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Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination What you need to know

about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Set Works
1: And The Glory of the Lord from Handels Messiah 2: Symphony No.40 by Mozart 3: The Raindrop Prelude No.15 by Chopin 4: Peripetie by Schoenberg 5: Somethings Coming by Bernstein 6: Electric Counterpoint by Steve Reich 7: All Blues by Miles Davis 8: Grace by Geoff Buckley 9: Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad by Moby 10: Skye Waulking Song performed by Capercaille 11: Rag Desh 12: Yiri by Koko

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 1: And The Glory of the Lord from Handels Messiah What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

And the Glory of the Lord Context: And the glory of the Lord is a chorus from Handels Messiah, a sacred oratorio first performed in a charity concert in Dublin in 1742 to help the poor prisoners of the city. And the Glory of the Lord is the 4th movement in the first part of Messiah, which tells about the promise that Christ will come to save the world. Texture: The texture is monophonic [one melody line only] and homophonic [chordal] with some short contrapuntal [polyphonic] sections. The counterpoint [two or more melodies overlapping] is often imitative [a second part which enters later will imitate the first] and sometimes Handel combines 2 different melodic ideas contrapuntally. The number of voice parts singing at the same time varies from 1 to 4. The vocal textures contrast with each other e.g. lower 2 parts [bass and tenor] with top parts [soprano and alto] and middle parts [tenor and alto]. This provides interest and happens throughout the movement. The instruments often double the voices. Melody: There are 4 contrasting ideas. 1 And the glory of the Lord. The first 3 notes outlining an A major triad are followed by a stepwise scale ending. 2 Shall be revealed. Two one bar descending sequences. 3 And all flesh shall see it together. A repetitive motif with 3 statements of a descending 4th idea. [a rising leap of a 4th followed by a scalic descent of a 4th ]. 4 For the mouth of the Lord has spoken it . Long dotted minim repeated notes. Metre and Rhythm: Triple metre 3/4 time throughout, sometimes varied at cadences by the use of hemiola [using tied notes to give a feeling of 3 bars of duple metre]. Regular on-beat crotchet or quaver movement in the bass keeps the rhythm moving forward without pausing at cadences. Dotted rhythms, crotchet syncopation and hemiola are used. Longer note values are used to highlight For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. Dramatic use of rests at the end emphasize that the Lord hath spoken it. The ending, which includes a total silence followed by a sustained cadence, is a typical feature of Handels choral style in fast movements. Tonality: Major key [A major] : Joyful. Modulates to the dominant key of E major and the dominant of the dominant, B major. Major keys throughout. Begins and ends in A major. Ritornello: The instrumental introduction in this piece is a ritornello [a little return] because some of this opening returns several times. The shorter repeats are called ritornelli. Instrumentation: Violin 1, violin 2, viola, cello, double bass, harpsichord, oboes and bassoons [Instruments sometimes double the voice parts].

The strings mainly double the voices, sometimes in a different octave to add variety. All instrumental parts are kept to a modest range. Some independent parts for strings are based on the vocal material, as in the opening ritornello, and the later shorter ritornelli. Some short sections are accompanied only by the continuo instruments [cello, bass and harpsichord], such as the first vocal entry. Keyboard players were expected to improvise harmonies based on the figured bass part. Double basses play the same part as the cellos, but sound an octave lower. [Handel later added parts for oboes and bassoon]. Voice parts: Soprano, alto, tenor, bass Harmony: The harmony is diatonic [using only notes belonging to the key]. The chords mostly use root- position and first inversion triads. The harmonic rhythm [the number of chord changes in a bar] changes quickly. Dissonances are created by suspensions [tied notes] and melodic decoration. Most of the cadences are perfect, with a few imperfect cadences, and a there is plagal cadence at the end. The keys are all major. Musical Devices: Sequences [the same tune repeated at a higher or lower pitch], melisma [several notes sung to one vowel sound] on revealed, hemiola [2 bars of 3/4 time played as if they were in 2/4 time e.g. bars 9-10], suspensions [a chord containing a dissonant note which then resolves into a harmony note e.g. bars 9-10], imitation, dramatic use of rests, doubling parts for emphasis [For the mouth of the Lord has spoken it.] Word setting: Mostly syllabic [one note per syllable], but melismatic [several notes to one syllable] on the words revealed and flesh [using melisma]. The tenor and bass voice parts are doubled to emphasize For the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it. There is a dramatic use of silence at the end to emphasize hath spoken it. Choral styles in this chorus Single line writing [monophonic] Four part choir [homophonic] Imitation [in the contrapuntal sections] Two ideas together Doubling of parts Possible questions: What musical features contribute to the joyful nature of the music? 1 Use of major keys: A major, E major, B major 2 Allegro tempo marking 3 Lively triple metre [3/4 time] with feeling of one in a bar

4 Dotted rhythms 5 Use of hemiola 6 Harmonic rhythm one chord per bar or 2+1 [chord 1 for 2 beats then chord 2 for 1 beat]: making the music flow briskly.

