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Copyright e 2006 by Guy Ogilvy
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced
in any manner whatsoever without written permission from the
publisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical
articles or reviews. For information address Walker & Company,
104 FifthAvenue,NewYork,NewYork 10011.
Published by
Walker Publishing Company, Inc., New York
Printed on recycJed paper.
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has been applied for.
ISBN-10: 0-8027-1540-0
ISBN-13: 978-0-8027-1540-1
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First U.S. edition 2006
357910864
Designed and typeset by
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Printed in the United States of America
THE
ALCHEMIST'S
KITCHEN
EXTRAORDINARY POTIONS
& CURIOUS NOTIONS
Guy Ogilvy
Walker & Company
New York
WaDDEN
SD01t5
71zis book is dedicated to Sidi Ibrahim Izz ai-Din and
Aclzarya Ma11jred Junius, with sincere thanks for a// that they shared.
For thosr 10 c:xplorr Alchemy further
Alch(rtty. 5.-mur ..( tht' CMtiiOs Slirott' of tlrr Sc111l byl1ru\ Burc.khJrdt and
Thr Praa14al o.J PI.Jrtt Alchmry b) M u.- mJ,,pemJble
vo11 Bl'rnu-' rmd Htilkmtst,
17rr Ur1tr Cowist Guide to <llthrmy by Bnan Cotnoir Jlld
M1rcea Ehade'> '11rr aud tlrr Cmublt .He abo highly recommended, a' an!
Tirt' G.:>ldm <.amr b\ \cJnJ,Ia, l<lossow\1., De RoiJ (for AlchenucJI emblt'ms) and
Adam 1\.kLean's Aiel my wc:b<Jce lrttty tt>m alrlrl'my (for prl'tty rnuch evc:rychmg.
mo't uf 1he mutt"' 111 thl' book)
l'or cho5e lmpll'ed b) the rraltical C.wtm.m ChttiiiSif)' l<t'VIIl M Dunn
and I ormu/.11 )"or P.Jmttrs b) Rob..rc dee both excellcnc buol.
Marry thnk to '>1r Frn<IS Mdvlk, for JC< "" co lm cxlraordm.1ry hbr.1ry,
to Dam! 'iuttnn Jml john lor thdr cditonal ,,smr.IH(.'c,
md t< VJltona for k..-epmtr the kitchen cookmg.
C<lvut: Althcmy ' "" br rxtrrmrly E.\plom>ns atrd "" C<ltrlltr<>nplart'.
Some cj tlrr d(Jlnbrd 1t1 tlrls bi>c>k may br rmlau_{ul in wmr Jllrwliwom;
tlrry ar. pnf,;rmr.f czl Y"" own mk.
CONTENTS
Inaoduction
The Secret Art
Ecce Homo
Fire and Metals
Back to Nature
Sulphur and Mercury
The Chym.ical Wedding
Thrice Great Hermes
Potion Makers
Creation
The Elements
Heavenly Metal
Minerals and Pigments
&Above
Spagyrics
Angel Water
Archaeus ofWater
PrimumEns
Circulatum Minus
From Minor to Major
Opus Magnum
Lapis Philosophorum
Going for Gold
Appendixts: Basic Metallurgy
Ceramics and Glass
Artists' Pigments
Artists' Media
Alchemical Chemistry
Useful Recipes
Incense & Perfume
Bhasmas and Fermentation
Plant Planet Correspondences
Astrological Hours and Alchemical Symbols
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
47
48
49
so
52
54
55
56
58
-
SMARAGDINA-" J)
tnerafb @a6fef ;<
HERMES TRISMEGISTUS :
-

-,$;'" -=-
is tfje trutfj. tfje tDfjofe anb certain trutfj. _a Worb of a fli.
_:- _- . --
<6fjat tDfjtcfj is:ooe is as tfjat t:;f;tcij is 6efolz>.
o4.nb tfjat tDfjtefj Is 6efoiD Is as _tqat wfjkfj tS
adOmpllsfjcb tfje miraefes ?ftfje
- - __ -
cAnb a5 atr tqmBs come fTom tfje <Dnt. tfje
$o a{[ tfjtn.gs 6y {)rli -
" Is tfje $un; .
In its nuitures
- --: -=
ot e?tBenbetSatr'tfje oftfje<l:tnwme. :;
ots ts to c&utq.
-' -- -
tfje fTom tfje tqe-.9f0$$-
<!.Xnt(tj anb wltq ,gmU ' -::.
ot aseenbs fTom cuib agatn
tqe polDer of a6ooe anb 6efow. _-:., _ --
. .
<equs you wttr tqe 9Cor.Y ""'
anb atr o6seurtty wt[ tfie fi'om you. .::; ,_
Is tfje power of atr po1M'S, or It emy
cAnb penmates eMY sollb ., - - .
<e"ijus was atl'tije wortb
cAnb tijus maroetfouf woris to come, or_tijts ts tije . .
<6ijmfore am a .; -
a. Sot a am nwttr of tije tijm prlnciptc$ of untoersa( --. . -. .
- - wqat a ij@e to say .._., -- - -:_ .
- - --,? : - .:- -
INTRODUCTION
The Royal Art of alchemy remains one of the most enduring and
baffling human enterprises. It is called the Royal Art, because it
was practiced by, or on behalf of, kings and princes as far back as
the legendary "Yellow Emperor" Huang-Di [ca. 27th c. sc] and as
late as the 17th century, when the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf
II devoted much of his time to its study.
But what exacdy is alchemy? Even the origin and definition
of the word are obscure. In China it represents the quest for
immortality, in India it is the art of making medicines, while in
the West it is associated with the quest for the Philosopher's Stone,
which transmutes base metals into gold. Alchemy is all these
things, and more besides.
Alchemists are perfectionists, seeking to perfect everything they
work with, including, and most especially, their own souls. Quite
how they go about their business - and why - is the subject of this
book. Confining ourselves in the main to the Western alchemical
tradition, we will look at the philosophy and principles that guide
alchemists, the materials they work with and the obscure, but
fascinating, language and symbols they use to express their art.
But be prepared - alchemy is not easy to make sense of. It is
full of pitfalls and paradoxes. Getting to grips with it requires
imagination and concentration.
1
THE SECRET ART
in pursuit of gold
To open a typical alchemical work is to be confronted by a
bewildering mixture ofbaffiing text and extraordinary, incongruous
imagery. Directions for making Tite Stone are couched in arcane
terminology and accompanied by pictures of strange hermetic
symbols or magical dreamscapes in which royal families act out
a bizarre soap opera involving marriage, discord, infanticide,
regicide, hermaphrodism and graveyard sex, accompanied by
a fantastic bestiary of dragons, green lions, unicorns, phoenixes,
and salamanders. The writers of such books often have strange
Latinized pseudonyms and lives full of intrigue and mystery.
The 17th century Polish alchemist Michael Sendivogius is a
good example. Twice escaping torture and imprisonment from
rapacious German princes, he performed transmutations for
Rudolf II, whom he served for many years as physician and advisor,
and he was also possibly the first person to isolate oxygen.
Where, amid all this confusion, is the poor neophyte to start?
If you want to be an alchemist, or at least get stuck into a few
alchemical potions, you have first to think like an alchemist.
Remarkably, alchemists of all ages and all lands tend to share the
same vision. They may have a strange way of saying things, but at
least they are saying the same thing. More or less. They all believe
that we, and almost everything else, are not all that we could be.
Except gold. The story of alchemy, at least in the West, is, in a
nutshell, the story of gold and our relationship with it. This story
begins, fittingly, in a mythic Golden Age at the dawn of our time.
2

TIH Jis'ts rrtmllltiiiJ tr frJilllliiiJ 1J tr rJ
of tr wm, .!s4 twt6 "'
ji..J si,r of PUus.
TIH f'!,Ws rrprstal .j
rit "' " .r&n.ists' tal
.MfTfllry, fri'r to t&rir nco.ciCWW..
3
T& I"JOII nptsnU W, "'fWintf C,., JtCj.
.J" fritu tlrrit "-t ..,..t w
s..Siwl i11 nln for wm tt WJi.
Oliff nji.J, " rriJ PrillrifCu tn ,..,f(J
.J tr."'!fo,.rl tal tf p '"'
o"' Ia IIJi!Y nl '-,_,. .
EccE HoMo
in the beginning
Consciousness dawns on Primordial Man. He finds himselfbathed
in the light of the fiery Sun; standing upon the earth; breathing
air. Ecce Homo. His wonderment is encroached upon by an
ever increasing need. He thirsts for water. Mercifully it calls and
attracts him. Fire, earth, air and water. Man in his element. Night
falls on the Golden Age. Engulfed by darkness and a sense ofloss,
Primordial Man is confronted by duality: night and day; light and
darkness; heat and cold. In the Sun's absence he yearns for its light,
its f1re. But until he is able to steal it, fire remains the property
of the gods. It falls to earth as thunderbolts and blazing lumps of
meteoric iron, while from below it erupts balefully from volcanoes
and, sparked by sunlight through crystal, rages destructively
through forests.
Meanwhile, at the water's edge, he learns of depth and reflection
and finds all that he needs - to slake his thirst, fill his belly and
fire his imagination. He is drawn by richly colored clays - red
and yellow ochres, the color of blood, fire and sun; white kaolin
the color of bones, teeth and moon; black clay the color of night.
He sees them, he touches them. They color his fingers, he paints
his body. Armed with the colors of the Great H-Ork, the colors of
the races of man, he can create likenesses of things. By calling
a thing to mind, its spirit manifests itself through his hand and
palette. In this way he gains power over his rivals and allies: the
spirits he feels around him, his fellow man, and the animals he
hunts for hide, flesh, and bone.
4
FIRE AND METALS
from golden age to iron age
As well as garish clays, the streambeds also bore lumps of native gold
-bright and shiny. the color of the sun. Precious. Intriguingly heavy,
hard, but not too hard, it could be worked with stone and fashioned
into the finest artefacts, things that never crumbled or decayed.
Gold, however, was not the only metal immediately available.
Meteoric iron was also found lying naked on the ground. Dull,
hard and unworkable, it nevertheless had a gold-like ring to it, and
despite its earthy appearance was believed to have fallen from the
sky. This conferred on it an awesome, mysterious, celestial quality.
Artefacts fashioned from meteoric iron had magical qualities, but
before this metal could be effectively worked mankind had first
to become master of fire. Similar substances were encountered
hidden, half-formed in their matrix of rock, as the goldstreams
were pursued into the earth. Fire wofd yield them up.
Fire transforms things. It transformed our lives. It allowed us to
bake the river clays into vessels for cooking, carrying and storing;
into bricks for building furnaces that could create sufficient heat to
extract metal from rock and mould it into all manner of tools, first
hammers and tongs, then blades - ploughshares and weapons.
Once fire had been sufficiendy mastered, the struggle for
dominion over the earth was on. Despite being the symbol of
perfection and permanence, gold had set us on the path of change,
the metal road leading to the industrial machine age, nuclear
technology and the Philosopher's Stone.

