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ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد لﺎﺼﺗا

؛ﺔﺒﻴﺗﺭ ﻭ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟﺍﺪﺑ *

ﲑﺑﺎﻌﺘﻟﺍ

ﺓﺮﻈﺘﻨﳌﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺪﻘﻟﺍ ؛ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟﺍﺪﺑ * : ﻝﺎﳎ ﻭﺃ ﺔﻌﻄﻗ ﺓﺭﻮﺻ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ ـ

ﺾﻌﺑ ﺓﺭﺎﺷﺇ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺃ ﺕﺎﺤﺟﺍﺮﺘﳌﺍ ﻭ ﺕﻻﺩﺎﻌﳌﺍ ﺾﻌﺑ ﺔﺳﺍﺭﺩ ﺔﻴﻄﻴﺳﻮﻟﺍ ﻢﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻨﻫﱪﻣ ﻖﻴﺒﻄﺗ ـ

؛ﻝﻮﻠﳊﺍ ﻩﺬﻫﲑﻃﺄﺘﻟ ﻭﺃ f ( x ) = λ ﻝﻮﻠﳊ ﺔﺑﺮﻘﻣ ﻢﻴﻗ ﺪﻳﺪﲢ ﻲﺋﺎﻨﺜﻟﺍ ﻉﺮﻔﺘﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ـ f ( x ) = λ ﺔﻟﺩﺎﻌﳌﺍ ﻞﺣ ﺔﻴﻧﺍﺪﺣﻭ ﺕﺎﺒﺛﻻ، ﻝﺎﳎ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗﺭ ﻭ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟﺍﺩ ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﺔﻴﻄﻴﺳﻮﻟﺍ ﻢﻴﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻨﻫﱪﻣ ﻖﻴﺒﻄﺗ ـ

لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻲﻓ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا -I ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻲﻓ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا -1 طﺎﺸﻧ /a

:ﻲﻟﺎﺘﻟا ﻞﻜﺸﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺎﻤآ f ﺔﻳﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻣ

(

)

C ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

f

ﺔﻟاد ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻣ ( ) C ﻦﻜﻴﻟ f 3 تاذ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﺛ -1

3 تاذ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﺛ -1 لﻮﺼﻓﻻا تاذ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ

(

C

f

)

ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟا ىﺮﺗ ﻒﻴآ ﻞﻜﺸﻟا ﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ -1

و f (3) ﺐﺴﺣأ /أ -2

ﻆﺣﻼﺗ اذﺎﻣ

lim f

x 3

(

x

)

ﺞﺘﻨﺘﺴﺗ اذﺎﻣ -1 ﺪﻨﻋ f ﺔﻳﺎﻬﻧ سردأ و f ( 1) ﺐﺴﺣأ /ب

x

lim

→− 1

-1 لﻮﺼﻓﻻا تاذ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻊﻄﻘﺘﻣ ﻰﺤﻨﻤﻟا نا ﺢﻀﺘﻳ

(

C

f

)

:باﻮﺠﻟا

ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﻜﺷ لﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ /1

f

(

x

)

lim

x 3

(

f x

)

=

2

و

f (3) = 2 ﻦﻳﺪﻟ

3 ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نإ لﻮﻘﻧ اﺬﻟ

3 تاذ ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻞﺼﺘﻣ و

(

)

C ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﻜﺷ لﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ -أ /2

f

lim

x 3

(

fx

)

=

f

(

3

)

نأ ﻆﺣﻼﻧ

= 1

و

x

lim

→− 1

+

(

f x

)

= و f (1) = 3ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ C ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﻜﺷ لﻼﺧ ﻦﻣ -ب

3

f

(

)

http://arabmaths.ift.fr

1 Moustaouli Mohamed

-1 ﺪﻨﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نإ لﻮﻘﻧ

x

lim

→− 1

+

-1 ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻦﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نإ لﻮﻘﻧ

-1 ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نإ لﻮﻘﻧ

(

f x

)

x

x

lim

→− 1

lim

→− 1

+

f

f

x

(

(

lim

→− 1

x

x

)