What musical features in this piece are typical of the Baroque style? Using diatonic chords [chords belonging to the key] Use of basso continuo One joyful mood throughout the piece Ornamented melody Harpsichord playing the continuo part Antiphonal contrast between monophonic line followed by homophonic tutti reply. Contrast between monophonic, homophonic and contrapuntal textures Strong melody and bass lines Dance like rhythms Use of hemiola Small orchestra, using mainly string instruments Modulations restricted to related keys Clearly contrasted stepped dynamics Describe ways in which the texture of the music is contrasted. How are the last three bars [hath spoken it] given a dramatic setting? Dramatic pause before the last vocal phrase Slower and broader tempo Longer note values Strong homophonic chordal setting Loud dynamics Use of timpani

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 2: Symphony No.40 by Mozart What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Mozarts Symphony No. 40 in G minor, 1 st Movement


Mozart [1756-1791] Mozart was a musical genius and toured Europe as a child, playing the violin and piano. Following employment as Konzertmeister to the Archbishop of Salzburg, Mozart moved to Vienna in 1781 where he spent the rest of his life composing and performing. He composed operas such as The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni and The Magic Flute. Other works included sonatas, concertos, 41 symphonies, string quartets, string quintets, masses [a setting of the church service in Latin to music] and the incomplete Requiem Mass. Context: The new classical style was clear, symmetrical and balanced, as evident in the classical symphony, string quartet, concerto and solo sonata. The main composers of the classical period were the 3 Viennese composers, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven. Symphony No.40 was composed in the 1780s [late eighteenth century] and was meant to be performed in a concert hall. The four movements of a symphony were usually: 1 Fast and in Sonata Form [also called First Movement Form] 2 Slow 3 Minuet and trio [or scherzo and trio] 4 Fast and in rondo, sonata form or theme and variations. The Classical Style Periodic [regular] phrasing: Well balanced, graceful question and answer phrases of equal length. Texture: Mostly melody dominated homophony [a melody accompanied by chords]. Some polyphony occasionally used. Symmetrical structure e.g. sonata form Functional harmony [harmony emphasizing the key] based on chords I, 1V, V, II, and VI Strong sense of tonality [clear sense of key] Perfect cadences used frequently to emphasize the key Clarinet added to the orchestra Music graceful and clear The orchestra became a standard instrumental ensemble Harpsichord no longer in orchestra New forms included the string quartet and symphony More gradation of tone than Baroque music [crescendos and diminuendos] More modulations than Baroque music The bass line not as prominent as in Baroque music

Structure Sonata form: Exposition: [NB. There is no introduction in Symphony No. 40] First subject in Gm Transition modulating from Gm to Bb Second Subject in Bb [the relative major] The codetta [ending] of the exposition ends in Bb. The exposition is then repeated. Development: The music, based on the first subject, modulates [ visits distant keys]. Modulations from Gm to a chromatic chord [ G#dim7 ] to the remote key of F#m . Then a circle of 5ths progression of Em Am Dm Gm C F Bb. Recapitulation: First subject in Gm Transition Gm Eb Fm Eb Gm [longer than in the exposition] Second subject in Gm Coda in G minor [longer than the codetta in the exposition to reinforce the tonic Gm key] The phrases are in balanced periodic 4 or 8 bar units Instrumentation: Strings [ violin 1, violin 2, cello, double bass ], 1 flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 1 horn in Bb, [ to give the Bb notes of Bb and F], 1 horn in G [ to give the Gm notes of G, Bb and D]. NB. Unusually, no trumpets or timpani used! Because horns could produce only a limited number of notes in Moza rts time, they mainly add to the harmonies, play pedal notes and reinforce the texture in the loud sections. However, Mozart increases the range of the horns by asking for one to be crooked in G and the other in Bb [the two main key centres of the movement]. The woodwind are also sometimes used to sustain the harmonies, but they also play the melody [sometimes doubling at the octave or in two different octaves]. They play linking phrases, share the start of the second subject in dialogue with the violins, and play the opening motif of the first subject when it returns in the closing sections. The bassoons sometimes double the string bass in loud sections, but elsewhere have an independent part. Groups of instruments sometimes play: The theme [sometimes in octaves] A chordal accompaniment Antiphony [a musical conversation between strings and woodwind with these sections sharing the theme and then reversing their roles] Pedal notes [long held or constantly repeated notes] Sound colour is also varied by doubling the melody using several instruments in different octaves e.g. In bars 14-16 the clarinet phrase is doubled by the flute an octave higher and the bassoon an octave lower.

