radio link severely errored seconds Radio link unavailable second
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Event Name IF_CSES

Description Radio link consecutive severely errored seconds

Table C-9 ATPC performance events Event Name ATPC_P_ADJUST ATPC_N_ADJUST Description Positive ATPC adjustment Negative ATPC adjustment

Table C-10 AM performance events Event Name QPSKWS QAMWS16 QAMWS32 QAMWS64 QAMWS128 QAMWS256 AMDOWNCNT AMUPCNT Description Working time of the QPSK mode Working time of the 16QAM mode Working time of the 32QAM mode Working time of the 64QAM mode Working time of the 128QAM mode Working time of the 256QAM mode Count of the downshift of the AM scheme Count of the upshift of the AM scheme

C.1.3 Other Performance Events


In addition to the SDH and radio performance events, the OptiX RTN 950 supports performance events of the optical power and the temperature. Table C-11 Optical power performance events Event Name TPLMAX TPLMIN TPLCUR Description Maximum value of transmit optical power Minimum value of transmit optical power Current value of transmit optical power
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Source SL1D

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Event Name RPLMAX RPLMIN RPLCUR

Description Maximum value of receive optical power Minimum value of receive optical power Current value of receive optical power

Source

Table C-12 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature Source ODU, IF1, IFU2, IFX2, CST, and CSH

C.2 Performance Events (by Logical Board)


This part lists all the performance events that are reported by each board. C.2.1 CST/CSH The CST/CSH board reports only the board temperature performance events. C.2.2 IF1 The IF1 board reports three types of performance events: SDH/PDH performance events, microwave performance events, and temperature performance events. C.2.3 IFU2 The IFU2 board reports three types of performance events: PDH performance events, radio performance events, and board temperature performance events. C.2.4 IFX2 The IFX2 board reports three types of performance events: PDH performance events, radio performance events, and board temperature performance events. C.2.5 SL1D The SL1D board reports three types of performance events: SDH performance events, optical power performance events, and board temperature performance events. C.2.6 SP3S/SP3D The SP3S/SP3D board reports only the PDH performance events. C.2.7 ODU The ODU reports radio performance events.
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C.2.1 CST/CSH
The CST/CSH board reports only the board temperature performance events. Table C-13 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature

C.2.2 IF1
The IF1 board reports three types of performance events: SDH/PDH performance events, microwave performance events, and temperature performance events.

SDH/PDH Performance Events


Table C-14 Pointer justification performance events Event Name AUPJCHIGH AUPJCLOW AUPJCNEW Description Count of positive AU pointer justification Count of negative AU pointer justification Count of new AU pointer justifications

Table C-15 Regenerator section error performance events Event Name RSBBE RSES RSSES RSUAS RSCSES RSOFS RSOOF Description Regenerator section block of background error Regenerator section errored second Regenerator section severely errored second Regenerator section unavailable second Regenerator section consecutive severely errored second Regenerator section out-of-frame second Regenerator section out of frame

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C Performance Event Reference

The regenerator section error performance events also occur in the case of the PDH radio. The PDH radio frame is detected through the overheads that are used for frame location and bit error detection.

Table C-16 Multiplex section error performance events Event Name MSBBE MSES MSSES MSCSES MSUAS MSFEBBE MSFEES MSFESES MSFECSES MSFEUAS Description Multiplex section block of background error Multiplex section errored second Multiplex section severely errored second Multiplex section consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section unavailable second Multiplex section far end block of background error Multiplex section far end errored second Multiplex section far end severely errored second Multiplex section far end consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section far end unavailable second

Table C-17 Higher order path error performance events Event Name HPBBE HPES HPSES HPCSES HPUAS HPFEBBE HPFEES HPFESES Description Higher order path background block error Higher order path errored second Higher order path severely errored second Higher order path consecutive severely errored second Higher order path unavailable second Higher order path far end background block error Higher order path far end errored second Higher order path far end severely errored second

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Event Name HPFECSES HPFEUAS

Description Higher order path far end consecutive severely errored second Higher order path far end unavailable second

Radio Performance Events


Table C-18 FEC performance events Event Name FEC_BEF_COR_ER FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT Description FEC bit error rate before correction Frame count uncorrect by FEC

Other Performance Events


Table C-19 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature

C.2.3 IFU2
The IFU2 board reports three types of performance events: PDH performance events, radio performance events, and board temperature performance events.

PDH Performance Events


Table C-20 Lower order path error performance events Event Name LPBBE LPES LPSES LPCSES Description Lower order path block of background error Lower order path errored second Lower order path severely errored second Lower order path continuous severe bit error second
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Event Name LPUAS LPFEBBE LPFEES LPFESES LPFECSES LPFEUAS

Description Lower order path unavailable second Lower order path far end block of background error Lower order path far end errored second Lower order path far end severely errored second Lower order path far end consecutive severely errored second Lower order far end unavailable second

Radio Performance Events


Table C-21 FEC performance events Event Name FEC_BEF_COR_ER FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT Description FEC bit error rate before correction FEC uncorrected block count

Table C-22 Radio link error performance events Event Name IF_BBE IF_ES IF_SES IF_UAS IF_CSES Description Radio link background block errors Radio link errored seconds Radio link severely errored seconds Radio link unavailable second Radio link consecutive severely errored seconds

Table C-23 AM performance events Event Name QPSKWS QAMWS16 QAMWS32


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Description Working time of the QPSK mode Working time of the 16QAM mode Working time of the 32QAM mode
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Event Name QAMWS64 QAMWS128 QAMWS256 AMDOWNCNT AMUPCNT

Description Working time of the 64QAM mode Working time of the 128QAM mode Working time of the 256QAM mode Count of the downshift of the AM scheme Count of the upshift of the AM scheme

Other Performance Events


Table C-24 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature

C.2.4 IFX2
The IFX2 board reports three types of performance events: PDH performance events, radio performance events, and board temperature performance events.

PDH Performance Events


Table C-25 Lower order path error performance events Event Name LPBBE LPES LPSES LPCSES LPUAS LPFEBBE LPFEES Description Lower order path block of background error Lower order path errored second Lower order path severely errored second Lower order path continuous severe bit error second Lower order path unavailable second Lower order path far end block of background error Lower order path far end errored second

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Event Name LPFESES LPFECSES LPFEUAS

Description Lower order path far end severely errored second Lower order path far end consecutive severely errored second Lower order far end unavailable second

Radio Performance Events


Table C-26 FEC performance events Event Name FEC_BEF_COR_ER FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT Description FEC bit error rate before correction FEC uncorrected block count

Table C-27 Radio link error performance events Event Name IF_BBE IF_ES IF_SES IF_UAS IF_CSES Description Radio link background block errors Radio link errored seconds Radio link severely errored seconds Radio link unavailable second Radio link consecutive severely errored seconds

Table C-28 AM performance events Event Name QPSKWS QAMWS16 QAMWS32 QAMWS64 QAMWS128 QAMWS256 Description Working time of the QPSK mode Working time of the 16QAM mode Working time of the 32QAM mode Working time of the 64QAM mode Working time of the 128QAM mode Working time of the 256QAM mode

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Event Name AMDOWNCNT AMUPCNT

Description Count of the downshift of the AM scheme Count of the upshift of the AM scheme

Other Performance Events


Table C-29 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature

C.2.5 SL1D
The SL1D board reports three types of performance events: SDH performance events, optical power performance events, and board temperature performance events.

SDH Performance Events


Table C-30 Pointer justification performance events Event Name AUPJCHIGH AUPJCLOW AUPJCNEW Description Count of positive AU pointer justification Count of negative AU pointer justification Count of new AU pointer justifications

Table C-31 Regenerator section error performance events Event Name RSBBE RSES RSSES RSUAS Description Regenerator section block of background error Regenerator section errored second Regenerator section severely errored second Regenerator section unavailable second

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Event Name RSCSES RSOFS RSOOF

Description Regenerator section consecutive severely errored second Regenerator section out-of-frame second Regenerator section out of frame

Table C-32 Multiplex section error performance events Event Name MSBBE MSES MSSES MSCSES MSUAS MSFEBBE MSFEES MSFESES MSFECSES MSFEUAS Description Multiplex section block of background error Multiplex section errored second Multiplex section severely errored second Multiplex section consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section unavailable second Multiplex section far end block of background error Multiplex section far end errored second Multiplex section far end severely errored second Multiplex section far end consecutive severely errored second Multiplex section far end unavailable second

Table C-33 Higher order path error performance events Event Name HPBBE HPES HPSES HPCSES HPUAS HPFEBBE Description Higher order path background block error Higher order path errored second Higher order path severely errored second Higher order path consecutive severely errored second Higher order path unavailable second Higher order path far end background block error

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Event Name HPFEES HPFESES HPFECSES HPFEUAS

Description Higher order path far end errored second Higher order path far end severely errored second Higher order path far end consecutive severely errored second Higher order path far end unavailable second

Other Performance Events


Table C-34 Optical power performance events Event Name TPLMAX TPLMIN TPLCUR RPLMAX RPLMIN RPLCUR Description Maximum value of transmit optical power Minimum value of transmit optical power Current value of transmit optical power Maximum value of receive optical power Minimum value of receive optical power Current value of receive optical power

Table C-35 Board temperature performance events Event Name BDTEMPMAX BDTEMPMIN BDTEMPCUR Description Maximum value of board temperature Minimum value of board temperature Current value of board temperature

C.2.6 SP3S/SP3D
The SP3S/SP3D board reports only the PDH performance events. Table C-36 Pointer justification performance events Event Name TUPJCHIGH
C-16

Description Count of positive TU pointer justifications


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Event Name TUPJCLOW TUPJCNEW

Description Count of negative TU pointer justifications Count of new TU pointer justifications

Table C-37 Lower order path error performance events Event Name LPBBE LPES LPSES LPCSES LPUAS LPFEBBE LPFEES LPFESES LPFECSES LPFEUAS Description Lower order path block of background error Lower order path errored second Lower order path severely errored second Lower order path continuous severe bit error second Lower order path unavailable second Lower order path far end block of background error Lower order path far end errored second Lower order path far end severely errored second Lower order path far end consecutive severely errored second Lower order far end unavailable second

C.2.7 ODU
The ODU reports radio performance events. Table C-38 Radio power performance events Event Name TSL_MAX TSL_MIN TSL_CUR TSL_AVG RSL_MAX RSL_MIN
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Description Maximum value of radio transmit signal level Minimum value of radio transmit signal level Current value of radio transmit signal level Average value of radio transmit signal level Maximum value of radio receive signal level Minimum value of radio receive signal level
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Event Name RSL_CUR RSL_AVG TLHTT

Description Current value of radio receive signal level Average value of radio receive signal level The duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the upper threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the lower threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the upper threshold The duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the lower threshold

TLLTT

RLHTT

RLLTT

Table C-39 ATPC performance events Event Name ATPC_P_ADJUST ATPC_N_ADJUST Description Positive ATPC adjustment Negative ATPC adjustment

C.3 Performance Events and Handling Procedures


Based on the type of a performance event, this topic describes all the performance events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these performance events.