BACK TO NATURE
the principles of life
For all his technological prowess man remains at the mercy of the
elements, as much a part of the living environment as everything
else on Earth. Alchemists accordingly believe that Nature is the
principle that unifies all things and governs their individual natures,
and they also recognize that everything in Nature is reflected in
ourselves.
To the alchemist, the universal life-giving principle within
Nature is spirit, while the unique essence of each thing is its
soul. These, together with the third principle, the body, form the
tria prima. The easiest way to approach this central theme is to
turn to the willing guidance of the plant kingdom, whose three
principles are yasily identified.
Plant alcohol, or ethanol, is called spirit because that's what it is
- the spirit of a plant; the same whether made from grapes, grain
or mandrake roots, thus the universal principle of the vegetable
kingdom. The individual essence of a plant - its soul - is found in
its essential oil (a rose has many names, but its fragrance is unique).
The body, thirdly, is an invisible salt, extracted from the plant's ashes
by separating the "subtle from the gross," as we shall see later.
The salt of plants obligingly acts as a bridge between the vegetable
and mineral kingdoms, the entry point to mineral alchemy, the
operations of which mysteriously reflect the processes within the
transforming soul of the alchemist. The key to these processes is
the interaction of the tria prima, so let's take a closer look at them
and the rich symbolizm with which alchemists clothe them.
8
"T6r Win/ it in its Ptrsmj/it/ 6trt,
t6r wiJ t{,t '!)'StrriDus "it" of t{,t EltltnU
TJ!tt, w6icb J( Stt{ iltntijy.
T6r is t{,t t!'mtnta( stirit of
w6ic6 must in a(( its su&t!ety
liS 11ot co".Just it ...,;t{, fire.''
9
Nature" Jvisel Hen 1Pt set t6t
aCc6e,ist wit& f411ttr11., stic{, ani SftctiJC!ts,
altt"'fti"J in btr
aU6tllliSts ofservt t{,t ctkstiiJ( IIIDYtllltnfs an/
n{ations6ifs in orltr to itftr1flint t6t
prDfitious ,o,.tllf to &tJill t6e
SuLPHUR AND MERCURY
the reconciliation of opposites
In alchemical terminology soul and spirit go by the names of
Sulphur and Mercury. Quite distinct from conunon sulphur and
quicksilver, they are instead the first principles of being, originating
at the dawn of creation. Together they form a duad, a polarity of
complementary, but opposing forces that must be reconciled. Like
the yin-yang symbol, they not only reflect each other, but contain
the starting point of the other. Hence the myriad paradoxes that
make classical alchemical recipes so confusing.
Sulphur, as the soul, is consciousness, the individual spirit. The
hot, dry, fiery, masculine principle, it is the active, engendering
seed, called Sol and lhe Father of lhe Stone. It is form - eidos
- the idea of a thing, as opposed to matter, the expression of the
idea. Its symbols include the Sun, the stag and the Red Lion. In
its unpurified state it is the red man, who quarrels with the white
woman. When exalted, or perfected, he becomes the Red King.
Mercury, as the spirit, is the life-force, the Universal Soul in all
things. It is passive, feminine, cold and watery, the eternal feminine,
the Prima Materia- first matter, the matrix, the mother of all things.
Unrefined, Mercury is symbolized by the dragon, the serpent, the
Green Lion, and the white woman who, when exalted, becomes
the White Queen or the White Lion, the unicorn, or the Moon
called Luna and Diana, the virgin divinity in Nature.
The third principle, Salt, acts as mediator between Sulphur and
Mercury. It is the spark between them, the child of the union, the
harmonizing balancing point of their polarity.
10
11
THE CHYMICAL WEDDING
the marriage of the sun and moon
Mankind is a paradoxical creature, full of contradictions and warring
passions. The spirit wants to rule the world, the soul just wants to
be happy. Their conflict is often sytnbolized in alchemy by a man
with drawn sword and a woman with an eagle or by two fighting
animals, such as eagles, or the dog and bitch, whose fighting leads
to frenzied copulation and death, symbolizing the fatal futility of
the love-hate relationship.
To escape this brutal cycle, and before harmony can be achieved,
the inessential must be removed - the subtle separated from the
gross, for as long as spirit and soul are chained by the material
state they cannot be freed. The lesson is simple- if we identify
too strongly with our physical selves we are doomed to share the
body's death, so this false identity must be sacrificed, destroyed
to reveal the true self. Likewise, a seed cannot flourish until
the outer husk has rotted and fallen away. The substance that
breaks down the material body is Philosophic Mercury, a rarified
spiritual solvent, the preparation of which presents the laboratory
alchemist with one his greatest challenges.
Released from their limited state, both Principles can be
purified and reconciled, whereafter their sacred union can occur.
This is the chemical wedding of the Red King and the White
Queen. The child of their union is the transcendent androgenous
~ h i l d , spirit ensouled; the immortal spiritualized soul described
m the title of an anonymous r8th century alchemical tome as
The Hermaphrodite Child of the Sun and the Moon.
12
-
,.
AJ:rwlW uarr}irul 'm tmnifiJ as Rd
ttt1fftts to 'is ""&rilrtl fwi4 !r forriJ
'irastff " nC.ut.t Mmury, u,UCliJ w6itr
Wm" Ht rutls 'is '"''fu
Htfifi' U11itt/., t6t Cntf's CDMt ill ""fti#C
klc&.,.", as t, .J CH' "rrb " "'
t{,, Crnrs Jfirits SHr ia Tk ,(c(,.ist
its t6t nsuCt oJ t6tir u11iota.
13
Tk Wtk of tk StXtS is tXf'USt/ fJm &S I
e.a.Jilistic Jnuy of urlnws
rrsurn, ill t6t lc.t '.! G9t6 jm. "'"' t6t
.!&t.ist 111tut rusumt t,..
THRICE GREAT HERMES
tricksy psychopomp
The genius ofWestern alchemy, and mercurial guide to all alchemists,
is the legendary Hermes Trismegistus. Although considered one
of the ancients and equated by the Arabs with the prophet Idris
(Enoch), he combines the divine qualities of the Graeco-Roman
Hermes-Mercury and the Egyptian deity Thoth.
Hermes is the divine messenger mediating between heaven and
earth, the trickster god of the crossroads, patron of both merchants
and thieves. Thoth, meanwhile, is the patron of the sacred sciences,
also a mediator, understood as operating at every level of being.
He serves the gods, but also precedes and even creates them, for he
is the self-creating arch-magician, the Word in action. He has but
to name a thing and it springs into life.
Appearing at the meeting point of history, legend, and myth,
Hermes Trismegistus is a tricky character to pin down. He shifts
roles and identities from one moment to the next. As the archetypal
trickster he is the inner and outer teacher, the balancing point
between all polarities, often referred to as Hermes or Mercurius.
Credited to Trismegistus is a body of writings called T7te Hermetica.
Written down in early Christian but clearly of more
ancient inspiration, and practically unknown in Europe until the
Renaissance, their impact was considerable. Hermes describes man
as the great miracle, the microcosm made "in the image of God," with
all he needs to achieve his divine destiny. The best-known Hermetic
text is the enigmatic guide to the Great Work known as The Emerald
Tablet (see opposite page 1) whose meaning is inexhaustible.
14
I&iJ-6eJe/ CTbof6 Ctjt)J f6t livint scribe in. the wti4n f4nthton. boCls q,{cjt tbe
An'-6 11nl two strpmt-mtwintl Hmnu TrismtJi.sfu.s 6oCls 11Ccjt ""
Armiflc,. sp6m to inl'um t6t A&wtJ w6iCe pintiiiJ to t6t Mmurius
ktwem pcP.rititsJ "nlboCls t6e cJuctuJ !Y"'6oC oJ in t4C6 b!Jnl.
15
PoTION MAKERS
physician, heal thyself!
One of the main subjects of the Hermetica is medicine, and in a series
of texts Hermes instructs Asclepius, the semi-divine healer of Greek
mythology. The Staff of Asclepius, a stick with a snake winding up
it, is the international symbol for medicine, and Hermes' Caduceus,
with two snakes, has also become widely used as a medical symbol.
The perfect equilibrium symbolized by the Caduceus is the aim of
all holistic medicine. Thus all alchemists, as "Sons and Daughters
of Hermes" consider themselves healers, and often refer to the
Stone itself as the Universal Medicine. Jabir Ibn Hayyan (721-815],
Michael Maier [1568-r622], and Robert Fludd [1574-I67o], were all
notable physicians as well as legendary alchemists.
The first thing to be healed by the alchemist is the very thing
from which a medicine is made. In making a medicine from
rosemary, for example, the alchemist seeks to perfect the plant
itself. While a chemist might consider the resulting potion simply
a combination of purified compounds from a dead plant, to the
alchenust it represents the very idea of rosemary. As such it is more
alive than ever before, in perfect resonance with its ideal form.
In order to understand how the alchemist can entertain such
an extraordinary notion it is necessary to go back to the dawn
of Creation itself and establish the metaphysical principles upon
which the alchemical philosophy is based.
16