Dynamics The first subject is quiet, apart from a few bars of loud cadences in the middle. The transition is loud and is followed by the second subject which starts quietly, but increases in volume towards the end. The closing section of the exposition contains contrasts of loud and soft dynamics. The development begins and ends quietly, but has a long loud section in the middle. The dynamics in the recapitulation are similar to those of the exposition, but the loud transition section is longer. There are clear contrasts between forte and piano throughout, without many crescendo or diminuendo markings. Terms: Molto Allegro [very fast]. Melody NB Much of the piece is based on the first 3 notes. First part of first subject: The opening 3 note motif consists of a descending semitone step followed by a repeated note. After the 3 note motif is repeated 3 times the melody then rises a 6th and is followed by a descending stepwise pattern. This phrase is then repeated as a descending sequence. Transition [Bridge passage]: Loud and confident rising leaps between notes of chords emphasizing the first beat of the bar. The purpose of the bridge is to prepare for the entry of the second subject in the relative major key of Bb. Second subject: the first 3 notes descend in semitones [chromatically]. [relaxed sighing motif]. They are followed by 5 notes of the Bb major scale descending from dominant to tonic, the last note repeated twice before ascending stepwise a 4th. There is then a longer chromatic descending melody. Falling, descending chromatic phrases were associated with sighing or sadness and characteristic of the graceful pathetique [ melancholy] mood. Second part of second subject: Unison violins play chromatic ascending quavers followed by strong rhythms emphasizing the main 1 st and 3rd beats of the bar then a scalic descent. There are occasionally ornaments such as trills.

Texture Summary Mostly homophonic [a melody accompanied by chords], but with a section of counterpoint [overlapping melodies] in the development. The melodies are often doubled in octaves, and the start of the second subject is shared between the woodwind and violins in a musical dialogue.

Texture in more detail: homophonic and contrapuntal The music is sometimes homophonic [at the beginning of the exposition the first subject is accompanied by chords]. There are contrasts in texture when the second subject is shared between strings and woodwind and then their roles are reversed. In the development section at the end of bar 114 Mozart introduces a contrapuntal texture in which the first subject is played by the low strings and bassoons and the violins have a staccato countermelody. The roles of these groups of instruments are then reversed to create further contrast. During this section the woodwind supply the supporting chordal harmonies. At bar 138 the first subject is presented in imitation between the first violins and woodwind. The texture is lightened here by the absence of low instruments. The texture then thins as the first subject fragments until only 3 notes are left. The transition in the recapitulation has a contrapuntal texture with the melody in the bass accompanied by a countermelody in quavers in the violin 2 part and the first violins imitating the bass part. Whilst the texture of music in the Classical era is mostly melody dominated homophony [a melody accompanied by chords], Mozart has proved in symphony No. 40 that he is a master of contrapuntal texture [polyphonic music where two more melodies occur at the same time]. The texture also varies when the loud tutti transition contrasts with the quieter and more refined first and second subjects which have fewer instruments playing at the same time. Texture and sound colour are also varied by doubling the melody using several instruments in different octaves e.g. in bars 14-16 the clarinet phrase is doubled by the flute and bassoon. Harmony and Tonality The harmony and tonality are functional [with clear cadences] to emphasize the keys upon which the sonata form structure is based: Exposition First subject in the tonic key of Gm Transition modulating from Gm to Bb Second subject in the relative major of Bb Development The music modulates [visits distant keys]. Modulations from Gm to a chromatic chord [ G#dim7 ] to the remote key of F#m . A chromatic passage leads to a circle of 5ths progression of Em Am Dm Gm C F Bb. There is then a dominant preparation for the recapitulation. Recapitulation: First subject in Gm Transition Gm Eb Fm Eb Gm Second subject in Gm NB In the recapitulation and coda Mozart adapts material from the exposition to remain close to the tonic key until the end of the movement.