C.3.1 AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT


Description
l

AMDOWNCNT indicates the count of the AM downshifts on a board in the current performance statistics period. AMUPCNT indicates the count of the AM upshifts on a board in the current performance statistics period.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell
C-18

Description AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT


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Attribute Unit

Description -

Impact on System
AMDOWNCNT and AMUPCNT indicate only statistical values and do not affect the system.

Related Alarms
AM_DOWNSHIFT

Possible Causes
When the AM function is enabled, the transmission modulation scheme that the IF port on the IF board uses varies according to the quality of the link. Accordingly, the system counts the performance events of the modulation scheme shift. When the low-efficiency modulation scheme is shifted to the high-efficiency modulation scheme, an upshift is recorded and one AMUPCNT event is counted. Similarly, when the high-efficiency modulation scheme is shifted to the low-efficiency modulation scheme, a downshift is recorded and one AMDOWNCNT event is counted.

C.3.2 ATPC_P_ADJUST and ATPC_N_ADJUST


Description
l

ATPC_P_ADJUST indicates the positive ATPC adjustment event. This performance event indicates that the quality of a communication link declines. Thus, you must increase the transmit power of the ODU to maintain the communication quality.

ATPC_N_ADJUST indicates the negative ATPC adjustment event. This performance event indicates that the quality of a communication link becomes well or the transmit power of the ODU is very large. Thus, you can decrease the transmit power of the ODU.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description ATPCPADJUST (ATPC_P_ADJUST) and ATPCNADJUST (ATPC_N_ADJUST) -

Impact on the System


The ATPC adjustment indicates only the stability of a communication link and it does not affect services. When the value of the performance event is larger, more adjustments are made.
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When the factors that affect a communication link, such as sudden change of the weather, do not exist, and when the ATPC adjustment count is very large, the communication link may be faulty. You must check the communication link to prevent it from failure.

Related Alarms
None.

C.3.3 AUPJCHIGH, AUPJCLOW, and AUPJCNEW


Description
l l l

AUPJCHIGH indicates the count of positive AU pointer justifications. AUPJCLOW indicates the count of negative AU pointer justifications. AUPJCNEW indicates the count of new AU pointer justifications.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description PPJE (AUPJCHIGH) NPJE (AUPJCLOW) NDF (AUPJCNEW) Unit Block

Impact on System
Less than six AUPJCHIGH and AUPJCLOW events do not affect the system. If the pointer is justified for many times, or the AUPJCNEW event occurs, bit errors may occur in the service.

Related Alarms
When the AUPJCHIGH, AUPJCLOW, or AUPJCNEW performance event crosses the preset threshold, the MSAD_CROSSTR alarm is reported. Performance Event AUPJCHIGH AUPJCLOW AUPJCNEW Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 1500 1500 Default 24-Hour Threshold 30000 30000 30000

Possible Causes
The NE clock is out-of-synchronization.
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Procedure
Step 1 See 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications for handling. ----End

C.3.4 BDTEMPMAX, BDTEMPMIN, and BDTEMPCUR


Description
l l l

BDTEMPMAX indicates the maximum temperature of a board. BDTEMPMIN indicates the minimum temperature of a board. BDTEMPCUR indicates the current temperature of a board.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description 0.1C

Impact on System
If the temperature of a board is very high or very low, the performance of the board declines, and bit errors or other faults occur.

Related Alarms
If the temperature of a board crosses the specific threshold, the TEMP_ALARM alarm is reported.

C.3.5 FEC_BEF_COR_ER, FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT and FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT


Description
l

FEC_BEF_COR_ER indicates the BER before the FEC is performed. This event indicates the impact of the external environment on the transmission. FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT indicates the number of bytes corrected through the FEC. This event indicates the impact of the FEC. FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT indicates the number of frames that cannot be corrected through the FEC. This event indicates the number of blocks that cannot be corrected through the FEC.

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Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description FECBEFCORER (FEC_BEF_COR_ER) FECCORBYTECNT (FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT) FECUNCORBLOCKCNT (FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT) Unit None (FEC_BEF_COR_ER) None (FEC_COR_BYTE_CNT) Block (FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT)

Impact on System
If the value of FEC_BEF_COR_ER is very high, residual bit errors exist in the service after the FEC is performed. If the value of FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT is not zero, it can be inferred that bit errors that cannot be corrected exist on a radio link. Bit errors exist in the service accordingly.

Related Alarms
If a byte cannot be corrected, the MW_FEC_UNCOR alarm is reported.

C.3.6 HPBBE, HPES, HPSES, HPCSES, and HPUAS


Description
l

HPBBE indicates the higher order path background block error. BBE refers to the errored blocks excluding the errored blocks in the unavailable and severely errored seconds.

HPES indicates the higher order path errored second. ES refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected. HPSES indicates the higher order path severely errored second. SES refers to a second in which 30% or more than 30% errored blocks exist or at least one SDP exists. SDP is the period in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks in a period of less than four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (the longer period is applied) is equal to or higher than 10-2 or the signal is lost.

HPCSES indicates the higher order path consecutive severely errored second. CSES refers to a second in which the SES occurs continuously for less than 10 seconds. HPUAS indicates the higher order path unavailable second. The unavailable time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs, with the 10 SESs included. When SESs disappear for 10 consecutive seconds, the available time begins from the eleventh second, with the previous 10 seconds included.

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Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description B3CNT Block (HPBBE) Second (HPES, HPSES, HPCSES, and HPUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
When the HPBBE, HPES, HPSES, HPCSES, or HPUAS performance event crosses the preset threshold, the HP_CROSSTR alarm is reported. Performance Event HPBBE HPES HPSES HPUAS HPCSES Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 50 20 20 Default 24-Hour Threshold 15000 100 50 50

4 (number of consecutive SESs)

Possible Causes
The system detects higher order path bit errors through the B3 byte.

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.7 HPFEBBE, HPFEES, HPFESES, HPFECSES, and HPFEUAS


Description
l

HPFEBBE indicates the higher order path far end background block error. Far end background block error (FEBBE) indicates that the BBE occurs at the opposite end.

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HPFEES indicates the higher order path far end errored second. FEES indicates that the ES occurs at the opposite end. HPFESES indicates the higher order path far end severely errored second. FESES indicates that the SES occurs at the opposite end. HPFECSES indicates the higher order path far end consecutive severely errored second. FECSES indicates that the CSES occurs at the opposite end. HPFEUAS indicates the higher order path far end unavailable second. FEUAS indicates that the UAS occurs at the opposite end.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description PFEBE Block (HPFEBBE) Second (HPFEES, HPFESES, HPFECSES, and HPFEUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
The HP_REI alarm is reported at the local end.

Possible Causes
The system detects the higher order path far end bit errors through bits 1 to 4 in the G1 byte.

Procedure
Step 1 Clear the corresponding performance event at the opposite end. ----End

C.3.8 IF_BBE, IF_ES, IF_SES, IF_CSES, and IF_UAS


Description
l

IF_BBE indicates the radio link background block error. BBE refers to the errored blocks excluding the errored blocks in the unavailable and severely errored seconds.

IF_ES indicates the radio link errored second. ES refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected.

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IF_SES indicates the radio link severely errored second. SES refers to a second in which 30% or more than 30% errored blocks exist or at least one SDP exists. SDP is the period in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks in a period of less than four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (the longer period is applied) is equal to or higher than 10-2 or the signal is lost.

IF_CSES indicates the radio link consecutively severely errored second. CSES refers to a second in which the SES occurs continuously for less than 10 seconds. IF_UAS indicates the radio link unavailable second. The unavailable time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs, with the 10 SESs included. When SESs disappear for 10 consecutive seconds, the available time begins from the eleventh second, with the previous 10 seconds included.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description IFCNT Block (IFBBE) Second (IFES, IFSES, IFCSES, and IFUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
In the case of the IFU2 or IFX2 board, the MW_BER_SD or MW_BER_EXC alarm is reported when the BER crosses the specific threshold.

Possible Causes
The system detects bit errors on the radio link through the bit error detection overheads in a radio frame.

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.9 LPBBE, LPES, LPSES, LPCSES, and LPUAS


Description
l

LPBBE indicates the lower order path background block error. BBE refers to the errored blocks excluding the errored blocks in the unavailable and severely errored seconds.

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LPES indicates the lower order path errored second. ES refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected. LPSES indicates the lower order path severely errored second. SES refers to a second in which 30% or more than 30% errored blocks exist or at least one SDP exists. SDP is the period in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks in a period of less than four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (the longer period is applied) is equal to or higher than 10-2 or the signal is lost.

LPCSES indicates the lower order path consecutive severely errored second. CSES refers to a second in which the SES occurs continuously for less than 10 seconds. LPUAS indicates the lower order path unavailable second. The unavailable time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs, with the 10 SESs included. When SESs disappear for 10 consecutive seconds, the available time begins from the eleventh second, with the previous 10 seconds included.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description LPBIP2CNT Block (LPBBE) Second (LPES, LPSES, LPCSES, and LPUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
When the LPBBE, LPES, LPSES, LPCSES, or LPUAS performance event crosses the preset threshold, the LP_CROSSTR alarm is reported. Performance Event LPBBE LPES LPSES LPUAS LPCSES Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 50 20 20 Default 24-Hour Threshold 15000 100 50 50

4 (number of consecutive SESs)

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Possible Causes
The system detects lower order path bit errors through the BIP2 in the V5 byte (E1 interface board or Hybrid IF board).

