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COMPOUNDING OF STEAM TURBINE

INTRODUCTION

A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. Its modern manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884. The motive power in a steam turbine is obtained by the rate of change in momentum of a high velocity jet of steam impinging on a curved blade which is free to rotate.

The steam from the boiler is expanded in a nozzle, resulting in the emission of a high velocity jet. This jet of steam impinges on the moving vanes or blades, mounted on a shaft. Here it undergoes a change of direction of motion which gives rise to a change in momentum and therefore a force
The steam does not strike on the blades but glides on the surface of the blades to impart the motion to the blade.

TYPES OF STEAM TURBINE


a) Impulse turbine

Steam is expanded only in nozzles, and pressure at the outlet side of blades is equal to that at inlet side.

Drop in pressure of steam takes place only in nozzles and not in moving blades.
Energy transformation takes place only in nozzles. Expansion of steam takes place in nozzles(fixed blade) as well as in moving blades. This difference of pressure at inlet and outlet result in reaction and adds to the propelling force. Both energy transfer and transformation takes place in moving blades.

b) Impulse-Reaction turbine

WHY COMPOUNDING IS REQUIRED?

The steam produced in the boiler has got very high enthalpy. In all turbines the blade velocity is directly proportional to the velocity of the steam passing over the blade. Now, if the entire energy of the steam is extracted in one stage, i.e. if the steam is expanded from the boiler pressure to the condenser pressure in a single stage, then its velocity will be very high. Hence the velocity of the rotor (to which the blades are keyed) can reach to about 30,000 rpm, which is pretty high for practical uses. Moreover at such high speeds the centrifugal forces are immense, which can damage the structure. Hence, compounding is needed.

WHAT IS COMPOUMDING?

Compounding is employed for reducing the rotational speed of the impulse turbine to practical limits.
Compounding of steam turbines is the method in which energy from the steam is extracted in a number of stages rather than a single stage in a turbine. A compounded steam turbine has multiple stages i.e. it has more than one set of nozzles and rotors, in series, keyed to the shaft or fixed to the casing, so that either the steam pressure or the jet velocity is absorbed by the turbine in number of stages. There are three main types of compounded turbines.

a) Velocity-compounded impulse turbine.


b) Pressure-compounded impulse turbine. c) Pressure and velocity compounded impulse turbine.

VELOCITY-COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE

This turbine is also termed as Curtis Turbine.

Velocity drop is arranged in many small drops through many moving blades instead of single row of moving blades. High pressure steam is expanded in nozzle which is then transferred to first set of moving blades where steam losses part of its kinetic energy.
Fixed blade are guide blades that guide the steam to succeeding row of fixed blade which further reduces its velocity.

DISADVANTAGES OF VELOCITY COMPOUNDING


Due to the high steam velocity there are high friction losses Work produced in the low-pressure stages is very less. The designing and fabrication of blades which can withstand such high velocities is difficult.

PRESSURE-COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE

This turbine is also known as Rateau Turbine.

In this pressure drop from chest pressure to the condenser pressure is split up into smaller pressure drop across several stages of impulse turbine.
It consists of alternate rings of nozzles and turbine blades. The nozzles are fitted to the casing and the blades are keyed to the turbine shaft.

In this type of compounding the steam is expanded in a number of stages, instead of just one (nozzle) in the velocity compounding.

The steam coming from the boiler is fed to the first set of fixed blades i.e. the nozzle ring. The steam is partially expanded in the nozzle ring. This is then passed over the set of moving blades. As the steam flows over the moving blades nearly all its velocity is absorbed. However, the pressure remains constant during this process. After this it is passed into the nozzle ring again to further reduce the pressure.

DISADVANTAGES OF PRESSURE COMPOUNDING


The disadvantage is that since there is pressure drop in the nozzles, it has to be made air-tight. They are bigger and bulkier in size.

PRESSURE-VELOCITY COMPOUNDED IMPULSE TURBINE


This turbine is the combination of pressure and velocity compounding. It consist of set of nozzles each consist of moving and fixed blades. Pressure compounding occurs in set of nozzles while velocity compounding occurs in moving and fixed blades. In first set of nozzles, slight decrease in pressure occurs while the kinetic energy increases. There is no pressure drop in two rows of moving blade. However, velocity drops in moving blades.

In second set of nozzles, the remaining pressure drop takes place,but velocity increases and, the drop in velocity takes place in moving blades of the second rotor. This method of compounding is used in Curits and Moore Turbine.

Venkanna B.K., Fundamentals of Turbomachinery, PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi, 2011. Yahya S. M., Turbines, Compressors and Fans (Fourth Edition), Tata Mcgraw Hill Educaition Private Limited, New Delhi, 2011. El-Wakil M. M., Powerplant Technology, Tata Mcgraw Hill Educaition Private Limited, New Delhi, 2010. http://www.sasta.co.za/wpcontent/uploads/Proceedings/1960s/1966_Jachens_Steam%20Turbines%2 0Their%20Construction.pdf http://pacetmechanical.weebly.com/uploads/6/1/9/7/6197211/study_o f_turbine.pdf