Harmonic features include: Frequent perfect or imperfect cadences [to emphasize the key] Dominant pedal notes [to indicate a new section is about to begin e.g. from bar 153 towards the end of the development to announce the arrival of the recapitulation] Circle of 5ths [in the development section] Lush 7th chords [changing the F# to F when the first subject is repeated in the exposition leading to the transition.] Dramatic chromatic diminished 7th chord [bars 63 and 246] Chromatic rising bass with diminished 7th chords [bars 247,249 and 251] Discords between the pedal [long held or constantly repeated note] and rising chromatic notes towards the end of the recapitulation Periodic phrasing [question and answer phrases] The opening four bars of the first subject which dont have a conclusive ending [question] are answered by the following four bars which have a strong perfect cadence ending [periodic phrasing]. This example of balanced question and answer periodic phrasing is typical of the classical style. The melody is accompanied by constant quavers and on-beat crotchet bass notes. The second subject is shared between the strings and woodwind. The melody is accompanied by simple chords. When repeated, the order of entry of the strings and woodwind is reversed. This musical dialogue between strings and woodwind is antiphonal [contrast and conversation between different groups of instruments]. What you need to know 1. It is unusual that no trumpets or timpani are included in the orchestra for Symphony No. 40 2. Two ways that the first and second subjects differ in the exposition are: o First subject is in G minor; the second subject is in Bb [the relative major]. o Both subjects have different melodies [as described above] 3. The development section develops ideas from the first and second subjects, and explores keys other than those in the exposition [avoids the tonic and relative major keys]

4. The bridge section makes the music modulate from the G minor first subject to the Bb major second subject 5. During the recapitulation the second subject is in the tonic key of G minor so that the movement can end in the tonic key

6.

The first subject is developed in the coda [final section]

7. The mood of the first movement is exciting, serious and dramatic. It has a fast tempo and is in a dramatic key of G minor. The first subject melody is powerful with insistent repeating notes and a leap of a sixth. The second subject has more pathos with a descending chromatic sighing motif. There is dialogue between the strings and woodwind. 8. The two horns reinforce the musical texture at important moments, especially at the ends of sections, cadences etc. Horns at this time had no valves, so had to use crooks. The G crook and Bb together gave the notes G, Bb, D [G minor-first subject] and Bb, D, F [Bb major second subject]. The horns sometimes play dominant pedal notes or repeated notes. 9. The two types of musical texture in Symphony No. 40 are homophonic and polyphonic 10. There are 3 other movements in the rest of the symphony 11. Different woodwind instruments sometimes play in octaves [an octave apart] 12. The instrumentation is changed by strings and woodwind swapping parts, using different octaves and by the lower strings either playing or dropping out; there is sometimes imitation between instruments, and falling or rising sequences and inversion when the strings and woodwind echo each other Possible Section B Questions 1 Comment on how Mozart uses the following musical elements in this movement Structure Dynamics Tonality Texture Use of Wind Instruments 2 Compare the melodies of the first and second subjects 3 What features of Symphony No.40 are typical of the Classical Era?

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 3: The Raindrop Prelude No.15 by Chopin What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Chopin: Prelude No.15 in Db Major, Op.28 Chopin Chopin was born in Zelazowa Wola, near Warsaw in Poland. He was playing piano concertos at the age of eight. Chopin became a successful composer, teacher and performer in Vienna and Paris. His piano music includes Polish folk music and dances such as the mazurka and polonaise, and reflects his love of his homeland. Chopin composed Prelude Number 15 whilst isolated in a monastery in Vallderosa in Spain because he had tuberculosis, an extremely infectious disease at the time. He died about a year later in Paris at the age of 39. The Raindrop Prelude Prelude No.15 is nicknamed the Raindrop because it was written during a storm whilst Chopin was at a monastery in Valldemossa. The repeated Ab / G# quavers throughout represent the rain. Prelude A Prelude is usually an introductory piece linked to another movement e.g. a fugue or sonata. However, this prelude is a stand alone composition. Chopin had been studying The Well-Tempered Clavier by J.S. Bach w hich contains 48 preludes and fugues two in every major and minor key. The Raindrop Prelude is one in a collection of 24 by Chopin. Pedal A pedal, or pedal note is a long, unchanging or constantly repeated note. A dominant pedal is on the 5th note [dominant] of the key. A tonic pedal uses the 1st note [tonic] of the key. Structure The structure is in ternary form [ABA} with a shortened final section that ends with a codetta. The middle section is longer than usual and contrasts with the first by changing to the tonic minor key [C# minor], having a narrow range melody in the bass and a greater variety of dynamics. The coda [end passage] introduces a new but short melody. However, all sections are given unified by the constant quaver rhythm dominant pedal notes.