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.10 LPFEBBE, LPFEES, LPFESES, LPFECSES, and LPFEUAS


Description
l

LPFEBBE indicates the lower order path far end background block error. FEBBE indicates that the BBE occurs at the opposite end. LPFEES indicates the lower order path far end errored second. FEES indicates that the ES occurs at the opposite end. LPFESES indicates the lower order path far end severely errored second. FESES indicates that the SES occurs at the opposite end. LPFECSES indicates the lower order path far end consecutive severely errored second. FECSES indicates that the CSES occurs at the opposite end. LPFEUAS indicates the lower order path far end unavailable second. FEUAS indicates that the UAS occurs at the opposite end.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description LPFEBE Block (LPFEBBE) Second (LPFEES, LPFESES, LPFECSES, and LPFEUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
The LP_REI alarm is reported at the local end.

Possible Causes
The system detects the lower order path far end bit errors through bit 3 in the V5 byte.
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Procedure
Step 1 Clear the corresponding performance event at the opposite end. ----End

C.3.11 MSBBE, MSES, MSSES, MSCSES, and MSUAS


Description
l

MSBBE indicates the multiplex section background block error. BBE refers to the errored blocks excluding the errored blocks in the unavailable and severely errored seconds.

MSES indicates the multiplex section errored second. ES refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected. MSSES indicates the multiplex section severely errored second. SES refers to a second in which 15% or more than 15% errored blocks exist or at least one SDP exists. SDP is the period in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks in a period of less than four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (the longer period is applied) is equal to or higher than 10-2 or the signal is lost.

MSCSES indicates the multiplex section consecutive severely errored second. CSES refers to a second in which the SES occurs continuously for less than 10 seconds. MSUAS indicates the multiplex section unavailable second. The unavailable time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs, with the 10 SESs included. When SESs disappear for 10 consecutive seconds, the available time begins from the eleventh second, with the previous 10 seconds included.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description B2CNT Block (MSBBE) Second (MSES, MSSES, MSCSES, and MSUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
When the MSBBE, MSES, MSSES, MSCSES, or MSUAS performance event crosses the preset threshold, the MS_CROSSTR alarm is reported.
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Performance Event MSBBE MSES MSES MSUAS MSCSES

Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 50 20 20

Default 24-Hour Threshold 15000 100 50 50

4 (number of consecutive SESs)

Possible Causes
The system detects multiplex section bit errors through the B2 byte.

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.12 MSFEBBE, MSFEES, MSFESES, MSFECSES, and MSFEUAS


Description
l

MSFEBBE indicates the multiplex section far end background block error. Far end background block error (FEBBE) indicates that the BBE occurs at the opposite end.

MSFEES indicates the multiplex section far end errored second. Far end errored second (FEES) indicates that the ES occurs at the opposite end. MSFESES indicates the multiplex section far end severely errored second. Far end severely errored second (FESES) indicates that the SES occurs at the opposite end. MSFECSES indicates the multiplex section far end consecutive severely errored second. Far end consecutive severely errored second (FECSES) indicates that the CSES occurs at the opposite end.

MSFEUAS indicates the multiplex section far end unavailable second. Far end unavailable second (FEUAS) indicates that the UAS occurs at the opposite end.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description LFEBE Block (MSFEBBE) Second (MSFEES, MSFESES, MSFECSES, and MSFEUAS)
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Impact on the System


Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
The MS_REI alarm is reported at the local end.

Possible Causes
The system detects multiplex section far end bit errors through the M1 byte.

Procedure
Step 1 Clear the corresponding performance event at the opposite end. ----End

C.3.13 QPSKWS, QAMWS16, QAMWS32, QAMWS64, QAMWS128, and QAMWS256


Description
l l l l l l

QPSKWS indicates the working duration of the QPSK modulation scheme. QAMWS16 indicates the working duration of the 16QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS32 indicates the working duration of the 32QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS64 indicates the working duration of the 64QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS128 indicates the working duration of the 128QAM modulation scheme. QAMWS256 indicates the working duration of the 256QAM modulation scheme.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description QPSKWSSECOND (QPSKWS) QAMWS16SECOND (16QAMWS) QAMWS32SECOND (32QAMWS) QAMWS64SECOND (64QAMWS) QAMWS128SECOND (128QAMWS) QAMWS256SECOND (256QAMWS) Unit Second

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Impact on System
When the AM function is disabled, the performance event does not affect the system. When the AM function is enabled, in normal cases, the seconds of the modulation scheme for maximum capacity should account for a larger percentage. In the duration set for good weather, if the seconds of the low-efficiency modulation scheme account for a larger percentage, the performance of the radio link is abnormal.

Related Alarms
None.

C.3.14 RPLMAX, RPLMIN, and RPLCUR


Description
l l l

RPLMAX indicates the maximum receive optical power at an optical interface. RPLMAX indicates the minimum receive optical power at an optical interface. RPLCUR indicates the current receive optical power at an optical interface.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description IPM dBm

Impact on System
In normal cases, the receive optical power should be 3 dB higher than the receiver sensitivity, and 5 dB lower than the overload power. If the receive optical power is very low or very high, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Related Alarms
l

If the receive optical power is lower than the receiver sensitivity, the IN_PWR_LOW alarm is reported. If the receive optical power is higher than the overload power, the IN_PWR_HIGH alarm is reported.

C.3.15 RSBBE, RSES, RSSES, RSCSES, and RSUAS


Description
l

RSBBE indicates the regenerator section background block error. Background block error (BBE) refers to the errored blocks excluding the errored blocks in the unavailable and severely errored seconds.

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RSES indicates the regenerator section errored second. Errored second (ES) refers to a second in which one or more errored blocks are detected. RSSES indicates the regenerator section severely errored second. Severely errored second (SES) refers to a second in which 30% or more than 30% errored blocks exist or at least one severely disturbed period (SDP) exists. SDP is the period in which the BER of all the consecutive blocks in a period of less than four consecutive blocks or 1 ms (the longer period is applied) is equal to or higher than 10-2 or the signal is lost.

RSCSES indicates the regenerator section consecutive severely errored second. Consecutive severely errored second (CSES) refers to a second in which the SES occurs continuously for less than 10 seconds.

RSUAS indicates the regenerator section unavailable second. The unavailable time begins at the onset of 10 consecutive SESs, with the 10 SESs included. When SESs disappear for 10 consecutive seconds, the available time begins from the eleventh second, with the previous 10 seconds included.
NOTE

When the IF board works in PDH mode, these performance events may also be reported. These events are detected through the self-defined overhead byte B1 in the PDH radio frame.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description B1CNT Block (RSBBE) Second (RSES, RSSES, RSCSES, and RSUAS)

Impact on System
Excessive bit errors interrupt the service (the BER should be less than 10-3 for the voice service, and 10-6 for the data service).

Related Alarms
When the RSBBE, RSES, RSSES, RSCSES, or RSUAS performance event crosses the preset threshold, the RS_CROSSTR alarm is reported. Performance Event RSBBE RSES RSSES RSUAS
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Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 50 20 20

Default 24-Hour Threshold 15000 100 50 50


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Performance Event RSCSES

Default 15-Minute Threshold

Default 24-Hour Threshold

4 (number of consecutive SESs)

Possible Causes
The system detects the regenerator section bit errors through the B1 byte.

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.16 RSL_MAX, RSL_MIN, RSL_CUR, and RSL_AVG


Description
l l l l

RSL_MAX indicates the maximum radio received signal level. RSL_MIN indicates the minimum radio received signal level. RSL_CUR indicates the current radio received signal level. RSL_AVG indicates the average radio received signal level.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description RSL 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
When the radio received signal level is very low or very high, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Related Alarms
If the radio received signal level crosses the specific threshold, the RADIO_RSL_HIGH or RADIO_RSL_LOW alarm is reported.

C.3.17 RSOOF and RSOFS


Description
l

RSOOF indicates the regenerator section out of frame.


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The out-of-frame (OOF) block refers to a data block in which incorrect A1 and A2 bytes are detected.
l

RSOFS indicates the regenerator section out-of-frame second. The out-of-frame second (OFS) refers to a second in which one or more OOF blocks are detected.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description OOF Block (RSOOF) Second (RSOFS)

Impact on System
The system discards OOF data blocks. Thus, an RSOOF event is equivalent to a big error (if one RSOOF exists in a second, the BER is not less than 1.25 x 10-5).

Related Alarms
If RSOOF is received in five consecutive frames, the equipment changes to the OOF state. If the OOF state lasts for 3 ms, the R_LOF alarm is reported and all the services are interrupted.

Possible Causes
The system detects incorrect A1 and A2 bytes.

Procedure
Step 1 If the R_LOF alarm, as well as the performance event, is reported, eliminate the errors according to the alarm. Otherwise, see 5.4 Troubleshooting Bit Errors in TDM Services for handling. ----End

C.3.18 RLHTT, RLLTT, TLHTT, TLLTT


Description
l

The RLHTT indicates the duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the upper threshold. The RLLTT indicates the duration when the ODU at the local end has a receive power lower than the lower threshold. The TLHTT indicates the duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the upper threshold. The TLLTT indicates the duration when the ODU at the local end has a transit power higher than the lower threshold.
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Attribute
Attribute Basic unit of a performance event Unit Description RLHTS, RLLTS, TLHTS, and TLLTS Second

Impact on System
None.

Related Alarms
None.

C.3.19 TPLMAX, TPLMIN, and TPLCUR


Description
l l l

TPLMAX indicates the maximum transmit optical power at an optical interface. TPLMIN indicates the minimum transmit optical power at an optical interface. TPLCUR indicates the current transmit optical power at an optical interface.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description OPM 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
In normal cases, the receive optical power should be 3 dB higher than the receiver sensitivity, and 5 dB lower than the overload power. If the transmit optical power is very low or very high, the receive optical power at the opposite site is accordingly very low or very high. As a result, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Related Alarms
l

If the transmit optical power at the opposite site is lower than the receiver sensitivity, the IN_PWR_LOW alarm is reported. If the receive optical power at the opposite site is higher than the overload power, the IN_PWR_HIGH alarm is reported.
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C.3.20 TSL_MAX, TSL_MIN, TSL_CUR, and TSL_AVG


Description
l l l l

TSL_MAX indicates the maximum radio transmitted signal level. TSL_MIN indicates the minimum radio transmitted signal level. TSL_CUR indicates the current radio transmitted signal level. TSL_AVG indicates the average radio transmitted signal level.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Unit Description TSL 0.1 dBm

Impact on System
When the radio transmitted signal level is very low or very high, the radio received signal level at the opposite site is very low or very high. As a result, bit errors occur and even services are interrupted.