)

=

(

(

(

f x

f

f

)

1

1

)

)

-* :نأ ﻆﺣﻼﻧ

-*

-*

لﺎﺼﺗﻻا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ /b

I ﻦﻣ اﺮﺼﻨﻋ x و ، I حﻮﺘﻔﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f
I ﻦﻣ اﺮﺼﻨﻋ x
و ، I حﻮﺘﻔﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ
0
lim
f x
(
)
=
f x
(
0 )
نﺎآ اذإ ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ x ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ
0
x
→ x
0

ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻲﻓ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

α 0 ﺚﻴﺣ [ x ; x + α [ عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺠﻣ
α 0 ﺚﻴﺣ
[
x
; x + α
[ عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ
0
0
lim
f x
(
)
=
f x
(
0 )
نﺎآ اذإ ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ x ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ
0
+
x
→ x
0
α 0 ﺚﻴﺣ x − α ; x ] ] عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺠﻣ
α
0 ﺚﻴﺣ x − α ; x
]
] عﻮﻧ ﻦﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ
0
0
lim
f x
(
)
= f x
(
0 )
نﺎآ اذإ ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ x ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ
0
x
→ x
0

ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

x

0

I ﻦﻣ اﺮﺼﻨﻋ x

0

و ، I حﻮﺘﻔﻣ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ و ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ x ﺔﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ

0

x

0

= 2

;

()

()

f x

f x

=

=

2

x

2

x

f

+

1

1

()

x

()

f x

x

x

2

2

/b

=

x

3

+

ax x

1

x

≤−

=− +

x

1

1

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

: ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟا تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﻲﻓ x

0 ﻲﻓ f لﺎﺼﺗا سردأ -1

x

0

x 0

x 0

= 0

= 0

;

;

()

f () 0

f x

=

sin 3

x

x

0

x / a

=

3

f

()

x

=

x

sin

1

x

x

0

f xxx x

=

()

2

0

/c

1 ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ ﻲﻜﻟ a دﺪﺣ -2

لﺎﺠﻣ ﻲﻓ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا -2 ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

I حﻮﺘﻔﻣ لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

I ﻦﻣ ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻞآ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ

[a; b ] لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

a ﻦﻴﻤﻳ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣو ]a; b[ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻞآ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ ﻂﻘﻓو اذإ [a; b ] ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نﻮﻜﺗ

b رﺎﺴﻳ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ و

[a; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ و ]; a ] و [a; b[ ﻰﻠﻋ و ]a; b ] ﻰﻠﻋ لﺎﺼﺗﻻا فﺮﻌﻧ ﻞﺜﻤﻟﺎﺑ

ﺎﻤﻬﻴﺘﻴﺛاﺪﺣإ ﻦﻴﺘﻠﻟا ﻦﻴﺘﻄﻘﻨﻟا ﻩﺎﻓﺮﻃ ﻞﺼﺘﻣ ﻂﺧ ﻮه [a; b ] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاﺪﻟ ﻲﻧﺎﻴﺒﻤﻟا ﻞﻴﺜﻤﺘﻟا ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ

2

(

()

b; f b

)

و

(

(

a; f a

)

)

ﺔﻳدﺎﻴﺘﻋا لاود لﺎﺼﺗا -3 ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x tan x و x sin x و x cos x و x

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x tan x و x sin x و x cos x و x x لاوﺪﻟا و ﺔﻳرﺪﺠﻟا لاوﺪﻟا و ﺔﻳدوﺪﺤﻟا لاوﺪﻟا ﺎﻬﻔﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ ﻦﻤﺿ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻞآ

ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -4

ﻞآ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -4 n ≤ x ≺ n + 1 ﺚﻴﺣ n ﺪﻴﺣو

n x n + 1 ﺚﻴﺣ n ﺪﻴﺣو ﻲﺒﺴﻧ ﺢﻴﺤﺻ دﺪﻋ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ x ﻲﻘﻴﻘﺣ دﺪﻋ ﻞﻜﻟ x دﺪﻌﻠﻟ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﻰﻤﺴﻳ n ﻲﺒﺴﻨﻟا ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا دﺪﻌﻟا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ﻪﺋﺰﺠﺑ ﻦﻣ x ﺮﺼﻨﻋ ﻞآ ﻂﺑﺮﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻲه ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد [ x ] ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ وأ E ( x ) ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻩﺬﻬﺑ x ةرﻮﺼﻟ ﺰﻣﺮﻧ

E ( x ) = n ⇔ ∃! n

n x n + 1

3 ≤ −2,1 2 نﻷ E ( 2,1) = −3

4 ≤ −4 5 نﻷ E ( 4 ) = −4

ﺔﻠﺜﻣأ 3 3, 7 4 نﻷ E (3, 7 ) = 3

3 ≤ 3, 7 ≺ 4 نﻷ E ( 3 , 7 ) = 3 1

1 2 2 نﻷ E

(

2
2

)

= 1

x [n; n + 1[

E ( x ) = n

ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟ ﻲﻧﺎﻴﺒﻤﻟا ﻞﻴﺜﻤﺘﻟا n ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

E ( x ) = − 1 نﺎﻓ x [ 1; 0[ نﺎآ اذإ

E ( x ) = 0

نﺎﻓ

x [0; 1[ نﺎآ

اذإ

E ( x ) = − 2 نﺎﻓ x [ 2; 1[ نﺎآ اذإ

E ( x ) = 1 نﺎﻓ

x [1; 2[ نﺎآ

اذإ

[ − 2; − 1 [ نﺎآ اذإ E ( x ) = 1 نﺎﻓ x

3

ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ

-*

x E ( x ) x E ( x ) + 1 -*

n x E ( x + n ) = E ( x ) + n -*

n

E ( n ) = n

n ﻦﻜﻴﻟ n ﻲﻓ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ و n ﻲﻓ ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -* [n; n + 1[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -*

n ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ ﺢﻴﺤﺼﻟا ءﺰﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -*

ﺔﻟاد رﻮﺼﻗ -5 ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

I ﻦﻤﺿ J لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد g و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ J لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا رﻮﺼﻗ g ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نا لﻮﻘﻧ ﺎﻨﻧﺎﻓ x J g ( x ) = f ( x ) ﺚﻴﺤﺑ

ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ g نﺎﻓ J لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا رﻮﺼﻗ g و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ J لﺎﺠﻤﻟا

: ﻲﻠﻳ ﺎﻤﺑ [ 1; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌ ﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

[ 1; +∞[ لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ

f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نأ ﻦﻴﺑ

 f () x = x x 1   2 3 x  f
f
() x
=
x
x 1
2
3 x
f x
()
=
;
− 1 ≤
x
1
x + 2

------------------------------------------------------------------

]1; +∞[ [0; + ∞[ و [0; + ∞[ ﺎﻬﻔﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺰﻴﺣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x x ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا - *

]1; + ∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻪﻨﻣو

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻪﻨﻣو ] − 1; 1 [ ⊂ − { − 2 }

] 1; 1[ { 2} و ﺔﻳد و ﺪﺣ ﺔﻟاد ﺎ ﻬﻧﻷ { 2} ﻦﻤﺿ لﺎﺠﻣ ﻞآ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ

x

[ 1; 1[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ

f

3 x

2

x + 2

ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا -*

ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻪﻨﻣو

lim

x

1

3 x

2

f x =

(

)

lim

=

1

و

lim f

x 1

+

x + 2 1 ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نذإ

x

1

(

x

)

1 ﻲﻓ f لﺎﺼﺗا سرﺪﻨﻟ -*

= lim x + x → 1 lim f x ( ) + x →
=
lim
x
+
x
1
lim
f x
(
)
+
x
1
[− 1; +∞[

= و f (1) = 1 ﺎﻨﻳﺪﻟ

1

=

lim

x 1

(

f x

)

=

f

( )

1

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نذإ

ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻤﻟا لاوﺪﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ تﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا -II (ﻞﺒﻘﺗ)ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ -1