Melody The lyrical / cantabile [in a singing style] right hand melody in the A section begins with a tonic triad descending to the dominant, then climbs stepwise before descending stepwise towards the end of the phrase. The melody then contains ornaments such as septuplets [seven notes played in the usual time value of four], acciaccaturas, appoggiaturas [grace notes], turns etc. and is sometimes chromatic [using notes not belonging to the original key]. The first A section melody has four bar phrases that are repeated with only small variations. The B section melody begins in the bass, and has a narrower range. The opening 4 notes which rise and then descend stepwise are repeated as a rising sequence [the same melodic pattern played higher] in the next bar. There is then an ascending then descending tonic minor triad ending with a repeated dominant note. Much of the B section is also based on four and eight bar phrases, some of which are repeated. The new melody in the coda starts unaccompanied and is then moved to an inner part before the final cadence. Its descent stepwise followed by a leap is repeated lower as the music subsides.

Rhythm In the A sections there are regular left hand quavers. The right hand melody includes dotted rhythms and gentle syncopation [off-beat rhythm]. In section B the melody consists mostly of crotchets and longer notes in the bass, while the quaver pedal transfers to the top [and later an inner part]. Tonality [NB C# is the enharmonic change of Db- the same note called by a different name. Dominant notes and chords emphasize the key because they like to fall to the tonic, as in a perfect cadence.] The piece begins in Db major. In section A Chopin begins by emphasizing the key with imperfect and perfect cadences and a dominant pedal. The music then briefly moves to the dominant and relative minor related keys before modulating back to the tonic. The first A section ends with an imperfect cadence [ending on the dominant] which prepares the way for the middle section. Section B begins in the tonic minor [C# minor]. The two loudest part of the section seem to be in E major [the relative major of C# minor], but there are no cadences to verify the E major key, and C# minor soon returns. The section ends with an imperfect cadence in

C# minor. There is then another enharmonic modulation to bring the music back to Db major for the repeat of the A section, and to end the piece.

Texture {NB Homophonic: a melody accompanied by chords or broken chords; Monophonic: one unaccompanied melody] The texture is homophonic, except for two monophonic bars at the start of the coda. In the A section the texture consists of a melody and accompaniment [melody dominated homophony], and is often quite sparse with mainly 2 note chords above the repeated pedal note to support the right hand melody. The middle section has a thicker chordal texture. At the beginning of section B the repeated pedal note is moved to the top right hand part, while the melody and bass consist of low notes in the left hand. In the loud sections the texture is thickened by octave doubling in both hands, often resulting in 6 notes sounding at the same time. The pedal note moves to an inner part within the texture.

Use of the Piano In section A only the middle range of the piano is used. In section B Chopin makes use of the sonorous bass register [the upper register is not used at all]. Apart from some of the florid ornaments, the piece is not as technically demanding as some other Romantic era piano compositions. However, the pianist needs to produce a legato / cantabile tone, and a wide dynamic range with crescendos and diminuendos in the middle section. The tone is reinforced with octave doubling in the middle section, and the resonant quality of the piano is brought out through frequent use of the sustaining pedal. The soft damper pedal can be used at the start of the middle section, where the music is marked sotto voce. A rubato playing style [bending the rhythm in order to play emotionally] is also a feature of the music.

How Are Contrasting Moods Achieved Between Sections A and B? Section A is in Db major; section B is in C# minor. Section A has a lyrical right hand melody. Section B has a melody in the left hand [and right hand later] Section A has a light texture of a melody with simple broken quaver accompaniment. Section B has a thicker homophonic chordal texture. Section A is higher in pitch than Section B

Features of Romantic Music Intense expression of feelings and emotions in music Longer and more developed melodies Melodies more chromatic More freedom in the use of musical form and structure Harmony is more chromatic with unresolved discords Dramatic dynamic contrasts Music describes emotions, a story, characters or words Use of folk music and dance rhythms in compositions as composers became very nationalistic and patriotic Expansion of the orchestra with many new wind and percussion instruments The piano was reshaped and enlarged to seven octaves, felt replaced leather hammers, strings were longer and stronger, the body was made of metal instead of wood and sustaining and soft pedals were developed Composers such as Chopin, Brahms and Liszt were also virtuoso performers