17
CREATION
in the beginning
To the alchemist Creation is the Great Work of the One, a universe
ensouled and inspired. Contrary to contemporary theories that
suggest that matter gives birth to consciousness, the alchemist's view
of Creation is metaphysical - spirit precedes matter. Thus the Great
Work of the alchemist is to restore fallen matter to spirit.
The Hermetica describes a cotnpellingvision of Creation. Hermes
witnesses the painful sacrifice of divine unity, the rending of the
Void, as the mysterious advent of the Logos (the Word) precipitates
a smoky darkness, which condenses to a "watery substance,"
the Prima Materia. The Logos is the "Son of God," the creative
principle, eidos, which seeds the chaotic waters, which in turn
become the matrix of all forms. Thus the One, through reflection,
becomes Two, giving rise to a third principle which, like Thoth,
mediates and governs this polarity, allowing their fruitful union by
acting both as generative spark and midwife.
Thus are established the three Philosophical Principles- Sulphur
~ (Logos/eidos), M e r c u r y ~ (Prima Materia/hyle) and Salt 8. If
a mercurial, almost paradoxical, factor can already be discerned in
this scenario, this is to be expected and accepted. Nothing other
than the Absolute makes absolute sense and the alchemist must be
both supple and subtle in his or her understanding. These lofty
concepts are brought down to earth in the alchenust's kitchen, as
shall become clearer later on.
The first ideas to manifest from the interaction of the Three are
the Four Elements - the template for all created things.
18
lit te kJinni"cj. T6t trttJtiDn
Dj btiWm ,.ru[ egrt.
Tbt Sfirit lllfiVti "fDn
te w4tm' }"''
An/ te D,J WIU rfivitft/
from ie urinessJ c4{{ej
19
T6t ttjr/ WIU witbDUtjmn;
jgr{ntSS WIU "fDII lt j"'t of te tfttp.
T" CDitlltltjll/ WIU Jivtn; tjru{ tm
WIU Aruf it WIU JDD/:
Ltf ten k
4
firmmmt in t6nr ttriist
t6.t /ivitlts te w41m Jrm te 'IH!ffl.
THE ELEMENTS
fire, water, earth, and air
The four Philosophical Elements are symbolized by triangles.
Ascending Fire ~ and Air n are upward pointing triangles, while
descending Water 'V and Earth s;z point downward. The triangles
of Air n and Earth s;z are crossed, being relatively less ascending
and descending respectively. The four Elements as a group are
symbolized by the cross + (page 58 lists all the symbols used in this
book). As archetypal forms preceding the manifestation of matter,
these Elements are not to be confused with the atomic elements, nor
with the conunon substances with which they share their names.
Each element shares its qualities with two others (opposite). This
provides the dynamic that allows for cyclic transformation within
matter, known as the Rotation of the Elements. ~ is the most volatile
of the Elements, s;z the most fixed. ~ and n are the masculine
Elements, s;z and "V feminine. Alchemists see all things as mixta,
mixtures of the four Elemental qualities. For example, common
water and alcohol are both Water, but alcohol ("firewater") has
more e l e m e n t a l ~ in it, while water has more is.
In traditional cosmology, the first things created from the
Elements are the Heavens, the Zodiac, the fixed stars and then
the seven planets, literally "wanderers," each of which has specific
qualities that have particular resonances with all things on Earth.
20
21
HEAVENLY METAL
the magnificent seven
To the alchenust, as to the ancients, the seven planets are the celestial
forms of seven divine beings. The traditional planetary order is
based on the planets' speed against the fixed stars and was eventually
recorded by the Chaldaeans [c. 700 BC). A remarkable pattern relates
this order to the days of the week (below).
The brightest heavenly bodies are the Sun 0, the Moon), and
corresponding to gold, silver, and copper, the three native
metals found shiny and workable on Earth. Ancient metallurgy
unearthed four more pure metals; iron, tin, lead and quicksilver,
corresponding to four remaining unpaired planets. Slow moving
Saturn ) matched ponderous lead, fiery red Mars (5 ressembled
warlike iron, speedy Mercury echoed fluid quicksilver, and tin
crackled like the thunderbolts of Jupiter 4.
In seeking to refine and purify their own souls, alchemists also
discover the planets, from base) (Saturn/lead) to saintly 0 (Sun/
gold), resonating within themselves. We still use such adjectives
as saturnine, mercurial and jovial to describe peronalities that
reflect particular planetary qualities. Animals and plants also have
planetary qualities -lions are solar, unicorns are lunar, while spiky
plants are ruled by Mars, and apples by Venus.
ocn
JlUIIlflfry ) (D ) Mltl!s !J JJNie NuJn; <5 fl)
22
I
MINERALS AND PIGMENTS
the secret colors of the Art
The ancients found many practical ways of expressing planet-metal
associations, particularly in sacred art. Amongst the earliest known
pigments were the iron oxide ochres employed by palaeolithic
cave painters [c. 30o,ooo Be onward]. Early metallurgists, potters,
and glassmakers found more exquisite colors in naturally occuring
metallic ores and minerals. More recendy, the ancient Egyptians,
masters of the art of creating magnificent colors, invented the peerless
Egyptian blue (a copper silicate), the earliest known artificial pigment
and the ftrst to capture the color of the heavens (see page 4$).
The Crucifixion (opposite) by Raphael [1483-1520] is a striking
example of pigments being used in full awareness of alchemical
planet-metal correspondences, even employing the same traditional
planetary arrangement shown on the previous page.
The Sun 0 and the Moon) are rendered with gold and silver,
while Venus ~ and Mars 0 provide the copper and iron pigments for
the green robe of the angel below the Sun 0. Saturn) and Jupiter
4, in turn, supply lead-tin yellow for the garment of the angel
below the Moon ). In the middle, Christ's blood and loincloth
are painted with the quicksilver-sulphur con1pound vermilion, the
pigment color held by the Chinese to represent eternal life.
24
As ABoVE
so below
However pigments and potions are mixed, they will not be truly
alchemical unless they are made at the right moments. Timing
i ~ crucial to n1aximize planetary resonances, and this requires an
understanding of the heavenly movements.
The seven wanderers move through the twelve constellations of
the Zodiac that divide the solar year, their constantly changing
pos1tions determining a unique balance of qualities for each moment.
Internally the planets represent seven specific modes of the soul that
the alchemist must develop to progess in the Great Work, while the
Zodiac corresponds to twelve processes that the soul must cyclically
endure on the path of return to the Absolute.
In the northern hemisphere the astrological and alchemical
year begins with Aries at the spring equinox, when day and night
are of equal length. The process through spring to midsummer
then marks the ascent of the Sun, which later declines toward its
midwinter death and subsequent spring rebirth. Tied to this, the
vegetable realm, as the most immediately solar-dependent kingdom,
flourishes and recedes with the solar year, while the monthly waxing
and waning of the Moon controls its juices, drawing the sap to the
upper parts and back down to the roots. The herbal alchemist is
therefore compelled to heed the injunctions ofParacelsus that he:
". . should know the imzate nature of the Stars, their complexion and property,
as well as a physician ut1derstands the nature of a patient, and also the concordance of
the ~ t a r s , lrow they stand in relation to ... all things that grow and spritzg.from the
matnces or tlze Elements M d' h -'
11
1 e zcme zs wtt out vame if 1t LS not from Heaven.
26
SPAGYRICS
putting the djinn in the bottle
And so to potions! Spagyria is a term coined by the great Germanic
physician Paracelsus [1493-1541] from the Greek spao- to draw out;
and ageiro - to gather. It is equivalent to the alchemical dictum
"Solve et coagulaf' (dissolve the fixed and fix the volatile), and has
become a general term for the production of alchemical medicines.
Making spagyric potions is the ideal way to start getting to grips
with alchemical ideas and practice, and most of the key processes can
be carried out in the kitchen with some basic equipment. When
making a potion from a particular plant, work should begin on the
day of the week and during the planetary hour that correspond to
its planetary rulership (see pages 56-58).
For a basic spagyric tincture a herb is ground up and macerated Qeft
to steep) in warm grape brandy inside a sealed jar for two weeks. The
brandy, which already contains plant Mercury (alcohol) becomes
infused with the herb's Sulphur (essential oils). The tincture is
then filtered and the soluble Salt e painstakingly extracted from the
plant residue (see page 30 for instructions). This separates the inessential
from the essential, the subtle from the gross. Finally the 9 is added
to the and tincture, recombining the three Principles. The only
thing discarded is the insoluble plant residue.
Distillation (opposite) is key to more sophisticated spagyric work. A
plant's $ may be extracted by distilling it in water. The collects on
the surface of the distillate and is easily drawn off. can be extracted
the plant (see page 55), but is universal, the same
m all plants, any ethanol distilled to at least 96% purity will do.
28
ANGEL WATER
collecting the secret fire
is full of secret bounty. Con1mon dew is the distilled ess
ence
of Heaven and Earth, a condensation of the Universal Spirit; the
Secret Fire. The best way to collect it is to use purified plant salts
which are highly hygroscopic and absorb dew from the air. Plan:
Salt 8 is understood alchemically as a transitional substance, since it
bridges two kingdoms, in this case vegetable and mineral.
1. Bum any plallt matter to ashes, oak bark is best. 2. In a large pot add the ashes to 2o
times their volume of rai11water. J. Boil for 20 minutes to extract the water-soluble e. 4 Cool
and .filter imo a large pan. 5. Evaporate the liquid, stirring rapidly as the 8 starts to solidifY. 6.
Grind the dry 8 and heat it itr a pan. TI!is is called calcination, literally
11
making like chalk."
i- Calcine for several hours at around 500 c -}ill/ blast on a gas stove. 8. Dissolve the cooled
8 in filtered rainwater. 9. Repeat sta_ees 4 to 7 at least twice until the 8 is really wlrite. 10.
Repeat stages 1 to 9 rmtil you have at least two mps of8. 11. In the late evettittg, ideally on a
fine spn'tlg t1ight dllrillg the waxing ), spread thee out thinly itt .fiat glass or porcelain dishes.
1 z. Pliue the dis/res in at1 opetz spot outside, raised ul'11 off the ground. 13. At stmrise coiled tire
dis/res a11d pour their contents into a distillatiotrjlask, avoiditzg all contact skin or metal.
Tire e should have liquified, at least partially. 14. Gently distill qff this
11
Atzgel JMJter" until
the 8 are dry. 15. Pour into a dark glass jar atzd seal tightly. 16. Save the 8 likewise,
cat1 be 11sed cormtless times for this purpose, becomirzg increasitzgly charged with Secret Fire.
The 8 made in this way is the Sal Salis (Salt of the Salt), the Salt
proper, but there is another 8 called the Sal Sulphuris (Salt of the
Sulphur), which is extracted from the plant soup remaining after
or have been distilled. This is boiled down to a tar, burned,
ground, reduced to ashes and then extracted like the Sal Salis.
Angel Water can be used as a tonic (a few drops in water for a
bright eye and a shiny coat), saved for use in other potions, or it rnaY
be further developed by making the elegant Archaeus l!(Water.
30
If ructnLs r ~ 'E4rt6 to Ht4vtn 4ni lescenls "J4in to E4rt6J CqmfininJ t6t fDWtr qf 46ovt 4ni 6efDW.
31
ARCHAEUS OF WATER
fractional distillation
To master the art of distillation takes considerable care and expenence.
Alchemists such as Hieronymus Brunschwygk f145o-I5I3] and john
French (I6I6-1657] devoted great tomes to the subject. Distillation
is a rotation of Elements - a fluid is heated to evaporation point,
becoming a gas that recondenses back to fluid upon contact with a
cool surface. To assemble a distillation train, procure a borosilicate
glass distillation flask, a simple condenser and a glass receiving vessel
(see page 29). For a rapid distillation, direct heat can be applied to
the distillation flask; for more gende distillations place the flask in a
water bath, heating from below; for hotter distillations at a constant
temperature use an ash or sand bath.
The alchemist knows many types ofWater - elemental Water,
Chaotic Water (hyle), and various other substances, mysteriously
described as "Our Water." Even common water is not JUSt one
thing, it is a fluid of subtle variety, the only liquid that expands upon
freezing, with vital magnetic and mediating properties.
Angel Water can be used to prepare a potion known as the Archaeus
of lMlter, the method for which uses fractional distillation to separate
water into twelve Philosophical parts (shown opposite). A few drops
will enliven any other water used for purposes such as fermentation.
Each of the twelve waters, prior to their recombination, is suited to
different purposes - for example through repeated distillations one
water can be made sharp enough to act on metals.
Distilling volatile fluids can be explosively dangerous. Many an
alchemist's kitchen has been reduced to ashes. Protect yourselfl
32
PRIMUM ENS
salt volatilization
Having mastered the art of distillation, and the extraction of salts
I
the potion-maker may be ready to attempt a superlative spagyric
potion, much revered by Paracelsus, and called by him the Primum
Ens (First Being). The profound integration and 9 acheived
by this process raises a plant to the same resonance as its spiritual
blueprint, maximizing its healing potential.
Mattria: 1. Pure plant Merrury (etJumol), made by carefully distilling brandy seven or
eight times (Spirit ojWint), or alternatively bought commercially (Ideally made from grapes).
2. Plant (essential oii,Jor txample rosemary) - we can txtraa this ourselves (see
page 28) or it can also be bought from a good sourrt. J. Salt e from tht same plant (see page
30). Method: 1. Decant 150 ml into a 50oml retort with a vent at the top. 2. Little
by little, via the vent, add Jog of pure dry e from the same plant as J. Gradll4lly heat
the retort in a sand bath to a very gentle simmer, so that it distills over gently into a fouk. You
should notict after a while a delicate
11
snoufall" of tiny particles over the simmering oil. TIIis
gradUQ/Jy incrwts, rising to the thi'OQt of tht retort and frosting the glass. This is a spagyric
wondtr, the Volatilization of Salt. 4 When the residut tums to a honey-like consistency halt
the distillation. 5. Rttum tht to the retort and distill again. This time the will wash
thee down into the receiving flask. 6. Distill again and thee will again frost the throat of
the retort. J. Clean the retort with turpentine and allow to dry. 8. Distill again, adding 150
ml pure All the 9 will come over, combintd with
This recipe, like many others in alchemy, can defeat even the
experienced chymist (hermetic chemist), unless he or she attends
closely to every single part of the process - traditionally, secret recipes
were deliberately confused to foil the unworthy. A teacher can help,
but these days adepts are thin on the ground. However, if you do find
yourself becoming frustrated, remember the alchemical adage "when
the student is ready, the master will appear."
34
35
CIRCULATUM MINUS
the lesser work
The Circulatum J\1.itzus represents the culmination of plant alchemy
and is a very tricky potion indeed, mastered by only a handful of
people since the method was first published in London by Baron
Urbigerus in 1690 (a summary of the method is given on the right). Its
name means Lesser Circulation, the Greater Circulation being the
Philosopher's Stone itself (circulation is simply a gentle distillation
in a closed vessel, achieved when the temperature inside the vessel is
just enough for a continuous evaporation and recondensation).
The Lesser Circulation actually involves digestion and distillation
rather than a circulation, suggesting instead a mysterious exaltation
of the materia similar to the Stone. Great patience is required, and
purity is of the essence; the matter must remain uncontaminated.
If successful the Circulatum should have a peculiar penetrating
odor and a sharp corrosive taste. The test is as follows: Cut up
fresh green leaves from an aromatic herb like mint and immerse
them in the matter. The liquid will cloud as tiny drops of oil form
and rise to the surface. Eventually the exhausted dregs fall to the
bottom. The oil contains the combined Principles of the plant.
This oil can be separated and the remaining Circulatum redistilled
from the vessel and stored for future use.
Whoever masters this process can truly be called an alchemist.
36
Mri: C1& f'4tl Prin&ifo rf" font- e, ( .MiiucJ (kmon 64m) tw'*s wJ[ 6ut 6s ry attU CllniiiCI or (g<
,n-.. 1. imbibe e wit{, rF rf ""'6akn una it is fco1mt/ just to & JOint rf wdJitit
2. JJ/ Gttft mm Cu&.. 3- fst 40 c in "foss jm; cqvmJ it rAII.sti[ 4- 9 or 10 timt:s"
"' wili , mm m4iMiin J4llll rU e J,JJft .ru; S4tJmiJ #r
/;wt four wetis ""'r.w lwrtvti to "M k s- All six to+ (ilfl(f vcCumt rf rm 6. Sl4! 40 ,.for
g ku &II Jfim, .Jl\lt7li timt:s ? wfxn II cbtnt rf U blu 6ttn o&rJ 'IIU{ 8 Uti "Jt#IRIICt,
11 _,. W, emf tf,.rt CX>Ifl(f IM'Ij ntJt & 8. cc6o&!tz (i.e. retrlrn fD itt jJJ mul
mG.s6[[ At 6ejm .for" tDm! rf .srvm timt:s. 9- Distill une mul you ,. &not itt Lciltr wqr{, rf
37
FROM MINOR TO MAJOR
transformation to transmutation
Having reached the pinnacle of the plant work, the alchemist is ready
to proceed further. While the Circulatum Minus effects an apparently
miraculous transformation, the Greater Circulation is said to go one
step beyond, actually transmutit1g elemental metals into gold.
The accounts of respected, and previously sceptical, authorities,
such as scientist Van Helmont [I58o-I644] and 17th century physician
Helvetius, describe their incredulity as they witnessed and then
personally performed transmutations of base metal into gold using
a powder of projection, produced by mysterious strangers who sought
them out and then vanished. In the case of the legendary French
alchemist Nicolas Ramel [133D- I418],it was the chance purchase of a
strange and ancient book that ultimately lead to his discovery of the
Stone, and the attainment of fabulous wealth and immortality.
But how can such things be possible? The enigmatic adept
Fulcanelli may shed some light on the process, as quoted by Jacques
Bergier, a French nuclear physicist who met him in 1937:
"There is a way of manipulatitrg matter atrd etrergy so as to create what modern
scitnee calls a force-field. This force-field acts upon the observer and puts him in a
privileged position in relation to the universe. From this privileged position, lie has
aatss to realities which are normally concealed from us by time and space, matter and
energy. This is what we call the Great J.t&rk."
Common language cannot adequately descibe such things. To
approach an understanding we must identifY entirely with the
alchemical perspective, while in order to move from the speculative
to the operative we must also identify entirely with the materia itsel
In alchemy the empathic participation of the alchemist is key.
38
p
39
Orus MAGNUM
paradise regained
The goal of the Great Work is nothing less than t11Uon with the
Absolute. Before this process can even begin, however, the lower
reconciliation of spirit and soul must take place, requiring the total
capitulation of the lower self. The Work begins when the traveler has
reached the end of his tether, and realizes that there can be no further
progress away from the Source. The alchemist is on his own.
Freed from association with a false identity, spirit and soul can
embrace. The purified Sulphur and Mercury must now marry
and give issue to the hermaphroditic child, a process known as the
"Work of the Sun." Hennetically sealed in a glass egg from now
on, the crucial matter, freed from all inessentials, is incubated in
seclusion (symbolized by the first flAsk in the emblem series opposite).
The union of soul and spirit results in the conception of a new
being embodying both principles, which is then subsumed by the
appearance of the Crow's Head, signalling the Nigredo, the awful
black phase when all seems lost. Hopefully the matter begins to
lighten, but then a separation takes place and all appears to volatilize,
rising and falling like goose down. From these ashes springs new life;
the three flowers in the bottom left flask symbolizing the purified
Tria Prima - the Body too has been resurrected.
It all sounds so easy, but the majority of alchemists never succeed in
even reaching this point, having started with the wrong material.
40
of t6t
runfo! Pri:ncipCts.
Tbt 6e4l
f""n]P.Cti4n.
Tbe fixe/ is vo(4/i(k:el
.ftm4Ct llfsons m4Ct.
Tbe 6eal wblttntl
fy t6e mie.
Tbe w6itt E(ixi1)
first ltJrtl if te!ftction.
41
CowR.c<UtsrrNus
(ftm4Ct 4nl m4Ct unjfy.
A 6eaveny 6Cfll 4f!t4rs.
T6c 6cal souC
S'f4T4tinJ]rom 6o'IJ.
Tbe Rt/ E(ixifj
te!ftct flxi!Y
T6e 6k t4rt6 4!/t4rs
wit6in t6e 6CUl.
T6e
tomtCttt S'f4TtWn.
Proj"tion "UJ"''"ts
tbe f""'" of tbt :,tone.
LAPIS PHILOSOPHORUM
the Philosopher's Stone
Key to the elaboration of the Stone is the Prima Materia wh
'd . . th f , ose
1 entity IS e greatest secret o alchemy. This primordial matter is in
all created things, but there is only one substance from wluch it can
be drawn out and purified. What is this One Thing or primum agens?
In the anoem texts the adepts answer only in riddles. "It is a stone
that lS not a stone," " ... it 1s thrown into the street by servant maids
,
children play with it, yet no one prizes it..." As common as dirt, it
is everywhere to be found and is everywhere "esteemed the vilest
and meanest of earthly things." If this thing is identified the Prima
Materia can be released from its fetters, the subtle separated from the
gross, whereupon the Philosophic Mercury comes forth - and the
rest of the process is "women's work and child's play."
The Work begins with the uruon of the liberated Principles (previo11.s
p a . ~ e ) . By applying heat "gently and with great ingenuity" we allow
Nature to take its course. The progress of the Work is observed
according to the colors that the matter displays. If the Nigredo is
survived there should be a yellow dawn followed by a peacock's display
of colors that heralds the white Albedo stage, the arrival of the White
Queen, the White L10n, or the swan, the Elixir that transmutes to
silver and confers immortality if ingested. The subsequent reddening
of the matter is the Rubedo, the triumphal arrival of the Red Kmg.
the phoerux. This is the Philosopher's Stone, a weighty, glistening.
waxy powder that acts as a universal medicine in all three kingdonlS
and, when digested with gold, becomes the Powder ofProjection that
transmutes a thousandfold its weight of molten metal into gold.
42
THE PHILOSOPHERS' STONE .....
11
1Jqr 4((, ~ t i n pI s6im."
TIU MACROCOSM
MAN, THE MICROCOSM
THE DIVINE
43
GoiNG FOR GoLo
onwards and upwards
This book can only serve as an introduction to alchemy. Making
alchemical potions requires a solid grounding in herbalism and
a.<;trology, as well as a good grasp of alchemical principles. Actually
using such potions responsibly and effectively is a different matter.
Many spagyrists are not physicians and leave the prescribing of therr
remedies to the discretion of the medical practitioners they supply.
An effective way to use spagyrics as part of one's own process is to
make a potion for each day of the week using safe herbs corresponding
to the planet in question (see page 56). A couple of drops of a Sun
potion on a Sunday, a Moon potion on a Monday and so on helps
tone and harmonize the inner cosmos.
If your appetite has been whetted, and you fmd yourself rolling
up your sleeves in excitement, do be prepared for many frustrations
and even disasters along the way. Mercuri us, as we have warned, can
be a very tricky guide, punishing complacency, overeagerness, and
carelessness. For those who proceed with sufficient care, however,
the rewards are incomparable. If you let yourself be guided by the
alchemical dictum" ora, lege, lege, relege, et labora!"- pray, read, read,
read, reread, and work! - the glory of the world may be yours.
"Becwem eremal birth, resurrection from rhefall and rhe disnwcry of the
Stone, tlrere is no difference." Jacob Boelrme, shoemaker am/mystic. [1575-1624}.
44
45
APPENDIXES - BASIC M ETALLURGY
From sunple bc:gllllll.'l&' m around 600 oc to the end of the
lhlttecllth ccntut\ mcullurm onh me St.'\'CI1 II1Ctm ci
:anuqwo plld. copper 1r00. un,lod and quid:sihu
be If produced at tcmpemures of 01er IJOO'c.
srucltl'rl tmn w.l'> :1 OJ ;b. I mtxl'd 11 ith waste l1UI
heated and hammered 10 opel tht' sbg and then for&ed_ ""'
0
GOLD melting point 1064'C) IS hishJ> m31le:lble, :and IS iJ LEAD (mdung pomt ).n'C) is h1ghfy duCtile and
thus ras:.\ v.uktd Gold l'i fuund in IU!J\1: Corm m depoms .t'ld doo not rormde It is n01 found m but it,
th:n an be rnt:.cd U1lere lhcsc depo<tts crOOed gm'l:!ly ..N:JtrJ"- sulphide on: g:denl appetrs l'el)' mtt.1llic GalenJ ca.'l easil) bt
stre211l beds an be found bc:lri:l.; pm."'IUSh rare gold proco'!Cd to pure lead, and lhti could 1J11:
Earl) gold :anc!acts often lui\: M'CI' "impuntic::'l" In a c.lfllp lire, in whith moltc:n le.ld 11oukl collect at till:
:and the a. 'lCICtiU named the a!lo) of gold and silver bottom. nus lS 3 kc)' to 2 centr.d mlt.1llurglal