:نﺎﻓ ﺎﻴﻘﻴﻘﺣ ادﺪﻋ α و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻦﻴﺘﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﻦﻴﺘﻟاد g و f

ﺎﺘﻧﺎآ اذإ

I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f × g و α f و f + g -*

I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ نﺎﺘﻠﺼﺘﻣ

f

g

و

1

g

ﻦﻴﺘﻟاﺪﻟا نﺎﻓ I لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ مﺪﻌﻨﺗ g ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ و -*

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟا تﻻﺎﺤﻟا ﻲﻓ D f ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻟﺎﺼﺗا سردأ و f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺔﻋﻮﻤﺠﻣ دﺪﺣ

(

f x

)

=

3 x + 1 x
3 x
+ 1
x

-ج

f x =

(

)

4

x x + x + 1
x
x
+
x + 1

-د

f x = x + sin x

(

)

2

(

) -أ

ﻦﻴﺘﻟاد ﺐآﺮﻣ لﺎﺼﺗا -2 ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

f ( I ) J ﺚﻴﺣ J لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻟاد g و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

. I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ g f نﺎﻓ J ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاد g و I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

. D

f

f

( x ) = cos(3 x

2

2 x )

: ـﺑ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا f ﺔﻳدﺪﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﺮﺒﺘﻌﻧ

دﺪﺣ (1

ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا لﺎﺼﺗا سردأ ﻢﺛ .ﻦﻴﺘﻟاد ﺐآﺮﻣ ﻞﻜﺷ ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺐﺘآا (2

. D

f

: ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣو ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣ f [0; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x x و f ( I ) [0; +∞[

x x و f ( I ) ⊂ [ 0 ; +∞ [ f = f
x x و f ( I ) ⊂ [ 0 ; +∞ [ f = f

f = f نﻻ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ

f = f نﻻ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f نذا : ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ

f نذا

:ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ

I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ

I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاد نﺎﻓ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣو

f ﺔﻟاد نﺎﻓ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣو ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذا

ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاﺪﺑ لﺎﺠﻣ ةرﻮﺻ -III لﺎﺠﻣ ةرﻮﺻ ﺔﻌﻄﻗ ةرﻮﺻ -1

.

f

( x ) =

(

o , i , j

)

2

x

ﻢﻈﻨﻤﻣ و ﺪﻣﺎﻌﺘﻣ ﻢﻠﻌﻣ ﻲﻓ ﺎهﺎﻨﺤﻨﻣ C و

:ـﺑ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا f ﺔﻳدﺪﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﺮﺒﺘﻌﻧ

(

f

)

طﺎﺸﻧ

.

(

)

C ﺊﺸﻧا -1

f

] ;0[ و [0; +[ ; ] 1; 0[ ; ] 1; 2] ; [ 1; 2] ; [0; 2]

: تﻻﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻦﻣ ﻞآ رﻮﺻ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﻴﺒﻣ دﺪﺣ - 2

ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

.ﺔﻌﻄﻗ ﻲه ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاﺪﺑ ﺔﻌﻄﻗ ةرﻮﺻ -* لﺎﺠﻣ ﻲه ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاﺪﺑ لﺎﺠﻣ ةرﻮﺻ -*

f (
f (

ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ [a ; b ] ﻦﻣ β و α ﺪﺟﻮﻳ ﻪﻧﺎﻓ [a ; b ] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ *

[

a ; b ) = [m ; M ]

]

(ﺎﻴﻧﺪﻟا ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻟا)

m

=

(

f β

(ىﻮﺼﻘﻟا ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻟا)

M

=

(

f α

)

)

=

= inf

(

(

f x

[

x a b

;

]

sup

(

(

f x

[

x a b

;

]

)

)

)

)

ﺚﻴﺣ

و

ﻻﺎﺠﻣ ﺲﻴﻟ f ( I ) و ﻦﻣ ﻻﺎﺠﻣ I نﺎآ اذإ *

I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ f نﺎﻓ ﻦﻣ

فﺎآ طﺮﺷ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f طﺮﺸﻟا ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺨﻟا ﻲﻓ *