Features of Chopins Music Chopin composed almost entirely for the piano Long lyrical melodies with graceful ornamentation Spreading arpeggios Broken chord accompaniment Subtle pedaling effects Discrete use of the romantic tempo rubato in the music Virtuoso passages played very quickly A wide range of touch and tone quality A deeply expressive range of dynamics

Peripetie from Five Orchestral Pieces Opus 16 by Schoenberg Background Schoenberg, Berg and Webern became known as the Second Viennese School of composers. Schoenberg later invented serialism [12 tone music]. Peripetie is atonal, but not serial. Five Orchestral Pieces was composed in 1909 and the first performance was conducted by Sir Henry Wood in 1912. A huge orchestra of 90 players is required. Expressionism is a style in which inner feelings are outwardly expressed as intensely as possible. Features of expressionist music Intensely emotional Angular melodies with wide leaps High level of dissonance [clashing notes] Lots of atonal and extremely chromatic harmonies [using notes not belonging to the key] Instruments play at the extremes of their range Extremes contrasts of dynamics [louds and softs] No cadences, repetition or sequences No balanced phrases Constantly changing texture and ideas You need to know: The additional orchestral instruments used include cor anglaise, piccolo, bass clarinet, 6 horns, 4 trombones, cymbals, gong [tam tam], bass drum, xylophone To add colour the instruments often play in their very high or very low ranges The texture is contrapuntal [several overlapping melodies] The tempo changes frequently There are lots of extreme dynamics The musical style is expressionism Hauptstimme means principal part Nebenstimme means a part of secondary importance The set of 6 pitches used for the harmonic and melodic material is known as a hexachord The use of hexachords creates dissonant sounds Peripetie [A sudden reversal] means a sudden change of fortune for a character in a drama The tonality is atonal Ffp means very loud then quickly soft Klangfarbenmelodie means moving the melodic parts rapidly through different instruments The last 2 bars contain a tremolo in the strings [played rapidly up and down with the bow] The structure is free rondo form

The opening melody is called the principal voice Typical twentieth century musical features in Peripetie 1 Large orchestra 2 Wide ranging dynamics 3 Detailed dynamic markings 4 Each instrument has a wide pitch range 5 Atonal 6 Melodic material moves quickly from instrument to instrument [Klangfarbenmelodie] 7 Frequent use of devices that alter the timbre of the instruments e.g. mute, tremolo, pizz. [pluck the strings] 8 Rhythmically complex Schoenberg developed the 6 pitches in Peripetie by: 1 Transposing them 2 Inverting them [inversion] 3 Playing them backwards [retrograde] 4 Combinations of the above e.g. retrograde inversion 5 Playing the hexachord as a chord [verticalisation] or as a melodic line 6 Using the compliment [the notes not in the hexachord] 7 Altering the rhythm of the notes [including augmentation: making the note values longer, and diminution: making the note values shorter] 8 Octave transpositions of different notes Vocabulary to describe Peripetie Harmony: words describing the harmony are: atonal, dissonant, hexachord, chromatic, chord clusters Melody: angular, fragmented, passed from instrument to instrument Rhythm: disjointed, unmetred, complex Texture: sparse, varied, contrapuntal Pitch: extreme ranges of pitch Dynamics: extreme ranges of dynamics Mood: constantly changing, turmoil, angst, unrest, nervousness Form: Free rondo

Essay: Comment on how Schoenberg uses tonality and harmony, instruments and texture, melody, dynamics and tempo and structure in Peripetie. Schoenbergs Peripetie is atonal. Hexachords are used to create dissonant sounds. Like other late Romantic Period composers, Schoenberg uses an extremely large orchestra. The different timbres of the instruments are more important than the melody. Schoenberg uses extra woodwind instruments such as the cor anglaise, piccolo and bass clarinet and many brass instruments such as 6 horns, and 4 trombones together with percussion instruments which include cymbals, gong and bass drum. To add more colour, the instruments often play in their high or low ranges.. The texture of the music is contrapuntal [several overlapping ideas], and the melodies are fragmented and passed around to different instruments. The tempo changes frequently and there are many extreme dynamics. The sudden contrasts keep surprising the listener. The structure is free rondo, with sections ABACA based on the treatment of ideas and not dependent on the relationship of keys as in the classical era of music.

