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The Kapanadze coil analysed by William J. McFreey.

May 2012
By releasing the videos of his electromechanical device, Kapanadze left little doubt (to the average physicist) as to how his and other "overunity" devices work. The following articles explain this working principle in detail. This analysis is devoted to the Kapanadze coil, which is a close relative of his lesser-known electromechanical device. The main ingredients for achieving the Tariel Kapanadze (Alfred Hubbard, Michel Meyer, Steven Mark, Floyd Sweet, SR193...) effect are Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), fast moving particles (e.g. electrons), avalanche particle multiplication (induced transmutation) and a magnetic field of appropriate strength to confine and guide these particles within a conductive material. It is believed that copper or an alloy of copper or iron are Kapanadze's materials of choice and that material is used as fuel when it undergoes stimulated transmutation. The reason is that copper has many isotopes with halflife times spanning from nanoseconds to tens of hours (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_copper). Copper isotopes with atomic masses below 63 tend to undergo + decay, while copper isotopes with masses above 65 tend to decay in - mode. Many of Copper isotopes have non-zero nuclear spin and hence can be manipulated (stimulated) through nuclear magnetic resonance. However, this statement also applies to Zinc, Iron and many other metallic elements. Thus these elements and alloys of these elements, such as brass, can also be used as fuel. Enhanced -decay under NMR stimulation is known and actually used in scientific research in so called betaNMR spectrometers in which the nuclear spin precession signal is detected through the beta decay of a radioactive nucleus (http://bnmr.triumf.ca/?file=default). The main task in creating a working device, using these principles is to create an appropriate geometry which allows an extremely high current in the conductive multiplication disk or ring to be fully controlled and so, not only create torque but also, useful electrical power. The exact construction of the Kapanadze coil is difficult to infer as the details of the inner geometry and materials used in the coil are generally hidden. However, knowing the working principles stated above, it is possible to present an effective, generalised working geometry. The example coil discussed here first is probably closer to

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the device presented by SR193 which is the only working replication of the Kapanadze coil at this time. There is no doubt, that both the Kapanadze coil and the Kapanadze self-powered motor work on the principles described here. At this point, it is worth remarking that the working schematics of the SR193 device were circulated on the internet for a long time and most of them were correct. Only, the correct coil construction method was missing.

Fig.1 Cross-section of the example coil. Some of the actual implementation details may differ from the arrangement shown above, but that will not alter the operation of device. This diagram is not to scale.

As shown here in Fig.1, the Kapanadze device consists of two coils, each having two windings. These coils are both wound on ferrite cores, possibly ferrite rings glued together, but layered iron or iron powder cores may be used as well. Each coil has two windings: L1, L3 and L2, L4, respectively. The bottom windings, L1 and L2, form the NMR excitation coil and are connected in series. These two inner coils L1 and L2 are preferably wound in opposite directions, relative to each other, although, in his early devices, Kapanadze used only one of the windings for this purpose (e.g. L2) outside, in the form of a thick wire spiral. L4 is used to modulate the magnetic field strength within the copper (or brass or iron) ring positioned between the two coils. The two coils and the copper ring are held together by a plastic tube. Winding L3 is a pick-up coil. The ferrite ring magnets attached to the ferrite ring on the right hand side of the central plastic tube, provide the initial, biasing magnetic field, B0, for the conductive copper ring at the centre of the device. The device works as follows: When the spark-gap fires, it creates a dense set of frequencies which creates the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance effect in the copper ring, via coils L1 and L2. Consequently, the spark gap is a very important part of this device, at least in the beginning. Later, this quick and dirty wide-spectrum Radio Frequency generator can be replaced by a more sophisticated semiconductor short-pulse generator.