the
lliCTRIJ M Gold an be from the n:ducuon of 211 ore must be JOCOmpanied by 2
10
usmg CIJaNTA'IlON a hqukJ that all<w.S the meul to flov. Olllt!<.cpm:dl'Oil!
v.11h rommon 5Jll atm.'cd the \'1:1' to foon a ..oluhlc the sull solid \\-'3.\tC material, or Stmgue.
chloride th21 u.'2Shcd n.-. Aqua (w page 5Q)
an :also be used 10 sc:pmte Sill'tr from s..'Oid as 11 ani}
diooM:s the former
) SILVER (mcltir1g pomt 962'C) only to f\0111
Ill ductWl}' and aull'dlilin and like gold IS CISI'l}' 'IIIOrked
Sth'tf OCt'lln tn nati\T l'orm. but ICI)' r.rrely H V.l0 laiTll'ih and
hlrlen v."hen cxpcR'd to sulphur or hrdrogcn tn 1he
m The lead ores*m2lto.'Jl'5C:OOt.ams somcsih'CI'. If the lead h
hdttd 10 25h, bnunz lead aode. a ,nu!J bead rl rc:m3J!lS.
If a audble nude fran bon ' . -.ed 11 will ..;ort thelcad
oodc This knov.r .1 CIJPPELLATION 1\J.' the
mlln means o! sih'tf producr r !tnnfL
COP PElt (melting pottU Ire;' C) IS nWlc:lblc and duailc It
11.a; the first meW to be widely made mto and tools,
f'rom around 60CO BC onv.'31'd Copper first \\orkcd bJ a
simlbr V.:J}' 10 but If h:unmcrcd repeatedly 1t becomea
brittle. lllis Clll be n:medied by ANNEALING,
helung to make tht' ml'IJl glo11, by
slo\\ adtf11: The c:arlie5t smelted roppt:r anebas
appeare131'0Ulld 4oo:J BC. Gn:c:n malachite was the
copper ore l"lJiy '>llldters. It is that
maladute placai tn poot:rs kilns, tempcmture.
o( and iooning copper
the initial ut'p!!'3ll011 for smelting.
0 fltON lmt:lung poou 1538 C) ls the most common metal on
Earth, but is almost Jl(\'Cf found m It was found by
the ancients In lhc rom of meteors, which V.'Cre uutiall; V.'Orkl'd
like ston: iron Ilia)' been :w.ubhle e:lrf) a,,
around
2
'
00
BC but wa:. n01 common unul OH:r a millcnmum
!Jter Iron ore !!> eascy lt.EDUCED by hut on only
46
4 TIN (melung pou11 232 C) b r01 found m native
form. It is malle:lblc and doolle and qwte
10
cormson. Tin objects date from around 2rnl BC, and
u was by reduCtion wuh charcoal. Initial!) tin
\\JS thought to be a lOOn of lead. EJrlycopperillldtm
tfucoo.'CI'Cd that mixing dffcrc:nt ores produced an ea,ief b111g
stronger metal thiS metal was T1n hghly
trucrure mc;aru dut \\hen deformed n 8JVCS an Oj
or mct'CUI}' (mcltmg pomt 39'C) b the
only metal that is liquid at room tempcr.uure. E<lrly punficum
techniques induded S(jUl'tmng it through leather. It IS highly
pruonous Jnd hJs long lx.'t."ll knotln ludt E.ltr.laJOO cJ
from ores 4\ cinrubar is
t'.lml-d out by 'incc mercul) compounds dc:I.'Om)JOie
and 1ulatih1e at moderate tcmpcr:11ures. Quicic.tlltr
W1IJ dbsoil't' and a.'\d Ulb plll(CSS cJ
AMALGAMATION \\3.\ often used
metab fmm tmpuntics.
Pour \llhet metJb \\ere diSlUil'fCd tn the mtddlc
ARSENlC was di)C()Vt:red by Allettus MlgOIJ)
(1193-121!0) when he h1.::ued ar..entOUS a<ide
\\llh [lliKC liS \Ieight of soap. ANTIMONY
was formed b\ roo.sting tihium :antimon) IUiphtde.
tn an 11'01'1 pot !IlMUTH I\ produced at the end of the J61h
rcntury by rt'(lucmg the oxtdc wtth charcoal wa:. knol'l1l
m China around I -tOO. It too \V:b reduced !rom ttS oxJde u;lll8
charcoal. In the late 18th C zmc va:. added to liquid copper ID
make the fir..t Jlt.US In the nC'IIo world PLATINUM v..s
by prc-Cnlumbtan Natile Americaru., only becoming knOwn
to Ill the century.
CERAMICS AND GLAss
brov.liS, copper Olide fat 3lld turquoises, cobalt oxide
for blues, and m3llganese dloxlde for lilac, purple and brown.
IS
2
suh.wlce formed by the gradual
a.J.Y of IIUil(l".ili such as feldspar to give minute panicles of
::;a silic:.aiPS mr<ed v.ith water and 01her compounds. The
wund 8C that heated to !ugh temperaturo is a suoog, hard wearing, lnen, biolqpcilly inactive, and
bci:Ome and wong is one of the turning ol course material. It is made pnmanly from silicl
manl.:xfHton Fired m a kiln at temperatUI'(::) between (silicon dia.ude), the most abundant mineral on Earth. Normal
and 1200'C cby remainS slightly porous and b koown aolids have regular molecular structures, however, many
as FIMg at higher temperatures CIUSCS the day lllllabb if cooled quickly assume 2 solid
w ,ilnf), produang stofltu'<lrt Pon:ebm Is a tine saucture a glass m the general sense. SiiiC."::IS one ri the
me bcxly fired 10 \ltnlic:mon to become tranSiuscent. few materials that forms a glass at llOITllal coolmg r.ues
I'J'f'OI"'etnl cones, v.nidl melt at different degrees Pure silica has a melting pomt of 1723 c. To redU<.-e
ti hell Borboon, m: often used to measure firi ng this melting pointto about UXX> C scxb ash or potash
cycles and djpul thermometers are also popular. It is is added, and lime l\ added to counter lhe solubility
t;o 10 judge kiln tanperature b\c the color d that soda ash or pcnsh cause in The mix
0c: !dCJiq ceramic (the temperature of metals C2ll is then heated in a luln at about nooc unul fused.
Jho be CSOJIU!ed from this list) Other ingredients sometimes used are lead ), \Vhlch
impans more bnll1311Ce, and boron that improo.'tS the
Lowest \'imlc red 10 dark red
om red 10 cherty red
Chen) red to bnght cherry red
Bnght cherry red 10 orange
Orange 10 !t:llovo
Ycb 10 light )tiliw
-4-o.osoc
650-750'C
750-800'C
IJ00.900'C
900-llOO'C

01) can be foll'llCd by hand and v.ith simple tools, by
tui'!UI13un a pooers wheel or by pouMgslip (a mixture ol cby
md "22ee' 1 IIllO a mould. Once formed the clay a.!Joy,ed to dry,
:after illS known and tS very bnulc It ClUl be
fnd unglmd 111 a "btscun finng. ' and then fired a second time
"llh an 2pplation of glaze, or it an be fired in one cycle
"ith or without an application ri dry gbze
Gbzc. "bm fired, melts 10 fotm a hard glassy
II C2tthenware \esseb tO hold
liquids Mixed from finely ground mgedlentS
an be applied b) dusting onto the dav
OOica. or by maing v.lth "'ater to
poured on, or dipped into. Glazes art a spt:eialized
: combinmg sdta, alumina to mcreasc viscosity when
a Hux to lmer the melting pomt. Lead *> glue. use
lllait 'lf> a Hux. pcxash or other alkaline Huxes
. gl;azes whkh often form crazing J1'lltem5 of fine
thq enol as tin 4 oxide, are also used.
the Clln be wnh the glaze itself, painted
before glazing (underglaze) or on top o( the
). Example. mclude; iron o oxide for21llbc:rs and
47
thermal properues lllodul fat labw2re
Glass normally has a green tinge from iron o impunhes, but an
entire rainbow of colors C3ll be made using different meuls.
Meullie gold 0 in small concentratiOns produces a rub) glass.
Silver ) compounds produce colors from orange-red to yello9..
Adding more tron makes a monger green. Copper oxide
produces a turquoi..o;e color, whtlc metallic copper produces
a very dark opaque red. CoOOlt makes blue glass. Manganese
ClUl be added Cor an ameth}'SI color Tm 4 o.'dde together \\ith
antimony and arsenic oxides makes opaque whue glass.
Glass was first manufactured around 2500 BC. The Ancient
Egyptians made small jars and bottles by winding
continuously heated glass threac.b around a bag
of sand on a rod. Glass blov.mg was diSCO\'ered
in the first millennium 8C and enabled the
quick production of large leakproof vessels
Glassblowing three fu!Tl3(tS one for
the molten gla.o;s, a seoood for reheating the
piece being worked on as and a
third for annealing, i.e., cooling the glass slowly enough
to avoid cracking and reduce stresses. A$ well as the blowpipe.
toob used in gJasslllcl\\108 include shaping block:.. an tron rod
lla
.....MI.o< nr;eezers and shears.
known as a JXW)', l t-""'"' formed by
Intricate glassware ideal for an alchemical lab can be bes and
heating, manipulating, and joining preformed rods, tu
simple blown vessels using a.lrohol bmps, or nowacby:. propane
or 01}-gen flames
ARTISTS' PIGMENTS
PJGJLENT.S mW>t be albO!uble and rea.'>(mabl} hghtIJ,.,t Tht.'}
m prepam:l bl grinding linch anto a pl.ste 1\llh a hule
v.'alcr W>tng :1 gl<L\S muller on J glas.s surfafe (if coarse, gnnd 10 a
potle and mortar first ). For oil p31ntll\C oil of water
0 GOLD hammm'd lea) to make gold lc:af can be
applied to most surf:lres It can be made from leaf 1nto a pa.int
v.11h gum arnb1c or gdaonc:, often aik:d shell gold )
.Sil VElt like gold can be .1pplied ti leaf or made mto
:a paint but u r.mushes 111 umc 11.1th e<posure to air.
COPPEll ores mabl:hirc (green) and azunre
(blurJ make good prgmmts, linerlht1
:are ground the paler their color. Pouring together
strong solutiOI\S oC blue vitnol (ropper sulphate)
and sodl 2Sh (sodium carlxmale) preap1Ule5 311
aruficiaJ malachne Verdigns IS copper acetale, soluble
111 w21er or alcohol for use, 1t can also be dissoiYed 10
111 iuch ca-.e 11 v.illrum br'own 1n arr If not varnished. It Colli be
grm.n as a crust on copper stnrs m a mason 131' v.1th
''llltp' 2l the houom. ldt in a wann pbt:e The oldest known
artilicial ptgmenlls Egypti;u1 blue. acopperstlicale By dry weight:
mlx 10 rmts limcsrone (willting} With II rmts malachite and 24
pans quartz Grind rhOfUUghly to homogenu.e Add a flux of soda
ash or potash, hot to around 900"C then keep at for at
leas! I 0 hours Cool and grind for pigment o Ill ON Red ochre,
veUov. ochre m 5ien113 and m umber m all 1ron oxides, the
latter !'lo'O :are also weD koolln an "burnt" forms made by l'aldning
the rdv. Natural green tanh !J1811lents conwn 11011 sillcaw
Manm3de tr011 alddts :are also useful Jlll!lllt'lllS ranging
to reds to bi'O!>.ru
red ore nllll2W, mercuric
sulpbide. makes a line ptgtnmt Yt1Tni.bon IS
anilidal cinnm made blllllXIng together molten
sulphur and quidsilvn' to furm black nreromc
su/pbide. He2led In a suitable dosed eatthenw'3re
vessel !1m sublinwes to fonn red merc/J1'1c sulphide,
chemically the same ('(Jllpound but uansformed in ro1or
0o not II)' thiS at honle. qUick.siJver 1.'> htghfv !OXIC
) LEAD pegmenrs are toxic. Minium IS lead oxide, a bnght
orange, made by prolonged hlj!h heaung
ci lead Ill air WHITE LEAD is lerJd carlxmale. Pbre lead
strips Ill earthenware jar.i -ith a bnle wine mqar and digest
somewhere warm some month5 a NUst of white lead
48
should ha1e formt-d 4 TIN. Now raren leackm
(lead stamJOII!) range; from a light lemon ydlo-A to
pmktsh rolor MIX 3 pans m1mum thoroughly wnh
1
pan
a-ode PJ.ss through a I'Cf)' line mesh to hdp
mrx. Heat to 600"C, ketp atthL'> tempenaure for 2 l'Kxrrs
hear fu11her, and keep at 800"C for another hour QQ
COBALT IS the mgredJent 1n smalt, a blue gta.;
powdt.'f' Heat quanz and a potash flux 111rh moo!
coba/1 oxide to make an op;1qt1e blue g1a.u
10
II SO C to fuse RciTIO\'C hoc md
mto told water to break up before gnndmg 1nro
pigment Cobalt blue, di\tUien:d in cnba!J
alumlnaJe. Grind I pall coballchlcnde211d5paru
aluminium cblorlde and heat for 5 mmutes 111 a
lt:Sl tube oYt.'f' a strong g25 llamt ANTIXONY
1.'> used 1n Sa pies )dow, an arulictaJ lead antrmooate
tlw dates back to Anoent Egypt. made by C2luning a lead
compound with an anumony compound. ULTRAJLUIN.E
1.'> prepared from lapis lazuli Spnnkle lind\ ground bptl
lazuli with lin.o;eed oil. M;&ke a p35te from equal parts of c:anmila
wax, pme and colophon). Add one sateenth pan bructd
oil, one qua11er pall rurpenune and 1 he same of masoc Mtx 4
pallS of th1s pas!e With I of the lapis bzuh and digest fiX a month.
the mixture tn "''3JTI'I wa:er umilthe blue parudes separ11e
and seule. Vltramanne W3.$lirst synthesized 111 1828
LAD pigments are made frtm organk soul\es such as madder
(n:d). unnpe buckthorn berries ()1!1lol'. ), npe buckthool
bemes (Breen) aro cochineal beetles (crmen).
MIX a saturated soluuon of pou.'h and gnnd 2!ld
mash the sourre maner in 11 until no more color
comes out. Mill6 SJXlOIU of alum v.1th half a Jlllll
of warm wtcr for each pint of colored poush
MJIUtKJJl. Pour Ill the alum solution 10 rreop1utt
ptgment ln.,olulk INDIGO powder can I))CI!
as a pigment. The Maya m:ldc a fine artilil:ul blue Ill
he'JIIOg a ml't of and palygor5ltite cia) 2!XfC
for about S hours IS su1tahle
lONE 11AC1 Boil animal bono (chlCken bones art
good) unril rar free Wrap tightly rn alumimum foil and hc3l
the package m a strong gas llamc: for an hour UOIIT"JP
and grind for pigment LAJlP JLAClt L\ rarix!ll
bv plaong a metal sutflce ovc:r a lamp flame 'udc:d
pamring 1ts fineness makes It ideal for mk
A RTISTS' M EDIA
of and a binder. GU.M AllAIIC is
II
2
used to make WATEltCOlDU,
Crush