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 4: Peripetie by Schoenberg What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 5: Somethings Coming from by Bernstein What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Somethings Coming from West Side Story by Bernstein Leonard Bernstein 1918-1990 Leonard Bernstein was a conductor, composer and pianist. He was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1918, and studied music at Harvard University. He conducted the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and composed ballets, musicals, the Chichester Psalms, 1600 Pensylvania Avenue and three symphonies. His musicals include On the Town, Wonderful Town and Candide. Background to West Side Story West Side Story fuses together bebop jazz [with dissonances and fast driving rhythms], blues [with syncopation and blue notes] and Latin American dance rhythms. The story is based on Shakespeares tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Stephen Sondheim wrote the lyrics. The Jets and Sharks are two rival gangs in the run down, violent streets of the West Side of New York. Tony and Maria, each a member of the opposing gang, fall in love. In the song Somethings Coming which occurs near the beginning of the story, Tony is happy at work in the drug store. He hopes to have a new life away from the Jets gang, and is looking forward to the dance to be held that night at the gym. Just before the song, Riff, the leader of the Jets had asked Tony to help him organize arumble[fight]. Tony agrees, but insists on leaving the gang afterwards. Somethings Coming is the third musical number in West Side Story, after the ope ning prologue and the Jet song. New Musical Features in West Side Story A tragic and violent theme The use of long, extended dance scenes to convey the drama The fusion of classical and jazz music The focus on contemporary social problems and tensions in America Metre and Rhythm Somethings Coming has some sections in fast triple metre [3/4] and others in fast duple metre [2/4]. The accompaniment has an on-beat bass part with off beat chords, particularly in the 2/4 sections. There are also sustained inner parts, mainly in minims. The vocal melody frequently uses short notes which are often syncopated, sometimes by using pushed notes [ notes that are brought in earlier than the main beat e.g. on the words Could and Who] and sometimes due to off-beat accents. The vocal rhythm in the bridge [Around the corner] has long note lengths and triplets, although the rhythm of the accompaniment is the same as before. The voice has cross-rhythms with the accompaniment on or whistling down the river.

Harmony and Tonality The song is in D major with two sections in the distantly related key of C major. The two chromatic notes [notes not in the original key] of a sharpened 4th and a flattened 7th appear in both keys, and the vocal melody ends on the flattened 7th of D major [C natural]. The augmented 4th interval [forming a tritone] is used frequently in West side Story. The flattened 7th is a blue note [the influence from jazz]. The harmony is tonal, but the chords contain added 6th,7ths, 9ths and 11ths. There is a dramatic neopolitan chord [the flattened supertonic- Eb major 1st inversion] in bar 95. Timbre The vocal part is for a tenor voice, with some sections requiring a quiet, whispered tone. The song is accompanied by a large, live band. Instrumental timbres include pizzicato strings [plucking], clarinets often in their low register, muted brass, piano and drum kit. In the bridge, high bowed strings, sometimes using harmonics and tremolo, add a countermelody. Orchestration There are five woodwind players who double up: Clarinet and saxophone Two horns Three trumpets Two trombones Seven violins Four cellos Two double basses Drum kit Percussionists Piano Electric and accoustic guitar Structure The song does not follow a conventional verse-chorus structure, but has several musical ideas and sections that recur. The structure is: Introduction Section A Section B Section B1 Section A 1 Outro [fades out]

How Bernstein creates a sense of excitement and expectancy in this song? Lively and fast tempo Fast triple time dance metre with a one in a bar feel Short rhythmic riffs Short vocal phrases Ostinato patterns Two techniques or devices used in the song and throughout West Side Story The augmented 4th interval Ostinati [repeated musical patterns] Blue Notes: A blue note is the flat 3rd, 5th or 7th of the scale e.g. C natural in bar 17. Describing the words the air is humming A descant melody [a higher pitched countermelody] in the first violin part imitates a mild breeze Ending: The piece ands with a fade out. The unusual subject matter of West Side Story: This musical is different from other Broadway musicals up to this time because it deals with serious social themes such as racial tension and conflict, and is a tragedy. Vocal forms used in a musical Solo song, duet, trio, quartet, quintet, chorus Dance styles Latin American dance styles such as the mambo and cha-cha are included in the gymnasium scene. Order of Events Introduction: D major; fast one in a bar tempo; 3 note ostinato bass; breathy and excited mood of the accompaniment; syncopated push rhythms; use of tritone [augmented 4 th] in harmony; jazz inspired harmony such as blue notes [Bm11, D9 etc.] Section A: Quiet piano section; Opening rhythmic orchestral riff creates excitement and urgency; Syncopated push on Could be and Who knows? to create expectancy and tension; Tritone [inverted augmented 4th] used melodically on Who knows?