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If the set of frequencies generated by the spark is dense enough it will always contain the exact frequency needed to excite strong Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the copper ring. If the set of frequencies generated by the spark is not dense enough, then the exact NMR frequency will have to be supplied from a tuned circuit. The NMR stimulation of the copper ring generates enough fast-moving radioactive particles, as described below (Beta-NMR), and this starts an avalanche of particle multiplication provided that the cyclotron condition is also fulfilled. However, the initial magnetic field (B0) in which the copper ring is immersed is low enough to ensure that the radius of cyclotron resonance R is greater than r, the outer radius of the copper ring. Thus, the strong multiplication current cannot materialise within the copper ring. When sufficient modulation current is applied to winding L4 then the resulting magnetic field B becomes sufficiently greater than B0, causing the radius R of the cyclotron resonance to become smaller than the outer radius of the copper ring, r (but larger than the inner radius of the copper ring). When that happens, the multiplication current, confined and guided by the Lorenz force, is sustained within the ring. This way, modulating the magnetic field penetrating the ring, while under nuclear magnetic resonance, in effect, creates very strong pulses of multiplication current within the ring, as if in a one-turn coil. The strong magnetic field pulses created by the current pulses are guided by the ferrite core and generate voltage pulses (and current when loaded) in the pick-up coil L3 to which a load may be connected. It should be noted that in Fig.1, the copper multiplication ring is grounded. This is because the transmutation reactions produce a lot of waste charge. If not grounded, the voltage on the ring would get very high and pose a danger of a fatal electric shock. In some of the Kapanadze coils, the ground wire is visible on both sides of the device. This does not change its function in any way as it is still only a ground wire. The main secret of the Kapanadze coil is the conductive ring placed within the coil. This contradicts standard thinking as a closed conductive ring in a coil would normally be considered to be a wasteful shunt rather than a source of energy. It is hard to believe that this piece of physics has been known at least since Michel Meyer's experiments (around 1975) but it is known that Nikola Tesla and later Alfred Hubbard both knew this as well. In the cases of Tesla and Hubbard, the initialising particles needed for the multiplication process were coming from Radium rather than beta-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. If the radius of the copper ring is reduced, then in order to sustain the multiplication current within the ring, the magnetic field flowing through it has to be stronger, which means that the NMR excitation frequency has to be raised. Let us estimate the magnetic field strength needed to confine multiplication electron current assuming the effective speed of emitted electrons (q = 1.602E-19 C , m0 = 9.11E-31 kg) at v = 200,000 km/s which are following a circular path of a radius r = 3 cm. Then:

where m0 is the rest electron mass and c is the speed of light in vacuum. This is a modest field strength which can be generated with permanent magnets and even solenoids. The NMR excitation frequency at that field strength is more difficult to estimate as the exact isotopes involved are not known and hence has to be established experimentally.

Thus, the NMR frequency is not very high in this case. Since the values presented above are only crude estimates, it is wise to start the tuning process using the sparkgap generated dense comb of frequencies, as shown in Fig.1. This means that tuning is then just a task of finding the value of B0, for instance, by adding or removing ring magnets to the end of the right hand side ferrite tube core while pulsing coil L4. Fine tuning of the magnetic field B is then accomplished by adjusting the peak modulation current in coil L4. For best results, the firing of the spark-gap should be synchronised with the stable, high value of the magnetic field modulation current flowing in coil L4. 3 - 130