Related Alarms
If the radio transmitted signal level is not within the range supported by the ODU, the RADIO_TSL_HIGH or RADIO_TSL_LOW alarm is reported.

C.3.21 TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, and TUPJCNEW


Description
l l l

TUPJCHIGH indicates the count of positive TU pointer justifications. TUPJCLOW indicates the count of negative TU pointer justifications. TUPJCNEW indicates the count of new TU pointer justifications.

Attribute
Attribute Performance event cell Description TUPPJE (TUPJCHIGH) TUNPJE (TUPJCLOW) TUNDF (TUPJCNEW) Unit Block

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C Performance Event Reference

Impact on System
Less than six TUPJCHIGH and TUPJCLOW events on each port do not affect the system. If the pointer is justified for many times, or the TUPJCNEW event even occurs, bit errors may occur in the service.

Related Alarms
When the TUPJCHIGH, TUPJCLOW, or TUPJCNEW performance event crosses the preset threshold, the HPAD_CROSSTR alarm is reported. Performance Event TUPJCHIGH TUPJCLOW TUPJCNEW Default 15-Minute Threshold 1500 1500 1500 Default 24-Hour Threshold 30000 30000 30000

Possible Causes
The NE clock is out-of-synchronization.

Procedure
Step 1 See 5.5 Troubleshooting Pointer Justifications for handling. ----End

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D RMON Event Reference

RMON Event Reference

RMON events reflect the running of the Ethernet services. This topic describes the possible RMON events on the OptiX RTN 950 and how to handle these events.

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D.1 List of RMON Alarm Entries


The RMON alarm entries refer to the table entries in the RMON alarm group. Table D-1 List of RMON alarm entries Alarm Name ETHDROP ETHEXCCO L ETHLATECO L RXBBAD TXDEFFRM Description The number of packet loss events crosses the threshold. The number of frames that fail to be transmitted after continuous collisions crosses the threshold. The number of collisions that are detected after a timeslot period elapses crosses the threshold. The number of received bad packets crosses the threshold. The number of frames whose transmission is delayed crosses the threshold. The number of received undersized packets crosses the threshold. The number of received oversized packets crosses the threshold. The number of received fragmented packets crosses the threshold. The number of received errored oversized packets crosses the threshold. The number of received collisions crosses the threshold. The number of frames that have FCS check errors crosses the threshold. Source EM6T, EM6F, IFU2, and IFX2

ETHUNDER ETHOVER ETHFRG ETHJAB

ETHCOL ETHFCS

D.2 List of RMON Performance Entries


The RMON performance entries refer to the table entries in the RMON statistics group or history group.

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Table D-2 List of RMON performance entries Categ ory of Perfor manc e Entrie s Basic perfor mance Abbreviation Name of a Performance Entry Source

RXPKTS ETHDROP RXOCTETS RXMULCAST RXBRDCAST ETHOVER ETHJAB ETHUNDER ETHFRG ETHCOL

Packets received (packets) Drop events (times) Bytes received (bytes) Multicast packets received (packets) Broadcast packets received (packets) Oversized packets received (packets) Jabbers received (packets) Undersized packets received (packets) Fragments received (packets) Collisions (times) FCS errored frames (frames) Good bytes received (bytes) Good bytes transmitted (bytes) Bad bytes received (bytes) Unicast packets transmitted (packets) Unicast packets received (packets) Multicast packets transmitted (packets)

EM6T, EM6F, IFU2, and IFX2

EM6T, EM6F

EM6T, and EM6F

Extend ed perfor mance

ETHFCS RXBGOOD TXBGOOD RXBBAD TXUNICAST RXUNICAST TXMULCAST

EM6T, EM6F, IFU2, and IFX2

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Categ ory of Perfor manc e Entrie s

Abbreviation

Name of a Performance Entry

Source

TXBRDCAST RXGOODFULLFRAME SPEED TXGOODFULLFRAME SPEED RXFULLBGOOD TXFULLBGOOD RXPAUSE TXPAUSE ETHLATECOL ETHEXCCOL

Broadcast packets transmitted (packets) Rate of good full-frame bytes received (bytes/ second) Rate of good full-frame bytes transmitted (bytes/ second) Good full-frame bytes received (bytes) Good full-frame bytes transmitted (bytes) Pause frames received (frames) Pause frames transmitted (frames) Late collisions (times) Frames unsuccessfully transmitted after successive collisions (frames) Delayed frames (frames) EM6T, and EM6F EM6T, EM6F

TXDEFFRM

D.3 RMON Events and Handling Procedures


This topic describes the RMON events that indicate Ethernet service abnormalities and how to handle these events.

D.3.1 ETHCOL
Description
ETHCOL indicates the number of detected packet collisions. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of collisions is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold.
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Impact on System
The opposite equipment fails to normally receive services.

Possible Causes
Generally, this event is caused when the local port is connected to a large number of devices that work in half-duplex mode.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends. If... The ports on the equipment at both ends work in inconsistent modes, or any port works in half-duplex mode Then... Set the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends to full-duplex or autonegotiation, so that these ports work in consistent modes.

The ports on the equipment at both ends Go to the next step. work in consistent modes and no ports work in half-duplex mode Step 3 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

D.3.2 ETHDROP
Description
ETHDROP indicates the number of events in which packet loss occurs due to resource deficiency. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of packet loss events is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold.

Impact on System
When packet loss occurs frequently, services are affected and the system is affected seriously. Hence, you must rectify the fault immediately.
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Possible Causes
This performance event indicates packet loss due to the full MAC buffer, FIFO overflow, or backward pressure.
l l

The lower threshold is not set to a non-zero value. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Step 2 Replace the involved part. ----End Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Manually decrease the traffic transmitted from the opposite end. If the problem persists, go to the next step.

Reference
None.

D.3.3 ETHEXCCOL
Description
ETHEXCCOL indicates the number of frames that fail to be transmitted due to continuous port collisions. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of frames that fail to be transmitted is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold. Generally, the value indicates that 16 port collisions occur continuously when the same frame is transmitted.

Impact on System
The opposite equipment fails to normally receive services.

Possible Causes
Generally, this event is caused when the local port is connected to a large number of devices that work in half-duplex mode.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold
D-6

Then... Change the lower threshold to 0.


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D RMON Event Reference

If... The number is higher than the upper threshold

Then... Go to the next step.

Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends. If... The ports on the equipment at both ends work in inconsistent modes, or any port works in half-duplex mode Then... Set the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends to full-duplex or autonegotiation, so that these ports work in consistent modes.

The ports on the equipment at both ends Go to the next step. work in consistent modes and no ports work in half-duplex mode Step 3 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

D.3.4 ETHFCS
Description
ETHFCS indicates the number of received Ethernet data frames with FCS check errors at the local end (excluding the oversized and undersized frames). An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold.

Impact on System
Most ports discard the packets with FCS check errors. The system services are interrupted in the worst case.

Possible Causes
1. 2. 3. The local port and opposite port work in inconsistent modes. For example, one port works in half-duplex mode, and the opposite port works in half-duplex mode. The transmission line is of the poor quality and bit errors exist. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Thus, handle the alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold
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Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.


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Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends. If... The ports on the equipment at both ends work in inconsistent modes The ports on the equipment at both ends work in consistent modes Step 3 Replace the involved part. ----End Then... Change the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends so that they can work in consistent modes Go to the next step.

Reference
None.

D.3.5 ETHFRG
Description
ETHFRG indicates that an RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of received packets that are shorter than 64 bytes and have FCS or alignment errors exceeds the preset upper threshold.

Impact on System
Data transmission is delayed or packet loss occurs.

Possible Causes
l l l

The working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends are not consistent. The hardware at the local end is faulty. The ports on the equipment at both ends work in half-duplex mode, and the data traffic is very heavy.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends are consistent. If... The working modes are consistent Then... Go to the next step.

The working modes are not consistent Change the working mode of the local port so that the ports on the equipment at both ends work in consistent modes. Step 2 Check whether the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends are set to the halfduplex mode.
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D RMON Event Reference

If...

Then...

The working modes are not set to the half- Go to the next step. duplex mode The working modes are set to the halfduplex mode Step 3 Replace the involved part. ----End Change the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends to the full-duplex mode or adaptive mode.

D.3.6 ETHJAB
Description
ETHJAB indicates that an RMON threshold-crossing alarm is reported when the number of received packets that are longer than 1518 bytes and have FCS or alignment errors is higher than the upper threshold.

Impact on the System


Data transmission is delayed or packet loss occurs.

Possible Causes
l l

The working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends are not consistent. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends are consistent. If... The working modes are consistent Then... Go to the next step.

The working modes are not consistent Change the working mode of the local port so that the ports on the equipment at both ends work in consistent modes. Step 2 Replace the involved part. ----End

D.3.7 ETHLATECOL
Description
ETHLATECOL indicates the number of collisions detected within a timeslot period after a packet is transmitted. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of collisions is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold.
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Impact on System
The opposite equipment fails to normally receive services.

Possible Causes
Generally, this performance event is caused by a large network diameter.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends. If... The ports on the equipment at both ends work in inconsistent modes, or any port works in half-duplex mode Then... Set the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends to full-duplex or autonegotiation, so that these ports work in consistent modes.

The ports on the equipment at both ends Go to the next step. work in consistent modes and no ports work in half-duplex mode Step 3 Check whether the network diameter of the LAN is very large according to the networking planning information. If... The network diameter is very large Then... Divide the network and deploy equipment to different buses or physically shared devices (such as hubs).
NOTE In the case of the 10 Mbit/s port rate, the maximum Ethernet diameter is 2000 m. In the case of the 100 Mbit/s port rate, the maximum Ethernet diameter is 200 m.