ةرﻮﺻ نﻮﻜﺗ نأ ﻦﻜﻤﻳ يأ ﺎﻣزﻻ ﺮﻴﻏ ﻦﻜﻟ و لﺎﺠﻣ ﻲه ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ ﺔﻟاﺪﺑ لﺎﺠﻣ

[2.3] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻳدﺪﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا f ﺮﺒﺘﻌﻧ

f x

()

= +

x

2

1

()

f x

= −

x

x

x

[

∈−

2;0

[

0;3

]

[

:ـﺑ

لﺎﺜﻣ

[2; 3] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ f ﻚﻟذ ﻊﻣ f (

[

2; 3 ) = [1; 2]

]

0ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺮﻴﻏ ﺎﻬﻧﻷ

5

ﺔﻴﻄﻴﺳﻮﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﻟا ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ -2 [ a ; b ] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f f ( b

ﺔﻴﻄﻴﺳﻮﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﻟا ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ -2

[a ; b ] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f

f (b ) و f ( a ) ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ k

k

f

(

[

a; b

]

)

ﻪﻨﻣو

b و a ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ c دﺪﻋ ﻞﻗﻷا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ

. f ( c ) = k ﺚﻴﺣ

ﺔﻴﻄﻴﺳﻮﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﻟا ﺔﻨهﺮﺒﻣ

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ f (b ) و f ( a ) ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ k ﻞﻜﻟ نﺎﻓ I ﻦﻣ ﻦﻳﺮﺼﻨﻋ b و a و I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

.

f ( c ) = k ﺚﻴﺣ b و a ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ c دﺪﻋ ﻞﻗﻷا

ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ

ﻲﻓ ﻼﺣ ﻞﻗﻷا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ f ( x ) = 0 ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا نﺎﻓ f ( a ) f (b ) 0 نﺎآو [a ; b ] ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

. ]a ; b[

 

π

2

;

π  

 

ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﻴﺼﻗﺎﻨﺗ و ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا

 

f ( I ) لﺎﺠﻤﻟا

I لﺎﺠﻤﻟا

 

  f

(b ); ( )

f a

[a ; b ]

 

 

lim

x

b

( );

f x

(

f a

)

 

[a ; b[

 

 

();

f b

lim

x

a

+

()

f x

 

]a ; b ]

x

lim

b

f

(

x

);

lim

x

a

+

(

f x

)

 

]a ; b[

 

 

x

lim

→+∞

( );

f x

(

f a

)

 

[a ; +∞[

x

lim

→+∞

f

(

x

);

lim

x

a

+

(

f x

)

 

]a ; +∞[

 

 

();

f a

x

lim

→−∞

()

f x

 

]−∞; a ]

x

lim

a

f

( );

x

x

lim

→−∞

(

f x

)

 

]−∞; a [

ﻲﻓ ﻼﺣ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ 2sin x = x ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا نأ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

6

ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗر و ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاد ﺔﻟﺎﺣ -3

 

ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﻳﺪﻳاﺰﺗ و ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا

 

f ( I ) لﺎﺠﻤﻟا

I لﺎﺠﻤﻟا

 

f a

( ); (b )

f

[a ; b ]

 

 

();

f a

lim

x

b

()

f x

 

[a ; b[

 

 

lim

x

a

+

( );

f x

(

f b

)

 

]a ; b ]

x

lim

a

+

f

(

x

);

lim

x

b

(

f x

)

 

]a ; b[

 

 

();

f a

x

lim

→+∞

()

f x

 

[a ; +∞[

x

lim

a

+

f

(

x

);

x

lim

→+∞

(

f x

)

 

]a ; +∞[

 

 

x

lim

→−∞

( );

f x

(

f a

)

 

]−∞; a ]

x

lim

→−∞

f

( );

x

lim

x

a

(

f x

)

 