There are other methods of achieving pulsed multiplication current in a conductive ring, which are not covered here. This current may actually be naturally self pulsating in most situations (self quenching) as it modifies the magnetic field within which it was generated, destroying the sustaining resonance condition (NMR, cyclotron). In the example device, coupling useful power is accomplished by L3, unfortunately L4 also spuriously couples to the generated magnetic pulses. Steven Mark experimented with different methods of coupling useful power from the pulsating multiplication current in many incarnations of his TPU device. Michel Meyer in his Czech patent, CZ 284,333, uses an iron rod as a combined magnetic field guide and multiplication material. At this point, we come to an even more realistic construction of the Kapanadze coil which is simply a modification of the device presented in Michel Meyers patent (Fig.2). Here, instead of an iron rod, an iron tube is used. This tube does not have a slit, at least, not in the in the very important current multiplication area. Compared to a rod, magnetising a tube is much easier and it is also easier to deliver Radio-Frequency power to a thin-walled tube in order to excite Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the tube material. Instead of supplying a single RF frequency from a generator, a spark gap feeds coil L3, producing a dense set of frequencies which will contain the exact RF frequency needed to induce the NMR excitation in the tube material. Coil L2 is shown positioned well outside coil L1a and located at one end of the tube (similar to Kapanadzes green box coil). This positioning of coil L2 makes it easier to induce the vital Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the central part of the tube, where the multiplication current is to occur. It should be noted that the multiplication current is different from the regular current as it is composed of fast-moving charged particles rather than a large number of slow-moving conduction electrons. The wall of the iron tube acts as both a guide for the magnetic field as well as forming the current multiplication ring. The coil L1a/L1b provides both the initial magnetisation and the mains frequency modulation of the magnetic field in the tube wall. This means that the current flowing through coil L1a/L1b is constantly being switched between the standing offset bias current I0, which produces the standing magnetic field B0, and the much more powerful pulsed current I, which produces the stronger magnetic field B in the tube wall, which in turn, creates the conditions needed for the cascade of additional current to occur (current I0 is always less than I and magnetic field B0 is always less than B). In other words, switching the magnetic field strength between intensities B0 and B, creates or destroys the conditions which the multiplication current needs in order to circulate within the wall of the tube. It is an advantage if the difference between I0 and I is kept small as that makes the electronic switching between those two more efficient. Another winding L3, is wound around the tube and acts as the pick-up coil for the take-off of the excess power generated in the multiplication area. The U-shaped base shown in Michel Meyers arrangement, is not used here as it is not necessary because the uniform magnetic field in the current multiplication area is guaranteed by having coil L1 split into its two parts, L1a and L1b (similar to the Helmholtz coil). The operation and tuning of this coil are as follows: As the spark gap is delivering Radio Frequency energy through coil L2 and modulating the current flowing through coil L1, the coarse tuning consists of adjusting the bias current I0 until coil L3 shows an output current. The fine tuning is adjusting the magnitude of the modulation current pulses I to get the maximum output current in coil L3. These values depend on the size, shape and material of the tube. The thinner the wall of the tube, the more accurate the tuning of the pulsed current I needs to be. The design could hardly be more simple? The electronic circuitry and practical constructional details should be obvious to those who are skilled in the art.

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Fig.2 Iron tube based example coil. The arrangement of the coils on the tube is different in various implementations of the device. This drawing is not to scale and the thickness of the tube wall is exaggerated.

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In summary, this article discusses the operational principles and possible physical implementations of Tariel Kapanadzes coil. The details behind the phenomenon behind this operation are shown in the following article. As can be seen in different videos on the web, the size, visible number of windings and the diameter of the coil varies. These factors do not change in any way, the operational principles of the coil, which is always the cascade multiplication of fast, charged particles within a conductive material of circular cross-section. The charged particles are held in orbit by the Lorentz force generated by the modulated magnetic field permeating the material which is normally in the form of a ring or tube. The orbiting particles form a very large (usually pulsed) current flow which can be extracted by the inductive coupling of coil L3 and used to perform useful work. This rotating additional current is generated at the expense of the energy extracted from the transmutation of the isotopes in the material of the ring or tube. An alternative form of this process is the one used by Nikola Tesla and Alfred Hubbard where they used an already radioactive material such as Radium to trigger the cascadecarrier-multiplication process, instead of the NMR stimulation described here. Suggested designs for the control electronics will be included at a later date, and it should be noted that part of the large electrical output can be diverted and used as input power, making the device self-powered as demonstrated by Tariel Kapanadze. It must be stressed that no laws of physics, as we know them today, are violated here. The fuel is supplied by the material which forms the ring or tube. The device will not work forever and it is not free-energy, nor overunity (depending on how one defines it). Please be fully aware that this analysis is for information purposes only and must not under any circumstances be considered to be a recommendation for you to build or experiment with any such device. Radioactive particles may be produced by this device. It may be necessary to mount any such device in an earthed box made of aluminium (or other suitable metal) in order to screen out any stray radioactive particles. The multiplication ring or tube should be grounded as the transmutation reactions produce a lot of charge. When not grounded, the potential of the ring or tube can get very high and pose a danger of a fatal electric shock. The multiplication ring may overheat and even explode. Thus it is entirely your own responsibility should you decide to experiment with this kind of device.