The network diameter is appropriate Go to the next step. Step 4 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

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D RMON Event Reference

D.3.8 ETHOVER
Description
ETHOVER indicates that an RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of packets that are longer than 1518 bytes and are received at a port crosses the preset threshold.

Impact on System
If the length of the data frame received at a port is more than the preset maximum frame length, the data frame is discarded and thus the system services are affected.

Possible Causes
1. 2. The preset maximum frame length is less than the length of the frame that is received at a port. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the opposite equipment transmits the packet that is longer than the maximum frame length set for the local equipment. Option If... The opposite equipment transmits the packet that is longer than the maximum frame length set for the local equipment Description Then... Notify the opposite equipment that the length of transmitted frames should be changed.

The opposite equipment does not transmit Go to the next step. the packet that is longer than the maximum frame length set for the local equipment Step 2 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

D.3.9 ETHUNDER
Description
ETHUNDER indicates that an RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of packets that are shorter than 64 bytes and are received on the line side crosses the preset threshold.

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Impact on System
The data frames whose length is not within the specific range are discarded. As a result, the system services are affected.

Possible Causes
1. 2. The length of a data frame that is received at a port is shorter than 64 bytes. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether the opposite equipment transmits the packet that is shorter than 64 bytes. If... Then...

The opposite equipment transmits the packet Rectify the fault on the opposite equipment. that is shorter than 64 bytes The opposite end does not transmit the packet that is shorter than 64 bytes Step 2 Replace the involved part. ----End Go to the next step.

Reference
None.

D.3.10 RXBBAD
Description
RXBBAD indicates the total number of bytes in received bad packets, excluding the framing bit but including the FCS byte. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the total number of bytes in received bad packets is higher than the upper threshold or lower than the lower threshold.

Impact on System
A port discards bad packets. This may even interrupt system services.

Possible Causes
1. 2. 3. Errors occur when the opposite end transmits packets. The transmission line is of the poor quality and bit errors exist. The hardware at the local end is faulty.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event.
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If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold

Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 Correct the errors that occur when the opposite end transmits packets. See 8.14 Monitoring Ethernet Packets Through Port Mirroring to check the Ethernet packets received at the local end. If bit errors exist, rectify the fault at the opposite end. Step 3 Handle the problem of poor quality of the transmission line. Check whether the ETH_LOS alarm is reported at the local end because the external line is damaged or over attenuated. If yes, see the related handling method to clear the alarm. Step 4 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

D.3.11 TXDEFFRM
Description
TXDEFFRM indicates the number of frames the first transmission of which is delayed due to the congestion on the transmission media, excluding the number of frames the first transmission of which is delayed due to collisions. An RMON threshold-crossing event is reported when the number of frames that fail to be transmitted is higher than the upper threshold and lower than the lower threshold.

Impact on System
The rate of frame transmission decreases, and thus packets are congested at a port and the throughput of the port decreases.

Possible Causes
Generally, this event is caused when the external port at the local end is connected to a large number of devices that work in half-duplex mode.

Procedure
Step 1 Handle this alarm according to the specific performance event. If... The number is lower than the lower threshold The number is higher than the upper threshold Then... Change the lower threshold to 0. Go to the next step.

Step 2 On the NMS, query the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends.
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If... The ports on the equipment at both ends work in inconsistent modes, or any port works in half-duplex mode

Then... Set the working modes of the ports on the equipment at both ends to full-duplex or autonegotiation, so that these ports work in consistent modes.

The ports on the equipment at both ends Go to the next step. work in consistent modes and no ports work in half-duplex mode Step 3 Replace the involved part. ----End

Reference
None.

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E Alarm Management

Alarm Management

The alarm management on the OptiX RTN 950 is classified into the NE alarm management and board alarm management. E.1 NE Alarm Management The NE alarm management function set by user is applicable to all the boards on the NE. E.2 Board Alarm Management The board alarm management function is only applicable to the board on which users have configured this function.

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E.1 NE Alarm Management


The NE alarm management function set by user is applicable to all the boards on the NE. The equipment supports the following NE alarm management functions:
l l l

Settings of the alarm storage mode Setting of the alarm delay Setting of the alarm reversion mode

For details about these functions, see the manuals or online Help of the NMS.

E.2 Board Alarm Management


The board alarm management function is only applicable to the board on which users have configured this function. E.2.1 Setting the Alarm Level Alarms are classified into four levels: critical, major, minor, and warning, according to their severities. The maintenance personnel can change the alarm level by using the NMS. E.2.2 Alarm Suppression The maintenance personnel can change the alarm monitoring attribute by setting the alarm suppression function. A board detects only the alarms that are not suppressed. The alarm suppression function helps users to ignore their unconcerned alarms. E.2.3 Alarm Auto-Report If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Reported, all the detected alarms are reported to the NMS in a timely manner. If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Not Report, the alarms are reported only when alarm query is performed on the NMS. The maintenance personnel can change the setting on the NMS. E.2.4 Alarm Reversion In the case of a port that is not configured with services, certain alarms may be reported. To filter the alarms that users are not concerned, set these alarms to be reversed. In this manner, the alarm status at this port is the opposite to the actual case. That is, the status is displayed as normal when an alarm is actually reported. E.2.5 Setting of the Bit Error Alarm Threshold When the number of bit errors detected by a board exceeds a specified number, the board generates a bit error alarm. This specific number is the bit error alarm threshold, and the setting of this threshold is supported by all the bit error threshold-crossing and degrading alarms on the NE. E.2.6 AIS Insertion AIS insertion can be set for certain alarms reported on a board. When the board detects the alarms, it inserts all 1s into the lower level service to indicate the remote end that the service is unavailable. E.2.7 UNEQ Insertion When a board detects that the service path is not in use or that the LOS alarm exists, it inserts all 0s into the service signal to notify the remote end that this signal is unavailable.
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E.2.1 Setting the Alarm Level


Alarms are classified into four levels: critical, major, minor, and warning, according to their severities. The maintenance personnel can change the alarm level by using the NMS. This function is supported by all the boards.

E.2.2 Alarm Suppression


The maintenance personnel can change the alarm monitoring attribute by setting the alarm suppression function. A board detects only the alarms that are not suppressed. The alarm suppression function helps users to ignore their unconcerned alarms. This function is supported by all the boards.

E.2.3 Alarm Auto-Report


If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Reported, all the detected alarms are reported to the NMS in a timely manner. If Alarm Auto-Report is set to Not Report, the alarms are reported only when alarm query is performed on the NMS. The maintenance personnel can change the setting on the NMS. This function is supported by all the boards.

E.2.4 Alarm Reversion


In the case of a port that is not configured with services, certain alarms may be reported. To filter the alarms that users are not concerned, set these alarms to be reversed. In this manner, the alarm status at this port is the opposite to the actual case. That is, the status is displayed as normal when an alarm is actually reported. The alarm reversion function is available in three modes, namely, non-revertive, automatic reversion, and manual reversion.
l

Non-revertive In this mode, the alarms are monitored by default and alarm reversion cannot be enabled for a port.

Auto reversion In this mode, alarm reversion can be enabled for a port where alarms are reported. After alarm reversion is enabled at a port, alarms are not reported. When the current alarm is cleared, the alarm reversion automatically changes to the disabled status. That is, it changes to the non-revertive mode. Then, the alarm reporting status at the port is the same as the actual status.

Manual reversion In this mode, alarm reversion can be enabled for a port regardless of whether any alarms are reported at the port. After alarm reversion is enabled, the alarm reporting status at the port is the same as the actual status. After alarm reversion is manually disabled, the alarm reversion status changes to the non-revertive mode. Then, the alarm reporting status at the port is the same as the actual status.

Pay attention to the following points when you set the alarm reversion function:
l

Alarm reversion does not change the actual status of alarms on the board, as well as the indication status of the alarm indicators.
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Alarm reversion is realized on the NE software. The alarm data is the same on the NE and the NMS, which indicates the status after the alarm reversion. If you directly query the alarm data of a board, however, the actual alarm status is returned. Alarm reversion is set based on ports. It is supported by each port on the SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, IFX2, IFU2, EM6T, and EM6Fboards.

E.2.5 Setting of the Bit Error Alarm Threshold


When the number of bit errors detected by a board exceeds a specified number, the board generates a bit error alarm. This specific number is the bit error alarm threshold, and the setting of this threshold is supported by all the bit error threshold-crossing and degrading alarms on the NE. Table E-1 Setting of the bit error alarm threshold Alarm Name B1_EXC B1_SD B2_EXC B2_SD B3_EXC B3_SD BIP_EXC BIP_SD MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD Default Alarm Threshold 10-3 10-6 10-3 10-6 10-3 10-6 10-3 10-6 10-3 10-6 IFU2 and IFX2 SP3S, SP3D, IFU2, and IFX2 SL1D and IF1 SL1D and IF1 Applicable Board SL1D and IF1

E.2.6 AIS Insertion


AIS insertion can be set for certain alarms reported on a board. When the board detects the alarms, it inserts all 1s into the lower level service to indicate the remote end that the service is unavailable. Table E-2 Setting of the AIS insertion Trigger Condition B1_EXC B2_SD B2_EXC
E-4

Default Value Enabled Disabled Disabled

Applicable Board SL1D and IF1 SL1D and IF1 SL1D and IF1
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Trigger Condition HP_LOM HP_TIM HP_SLM HP_UNEQ B3_EXC B3_SD B1_SD LP_TIM LP_UNEQ LP_SLM T_ALOS BIP_EXC BIP_SD MW_BER_EXC MW_BER_SD

Default Value Enabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Disabled Enabled Disabled Disabled Enabled Disabled

Applicable Board

SL1D and IF1

SL1D and IF1 SP3S and SP3D

IFX2 and IFU2

NOTE

l l l

When the SL1D board detects the R_LOS, R_LOF, MS_AIS, AU_AIS, or AU_LOP alarm, it forcibly inserts the AIS. When the IF1 board detects the MW_LOF, MW_LIM, R_LOF, MS_AIS, AU_AIS, or AU_LOP alarm, it forcibly inserts the AIS. When the IFX2 and IFU2 board detect the MW_LOF, MW_LIM, or R_LOF alarm, it forcibly inserts the AIS.