11
chalk added. GOUACHE.
rt allh .an t+-- "- 3dd IWice their volume
of -,nlil.: w a u..- I"""-
P" w dissOf'.e. To reduce briltJcness add a small
sugar Mix 1 pan gum arabic soultion with 2
;::' pPIIl ,-em W3IC1' (all pans are by volume).
._ TIJ(POA 1:5 a vet}' long IZiling medium.
Gtnd! lht "hlle from the )Uik lhen roll
&on palm to palm until dry. Hold the yolk
acnbanc 00.-nr.anl and pinch to releze the
ipti!IIO a YC!5$Cl .we the membrane.
Nil 11xs dnh equal pans of W2ler or white wine
mqpr wllh pgrnenl pZitC. GLAJll is made
nh cg wbit and 15 ide2J for ddJare illummalion
.at oo i*dIICIIL llc2t egg white until the foam is dry. The
ipd the bonom of the l'eSSCI 15 glair.
.51U ll Jllf ('()llq rh3r fill5 or coats a sur&ce to prorea and
JnPR JU the next layer. :aAIIJT .uiN GUJE, a specific
rypr d anlnal glue (srr /XII(t 5l), is an cxcellc:m size and an also
be used as dnqmcdium miled dira11ywilh water based
JllCIII paste. Soak I pan rabbit skin glue in 18 pans water until
!hen Ia smdY (llhout boiling) in a double boiler
lid dmMtd WDN. dc:rM.-d from milk. is a size thai an
mo be tacd as a quid drying wugh paint medium. Sift 2
J*U porodcred casein UllO 8 pans water and ren'lOYe
bt .!lllnng. Add I pan anrnroniwrt
m ab 10 stand for half an hour. then add 8 pans
d._, .\T.UQf is another size; stir 1 pan srarch
IJOIIdcr no 3 l*U rold Yr'akr w bm a p151e then
blr no 3 pans boiling water When the
ldubon .!laiU to dear it from the heal To
:-<Llu!c uh "'Xer 'lLVf GUll, extracted from
the .skin or bones in water, 15 a good
sa.e (Q- use on
OIL JIAQrr .
ilstn...1JOI\\
15
SUIJXisintll) 10 maJre. follow the
OIL for grinding pigmeru, using
If are OIL, or POppy OIL, and it is ready for use.
P1int oil Iindy ground one can work them lllto
b!t harden through usmg a palette knife. Oil paints do llOl dly
their reaction, gMng Oil painlti'S time to
bJad ltpainhngs. Ochres Speed the Oil's "drying,"
do.n. The craft oC Oil painting rests on
49
lllZ!enng the me of the many resins and spiriu Milable The
following recipes are just a laSle of the posslbililJCs. UllllOsl care
mUSt be taken usang volatile and flammable materials.
VA.llNI.SifD prort Oil CYerl If a glauy finiVl is
not desired It is still best to apply one (after the palming has
completely dried), and then use a wax linhh. ooen
very similar to varrushe$, are used to thin paint to apply a
Yeil oC rolor while keeping it strong enough to adhere .
. The traditional rule is to paint "&I OYer Jean; each
successive layer having less pigmml and mere
Oils and resins. llAJUll comes in pale
ydlow lumps. Mixing equal parts in JIUU GU.M
.sPmm M TIJ'DEN"l''NE (hcrafter jll5t
"lurpenllne') and daily Wltil the resin is
dissolved makes a good Y1lr11i5h thai doubles as a glazr.
.MA.\TJC makes a good Y1lr11i5h mixed and heated with IWice
its Wllume oC turpeOOnc:. For a thin high gloss varnish mix 1 pan
VEND TUDENTINI <X" CANADA J.AI SA II( with
2 of turpentine. A good sweet smelling vatnm! for siZed and
sealed wood is 3 pans venice turpentine and 1 pan OIL M
warmed tqjelher to blend. A IQiiJl
vamls!JQ arc: hard and vers.lle, serving as palllling media,
final varnishes, or z fix3liYC5 when thinned Nowadays they
are made with COPAI. 11 a subslirute crush I pan of the copal
resin to powder and bonle wilh 4 pans benzene urull nearly
dissolved, then mix with 3 pans turpenline and heat
gendy to fuUy dmohoe. If this W3l11l solution is left
unsealed the benzene will ewporaae to leave a copal
and turpentine varnish. A good wax linBh 10 miuce
gloss on a vambhcd painling is I pan beeswax to 3
J*tS. 'IIXA'l'IVI.S, used 10 fix piAment in place,
are essenllal to the preseMiion of drawings in
charcoal, chalk and pasrd. Mix 1 pan ftr r It
with 50 putS methyl alcohol To use place the
picture on the floor and blow the fixative vapor just
above It to give an even coat
ENtAI191'IC uses beeswax as a medium. c.efully
heal I pan beeswax and 3 pans turpenllne until the wax has
melted, then stir while cooling. Grind piSments thorouahiY into
the wax before applying with a bruVI 01 palerte knife. Another
recipe uses equal pans of sdt deml resin, beeswax. oil of spike
lavender and turpentine. ftUCO is the specialized technique
of painting directly on lime plasler. Mix Jlme.proof piBn.etiiS to
pasae with warer and plitU dlrcctly onto fresh plaster.
ALCHEMICAL CHEMISTRY
MINERAL ACIDS are morg:miC aolh derived from chemical
mcuons The d!SOO\enes of Jllthree bdo"' arc attribuu:d
toJab1r Ibn lbyyan (8th q, Aqua Rt'gia NEVER add 1vater
to an a1.1d, the rt'3<lion can generate con'!dcmblt: ht'3t and may
boll and )pat d.uw:rous y. Al\X'.\YS add acids to water.
OlL M VITRlOL l'rom the n;une Zd)'llliZfl) grven Jt by
J3hir Ibn lil}1dll, IS be:ter lcnot.n to lb as StJtli'HOmt
ACID It v;:zs mgin31l} dxaint:d b) de) distillation
of green 1ilnol (b)'tirotzS mm sulp/xlle) or blue
11triol (b)'drous roppcr sulplxue). '\Then heated
the5e decompose to erodes. gh1ng cJf \\31l'l'
andszdpburtrladde, which in tum combine
as a dJ.Iute solution of sulphunc acid
TI1e alchemist Johann Glauber (17th C)
prcp:ll'ed u by burrung sulphur 1\lth saltpeter __ ..
in the presence of 5h .. 'JITI. The .Yitpeter
decomposes and crodizes the sulphur to
gl\t: sulphur mo.tide, which romhino 11ith watt'!' to produce
sulphunc acid A later tdinemenl of this process heats uon P)11te
mill' to form anb)drous 11011 sulpba!e Heating to 48o'C,
bre2ks down to gl\"e 11011 oxide and sulphur trio:cide gas. Thi.s
g:r; Clll1 be passed through water to produce sulphunc acid of
desired ronccntr:llion. The diagram shows rwoW3)'S an one
em Pf'e\'Cll the w:ilt.'l' "sucking balk" .IS this gJS di5SOIICS.
NITRIC ACID nganallv known a' 'ZORru (strong
water) or SPOUT M NITRE 1\<b liN pn:pa1cd b1 di)tilhng
gm:n 1itriol (1,. " flllpnate) 'Aith saltpeter :md alum. 1he
folfov.'lll!( n:ethod IS bao;cd on the one used hy Glauber.
Appnnilllllely equal part\ by u.eigfu of C01lfr'nlrattlJ
oil of 11triol and are pi3Ced 111 rcton
Ileal rr.e mon mel brownish red fumes appe:tr
.... flich Cl/1 be condcnsc:l Ill 3 cooled rectc\'et lO
a brov.nliquid Further purification by distilbtions
reduces the coiOf31ioo from 1mpunues to gl\t: a
fwmng aqu.t fonLs
SPIRIT M SALT, or HYDROCHLORIC .ACID
Is lll3dc b) re:1a111g common \.ll1 " 1t!, od , f \ nn .. l
(rulpburlc add) prodllcilg SAL MIRABlLIS (sod:um
ndpbate) and highly dangeorus, 3Cidic b)virogen chlfJrlde
gas. If the 011 of vitriol is high!) conctntr.Ued the gas produced
Cl/1 be Jl3.SSed through V.'altr to make a soluuon of the spuu of
salt The top diagram two 'A'a)'S an 'Aiuch one Clll1 pm'Cnt
the water "sucking b3ck" as the gas di-.;ol\'es. If the mlpbunc
50
acid is then Mme of th! gas produced 11.1U
bydrocbloric ac1d With the water in !he b)drochlori,
aetd the goolt'Xl't':I.S salt lx: used, the resulting SOiuiJln
can be distillt:d to gave aqueous bydrochloric acrd, wnh
some bydrQR!!n c.blonde 8lb txJiled off first, and maxed cumrr!:
s.tlt and );If left an the If occ:ss
sulphuric acid I) used, the solullOn once dUIIIJcd
off of sal
RIGIA, !nerally royal 11.11er, IS 011:
of the f1:11 able tO
plaunum It is a mi.wreof aqua (Oitl$ tllllTIC
id) and 5pltlt of salt (bydrrxhlorlc acid). Bel
result:. arc ohrained using aoili 10 the
ratio l:j by mlumc Aqua Regia Joo:,es II) elft'Ctlll!!le55
so mix afresh for each use.
.ALKALIS, from the Arabic cd-qa/1
the slll\\ort pl30t), arc <;llts of metals such as sodzwn poltl.sslU1II
and caldum tlul fonn biller, Cllbtic, sbppery solutm fth
Water . art a )UhCltegot) of bases.
LI.M.E or L'> calCium oxide prepared b) Clldnlng
hmotonc to a wmpcr.11un: d around 900 C (dWk IS a soil
poroo) form or hme.wne) ThiS hme-bummg 1\'35 pr.lctll'ed
by the anCients for the producl!Oil of lime monar M-AUD
LIME lime that has been )'akoo with to form alkaline
caluum hrdmxidc, ths process generates great heat A cooled
suspensaon or fine lime in water i:. knoll11 :IS JdlU
M LIME and rta\.15 violent!)" 11 11h acids and aUlJ:k.\ l!'iar.)
mt.UI.s. lf sL!ked June b heated :abo1-e deaxnpa'O
to form hmc and waer. l.imevo'l!Sh 15 pun: sllkd lilne
an v.att'l'. \lhen dr} 11.!> c2lcne cnu produce a
unique glol\ nude from
sbked hmc md ctwk v.ith Other aJju1o tN1
m3y tncludt glu<!, salt, ground rk:e or
a\ it; name Implies. prepared quite
simply fmm 11 ood JSh Moe the u.ith
adding as much tht:volumeofwaterMU reasoflJbil
allow. Sur every so oflen to a1'0id the St'tiament
Soluhle v.1U lea<h out from the other ansdlbfc
mancr then the soluuon can be filtered and to lc'Jit
'
an unptJR: poush. Calcirung ....:11 punfr 11 further. iter
11
be
salts can be filtered .md ag;aan. C21
repeated as many ume as requred
....... h b from the ashe. of
,AjH like= pu<-'' ll;!""'-u
:tfJIJA weed such as kelp, which bolh have a hagh sodium
.-A but the result is likely to contain poo15h
C2l1
((lltefll. soda ran be made b): the Leblanc process
a> ..d. our reope foe spirit of salt left off Take sal
.'hleh and fuse it at red heat together with limestone
--'e a blac:k ash. SOda ash Is leached from lhis
...1 cn;uc.- 10 ITilll\
31
"' cooled the other products of reaction being ilto;oluble.
occur naturally, \\here seasonal
- One such CClllllple IS the rruneral NA'I"RON
is
2
mixrure of narurally occuring soda ash and sodium
round on the edges of lakes m J..ov.er Egypt
,'2:> used Ill mummilic2oon.
t.YE S(JIIdlme." refers to of 'iOda ash or
II tS al.<OO U5Cd for soluoons of
:IJilA (gx/:111'1 h)dro:xide) and
l'O'IMH (pOlasstum h)'flroxide), prepared by
-.:ll"lgll'J.K of lime .-ith soda ash or powh. This
J:IIXJI16 produco a solution of e2usuc soda, or e2uslic
jXXlS!l, and a limestone precip;ute. A medieval recipe
loraus!X:sodaaystals calls for I pan each of slaked lime
Dl ,,th I pans v.'aler, boiled until the volume is
ll3Md, filtered 2nd dean ted I 0 times then evaporated.
INDICATOR PAPE'll is u'>ed to lest for acids and bases. A
simplellldDt<lfpapercan be made from red cabbage Simmer a
brgr finely chopped red C2hb:lge until the water is a deep purple.
Cool the add drops to an absorbenr add free paper then
bzic dry at a low temperature. The paper v.1lltum pink for acid:.
and blue or grttn for bases. IJtmus paper, prepared from liChens
S!Xbl'lochro/echta Jartarnz, turns red 10 acids and bade to blue
10 20th C. industrial rectpe:s c!ll for fermenting the lichen
th prush, unne and hme. Sampler recipes recommend boiling
8!0UDd OChcn 10 exuaa the serls!tive rolonng material. Blue
tiunus paper 1.) pl'q)ared by ampregnating white
IXIPtt "ilh thi<i latmus nwuure. Red Utmus Is
IIWclhe 521!1e but a few drops of an add
to rum 11 red first
3lso known a) ............ ..
( ................ .
.: lUll() natura!!) blooming on rocks
lllsat)e of .
/IUra :ns !he 11.-aid, hence sal (salt)
e ( rocks). To obuln it from this
It can
tt:aacr tnau'lg rumuum animal waste, rotting \-egetable
...._.,te With high lune content, and poosh, In a cone
the stale llllne r of SIJ'2\\' pile is weekly \\ith
the sak animals. Ooct "ripe" the heap is left a
filtere:='erWilJ on its surface to be gathered,
and ev.lporated to give raw saltpeter. If potaSh
51
Is ilddcd during solution the calcium and magneswm impundcs
react 10 form more nitre and the precipiwted which
e2n be filtered out. The solution can be fun her c lanfied by
adding a In de glue, which forrru. a. o,cum WJth lmpunues !hat can
be skimmed off. Funher purification can be made= by dissolvmg
an excess of this natre 10 boaling water A:. nitre is more soluble
than the common the solution will be en!lrely
of nitre, the less soluble impuriues remaining solid. This can
be filtered or carefully decanted on<e seuled, and evaporau:d
to produce beautiful needle-like nitre crystals In floral arrays.
CHILI .SALTPETEll (wdium nitrate) gers Irs name from a
V2St nat ural deposil in South America
AKKONIAC (amm0111um chloride) forms
on volcaniC rocks near fume-releasing \"ents, and
was made at the andent temple of Jupuer-Ammon
in Siwa on the EgypcianUbyan border b) burning
dung and collecting the white residue thar
condensed from the smoke. )ab1t's preparation of
tTR.IN..U IS ammonaum chJonde
made by heating a mixture of urine and common
salt. Whenever organic mauer containing 11ilroget1
is submiued to destruaive distillation, more or less
AX.MONIA IS formed, notable sources bemg putnd unne,
human hair, and the hom:; and hooves of oxen or dt.-er- hence
or M The literature shows
some confusiOn as the whtte oystalline substance formed
by the destruCtive distillation of rhese last twO IS often named
Sal Ammomac as well, although chemically it ammonium
carlJonate. When sublimated Sal Ammoniac (ammonium
chloride) forms munonra and spirit ol salt, both of whiCh aruck
metals \\ith a vengeance. Ammonium salrs al)gJ\"e off ammonu
when hcarecl. Ammonia Is h1ghly soluble in water and forms
ammonium bydroxide, a strong base with properuo 10
alkaline solutions.
is a much more recent discovt.'f)'
but worth klcluding here. It is first on record as being
prqlll'ed in 1669 by Hennig Sande, who heated
the residue of evaporated urine (a normal
pcoon just under one and a
half gr.uTL\ of phosphorous per litre ol
urine) with powdered charcoal, condensing
the V'Jpors into a waxy that glowed in
the dark. A more <k.1ailed descnpuon based on
Leibniz's instructiOOS LS: Boil urine to rt-duce it to a thKk syrup.
lle:Jt until a n.-'d oil up from at, and draw that off. Allow the
remarnder to cool and grind il finely. Mix the red oil lxick into
the ground material Heat that mixture SU"'Olggy for hours
First whtte fumes come off, then an od, then phosphorus. The
phosphorus may be passed mto cold water to solidify
U SEFUL RECIPES
CHARCOAL IS JX'(ldoced hc:lung u.xl1n 1he of the
Ol)Et'fl 1n 211: ll C2ll also be lltlde from boot Chunl31 hums holler
:and dc3ncr t1un wood and useful to 31ld forgJng for
lhdc: \food chamJ31L, mu.l'l c-.ubon and been made
since prdllst!X) Conicll pdes d ood 1\m made w1th openin&'
a1 the lxxlorn and a central !liuft for lunut'<l air flo\\, lhe pdc 1\"35
1h curf or ll'l'l d:!l, 2nd the qaned a1 the bouom
d the 5hafl '"> SUIUbl) do5ed cmtaJner dIll) wood placed 10 a
tKX eJlOUI!h lire ill produce cNrroal 1\llh a bale cxpcnmenution
IllS lmporUnltO ab JUS1 enough 83P 10
c:5C1pe the coru:aner 'irhotn :aDov.mg the free
lb. of ltw wid reduce the wood 10 ash
'llle dlatcoal popubr b
dr2wing. To produce !ll1l2ll quammes fdlovt 1he
lil5U\ICUOOS for malw1g bone bbck on pr.1g1: 46
replacing the bones 1111h Sl!lpped IVo!g'i.
GUNJIO'WIER. or black poMier ts a rruxrun: of
!oalqxter and arlxn Earfv Chinese reopes ustd equal
10 make a fast burning. bur nor oplotsiYe. pov.dcr A
axnpos!IIQ!I ltw awchcs wei the cflcmbln of the reactJOil IS
IS pw ,gkpelcr 2 p:lttS sufP!ur and 3 pw chxroaJ Mil the
JrF1iMs Yotlilr damp. USIIJ8 ro make a dense cake whidJ
0111 be brolcm U110 gram flen dry For IIDI usc
!dined Melal salts C2l1 add color 10 the c:xplosKJO, e g.
mum sails b or orange. pwsslum sab for purple, and
suonuum sails for red This is the basis
AHUUL GWE l'i made animal tudes, lendons
and U1 111'31er until rhe) 11M broken down 10 f!1Ye a
!hid glue .ruch can be Slt3ll1ed cif. Take en 110110 hell
100 quddy or the wi lun and dattcn The
PJC can be <kicd 011110 sure. Mil with hoi "Jier I I
by \IOiume ro use Glue made dlis 'fl'lV 1m been li5Cd
b' mlennia 3lld l'i &0011 b' arpcnuy
- hide glue joklu are repaal* and
sible. Hide glue l'i ktpl 6quid
b Wl:lrlq in a double bc:llcr
r.unm Is made by TAlDI1NG
animal 5ldns 10 keep rhem pliam ('YCI) :llicr they have
bewne wei and dried OUI JPn F"nt smpc otf :lithe fa! and
na from the 8csh side, then rub a 5UOII8 soludon d pwsh or
lime 11110 the b side and ave b' a roup1e d <13)$ untillhc fur
becomes loose Scrape lhe b side Mlh a sharp knR unlil dean.
Traclboially lhc llC:II Sllifle IS lx.Jthw, an 1em1 iJr
52
<"Jmnure dung (uswlly dog_, iniO !he sian
10