The principles of operation of Kapanadze electromechanical devices.

by William J. McFreey - February 2012
Two recently released (although old) YouTube videos: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3thvqFhFIfY and http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVUN3GsekKQ, show a motor or electromechanical device designed by Tariel Kapanadze, running self-powered with a major mechanical output after being started with a tiny PP3 nine-volt battery only capable of providing a small current. The following analysis shows that Tariels device is in fact, a dual, solid-state isochronous cyclotron-like device (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclotron) as shown here: 3 - 133

Some of the actual implementation details may differ from the arrangement shown above, but that should not alter the operation of device. The drawing above is not to scale. The device consists of two identical composite discs mounted opposite each other on a shaft (the shaft should be grounded, as the discs produce significant amounts of charge during operation). The spacing between these two discs can be altered in order to adjust the magnetic field strength which is generated between the discs by the permanent magnet mounted on the axle shaft. This toroidal magnet, which is marked with arrows in the drawing, is mounted on the shaft and positioned between the plates and it provides the necessary magnetic field between the steel flanges. Each disc consists of two materials: brass (or possibly copper) and magnetic steel. The brass parts of the disks face each other. The external and internal coils shown on the left, form a radio-frequency transformer through which power is delivered to the steel/brass discs. This form of construction provides, not only the necessary magnetic field, but also a gradient in the magnetic field, as shown by the black arrows in the drawing. The magnetic field passing though the brass plates is strongest at the perimeter of the discs due to the disc area there, while close to the shaft the magnetic field is practically zero, so the length of the black arrows in Fig.1, represents the strength of the magnetic field at that distance from the axle. In other words, the two steel flanges create a radially symmetrical and increasing distribution of the magnetic field. Each brass disc in this arrangement can act as an independent solid-state isochronous cyclotron-like device. There is a magnetic field perpendicular to the flanges and the strength of that field is proportional to its distance from the axle. As an approximation, you can visualise it as there being a very large number of cylinders of equal magnetic strength between the flanges. The brass disks are immersed in this field. All that is missing to make this into a working isochronous cyclotron-like device are the fast-moving charged particles. These could be generated by using a radioactive material, but that is not necessary since in this case, they are generated through nuclear magnetic resonance-stimulated radioactivity. To accomplish this, the externally generated radio-frequency input signal is transmitted through the RF coupling transformer to the coils L1, L2, which form another transformer, with 3 - 134

L2 as a secondary winding. The radio-frequency current flows finally through Lp1 and Lp2, the external pancake coils connected to L2 and attached to the outer side of the steel plates, and returns through the steel plates and the non-magnetic shaft. Coils Lp1, Lp2 are covered by a foamy material and therefore are not visible in the videos. The radio frequency, f 0 , is chosen so that it will excite Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at the location of one of the cylinders of equal magnetic field between the flanges (see Fig.2). This frequency is given by

Where: is the gyromagnetic ratio of an isotope in the disc material, and B is the local magnetic induction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_magnetic_resonance). And the value of that magnetic field has to be such that the cyclotron resonance condition is also fulfilled, namely:

Where: m is the particle mass, q is its charge, B is, as before, the local magnetic induction, v is the particles velocity, and r is the radius of the magnetic cylinder. When the magnetic field strength at some radius fulfills both equations, then the action begins. Fast particles are generated by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-stimulated radioactivity in the brass discs and some of those particles will start to circulate in the plane of the discs where they get deflected and guided by the magnetic field, B, and follow a circular path on that cylinder of equal magnetic strength. This resembles an isochronous cyclotron action, although the particles are not accelerated, but instead, they are greatly increased in number. The speed of these emitted radioactive particles is very high, being about 270,000 Km/s for beta particles, and this easily meets the cyclotron resonance requirement for moderate values of magnetic field, B, and the radius, r. The process can be sustained by the cascade-generation of many more fast particle emission events through elastic collisions (where the incoming particle is not absorbed in the collision) of the particles with nuclei in the disc. The exact reactions taking place in the brass discs will have to be studied. The emission events become synchronised and unidirectional. More and more particles start circulating in the brass disc. In effect, this is a fast particle multiplier. In theory, this creates a run-away condition. In reality, the circulating particles constitute a current in a one-turn coil with its own magnetic field, which modifies the initial magnetic field B, and thus detunes the system from cyclotron-like and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In this way, the process saturates at a certain value of current. Or enters a pulsation mode. The process resembles stimulated emission in masers or lasers, but on the particle level, rather than the photon level. Each emission event, under this condition, exerts a force on the emitting nucleus embedded in the disc material (the equivalent of a jet engine on a macroscopic scale), and so, significant torque is created. Normally, the system is pre-tuned by adjusting the magnetic field B, to a value which will support cyclotron resonance on a cylinder of equal magnetic field B close to the perimeter of the brass discs, by estimating the speed of the charged particles which will be generated. When the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance stimulus is provided, cyclotron-like particle multiplication starts occurring and torque is generated, accompanied by a strong circular current in the brass disks. In this way, the arrangement of Fig.1 becomes a motor. When the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance stimulus is removed, the cyclotron-like multiplier process dies down, and hence the generated torque, ceases. In principle, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance stimulus does not have to be very strong and can be generated by a small, battery powered solid-state generator. Unlike the Kapanadze coil, the generated high current in the discs is not utilised in this electromechanical device. It is worth noting that gradient in the magnetic field, makes it easier to meet both Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and isochronous cyclotron resonance conditions. The magnetic field gradient also facilitates particle confinement within the disks.

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In conclusion, the Kapanadze disc machines work on a principle of cyclotron-like resonance, but in conjunction with the radioactivity of certain conductive materials, when enhanced by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance stimulation.

Fig.2. Gyration of the emitted charged particle in the gradient of the magnetic field in a disc (e.g. brass) under the condition of cyclotron resonance. The disc rotates in the opposite direction to the particles.

The choice of materials for the flange and disc construction is of extreme importance: in the flanges, magnetic steel is used to provide both strength and an even distribution of the magnetic field. For the discs, brass which is an alloy of Zinc and Copper both of which have many isotopes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brass) or some other conductive material, like copper or even iron, is used in order to provide enhanced radioactivity under Nuclear Magnetic Resonance stimulation. The physics behind all of Kapanadzes devices is the same and very interesting. It is stressed however, that no laws of physics, as we know them today, are violated here. The fuel is supplied by the disc material. The devices will not work forever and it is not free-energy, nor overunity (depending on how that is defined), but they are remarkable, both in their engineering and architecture. These types of device were invented by Michel Meyer in the early 1970s (as can be seen earlier in this chapter and at http://www.rexresearch.com/meyernmr/meyer.htm), and developed further by Steven Mark in the mid 1990s (the shape of his first device was a spool). It is also possible that Nikola Tesla, and then Hubbard, experimented with this kind of device. This analysis is for information purposes only and must not under any circumstances be considered to be a recommendation for you to build or experiment with any such device. Radioactive particles may be produced by this device. The centrifugal forces are extremely high in this device and so it is your full responsibility if you chose to experiment with this device. It may be necessary to mount any such device in an earthed aluminium box in order to screen out any stray radioactive particles.

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