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Various Voltage Multipliers

* Some of these circuits can be used as a doubler or dual rail supply. Simpler ones can have the diodes and capacitors reversed for negative versions. Conventional

2008-02-12

D1
AC-in

+DCx2

Bridge Doubler (more efficient) Cascade

C1 C2
-DCx2

D1

DCx2

AC-in

C1
AC-in

D1 D3 C2 D2
AC-in

D2 D4

+DCx2

C1 C2
-DCx2

D2
AC-in

AC-in Voltage Quadrupler +DCx3

Voltage Tripler

Bridge Doubler CT (more efficient) DCx4

C1
AC-in

D1 C1
AC-in AC-in

D2

D1

D2
AC-in

C2 C3
-DCx3

C3 C4 D4
DCx4

T1

D1 D3

D2 D4

+DCx2

C1 C2
-DCx2

D3

C2

D3

Half Wave Cascade Multiplier (Half Wave Cockroft-Walton, 8x shown)

D1
AC-in

D3 C2 D2 C3 C4 D4 C5

D5 C6 D6 C7

D7 C8 D8
DCx8

Each multiplier stage consists of C1, C2, D1, and D2. Half Wave Equations: n: the total stage count. Iload: load current in amperes. C: capacitance in Farads. Freq: frequency in Hz. Vdrop = (Iload/(6*Freq*C)) * (4n^3+3n^2-n) Vout = (2 * n) - Vdrop Vripple = (Iload/(2*Freq*C))*n*(n+1) The full wave version increases frequency. This has the benefit of reducing output ripple and voltage drop under load. The input is usually fed by a center tap transformer or two secondaries in series.

C1
AC-in

Full Wave Cascade Multiplier (Full Wave Cockroft-Walton, 8x shown)

D1
AC-in

D2 C2 C3

D3 C4

D4 C5

D5 C6

D6 C7

D7 C8

D8

C1
Ground

DCx8

C1
AC-in

C3 D2 D3 D4

C5 D5 D6

C7 D7 D8

D1

Capacitor Variation. To help reduce the increasing ripple with each stage, larger capacitors can be used at the bottom. If the first stage is n*C, then the next could be (n-1)*C, then the next could be (n-2)*C, and so on. The ripple equation them becomes: Vripple=Iload/C. To find the optimum number of stages given a certain input voltage and required output voltage, easy way: n=sqrt(Vpk*Freq*C/Iload). This works for n>5. For n<5, n=sqrt(3*Iload*(7*Iload+48*Freq*C*Vpk))/(12*Iload)-1/4. Without knowing the frequency and capacitors, n can be approximated by: n=3*Vout/4*Vpk. Full Wave calculation changes. Vdrop = (Iload/(6*Freq*C))*(n^3+2n). If all stage capacitors are equal, Vripple=(Iload/(2*Freq*C)*n. The optimum stage count: n = 0.521*Vout/Vpk.