]−∞; a [

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ﻲﻠﻳ ﺎﻤآ ﺎﻬﺗاﺮﻴﻐﺗ لوﺪﺟ ];5] ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f

x

-

0

1

5

f

-1

4

-1 4

-5

3

3

(

]

f −∞;5

]

)

f −∞;0 و f 2;1

(

]

]

)

(

[

]

)

و

f

(

[

0; 5

]

)

و

f

(

[

1; 5

]

)

دﺪﺣ /1

ﺞﺘﻨﺘﺳا ﻢﺛ ];5] لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟ ﺎﻴﻧﺪﻟا ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻟا ﻢﺛ ىﻮﺼﻘﻟا ﺔﻤﻴﻘﻟا دﺪﺣ /2

f ﺔﻟاﺪﻟﺎﺑ

 

−∞ ;

1

4

 

f x =

(

)

2

x

+

1

4

x

1

لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ةرﻮﺻ دﺪﺣ /2

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ـﺑ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻣ ﺔﻳدﺪﻋ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

D دﺪﺣ /1

f

ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ

ﺪﻴﺣو دﺪﻋ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺪﺟﻮﻳ f (b ) و f ( a ) ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ k ﻞﻜﻟ نﺎﻓ [a ; b ] ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

. f ( c ) = k ﺚﻴﺣ b و a ﻦﻴﺑ رﻮﺼﺤﻣ c

ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ

ﻼﺣ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ f ( x ) = 0 ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا نﺎﻓ f ( a ) f (b ) 0 نﺎآو [a ; b ] ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

. ]a ; b[ ﻲﻓ α اﺪﻴﺣو

 

− −

1;

 

( ﻲﺋﺎﻨﺜﻟا عﺮﻔﺘﻟا ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻃ )

1 ﻲﻓα اﺪﻴﺣو ﻼﺣ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ x + 1 = − x ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا نأ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ
2

1

8

3

ﻪﺘﻌﺳ α دﺪﻌﻠﻟ اﺮﻴﻃﺄﺗ دﺪﺣ

لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاﺪﻟ ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا -IV ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ -1

ﻞﺒﻘﺗ f ( x ) = y ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا f ( I ) ﻦﻣ y ﻞﻜﻟ نﺎﻓ I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاد ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

( f ( I ) لﺎﺠﻤﻟا ﻮﺤﻧ I ﻦﻣ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﺗ

f ﺎﻨﻟﻮﻘﺑ اﺬه ﻦﻋ ﺮﺒﻌﻧ ) I ﻲﻓ اﺪﻴﺣ و ﻼﺣ

ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ

. f ( I ) = J ﺚﻴﺣ لﺎﺠﻣ J و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻰﻤﺴﺗ f ( x ) = y ﺚﻴﺤﺑ I ﻦﻣ x ﺪﻴﺣﻮﻟا ﺮﺼﻨﻌﻟﺎﺑ J ﻦﻣ y ﺮﺼﻨﻋ ﻞآ ﻂﺑﺮﺗ ﻲﺘﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا

f

1 ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ ﺎﻬﻟ ﺰﻣﺮﻧ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻠﻟ

ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ

ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺎﻬﺘﻟاد

x

x

∀∈

∀ ∈

()

()

f I

f I

f

x

f

1

f

و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

I

1

f

1

()

x

=

()

x

x

=

;

y

x =

x

I

()

f y

f

1

()

f x

=

x

 

ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ -2 ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

:نﺎﻓ ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺎﻬﺘﻟاد

f

1

و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗرو ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺔﻟاد ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ

 

f ( I ) ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ ن

f

1 -*

I

لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﺑﺎﺗر ﺲﻔﻧ ﺎﻬﻟ و f ( I ) ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻌﻄﻗ ﺔﺒﻴﺗر f

1 -*

ﻲﻓ y = x ﻪﺘﻟدﺎﻌﻣ يﺬﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻤﻟا ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺑ C ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﺛﺎﻤﻣ ﻮه

 