E.2.7 UNEQ Insertion


When a board detects that the service path is not in use or that the LOS alarm exists, it inserts all 0s into the service signal to notify the remote end that this signal is unavailable. Table E-3 Setting of the UNEQ insertion Trigger Condition T_ALOS Service path being not in use Default Value Disabled Disabled Applicable Board SP3S and SP3D

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F Performance Event Management

Performance Event Management

The performance event management is classified into the NE performance event management and board performance event management. F.1 NE Performance Event Management The NE performance event management function set by user is applicable to all the boards on the NE. F.2 Board Performance Event Management The performance event management function is only applicable to the board on which users have configured this function.

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OptiX RTN 950 Maintenance Guide (U2000)

F.1 NE Performance Event Management


The NE performance event management function set by user is applicable to all the boards on the NE. The OptiX RTN 950 supports the following NE performance event management functions:
l l l

Setting NE performance event monitoring Setting the start/end time of performance events Enabling/Disabling the reporting of UAT events

For details about these functions, see the manuals or online Help of the NMS.

F.2 Board Performance Event Management


The performance event management function is only applicable to the board on which users have configured this function. Table F-1 Board performance event management function Function Setting 15-minute/24hour performance monitoring Setting 15-minute/24hour performance event auto-reporting Setting performance thresholds Resetting the performance register Generating performance threshold-crossing alarms Monitoring UAT events Monitoring CSES performance events Applicable Board SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, CSH, CST, ODU, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1

SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, CSH, CST, ODU, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1

SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1 SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, ODU, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1 SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, ODU, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1

SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1 SL1D, SP3S, SP3D, IFX2, IFU2, and IF1

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G Alarm Suppression Relationship

G
MW_LOF

Alarm Suppression Relationship

When the alarm suppression function is disabled on an NE, the root alarm and certain correlated alarms are reported if a fault occurs on this NE. After the alarm suppression function is enabled, the reporting of the correlated alarms is suppressed according to the relationship between alarms when the root alarm is reported. The alarm suppression relationship can be classified into the suppression relationship between intra-board alarms and suppression relationship between interboard alarms. Table G-1 Suppression relationship between intra-board alarms Alarm Identifier Identifier of the Suppressed Alarm R_LOS, R_LOF, R_LOC, MW_FEC_UNCOR, MW_RDI, MW_LIM, MS_AIS, B1_EXC, B1_SD, MS_RDI, B2_EXC, B2_SD, MS_REI, AU_AIS, AU_LOP, B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM, HP_RDI, HP_LOM, HP_REI, MW_BER_EXC, and MW_BER_SD R_LOF, J0_MM, B1_EXC, B1_SD, MS_AIS, MS_RDI, B2_EXC, B2_SD, MS_REI, AU_AIS, AU_LOP, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM, HP_RDI, B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_LOM, HP_REI, IN_PWR_LOW, MW_RDI, and MW_LIM J0_MM, B1_EXC, B1_SD, MS_AIS, MS_RDI, B2_EXC, B2_SD, MS_REI, AU_AIS, AU_LOP, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM, HP_RDI, B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_LOM, HP_REI, MW_RDI, and MW_LIM

R_LOS or R_LOC

R_LOF

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Alarm Identifier MS_AIS

Identifier of the Suppressed Alarm B2_SD, MS_REI, MS_RDI, AU_AIS, AU_LOP, HP_TIM, HP_UNEQ, HP_SLM, HP_RDI, B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_LOM, and HP_REI, B2_EXC MS_REI B3_EXC, B3_SD, HP_TIM, HP_SLM, HP_UNEQ, HP_RDI, HP_LOM, and HP_REI HP_TIM, HP_LOM, and HP_RDI HP_REI LP_TIM, LP_RDI, LP_RFI, LP_REI, BIP_SD, and BIP_EXC B1_SD B2_SD B3_SD LP_TIM, LP_SIZE_ERR, LP_UNEQ, LP_RDI, LP_REI, LP_RFI, LP_R_FIFO, BIP_EXC, BIP_SD, LP_SLM, TU_LOP, DOWN_E1_AIS LP_TIM, LP_SIZE_ERR, LP_UNEQ, LP_RDI, LP_REI, LP_RFI, LP_R_FIFO, BIP_EXC, BIP_SD, LP_SLM, DOWN_E1_AIS E1_LOS and UP_E1_AIS UP_E1_AIS BIP_SD ETH_LOS, LASER_MOD_ERR, and LASER_CLOSED LASER_CLOSED

MS_RDI AU_AIS or AU_LOP

HP_UNEQ HP_RDI LP_UNEQ B1_EXC B2_EXC B3_EXC TU_AIS

TU_LOP

T_ALOS E1_LOS BIP_EXC LSR_NO_FITED LASER_MOD_ERR

Table G-2 Suppression relationship between intra-board alarms Alarm Identifier R_LOS, R_LOC, MS_AIS, AU_AIS, or AU_LOP MW_LOF or MW_LIM Identifier of the Suppressed Alarm TU_AIS TU_AIS

G-2

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H Glossary

H
Terms are listed in an alphabetical order. H.1 0-9 This section provides the terms starting with numbers. H.2 A-E This section provides the terms starting with letters A to E. H.3 F-J This section provides the terms starting with letters F to J. H.4 K-O This section provides the terms starting with letters K to O. H.5 P-T This section provides the terms starting with letters P to T. H.6 U-Z This section provides the terms starting with letters U to Z.

Glossary

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H.1 0-9
This section provides the terms starting with numbers. 1+1 protection An architecture that has one normal traffic signal, one working SNC/trail, one protection SNC/trail and a permanent bridge. At the source end, the normal traffic signal is permanently bridged to both the working and protection SNC/trail. At the sink end, the normal traffic signal is selected from the better of the two SNCs/trails. Due to the permanent bridging, the 1+1 architecture does not allow an extra unprotected traffic signal to be provided. The standard electronics industries association (EIA) rack unit (44 mm/1.75 in.) 802.1Q in 802.1Q (QinQ) is a VLAN feature that allows the equipment to add a VLAN tag to a tagged frame.The implementation of QinQ is to add a public VLAN tag to a frame with a private VLAN tag, making the frame encapsulated with two layers of VLAN tags. The frame is forwarded over the service provider's backbone network based on the public VLAN tag. By this, a layer 2 VPN tunnel is provided to customers.The QinQ feature enables the transmission of the private VLANs to the peer end transparently.

1U 802.1Q in 802.1Q

H.2 A-E
This section provides the terms starting with letters A to E.

A
ACAP adaptive modulation See adjacent channel alternate polarization A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment adopts a highefficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment adopts the low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link that carries high-priority services. See Analog to Digital Converter Add/Drop Multiplexing. Network elements that provide access to all or some subset of the constituent signals contained within an STM-N signal. The constituent signals are added to (inserted), and/or dropped from (extracted) the STM-N signal as it passed through the ADM. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is an Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It allows hosts and routers to determine the link layer addresses through ARP requests and ARP responses. The address resolution is a process in which the host converts the target IP address into a target MAC address before transmitting a frame. The basic function of the ARP is to query the MAC address of the target equipment through its IP address. A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals. See add/drop multiplexer
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ADC add/drop multiplexer

Address Resolution Protocol

adjacent channel alternate polarization ADM


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H Glossary

Administrative Unit

The information structure which provides adaptation between the higher order path layer and the multiplex section layer. It consists of an information payload (the higher order VC) and an AU pointer which indicates the offset of the payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start. See Automatic Gain Control See adaptive modulation An electronic circuit that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). See Automatic Protection Switching See Address Resolution Protocol amplitude shift keying See automatic transmit power control See Administrative Unit A process or means by which gain is automatically adjusted in a specified manner as a function of a specified parameter, such as received signal level. Automatic Protection Switching (APS) is the capability of a transmission system to detect a failure on a working facility and to switch to a standby facility to recover the traffic. A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected at the receiver

AGC AM Analog to Digital Converter APS ARP ASK ATPC AU Automatic Gain Control Automatic Protection Switching automatic transmit power control

B
Base Station Controller A logical entity that connects the BTS with the MSC in a GSM network. It interworks with the BTS through the Abis interface, the MSC through the A interface. It provides the following functions: Radio resource management, Base station management, Power control, Handover control, and Traffic measurement. One BSC controls and manages one or more BTSs in an actual network. BER BIOS BIP bit error Bit Error Rate BPDU Bridge Protocol Data Unit See Bit Error Rate Basic Input Output System Bit-Interleaved Parity An incompatibility between a bit in a transmitted digital signal and the corresponding bit in the received digital signal. Bit error rate. Ratio of received bits that contain errors. BER is an important index used to measure the communications quality of a network. See Bridge Protocol Data Unit The data messages that are exchanged across the switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses, priorities and costs and ensure that the data ends up where it was intended to go. BPDU messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. The loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridges interfaces and placing redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state. See Base Station Controller
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C
C-VLAN CAR CBS CCDP Central Processing Unit CF CGMP CIR CIST Class of Service Customer VLAN See committed access rate See Committed Burst Size See Co-Channel Dual Polarization The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. See compact flash Cisco Group Management Protocol See Committed Information Rate See Common and Internal Spanning Tree A class object that stores the priority mapping rules. When network congestion occurs, the class of service (CoS) first processes services by different priority levels from high to low. If the bandwidth is insufficient to support all services, the CoS dumps the services of low priority. A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization is twice the transmission capacity of the single polarization. A traffic control method that uses a set of rate limits to be applied to a router interface. CAR is a configurable method by which incoming and outgoing packets can be classified into QoS (Quality of Service) groups, and by which the input or output transmission rate can be defined. committed burst size. A parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket C, that is, the maximum burst IP packet size when the information is transferred at the committed information rate. This parameter must be larger than 0. It is recommended that this parameter should be not less than the maximum length of the IP packet that might be forwarded. The rate at which a frame relay network agrees to transfer information in normal conditions. Namely, it is the rate, measured in bit/s, at which the token is transferred to the leaky bucket.