il5 elastidt} 1111h eMme ll"::CIIOilS Once the hide b no <b.n
and la1-s flat !he dung L\ washed OUl lhoroughly r.
3l'l.' lead1t:d from crusht'<l oak bark u1 wa1er,
1010

imme15Cd for lhn:c da\li Aher lhts the skin an be Wt!cn
OUtiO Wy 311lll\ Sluns 0111 aM be lanncd Yoilh Inn!
arumallus JUS! t'llough for Its own hide Clean lhe skin z
Cook the br:lirt. m a mall amoum of 'llo2CI' _
111
mur Nod' 10 mix ll'cll 1he ts z twx z l'W C2l!lil
work 'llollh 100 It 1010 the flc:sh side then !he f\6 side 111111 )'OI.r
harxk. i.eaYe 11 for about seven hows then ll1llllmC !he
in ll'atc:r overnight The v.'31c:r mw then be 1IURcd OUI r1 rhe
slon USing a wooden wedge and a rounded sb:Jt Thc!c
IOOL\ help keep the sian 5lreiChcd and loose ildc
dries Smolung 0\'el' a fire once dry helps
stiJfenJns agaln if it gets wet
PARCHMENT. sornewnes called VILWX
an arumal skin rreared v.ilh sbked lime and dned whde II1Mcd
1o produce a :mouth surfao: for ;m pamlliJ upcn
A sununary cia 12th C. is as rollows: Srnl p m 11
warer fa a dav and a rugtu, rtrnOI'e and Prqlrt
a balh of milk d lime and lllliJiene rhe skins. fdcing them oo lhc
flesh side, for a wed (rwo 01 WllliCI'), apaong IWict or IM:t a
day. Remove rhe skins and rake olf rhe hair. Makt a fresh mdi d
b31h. replace lhe and agiwe daily for a wed Jttma,oe
them and walih thUrtlUI!hly. Soak in de2n water ror IWO then
remove and lie rhe skin ro a drcular frame wilh corch. Dcy.
then shave the skin a sharp knife and le:l\e 111'0 d:M Ill
lhe 511n Moislcn and scour the flesh side 111th plllllllil."r
powdt'r After two repe:11 and full\ $1'1l0('()llhr
flesh With JXIIIIIIIICe paa"der hile 1\'CI
the <.U'd\ 10 flanen Once dn rhr

PAlER C2l1 be made w1th no chenual
inrc:rveruion, U1 wluch case !he lOikcd
boiled. bearen and shredded pbm
become a mbanical pulp H()Wel'('f
using an alkali l>reab down the lignin
from lhe aJJu1o5le fibers 10 8"'C belief
resulrs in a cbemka/ pulp. Boll pbnr srems in 311 alkali such
as sbked lime until !he while fibers are left lloaun8 1n a bnJI'll
allcaline soup. Srrain lhls pulp. soak Ill cle21 li'IICI'o ::
agam and resoak. This pulp can be lhiO\Iflh
2
of Wire mesh on a wooden &arne 10 make she'CIS d p:rper
JNlC L' hght-f.l!.t 311d bums mto !he p:l),'l:. Oak
GJJ-L !llk m:cs aused tn, tnsect auxk. Use the
PJI1S 1 pan green \11tl01 (1ron
b! arb:, 30 water. Gnnd the oakgalls
.Jo.M!r). 1 su ..... , ..... the gttc11 \itnol and

f;:ldy in me teSI ci [he water. then mll both ltqllilb The
rJill crif;X .,11 dcepCI'I if left foe a month Of I'WO With
t:P:k somr.g. f.'U'OS 11'011 S21ts w1 MJke an mk that turns
edge. titWe exce:.s oakg:!ll makes a weak black.
Mr,djternnem cuttlefish and other mollusc;.
kr!8 th B d2tk brcJoo. but 11 Ill n<X
11
tNl)lAN [NX. or someomes INK, Is
1 1: urlJon in ground
:Jdded to 3 thm gum anbic !>Oiuuoo 9.-ill make
1
sl:ll!* I.OOiln lllk. The gum arable binder also helps
hql Cle arMl Ill &d Chtnese 10k
PlJ'ITX t"ooll be made by addln
to whiung (pore find\ ground chalk) n rna! hn\Ctd oil
dned It o.n be \IJlded LUa IXble After 11 has
. l'UTIY IS slaked lime mel
mllted thickly and ltft to stand to fonn a Sm<xlth p;i.'ile. water
The known ELEC'I'lUc lATI'ERY froot llaghdacJ
dated to 250 BC. and consisls oC an c:artl'k.Tiv.'Ue shell. v.itb
:'n _asphalt stopper pien'td by an lttll'l rod v.flich JS SUJTOUnded
mSJde the Jar by a cylinder of copper In
1800
Volu
reuwented the banery by of ower and llnc (the
electrodes) :.eparated by blotting paper soakt:d in bnne (the
electrol)1e). A Simple eleruic cell can also be f1l3Cie by pbcing an
uoo or galvanized (Zinc roatt'd) rt111 and a JlleCC of ropper
n:pbiX5 orlJon v.nh (see page -16)


