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Chapter 1: Basic Understanding of Gears / 3

accuracy level of the tooth element tolerances permissible in the manufacture of a particular gear in terms of its specialized use. The higher the number, the greater the level of accuracy. Numbers 3 through 7 are for commercial applications such as appliances, numbers 8 through 13 are for precision applications, and numbers 14 and 15 are for ultraprecision applications. The permissible tol-

Fig. 3

Schematic of gear backlash. Source: Ref 1

erances for the different quality numbers may be obtained from the AGMA standards, which show the type of gear and the permissible tolerances and inspection dimensions. gear ratio. The ratio of the larger to the smaller number of teeth in a pair of gears. helix angle. The angle between any helix and an element of its cylinder. In helical gears and worms, it is at the standard pitch circle unless otherwise specied. involute gear tooth. A gear tooth whose prole is established by an involute curve outward from the base circle (Fig. 6). normal section. A section through a gear that is perpendicular to the tooth at the pitch circle (Fig. 2). pitch circle. The circumference of a gear measured at the point of contact with the mating gear (Fig. 1 and 7). pitch diameter. The diameter of the pitch circle.

Fig. 4

Tooth gage chart (for reference purposes only). Source: Boston Gear, Quincy, MA