Co-Channel Dual Polarization committed access rate

Committed Burst Size

Committed Information Rate

Common and Internal Common and Internal Spanning Tree. The single Spanning Tree calculated by STP and Spanning Tree RSTP together with the logical continuation of that connectivity through MST Bridges and regions, calculatedby MSTP to ensure that all LANs in the Bridged Local Area Network are simply and fully connected. compact flash Compact flash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. For storage, CompactFlash typically uses flash memory in a standardized enclosure. See Class of Service See Central Processing Unit See Cyclic Redundancy Check

CoS CPU CRC

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cross polarization interference cancellation Cyclic Redundancy Check

A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP. A procedure used in checking for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending device performs the calculation before transmission and includes it in the packet that it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device repeats the same calculation after transmission. If both devices obtain the same result, it is assumed that the transmission was error free. The procedure is known as a redundancy check because each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

D
Data Communication Network A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the Data Communication Function (DCF).

Data Communications The data channel that uses the D1-D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to Channel transmit information on operation, management, maintenance and provision (OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channels that are composed of bytes D1-D3 is referred to as the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channel that are composed of bytes D4-D12 is referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel. DC DC-C DC-I DC-Return Common (with Ground) DC-Return Isolate (with Ground) DCC DCN See Direct Current See DC-Return Common (with Ground) See DC-Return Isolate (with Ground) A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and also on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment. A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and is isolated from the PGND on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment. See Data Communications Channel See Data Communication Network

Differentiated Services Differentiated Services CodePoint. A marker in the header of each IP packet using bits Code Point 0-6 in the DS field. Routers provide differentiated classes of services to various service streams/flows based on this marker. In other words, routers select corresponding PHB according to the DSCP value. digital modulation A digital modulation controls the changes in amplitude, phase, and frequency of the carrier based on the changes in the baseband digital signal. In this manner, the information can be transmitted by the carrier. Electrical current whose direction of flow does not reverse. The current may stop or change amplitude, but it always flows in the same direction. Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol. The DVMRP protocol is an Internet gateway protocol mainly based on the RIP. The protocol implements a typical dense mode IP multicast solution. The DVMRP protocol uses IGMP to exchange routing datagrams with its neighbors. See Differentiated Services Code Point
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Direct Current Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol DSCP


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dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to radiate or receive simultaneously two independent radio waves orthogonally polarized. DVMRP See Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol

E
E-LAN ECC Electro Magnetic Interference electromagnetic compatibility Ethernet-LAN See Embedded Control Channel Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics/electrical equipment. Electromagnetic compatibility is the condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic interference to or from other equipment in the same environment. [NTIA] An ECC provides a logical operations channel between SDH NEs, utilizing a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer. See electromagnetic compatibility See Electro Magnetic Interference See Ethernet Private Line See ethernet private lan service A method of avoiding selective fading of frequencies. Equalization can compensate for the changes of amplitude frequency caused by frequency selective fading. See ethernet ring protection switching End System to Intermediate System An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over a dedocated bridge, point-to-multipoint connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. A point-to-point interconnection between two UNIs without SDH bandwidth sharing. Transport bandwidth is never shared between different customers. protection switching mechanisms for ETH layer Ethernet ring topologies.

Embedded Control Channel EMC EMI EPL EPLAN equalization ERPS ES-IS ethernet private lan service Ethernet Private Line ethernet ring protection switching

ethernet virtual private An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over a shared lan service bridge, point-to-multipoint connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. ethernet virtual private An Ethernet service type, which carries Ethernet characteristic information over shared line service bandwidth, point-to-point connections, provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer networks. ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute See European Telecommunications Standards Institute A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

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EVPL EVPLAN

See ethernet virtual private line service See ethernet virtual private lan service

H.3 F-J
This section provides the terms starting with letters F to J.

F
Fast Ethernet fast link pulse FCS FD FE FEC Field Programmable Gate Array A type of Ethernet with a maximum transmission rate of 100 Mbit/s. It complies with the IEEE 802.3u standard and extends the traditional media-sharing Ethernet standard. The likn pulse that is used to encode information during automatic negotiation. Frame Check Sequence See frequency diversity See Fast Ethernet See Forward Error Correction A type of semi-customized circuit used in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) field. It is developed on the basis of the programmable components, such as the PAL, GAL, and EPLD. It not only remedies the defects of customized circuits, but also overcomes the disadvantage of the original programmable components in terms of the limited number of gate arraies. See First in First out A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols, used to copy files between two computers on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP client and the other an FTP server. A stack management mechanism. The first saved data is first read and invoked. See fast link pulse A bit error correction technology that adds the correction information to the payload at the transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during transmission are corrected at the receive end. See Field Programmable Gate Array A diversity scheme that enables two or more microwave frequencies with a certain frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. See File Transfer Protocol

FIFO File Transfer Protocol

First in First out FLP Forward Error Correction FPGA frequency diversity

FTP

G
gateway network element GE A network element that is used for communication between the NE application layer and the NM application layer See Gigabit Ethernet

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H Glossary

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Generic traffic shaping A traffic control measure that initiatively adjusts the output speed of the traffic. This is to adapt the traffic to network resources that can be provided by the downstream router to avoid packet discarding and congestion. GFP Gigabit Ethernet Generic Framing Procedure GE adopts the IEEE 802.3z. GE is compatible with 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s Ethernet.It runs at 1000Mbit/s. Gigabit Ethernet uses a private medium, and it does not support coaxial cables or other cables. It also supports the channels in the bandwidth mode. If Gigabit Ethernet is, however, deployed to be the private bandwidth system with a bridge (switch) or a router as the center, it gives full play to the performance and the bandwidth. In the network structure, Gigabit Ethernet uses full duplex links that are private, causing the length of the links to be sufficient for backbone applications in a building and campus. See gateway network element A visual computer enviroment that represents programs, files, and options with graphical images, such as icons, menus, and dialog boxes, on the screen. See Generic traffic shaping See Graphical User Interface

GNE Graphical User Interface GTS GUI

H
HDB3 HDLC High level Data Link Control procedure High Density Bipolar Code 3 See High level Data Link Control procedure A data link protocol from ISO for point-to-point communications over serial links. Derived from IBM's SDLC protocol, HDLC has been the basis for numerous protocols including X.25, ISDN, T1, SS7, GSM, CDPD, PPP and others. Various subsets of HDLC have been developed under the name of Link Access Procedure (LAP). A mechanism of ensuring device running security. The environment variables and storage information of each running device are synchronized to the standby device. When the faults occur on the running device, the standby device can take over the services in the faulty device in automatic or manual way to ensure the normal running of the entire system. Hitless Switch Mode The hybrid transmission of Native E1 and Native Ethernet signals. Hybrid radio supports the AM function.

hot standby

HSM hybrid radio

I
ICMP IDU IEC IEEE IETF IF IGMP
H-8

See Internet Control Messages Protocol See indoor unit See International Electrotechnical Commission See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers The Internet Engineering Task Force See intermediate frequency See Internet Group Management Protocol
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H Glossary

IGMP snooping

A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyze the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packet between hosts and layer 3 devices. In this manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently. The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing, multiplexing/demultiplexing, and IF processing for services. A society of engineering and electronics professionals based in the United States but boasting membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on electrical, electronics, computer engineering, and science-related matters.

indoor unit Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

intermediate frequency The transitional frequency between the frequencies of a modulated signal and an RF signal. intermediate frequency The transitional frequency between the frequencies of a modulated signal and an RF signal. Intermediate System to A protocol used by network devices (routers) .IS-IS is a kind of Interior Gateway Protocol Intermediate System (IGP), used within the ASs. It is a link status protocol using Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm to calculate the route. International Electrotechnical Commission International Organization for Standardization Internet Control Messages Protocol Internet Group Management Protocol Internet Protocol The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international and nongovernmental standards organization dealing with electrical and electronical standards. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ICMP belongs to the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is used to send error and control messages during the transmission of IP-type data packets. The protocol for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups among the TCP/IP protocols. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain multicast group memberships. The TCP/IP standard protocol that defines the IP packet as the unit of information sent across an internet and provides the basis for connectionless, best-effort packet delivery service. IP includes the ICMP control and error message protocol as an integral part. The entire protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because TCP and IP are the two fundamental protocols. IP is standardized in RFC 791. A update version of IPv4. It is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). The specifications and standardizations provided by it are consistent with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is also called. It is a new version of the Internet Protocol, designed as the successor to IPv4. The specifications and standardizations provided by it are consistent with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while an IPv6 address has 128 bits. See Internet Protocol See Internet Protocol Version 6 See Intermediate System to Intermediate System See International Organization for Standardization International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector

Internet Protocol Version 6

IP IPv6 IS-IS ISO ITU-T

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IVL

Independence VLAN learning

H.4 K-O
This section provides the terms starting with letters K to O.

L
LAG LAN LAPD LAPS layer 2 switch See link aggregation group See Local Area Network Link Access Procedure on the D channel Link Access Procedure-SDH A data forwarding method. In LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address is the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called layer 2 switch. See Loopback See Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme Low-Density Parity Check code

LB LCAS LDPC

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link aggregation group so that a MAC clientcan treat the link aggregation group as if it were a single link. Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme LMSP Local Area Network The Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) is designed to allow the dynamic provisioning of bandwidth, using VCAT, to meet customer requirements. Linear Multiplex Section Protection A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square kilometers or within a single building. It features high speed and low error rate. Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are three technologies used to implement a LAN. Current LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and running at 1,000 Mbit/ s (that is, 1 Gbit/s). A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the signal or message can be analyzed for errors. Link State Path Through

Loopback LPT

M
MA MAC MADM Maintenance Association See Maintenance Association See Medium Access Control Multi Add-Drop Multiplexer That portion of a Service Instance, preferably all of it or as much as possible, the connectivity of which is maintained by CFM. It is also a full mesh of Maintenance Entities.

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Maintenance Domain Maintenance Point Management Information Base Maximum Transfer Unit MBS MD MDI Mean Time To Repair Medium Access Control Medium Dependent Interface MEP MIB MP MSP MSTP MTBF MTTR MTU Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol

The Maintenance Domain (MD) refers to the network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by CFM. The devices in an MD are managed by a single ISP. Maintenance Point (MP) is one of either a MEP or a MIP. A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as routers and switches) in a network. The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. Maximum Burst Size See Maintenance Domain See Medium Dependent Interface The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure. A general reference to the low-level hardware protocols used to access a particular network. The term MAC address is often used as a synonym for physical addresses. The electrical and mechanical interface between the equipment and the media transmission. Maintenance End Point See Management Information Base See Maintenance Point See multiplex section protection See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol Mean Time Between Failure See Mean Time To Repair See Maximum Transfer Unit Multiple spanning tree protocol. The MSTP can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case, the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network.The protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs. A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a "protection" channel.

multiplex section protection

N
N+1 protection NE Network Element A radio link protection system composed of N working channels and one protection channel. See Network Element A network element (NE) contains both the hardware and the software running on it. One NE is at least equipped with one system control board which manages and monitors the entire network element. The NE software runs on the system control board.
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network management system

The network management system in charge of the operation, administration, and maintenance of a network.