I'-. J

rom&)UU'KA I

YJA1 6 lllllde Ill' saponificaiJon the react1011
b:tftCI\ 2tld anunal or '-egetable f.us. Soaps
gieQhausucprosbareE r-id. 9.-flileausu. !IOda
soaps lha are solid The most popular fut\ used
re b:d, gan tallow, oli\1: ot1 and palm 011.
poctsS "ith sdid causoc soda or caustl( poush
DANlll.l. CEll
Wire (make sure they're not touching) as electrodes in
a small jar of vinegar or lemon juJCC. The Dand cell
uses a Zlllc deruode 1n ZlllC sulphate solution alxM:
a copper electrode in copper sulphate, the two kepi
separate in a glass jar b) the different densnJCS C'l the
solullOI'IS (see diagram). Another simple battery can be
made with ZlllC and carlJon rods immersed in sulphuric
aod. fJqlbi\"e hydrogen g;as is produced so tal<e care!
Eventually the zinc rod will dissol\"e completely. Lead-
aod banenes use clectroUes of le2d and lc:ld erode in
sulphunc acid (diluted about 1:2 b) 'lleight \\1th water)
an X'CIIl3te approach at home. The follov.ing pans by
a.'l used for 10 pans solid uustk. soda, or H pans
awtJC p:us1t, in 20 pans hot water; 72 pans beef
!Jb OR "3 pans brd OR 75 paru oh1e oil OR 71 pans palm
ol Cicml!' mdl the W, if solid The lT<l> liquids are bot miXed
J: 4n" C.lll!XIng too V.'21111 or at une\en tc:mpt:rtures are
amnon cmn Pour the &t then the causiJc soda m10 a su1table
stir or sltlkt \igorously 'lldl the two
l!wld 001 separate, if they t1o they must be reshaken or
A:a t!lc: JO:IIl an be toted to see if 1t prodllCO
Tcs b 'lllth indicator paper.
GnMSx zs a a.tti!LUI mineral Calcined a around
150
" C roost ciJU cbanally bound watc:r is off
lllllt6xx: Mixing tfry ....... c:r ,..,...,.._

''l!tr rdcrrns gypsum, fimly as a paste then
2nd hanierung Into a !>Oiid A good
sbould be e\'ell!) maed.
""aS first used In 41lCient Egypt,
l:lanrt of 8Ipsum .,.. ..wl Ccmen
Ill . t
Ponland cement, anything from 3 to 6 pans of
i::..1 .1:! the Slrl'l'gth less Silld is
a aJ.1r!,e aggregate to thll> miX makes
2 113r li. . lllOrtat Is made by mixing 1 pan qukklime
:tit... v.ith v.-ater. The quick.une, slaked Ill the
1010
brnc:stone when exposed to air.
The lead and lead oxlde react with the ekxtroi)tc to fonn lc:ld
sulplutc and w01ter 9.-hile generatmg a currmL This reacuon can
be reversed b) passing a l'IIITCilt through the banery, thus making
the battery rechargeable.
need 10 be fixed to a f.lbric's fibers 'iO that they do nOt
'llt':bil OUL 'Jlus often requires a }(OJUlA.N'l', the 11100 popular
bong alum "n!Ch mordant:. tea (ro:.e), beetroot (gOld), red
omons (orange), madder (red), elderbenies (hlac) and others MIX
a of )OOr f;abric's \\'elglu of alum in enough 'loOiter ror the
f..llxX. Wet the fabnc in warm water then immerse m the mord:lnt
53
ard heat b ooe hour qiffing occasion21ly. Cool omnight
Boll )'tU dyestuff m watc:r for half an hour then add
coough water to immerse the bboc Heat for one hour
or Ulllil the fabric's as you tt (it "ill lighten
alter m.1ng ..00 dtying). Cool the fllbric, nnse and
dry. Por a stronger color use more dyestuff. not more
twdam. lndigo. or woad, mordant Collect
w1ne In a boctk or vat and stand 1t uJlClii>Ped (or
wilh a tittle exposure to .Ill') Ul the sun unul it
has fc:rmented The suong smell of aml1l01ll2
tells 11\ 1t is reatly. Add one teaspoon of very finely ground indigo
per titn: of unne Stand m the sun for another day and )OO should
ha\'e a pale green solution )'OUr fabnc or wool wuh
. the . and place In the soluuon Keep t
nnse out sCJap u """" out
sWncrged for 10 mUlutes then rem<lYC and squeeze
The fJbnc or yam wdltum blue in the rur.
INCENSE AND PERFUME
INCENSE at ItS sunpbt L\ the burning of "oods. and
herbs 10 make atom2tic ItS origins are lost m anuqul[y,
although it probably lim a."'Se "hen ""OOCb such as sandalvrood
and 283fWOOd were used on 01/Ylplires. Popular !name
tfut are QUite aY3Jiable IDdude; 1P'oods -
agarwood. cedar, juruper. pme, sandalwood, aod spruce. lesiDs
- peru balsam. copaiba balsam, benzoin, amptu, copaJ,
dammar, blooc. frankincense, .........
bbdanum, mastic, myrrh. opoponax, sandarlc, and
stmx. Hetbs - cassia, annamon barlc. cardamom
seeds, cbes, roriander seeds. juruper. leon.-,
patchouli. rosemary, common and "hite S3Je. m
aruse, sweer grass, thyme, vanilla and
For non-combustible loose IIICellSe the ingndcilll
need sunply be ground (if solid) and mixed It Il ia
10 grind similar ingredients together then mil them
once puNerizcd. If some d the iJlan:dients .elqukll
the rna can be fonned Into pdlets Pure wood
charcoal once Ut 6 ideal b' burning loose 1rwnr
Sdf ignlhrls dwroals coouin sakperer, the jqbeler!gn dwt*hll
suongly recommended agamst Cornbu.stibie IDa!Die Clll be
made using maklw, a natlnlly axnbustible file jOCMdtr lllldt
from the bart of an ew:tgttt'll. Simply mix and knead with makko
and warm Miter dJen form into cones or roll 0010 thin 5licb Dry
lOr a day and a night IJel'tR lighting with a naked flame then
fanrung out the llamt 10 leaYe a glowins ap. Some qvedicnls
makr axnbu.dlle inctnse more readily than omen, ilr"*
sandalwood works well while fr2nJdncense is cilia* 10
bum. Recipes and are bcsr found chRJuab
c:xpcrimerlWion F'IISl aaemprs ar blendlns lncenle
will be lllOil sucassful wid: few ingmliencs as )QI
bm which scaus blend tdl with which othe!l.
Some SIJBFsttd blends ft; cassia, cJoe and
salldalwood; cassia, &:analctnsc, sandalv;ood
and storax; juniper twtp, SWCitt grass and wblre
5li8Ci coriander seuls, masdc aad
mynfL
PEMtua applied 10 rhe body has as venerable
InCense. 1bt anc1tm l!gyptian5 made fr.lpnt IDII Wlltl by
iountnill8 peals and Olher bflrant nwerials ill diem. Obt Clll
abo simply soak the source marerialln warer to 11111rr a perfumed
wash, rasa 10 make I'I:RWaler ilr example. Materials u
pedwneiy are obcained ir. many ways. Expression is used to
squeeze out (ngranr oils from citruS peel. Essential oils, (the
54
MaR raw fraplces are OOt2incd Cmn Pns,
flowers. leaYes. roots,- fruits, t.tnk.
baa, resinS and lichens. FnlpJccs fmn au
IOUil1S 11t abo imponant Musk &om the Aa1 mwi
deer, met &om the civel car, castoreum fnxn the 10th
Aaitft:at beaa and legcrdary ambagtis, a WDY 8fJ!'IIh
11#wtancr lixmed In the intestines of spcnn whales and loulli
ashurt, ;,dJ lworyci IISCDI
are tar pxl ftDtives. addq a magial depth to blends Dl
mttldlng their Sllying power.
In recent times perfumery has deveklped the an ci
noces. Top noces are the illll5t .aaile .ld
Dddlt tat Mle5 fmn the body ci the f'ragr3nct. wl1ae bl.!t
DDCa are tbe 10051 1oog lasling and uu1r fix the 001cr r.xes
DIIIICR encJurinB sce1L e.wniaJ Oils and
Dolllla (D.) are al teKiily -
bcpc. bilter black ptpper. bbxl
cedllrwood, cmander, ga.banum, lalcndcr,llne, Jld
AJdi'uil. Dl I'(ICWOOd M< l'iacs - dan'
JPIIIIIITI, jasmile D., law:nder ahl .
lbRr ab;., rose a .. Sl)m. tubclo!c b. .-.! '::
,... Base Notes - anmue stfd. beeSW3X
beua..., copahl babam, l;biriiDo
, ..... peru bMsam. Sftlt't
a, riwmfb., vanllla ab; and YCliYer. A good 01Jf18'-:
ilr J>l! ""' nann1 perfumes ti to niCkle
III*IID tbe lllio of HJ They shoukl be blenlkd ;:
6
r.- a
then llllftml. 95' grain or grape alcvhol
15
deal ( ci IJI!t
suilable subsline u the armteur blender)
24

1101es, 18 drops d middle 1101es. 18 ci wp naco.
ak:ohol6 a good guide to 5tli1 frooL
BHASMAS
,_...,A _,...._v there are methods foe making metallic medicines
In u..-. iiLJ""U
aBed tSanskrit - powder). The process makes
rmn meuJs by mixing them With plant ashes until no
axe or the origirral meul remams. The aim is to connect mtunately
inlrgri: maucr o;r.1th Ofi!'Ulic so !hat curative power3 can be
;mimil:ud by the body, v.ithout ta<icity. Zinc (which corresponds
w 4 like llll) isosy towak with and makes an excellent immune
hen l1tlde into a bhasma turmeric.
Mdlni I. MIX yogurt 1:2 9.1th Miff m a bowl. 2.
Mdl a rouple rJ pns r:i dlemicllly pure zinc in a
Steel spoon m-er a bunsen burner. 3.
1111:n fU5t mcl1ed (do llOI allow to whiten) pour
PddY ioto the yoghurt water. t Stram out the birs
ri metal and dean in water 5. Repeat stepS 2 to 4 six
mae llmCS. The: metal ill become quite brittle.
This COIT1J*:tes the fusl r:i !1xxlana
.rmliatial). 5 Reheat the ZlllC in a la!ge sl2lnless
Sled spoon. 6. 'X1len partially melled add some
pmd IOOnelic. i. \1ix tha'oughJy (blow OUt if II catches fire). 8. As
!he l:U'nl matter begins to whiten add more turmeric and keep
ll1liinJ 9 The: metal should he with the plant matter
bui)llloroiJy. If the romenb oi the spoon sWt to spill over
this is complete, set SOOle aside and continue as
bcbt. AI the 2lllt should be mixed no visible panicles remain.
li'J. Put the mmr:r lll an pon:e1am pot and add a more
lhzn vaume oi l'resh ground turmeric. n. Add enough
disuiic:d 1111ter or 1'211lwatcr to make a fairly loose paste. The inner
color. l2 This is the
lim bh2sma Pbct the pa m'CI' the bunsen burner at full heat
;: CINCf "ilh a lid to nridaticn. The lid should llOI
tJgtt. Vapor llllm be able to es.:3pe, but llOI to
C!lla'. l3 As the mixture to smoke a red oil
s!lOIA:J SW'IIO appear 00 the SUtbce. Calcine fOr at
::
3
hour!, by "hid! lime the bllasm3 o;r.iJJ be
li

