Molecular Basis of Inheritance

DNA (Polynucleotide)
DNA

NITROGENOUS BASE

A DEOXYRIBOSE PENTOSE SUGAR

A PHOSPHATE GROUP

PURINE

PYRIMIDINE

ADENINE GUANINE

CYTOSINE THYMINE
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DNA

Nitrogenous base is linked to pentose sugar through a nglycosidic linkage to form a nucleoside. Phosphate group attached to5’-OH of a nucleoside through phospho-ester linkage, and a nucleotide is formed. Two nucleotides are linked through 3’-5’ phosphodiester linkage to form a dinucleotide, and in this manner many nucleotides are linked forming polynucleotide. A polynucleotide has a free sugar at its5’ end and a free phosphate at its 3’ end.

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4nm. Nitrogen bases project inside.com . Backbone is formed by sugar and phosphate. Two chains have antiparallel polarity. Adenine pairs with thymine through 2 hydrogen bonds and guanine with cytosine with 3 bonds.aglasem.Double helix model of DNA ( Watson and Crick model)        DNA is made of 2 polynucleotides. Hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases hold the chain together. Two chains are coiled in a right handed fashion. and 10 base pairs in each turn. And pitch of each helix is3. http://schools.

com .A NUCLEOSOME http://schools.aglasem.

Griffith’s experiment on transformation http://schools.com .aglasem.

com .DNA is the genetic material http://schools.aglasem.

aglasem.Characteristics of genetic material     Able to generate its replica. Able to express itself in the form of Mendalian character. Provide the scope for mutation necessary for evolution. http://schools.com . Chemically and structurally stable.

RNA (Polynucleotide) RNA NITROGENOUS BASE A PENTOSE SUGAR A PHOSPHATE GROUP PURINE PYRIMIDINE ADENINE GUANINE CYTOSINE URACIL http://schools.aglasem.com .

aglasem.TYPES OF RNA RNA MESSENGER mRNA TRANSFER/ SOLUBLE tRNA http://schools.com RIBOSOMAL rRNA .

A tRNA MOLECULE http://schools.aglasem.com .

com .Semiconservative replication of DNA http://schools.aglasem.

com .aglasem.Meselson.Stahl experiment (semiconservative replication) http://schools.

com .Replication of DNA (schematic representation) http://schools.aglasem.

com .aglasem.A TRANSCRIPTION UNIT    A promoter Structural genes A terminator http://schools.

aglasem.A TRANSCRIPTION UNIT Transcription http://schools.com .

aglasem.TRANSCRIPTION IN PROKARYOTES http://schools.com .

GENETIC CODE         Codons are triplets 61 codons code for 20 amino acids.initiation codon and codes for methionine. http://schools.com . Unambigous – each coden codes for only one/ particular amino acid. Commaless –codons are read in continuous manner in a 5’ to 3’ direction without punctuation Universal –codes for same amino acid in any organism. UAA.. UAG and UGA are stop codons. Degenerate – some amino acids are coded by more than one codon. AUG.aglasem.

com .aglasem.MUTATION MUATION POINT FRAME SHIFT SILENT http://schools.

TRANSLATION http://schools.com .aglasem.

com .aglasem.TRANSLATION http://schools.

com .TRANSLATION http://schools.aglasem.

com .COMPONENTS OF OPERON      Structural gene Promoter gene Operator Regulator gene Inducer http://schools.aglasem.

LAC OPERON IN E.COLI http://schools.com .aglasem.

COLI http://schools.LAC OPERON IN E.com .aglasem.

legal and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from this project.GOALS OF HUMAN GENOME PROJECT (HGP)       Identification of all genes Determination of the sequence of the 3 billion base pairs in human DNA.com . To store the information in data base. Improvement of the tools for data analysis Transfer of the technology to other sectors (industries) To address the ethical.aglasem. http://schools.

  http://schools.com .sequence the whole sequence of genome.identifying all genes that expressed as RNA. Sequence annotation. that included all coding and noncoding sequences and later assigning function to different regions in the sequence.aglasem.METHODOLOGIES OF HGP Expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

dynamics and evolution though they do not have coding function. Total no. http://schools. Repetitive sequence make up large portion of genome which throw light on structure.aglasem. Function of 50% genes are not known.com .7 million nucleotides.9 % of the nucleotides are same in all humans.SALIENT FEATURES OF HUMAN GENOME  Contains3164.       Size of genes varies.4 million locations DNA differs in single base. 2% of the genome codes for protein. genes about 30000 and99. average size contains 3000 bases. the largest gene dystrophin contains 2. In 1.4 million bases.

com .aglasem. treat and prevent a number of disease or disorder that affects human beings. Provides clues to the understanding of human biology. http://schools.USES OF HGP   To diagnose.

THE PROCESS OF DNA FINGER PRINTING http://schools.com .aglasem.

com .aglasem.STEPS OF DNA FINGERPRINTING        Extraction Amplification Restriction digestion Separation of DNA sequence/ restriction fragments Southern blotting Hybridisation Autoradiography http://schools.

http://schools.aglasem. really a close relative of a resident To identify racial groups to rewrite the biological evolution.com .USES OF DNA FINGERPRINTING     To identify criminals To determine the true biological mother or father in case of disputes To verify an immigrant.

com .aglasem.PRESENTATION BROUGHT TO YOU BY: http://schools.

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