Network Service Access A network address defined by ISO, through which entities on the network layer can Point access OSI network services. NLP NMS NNI non-gateway network element non-GNE NSAP Normal Link Pulse See network management system Network-to-Network Interface or Network Node Interface A network element whose communication with the NM application layer must be transferred by the gateway network element application layer. See non-gateway network element See Network Service Access Point

O
OAM ODU Open Shortest Path First Operations, Administration and Maintenance See outdoor unit A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing. Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree. It uses cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed of the network topology which is identical on all routers in the area. A standard or "reference model" (officially defined by the International Organization of Standards (ISO)) for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. The reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a communication. A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or maintenance engineers of different stations. See Open Systems Interconnection See Open Shortest Path First The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency conversion and amplification for RF signals.

Open Systems Interconnection

orderwire OSI OSPF outdoor unit

H.5 P-T
This section provides the terms starting with letters P to T.

P
PDH See Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy Peak Information Rate Peak Information Rate . A traffic parameter, expressed in bit/s, whose value should be not less than the committed information rate. PIM-DM PIM-SM
H-12

Protocol Independent Multicast-Dense Mode See Protocol Independent Multicast-Sparse Mode


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PIR

See Peak Information Rate

Plesiochronous Digital A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum Hierarchy rate 64 kit/s into the 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s rates. Point-to-Point Protocol A protocol on the data link layer, provides point-to-point transmission and encapsulates data packets on the network layer. It is located in layer 2 of the IP protocol stack. polarization A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave. See Point-to-Point Protocol Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence

PPP PRBS

Protocol Independent A protocol for efficiently routing to multicast groups that may span wide-area (and interMulticast-Sparse Mode domain) internets. This protocol is named protocol independent because it is not dependent on any particular unicast routing protocol for topology discovery, and sparsemode because it is suitable for groups where a very low percentage of the nodes (and their routers) will subscribe to the multicast session. Unlike earlier dense-mode multicast routing protocols such as DVMRP and PIM-DM which flooded packets everywhere and then pruned off branches where there were no receivers, PIM-SM explicitly constructs a tree from each sender to the receivers in the multicast group. Multicast packets from the sender then follow this tree.

Q
QoS QPSK See Quality of Service See Quadrature Phase Shift Keying

Quadrature Phase Shift Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a modulation method of data transmission Keying through the conversion or modulation and the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform two-bit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER. Quality of Service Quality of Service, which determines the satisfaction of a subscriber for a service. QoS is influenced by the following factors applicable to all services: service operability, service accessibility, service maintainability, and service integrity.

R
Radio Freqency A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave. The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified into such high-frequency current. A device used in the RNS to control the usage and integrity of radio resources.

Radio Network Controller


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Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Received signal level Received Signal Strength Indicator RF RFC RIP RMON RNC Routing Information Protocol

An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol, providing for faster spanning tree convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with the STP protocol. The signal level at a receiver input terminal. The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna See Radio Freqency Request For Comment See Routing Information Protocol Remote Monitoring See Radio Network Controller Routing Information Protocol: A simple routing protocol that is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It determines a route based on the smallest hop count between source and destination. RIP is a distance vector protocol that routinely broadcasts routing information to its neighboring routers and is known to waste bandwidth. Reed-Solomon encoding Received Signal Level See Received Signal Strength Indicator See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol Radio Transmission Node

RS RSL RSSI RSTP RTN

S
SD SDH SFP Signal Noise Ratio See space diversity See Synchronous Digital Hierarchy See Small Form-Factor Pluggable The SNR or S/N (Signal to Noise Ratio) of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and is usually expressed in dB (Decibel). A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the transmission of management information between any two points. The polling mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control information about each device is maintained by a management information block. A specification for a new generation of optical modular transceivers. See SubNetwork Connection See SubNetwork Connection Protection See Simple Network Management Protocol
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Simple Network Management Protocol

Small Form-Factor Pluggable SNC SNCP SNMP


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SNR SP space diversity

See Signal Noise Ratio Strict Priority A diversity scheme that enables two or more antennas separated by a specific distance to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading. Currently, only receive SD is used.

Spanning Tree Protocol Spanning Tree Protocol. STP is a protocol that is used in the LAN to remove the loop. STP applies to the redundant network to block some undesirable redundant paths through certain algorithms and prune a loop network into a loop-free tree network. SSM STM STM-1 STM-1e STM-1o STM-N STP sub-network See Synchronization Status Message See synchronous transport module SDH Transport Module -1 STM-1 Electrical Interface STM-1 Optical Interface SDH Transport Module -N See Spanning Tree Protocol Sub-network is the logical entity in the transmission network and comprises a group of network management objects. The network that consists of a group of interconnected or correlated NEs, according to different functions. For example, protection subnet, clock subnet and so on. A sub-network can contain NEs and other sub-networks. Generally, a sub-network is used to contain the equipments which are located in adjacent regions and closely related with one another, and it is indicated with a sub-network icon on a topological view. The U2000 supports multilevels of sub-networks. A sub-network planning can better the organization of a network view. On the one hand, the view space can be saved, on the other hand, it helps the network management personnel focus on the equipments under their management. A "transport entity" that transfers information across a subnetwork, it is formed by the association of "ports" on the boundary of the subnetwork.

SubNetwork Connection

SubNetwork A working subnetwork connection is replaced by a protection subnetwork connection if Connection Protection the working subnetwork connection fails, or if its performance falls below a required level. SVL Shared VLAN Learning Synchronization Status A message that is used to transmit the quality levels of timing signals on the synchronous Message timing link. Through this message, the node clocks of the SDH network and the synchronization network can aquire upper stream clock information, and the two perform operations on the corresponding clocks, such as tracing, switchover, or converting hold), and then forward the synchronization information of this node to down stream. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDH is a transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. It defines the transmission features of digital signals such as frame structure, multiplexing mode, transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and BISDN. It interleaves the bytes of low-speed signals to multiplex the signals to high-speed counterparts, and the line coding of scrambling is only used only for signals. SDH is suitable for the fiber communication system with high speed and a large capacity since it uses synchronous multiplexing and flexible mapping structure.

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synchronous transport An STM is the information structure used to support section layer connections in the module SDH. It consists of information payload and Section Overhead (SOH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 . The information is suitably conditioned for serial transmission on the selected media at a rate which is synchronized to the network. A basic STM is defined at 155 520 kbit/s. This is termed STM-1. Higher capacity STMs are formed at rates equivalent to N times this basic rate. STM capacities for N = 4, N = 16 and N = 64 are defined; higher values are under consideration.

T
TCI TCP TDM Tag Control Information See TransmissionControl Protocol See Time Division Multiplexing

Telecommunication The Telecommunications Management Network is a protocol model defined by ITU-T Management Network for managing open systems in a communications network.An architecture for management, including planning, provisioning, installation, maintenance, operation and administration of telecommunications equipment, networks and services. Time Division Multiplexing It is a multiplexing technology. TDM divides the sampling cycle of a channel into time slots (TSn, n=0, 1, 2, 3...), and the sampling value codes of multiple signals engross time slots in a certain order, forming multiple multiplexing digital signals to be transmitted over one channel. See Telecommunication Management Network A type of transport entity, mainly engaged in transferring signals from the input of the trail source to the output of the trail sink, and monitoring the integrality of the transferred signals. The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to be sent via IP (Internet Protocol), and the reassembly and verification of the complete messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in the ISO/OSI reference model. Tributary Unit

TMN trail

TransmissionControl Protocol

TU

H.6 U-Z
This section provides the terms starting with letters U to Z.

U
UDP UNI See User Datagram Protocol See User Network Interface

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User Datagram Protocol

A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a datagram to an application program on another. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses IP to deliver datagrams. UDP provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery service. Thus, UDP messages can be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of order.UDP is used to try to transmit the data packet, that is, the destination device does not actively confirm whether the correct data packet is received.

User Network Interface A type of ATM Forum specification that defines an interoperability standard for the interface between ATM-based products (a router or an ATM switch) located in a private network and the ATM switches located within the public carrier networks. Also used to describe similar connections in Frame Relay networks.

V
VC VC-12 VC-3 VC-4 VCG VCTRUNK virtual concatenation group Virtual Container See Virtual Container Virtual Container -12 Virtual Container -3 Virtual Container -4 See virtual concatenation group A virtual concatenation group applied in data service mapping, also called the internal port of a data service processing board A group of co-located member trail termination functions that are connected to the same virtual concatenation link A Virtual Container is the information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. It consists of information payload and path Overhead (POH) information fields organized in a block frame structure which repeats every 125 or 500 s. A logical grouping of two or more nodes which are not necessarily on the same physical network segment but which share the same IP network number. This is often associated with switched Ethernet. The extension of a private network that encompasses encapsulated, encrypted, and authenticated links across shared or public networks. VPN connections can provide remote access and routed connections to private networks over the Internet. See Virtual Local Area Network An IP telephony term for a set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in a digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN). See Voice over IP See Virtual Private Network

Virtual Local Area Network Virtual Private Network VLAN Voice over IP

VoIP VPN

W
Wait to Restore Time A period of time that must elapse before a - from a fault recovered - trail/connection can be used again to transport the normal traffic signal and/or to select the normal traffic signal from.
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WAN Web LCT Wide Area Network

See Wide Area Network The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located on the NE management layer of the transport network A network composed of computers which are far away from each other which are physically connected through specific protocols. WAN covers a broad area, such as a province, a state or even a country. Weighted Round Robin See Wait to Restore Time

WRR WTR

X
XPD XPIC Cross-Polarization Discrimination See cross polarization interference cancellation

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