Twnolf!Q and alloYi to cool a bit


a fady loose p:l;.\te v.'llh as much fresh
there is llliXlure m the pot 16. Add the
to the hot bhasma .
lllort llUX1Ure and sur in. addmg
l? ll:l 16 : a loose paste. 17. Repe:u &CJlS
laal rJ 40 umes. F'tre is the great
l'rlt m:rma by the end d the WIXk the bhasma should
t llndtr a fils the finger prinl o;r.ilen gently rubbed. Look at
1We shining a bght on it to be sure that the
'ill rtfle.:t cht ligh amalgamaun Any unamalgamated pal1icles
be .. an is well. a tiny pinch of the bhasma mixed
._,
1
a.\ a daily tonx:.
55
fERMENTATION
'FEilMENTATION is the processbywh1ch plants produce
alcohol. Chemically speaking, alcohol is produced from the
interaction of yeast Mth plant sugars. The upper pans of most
plants have sufficient amounts of aubome yeast to ferment
naturally in the right condition5. The best 5pagyric an:
produced through natural fermentations. Method: I. Finely
chop a quantity of fresh herb. 2. Immerse the herb in up to fh-e
times irs volume of good water in a non-metallic
vessel. 3. Cover loosely and s1and in safe place
at a temperature of 1628 C. 4. Stir tMce
daily with a wooden spoon. Fermentation
should stan Mthln three days. Once
underway the plant matter nses tO the surface
and fizzes when stirred. This is cartxm dioxide
gas, a by-product of the process. 5. U fermentation
fails to stan, make sure you have some wine
yeast activated Mth a little sugar on standby to
add before the plant soup goes off (you will
know by the bad smell). Alternatively, yeast and sugar can be
added at the beginning to ensure successful fermentation. 6.
Shr the brew twice 2 clay anct he sure to cover again
immediately. We want the heavy carbon dioxide to form a layer
on the surface of the brew. This ensures the yeast produces
plenty of alcohol and protects tbe brew from vinegarformang
b3cteria, which can take over very quickly. U it has you can
concentrate the vinegar by freezing 1he fil tered brew. Since
vinegar freezes a1 a lower temperature than water you can drain
it from the icc and freeze it again, repeating till you have a
strong vinegar- a very useful alchemical substance, especially
in mineral work. Fermentation is complete once the
brew stops fizzing and the plant matter sinks 10
the bottom. 7. DistiU (gently) as soon as
fermentation ceases. DistillatiOn will
separate both the and the Mercury
of 1he plant. 8. To keep the amount of
water in the distillate to a minimum, while
ensuring that aU the and over, tasle
the distillate from time to time. When 11 tastes
insipid, cease fermen!3tion. 9. U you have an
alcohol meter, test the disuUate to establish the
alcohol content. It should be at least 16% ABV (alcohol by
volume) if it iS to keep well. 10. U the alcohol lower,
pure ethanol (ca 96% ABV or more) can be added. If the Sal
Salls and Sal Sulphuris are extracted (see page 30) and added to
the diStillate you Mil have a spagyric essence. Such
actually improve with age like fine wines.
PLANT PLANET CoRRESPONDENCEs
The planets g<)IU1l aB our funaions on every lcvd Spagync
medldnc:s C2fltone and harmonae our inner solar system. If our
IMCT Venus 1lCCds a boost, for ccample, a spagyrtc tinctUre ol
or another Venus herb mav help Here are some rJ the
pnnciple quabtics and rulerships of the planet$ and lisu rJ some
rJ the planl$ they rule.
0
Slj 15 vitalky, 1."01l500U$11C, the individual
soul. It com:spond5 10 Sulphur, the hot, dry,
masculine prinCiple, the acuve, engendering seed,
ailed the fahcr rJ the Stone The Sun's inllucnce is
bul m exctSS an engender pride and cpsm.
Wllhout the cooling. moistenlll8 influencr rl the
Moon, n can be arid 1lld burning. The Sun rules the
mind, ener&Y wilpowcr. physiologlally the heart, eyes,
c:mam and health m
that receiveS the seed rl Sulphur and bears the hcnnaphrodilic
dukl. Physiologically it rules the stomach, cerebellum, female
reproductive organs.lymphauc system and pancreas.
Acanlbus mol/is: acanthus cas/US: monk s pepper- Bellis
perennls: daisy - Brcusicae: the cabbage farmly Cart/amine
pratense: cuckoo flower Cucwnis satMis: CIKUmbtt .
Cururbila pepo: pumpkin CummttJ lorfia tunnenc
- Gallum aparine: cloven lrlilllceoe: irises
Lactuca sativa: leuuce Myristfca frrJRrtms: nuuncg
Nympboea alba: lily- RuJa 11111llria: lllOOClWM
Sallas: willows Sa:djraga: saxifrages . Sedam!
telepbtum orpine-Stellar/a media: chlckwttd- Tllta
linden (lime) trees Veronica ojficinalis: spetdwdi-
Vinca minorlmajor. periwinkle -Mast water plaro
AJweUca anaeJica Alllbmis nobills: xUtfet.r
>-( Mercury IS the bstest mowing planet, the
quicksilver service rnedlanng
loman chamomile 80iswtlitl SJYY ankinccnse BuJWf'rl
copll- llr'Orllatials Clbrnus CDimtJvJa
C/Jidtttllls: QnnarrtOIIIUifl cmnamon
OlnG specill Ill dUus trees lJroserrJt: all sundcws - Ecblum
wiper's bu&bs . EMpbrasla ojficinDiis-. eydlrighl
Frr.rlcbu aceiWrr :ash (wah.) -llellantbus anws: suNtower
1,-tiSia ,..,. f ais. pclen seal Hypericum pedoratum:
St. John s wan - Ju1iims ro nnut tree - Matrlcarla
cfoo,....Wq. Gmnln dlaluomile - MyrrN mynh (with
Orya flMivtl nee PtMlflia qfidtttiJb peony llomtarllt&ls
cf/idwJiis: I'05CIIIIIY - llula lf"'l"''a7ts. common rue
Sor6us fiUCII/IC'rla !Owatlll'tC. tlrofiiQtkum.
cbte uce -VlltiDII ..,... misdctoe (wkh and ))
Vllts rflri/ml J111PCY111C (with -l and ))
of/icitlt*: P'F
between AlxM: and Below It rules mer11al processes
tmcl. rommumcauons. lanf!ua8c, wnting. adap121lility and !he
intellect It siJal"o the: same ambMient qualitieS Hemle/
ThotiVMen:ury. A.s a planetary entity Memuy has a pucmll.
triclcsler tendency that expaiCS l"al5chood and l'OIICCit 8elnt!
andro(!enous. and all opposites, he is therefore a rrce
operator, independent of a polar opposite, although he ha.\ an
relationship with Salum. The planet Memlry is not
10 be with the Mercury o( the Sulphur-Mercury duad
Physiologically Mercury rules the neMJU5 system, hearing.
tongue, throat, lungs, coordination, the spmal cord.
Acacia. acaoa spc:oes pans dill
AMmlsia abrolanum: southemwood Nropa
mandngon (with -t; and )) Bryonltl
alba bryony . Cala1lllntba
)
luna rules the cmouons, III5UICIS the subcomcioud Clbmku CanDII cam cam.-ay Corylus
15 llllltlllq. rdlectiYe II bad . Daucus carota C3mll FoertJculum
lllflucnccs fl:rdky groMh. and lllllttptlOII The waters fennel (with -ll . Geranium roberfttmum herb Robert
rl the ocen. the sap in planls :n1 all bodilv Huids {wllb Cf and OJ . Girli8o btloba: gmkgo .
ft lr6ienccd by the Noon, WIIICSSCd bv the tides flt*a licorice . LavarulvJa vtra; bYender (With and 0)
:n1 the llleiiiiNII qde rlWOIIIIII. AD grow m -MajoranQ borfrnsis: marjoram Marrubium
1
'Ulgart: "flue
rhythm with the Moon It rules dre2ms, cmooons, sensuality, horehound . Wercurlalis annllll/perennis: annuallperennl31
lnndtlon. bs dark side 15 the unconsdous, the wilder, baser memary Morus: mulberry speoes rom111um<
1115tJ11C13. It IS the bride rl the Sun, Diana, the lunar pldess ol myn1c OrJwmum

orqpno . Prtrwrlinum
the Greeks. Luna Is the White Queen the Wilke Lion, the Elixir ol parsley PlmpiMllo an1sum: anise . Satureja bor1ensis
lmmonal.ity, which corwcns mcu1s mto siWcr It is also Mercury Sculftlarla lolmj:JIIa: skullcap Solanum dukatfUII'II'
10 the Sun's Sulphur; the cold, IIIOI5t. l'cminine principle hiuerswm (wkh *,) . Valerlana offidnalis v:lleND.
56
0 Ven\1\ iS lhe planet of affection, an, and mUSIC. Ven115
.f helps rrcdlale berwc:cll opposites and 10 illlqp'alc dienc
c:tcrnentS intl harmonious balanc:e. Venllf/Aphrodirc is lhc
(JOOdess of Love, but 10 the f.gypllans, lndiaM and Hebrews ills
l1JZ(IIIIne. To lhe Indians he is Sukra, who.lilu: Thach. is a teacher
and lqend !dates !hal Sukra possC55Cd lhc Elixir of
I!MXXUIIy. The influence ofVen115 L'l cntirdy bc:nitJI, but ifbadly
J!llCl1C(I an promoce 5CliU3I and sensual cxcc:a. Vau naleslhc
complcoou, breasts, thym115 gland, fertilily, Inner sexual
crgn. blood and cdl bmadon and lhc 5CniC of smell
kbilifa mil/efoUwn: yarrow }/Ullfl repltlns-. bugle AlcbemJIIa
bdy's mande Aqflilarla 9'kdl:
apwood. oud (wah +> . Aquilegla vulpis:
columbine An:tiwlt klppa: burdock Arfelllisfa
r'14Fu mJPO!t &tula: birth tm:s - Casrrma:l
satiroa sweet chcsnut (with +> . Uonlli'IIS amliaca:
IIIOdlertooo . Wtrltbtw al ldncb d mini Nfpt/11
CAitr1a C3llllp "'""' vup;s: peadl Pritala
ojfidnaJis: ;xunmse . Pyrus 001111111#11 1112 Pyrus
1IIOius 3pple Rora: I'05C5 (Qh +> .. Srtnll"':
5andalwood (Wilh SQponflria
) juplla' L'l by fir the largest d lhc visible planets. In Wllll'lll
"f- 10 lhc ratriaiYe and inltioryqualilics dSawn,JLpilcr is
cxpnle. aencrous. Wll1ll and jowtll. He lhc I' of N311R, thr
warmth In allthi113S. In m)'lholosy he is the lusty, self-indulgent
Jq cl lhc pis This rendclll.'y 10 ea:QI is .lul*cr'J mall
weakness. As wtth all lhc pbncls, be imcnal if'laly
aspcacd "' ocher pllnecs. Jupilcr prC5idcs Dl'el' law, harmony
and rdpn Jupilcr pcrns lhc IM:r,lhc irllnule
sysiCIII, drtubtion . .tw thWis. reer and rca1t
Aalr. maple, SJQIIOt An?= bippP 1 lUll: honr daDUI
.... 1monla fll/1tlk1rla: I8Jimony amnilllfl: aJUCit
,_ MJI 1 m almood Liidrilsuos
chmtiAmkirllllllfrltllllr.IIJiia ........ c#d e,
berony Ge .., ....,, SMiel chcsnul (WIIh
. to.+ "'" .....,., .,_, (wtlh +> . ,..,
omus: IIW1III, llowcric ISh Ftfttltta r#rln*
fllniay. Gtlllitmlr llatJ: )dow pliln. Ht1ptf+ '".
hawauJ - : IBI*leA' *
IIICIIIot MllisJa 0/fiCtntllls: lmul balm (k/.-
dfan: .... (wtlh & . ,_,.. sncrw .
,_.,nd 4 3piCOIIR:Ies.!Mqfi;mtllr
soapviUit 'io/ldaeo I"JJ2 QUIWI: goldenrod
.__ sm- /]aJplf*-: taJaD rna .....,-.
umy- r.....-...-. dllllldoi-P**"
Cllinele nu-b (wllh & . vn..a. ...., . mullcir!.
TCZ1111CfftD1 ievafcw - n,-s n II is.
thyme - Triliaml saliva whea Ver6enll o.f/t=hrillls:
Vttttom'a llmrllodes valer VIola odaraiiJ:
5IJum is die c.u.dlm d Thr lhratdd lll:lwcD die
J llld lhe apiltiUII world, where die clrxall lnlo
maacr bqpnl. Thr moa dilllntllld slowest moW1s d lhe !Bible
plftu, i lqat5dliS .... laioo llld inbiJilon. As die Lml of
Order, d knowtqe, nl cllc:ipllne, s-um an be a ICCit
lllllmaslcr.
roqdleslldcmnnl ... piocesscs. Salumisprel!fta!
as lhe skdelal of Dl:lh or Old f.1lhcr Tnt wllh
his SC)thc. mcrcllestly down the old. uselesa or
IIII'II'Oidly. This applies ro die em. or lmpuiilies II the
aldlemlst's maaia, lrlcluding the COi ltsptulic 11pect1
wilhin him.d s.unn condilions lilclude rheumlllsm,
dcpiesllloo Ulll chronic--..
Nroptl Wet Dillli: bclldonnna (will & C#lrlilllibb
.....,, hcnp . "-'"'- Clliiif6Gwu: (lllllfftol
CuprfsJus strrl/)m1lrrns: cyptal CJryoptri ji/bHrlllls:
male fan . flii/oblaWt .. , 'lllifolha: willow herb

hoixlail fern ,.., JIAIQiicp: bmfl . Fomurll ,_,,
57
,._. #:Jrtalis: fwniory . HallruiMI.r: ivy.
hoiMitlkr. t .. " :
hoDy. Ptlpawr: JXlPjlies (fth )) . Plp.r Mllbyrllalllr: 11M ka1

comlrey (wilh +>. r-'*"'*''
ASTROLOGICAL HOURS
\\'hen makingspagyric preparaliOO) it always ht:lps to remforcc the
planeury signarure by perlorming or beginning pi"'CeSS or
stage on the correct planeury day and. v. here dunng the
approprtnc Tradiuonally the day i:; dl\ided 11110 a
oumbt.--r of planetluy hours, which \'31'\' accordmg to dtft'ercm
S) 1em.' The planetary sequence of these hours al'\\'3)"-i corresponds
to the hq>tagram on page 22 when follo\\L<d antidod..'Wise.
0
the hour of the Sun 0 followt.'d by the hour of
then Merauy the Moor ) , SaiUm ), Jupiter 4 and Mars 0. The
sequence then repeatS. The Mt hour d each day corresponds
to the day in question: the first hour of Suooay 15 a Sun hour.
V'k.-v.'S differ 2S 10 when the !b) is deemed to begin and on the
length of planeurr hours According to Celtic, Kaln!listic and
blamic IJ'adil.J()fb the day begill.'l after sunset. Sunday thtrcrorc
stut.\ on "Satun.hy" C\>t:ning. can be fixed or flexible In
the lixtd Kahtolistic the day alv.-ays starts at 6.00 p.m In
a flexible S)-:>tcm the day begin' after Sunset v;hatevcr the hour.
Other hold that the day srans at sunnse. Again, fixed
and flextble sr.;tcms can apply. In these S})(ems each
rrunutes Alternatively the periods of daylight and
dl\lC!ed into 12 "hours" which vary 10 length acmding to the line
of year- shoo daylight in \\inlet, long ones in summer.
A popular system Western uses seven equal
period.\, starting at midnight (below), the second period matching
the day. The advantages of this system arc tha111 b constant, while
sunrise ten<:b to occur during the hour that rules the dav.
I
.g
>-
f
j'
f
>-
"'
"' -o
!
f
12
Hours c:
::>
:::>
Ji
V) ::;::;
lo..
0:00 to 3:26


+
<j? )
0
)
3:26 tO 6:52
0
)


+

)
6:52 to 10: 18

)
0
)


4
10:18 to H:44

4-
;
(:) )
0
13:44 tO 10 )
0

+

) 0
17:10 lO 20:36 )
0
)
0
4
20:36 to 0:00
4
)
0
)
0
ALCHEMICAL SYMBOLS
THlUE PRINCIPLES
THE 'fOUR ELEMENTS

e

is \1
s;z
+

S4Ct Mmury
'fin Air W4frr B4rt6
Dt ECnsNiiS
PLANETS &- METALS
)


0
3
4
)
Moon
Mmury VtnUS .Sun Mrs JUfUtr
511/Unl
siCvtr
C1ftr
GoCI Inn Tin
uJ
58
U.S. $12.00
--
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