1

ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻨﺤﻨﻣ

C

-*

f

f

f

1

.ﻢﻈﻨﻤﻣ و ﺪﻣﺎﻌﺘﻣ ﻢﻠﻌﻣ

7

حﻼﻄﺻا ﻢﻠﻌﻤﻠﻟ لوﻻا ﻒﺼﻨﻤﻟا ﻰﻤﺴﻳ y = x ﻪﺘﻟدﺎﻌﻣ يﺬﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻤﻟا

x ﻪﺘﻟدﺎﻌﻣ يﺬﻟا ﻢﻴﻘﺘﺴﻤﻟا ( f x ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا

(

f x

ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

)

=

x

x

2

+

1

ـﺑ

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

 

−∞

f

;

1 ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ
2

;    1 ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ 2 ( x ) = 1

( x ) = 1 2 x ـﺑ

 

:ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ﻞﺒ ﻘﺗ [ 1; 1] ﻰﻠﻋ f ﺔﻟاﺪﻠﻟ g رﻮﺼﻘﻟا نأ ﻦﻴﺑ

 

ﻰﻠﻋ

f

1

ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻋ ﺔﻟاد ﻞﺒﻘﺗ f نأ ﻦﻴﺑ /1 ﻩﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ ﺐﻴﺠﻳ J لﺎﺠﻣ

f

1

دﺪﺣ /2

ﻩﺪﻳﺪﺤﺗ ﺐﻴﺠﻳ J لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ

g

1

ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻋ ﺔﻟاد

 

g

1

دﺪﺣ ﻢﺛ

 

ﻢﺛ

C

f

1

ﺊﺸﻧأ ﻢﻈﻨﻤﻣ ﺪﻣﺎﻌﺘﻣ ﻢﻠﻌﻣ ﻲﻓ /3

   

ﻢﻠﻌﻤﻟا ﺲﻔﻧ ﻲﻓ C ﺊﺸﻧا

f

n ﺔﺒﺗﺮﻟا ﻦﻣ رﺪﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد -3

n

*

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

+

ﻰﻟإ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻋ ﺔﻟاد ﻞﺒﻘﺗ x x ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا نأ ﻦﻴﺑ ﻒﻳﺮﻌﺗ -أ

+

n

 

n

*

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

 

n ﺔﺒﺗﺮﻟا ﻦﻣ رﺪﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد ﻰﻤﺴﺗ x x

n

ﻲﻠﻳ ﺎﻤﺑ[0; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻓﺮﻌﻤﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﺴﻜﻌﻟا ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا

 

ﺰﻣﺮﻧ .

n
n

ـﺑ ﻪﻟ ﺰﻣﺮﻳ

 

. x دﺪﻌﻠﻟ n ﺔﺒﺗﺮﻟا ﻦﻣ رﺪﺠﻟا أﺮﻘﻳ و

n
n

x ﺰﻣﺮﻟﺎﺑ x دﺪﻌﻟا ةرﻮﺼﻟ ﺰﻣﺮﻧ

 
 

(

;

x y

)

+

2

n x
n
x

=

y

⇔ =

x

y

n

x

3
3

دﺪﻌﻠﻟ ﺐﻌﻜﻤﻟا رﺪﺠﻟا ﻰﻤﺴﻳ x

-

2
2

x =

x
x
 

x

;

+

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ حﻼﻄﺻا و ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ

1
1

x = x

-

8

ﺔﻴﺻﺎﺧ

n ∈ * ﻦﻜﻴﻟ n n lim x = +∞ و [0; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ
n ∈
* ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
n
n
lim
x
= +∞
و [0; +∞[ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x → x
ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا -*
x →+∞
n
n
ﻒﺼﻨﻤﻠﻟ ﺔﺒﺴﻨﻟﺎﺑ x → x ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻤﻟ ﻞﺛﺎﻤﻣ x → x ﺔﻟاﺪﻟا ﻰﻨﺤﻨﻣ ﻢﻈﻨﻤﻣ ﺪﻣﺎﻌﺘﻣ ﻢﻠﻌﻣ ﻲﻓ -*
ﻢﻠﻌﻤﻠﻟ لوﻷا
n = 4 :ﺔﻟﺎﺣ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ * n ∈ ﻦﻜﻴﻟ n 2 ∀ ( y +
n = 4 :ﺔﻟﺎﺣ
ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ
*
n ∈
ﻦﻜﻴﻟ
n
2
(
y
+ (
n
x
;
)
x
)
=
x
2
n
(
x
;
y
)
+ ⇔ =
x
=
n
y
x
y
2
(
n
x
;
y
)
+ ⇔
x
n
y
x
y

n

x x = a

ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻞﺣ -ب

x

4

= 5

;

x

7

5

= −8 ; x = 243

 

تﻻدﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﻞﺣ

*

a و n ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

x

n = a

ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺶﻗﺎﻧو

ﻞﺣ

 
 

روﺬﺠﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ تﺎﻴﻠﻤﻌﻟا -ج

 

(

a; b

)

+ 2

;

(

n; p

)

*2

ﻦﻜﻴﻟ

 

(

n a
n
a

)

p

=

n p a
n
p
a
 

;

n a
n
a

=

np p a
np
p
a

;

n a a = n n b b
n
a
a
=
n
n
b
b

(

b

0)

 
n p a
n p
a

=

n p a
n p
a
 

;

n n n a × b = a b
n
n
n
a
×
b
=
a b
 
n a
n
a
 
np a
np
a

p

n a )
n
a
)

pn

 

(

np a
np
a

p

pn

(

n a
n
a

)

n

 

p

p

 

p

 

p

نﺎهﺮﺒﻟا

=

 

=

 

=

a

a

=

a

 

+

(

*2

)

=

 

n m + a
n m
+
a

nm

نأ ﻦهﺮﺑ -1

 

a

 

(

;

n m

)

 
n a
n
a
m a
m
a
   

ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

9

;7 3 نرﺎﻗ -3 3 5 1024 32 4 64 3 256 18 ﻂﺴﺑ -2

7 3
7
3

نرﺎﻗ -3

3 5 1024 32 4 64 3 256 18
3
5
1024
32
4 64
3 256
18

ﻂﺴﺑ -2

ﻲﻧﻮﻨﻟا رﺪﺠﻟا ﺔﻟاد و ﺔﻟاد ﺔﺒآﺮﻣ ﺔﻳﺎﻬﻧو لﺎﺼﺗا -د تﺎﻴﺻﺎﺧ

I ﻦﻣ اﺮﺼﻨﻋ x 0 و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ I ﻰﻠﻋ
I ﻦﻣ اﺮﺼﻨﻋ x
0 و I لﺎﺠﻣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﺒﺟﻮﻣ ﺔﻟاد f ﻦﻜﺘﻟ
I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f
n
نﺎﻓ I ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ f ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ
lim
n
f x
(
)
n
=
l
نﺎﻓ
lim
f x
(
)
= ﺖﻧﺎآ اذإ
l
x
→ x
x
→ x
0
0
lim n
f
(
x
)
= +∞
نﺎﻓ
lim
f x
(
)
= +∞ ﺖﻧﺎآ
اذإ
x
→ x
x
→ x
0
0

ﺔﻈﺣﻼﻣ

−∞ ﻰﻟإ وأ +∞ ﻰﻟا وأ رﺎﺴﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ x

0

ﻰﻟا وأ ﻦﻴﻤﻴﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ x ﻰﻟا x لوﺆﻳ ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋ ﻦﻴﺘﺤﻟﺎﺻ نﻼﻈﺗ نﺎﺘﻴﺻﺎﺨﻟا ﻦﻳﺮﻤﺗ

0

x

( E ) ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻞﺣ /ب

3 2 x − 1 = x
3 2 x
− 1 = x

ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻟا ( E ) ﻦﻜﺘﻟ

( E ) ﺔﻟدﺎﻌﻤﻠﻟ ﻞﺣ 1 نأ ﺪآﺄﺗ /أ

-1

. ﺎﻬﻔﻳﺮﻌﺗ ﺰﻴﺣ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻄﻘﻧ ﻞآ ﻲﻓ ﺔﻠﺼﺘﻣ x