Tonys melody is based on the opening riff. It contains two -bar phrases, a triplet and tritone on soon as it and a long blue note crescendo [flattened 7 th in D major] on shows and trees. A fast, loud recitative like phrase; word painting on It may come cannon balling down through the sky[repeated quick fire quaver notes followed by a descent]; syncopation on eye and sky and due and true; Modulation to C major on the highest note [E] on Me, but with an F# in the harmony [the music is either bitonal [the bass in C major and the other parts in G], or the F# [Gb enharmonically] is a blue note [the flattened 5 th in C major] Whistling down the river: The accompaniment is simplified to on-beat rhythms with a broken chord accompaniment. The voice has both straight and syncopated rhythms. There are cross-rhythms between voice and accompaniment. Section B The phrases of the could it be? section are similar to those of section A [somethings due] but they are extended, down a tone into C major and are in 2/4 time. The tritone is in the harmony, and on the words Somethings coming, the Bb on wait is a flattened 7 th in the key of C [blue note]. When repeated [with a click], the music modulates to G major, the n returns to D major. Somethings comingis repeated a tone higher in G major with a mixture of straight notes and syncopated rhythms on I dont know when and a push on when, moon, catch and great. The accompaniment has on-beat crotchets. A more legato, lyrical section with four long eight-bar phrases. The melody has a higher range and reaches a top G on down. The voice part is speech-like with straight rhythms of minims and crotchets, and the use of triplets to keep it flowing, helping to avoid the regularity of 2/4 time. The bass plays on-beat quavers outlining the primary chords of D, G and A major. However, the inner parts have chromatic notes, sometimes moving in parallel 4ths. The chromatic harmony creates a feeling of suspense, mystery and perhaps, foreboding of future events. Come on, deliver has a flattened 7th blue note on the word on. The harmony of bar 95 has a dramatic chromatic Eb major neopolitan chord [the flattened supertonic of D major] in first inversion. Bi-tonalit y [ two keys at once] then occurs with the music moving into C major on me, and the inner parts using the F# of G major. Section B1 Will it be? is then a repeat of section B, except the repeat is cut and proceeds directly to the music from the second time bar. The start of the lyrical section [the air is humming]

is then repeated, but with only one and a half eight bar phrases instead of the previous three. Section A1 The music changes back to on the word coming, and then returns to the opening musical ideas with the orchestra playing the one-bar riff. The tritone is sounded for the last time in this song on the hopeful maybe tonight. The vocal part ends with a long note on the flattened 7th C as the accompanying riff fades away.

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 6: Electric Counterpoint by Steve Reich What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Third Movement From Electric Counterpoint by Steve Reich Background to Minimalism La Monte Young and Terry Riley were experimental composers who made the most of minimal musical resources to create a piece, using drones and repetition. Young wrote The well Tuned Piano which includes improvisation and last s for 6 hours. Riley experimented with tape loops combined with delay and instrumental sounds. Reich was part of the ensemble for the first performance of Rileys composition In C, which repeats short musical fragments along with a constantly repeating quaver C keeping the pulse. Features of Minimalism Drones: a long continuous note or constantly repeated note Ostinato / loops: repeated musical ideas. Cells: the shortest musical ideas Phasing: two almost identical parts which go out of sync with each other and gradually, after a number of repetitions, come back into sync again Metamorphosis: gradually changing from one musical idea to another, often by changing one note at a time Layering: adding new musical parts, usually one at a time Note Addition: beginning with a simple, sparse ostinato, after a number of repetitions notes are gradually added Note Subtraction: beginning with a more complex ostinato, notes are gradually taken away Rhythmic Displacement: varying the notes to be accented in a musical phrase, or starting the same phrase in a different part of the bar [as Reich does with ostinato 1] Augmentation: Increasing the lengths of notes in a rhythmic pattern Diminution: Decreasing the lengths of notes in a rhythmic pattern Static Harmony: the piece seems to be based on one long chord which changes very gradually, if at all Non-functional harmony: the chord sequences do not follow the traditional tonic, dominant, sub-dominant patterns Melodic Transformation: The melody gradually changes shape Polyrhythms: Several interlocking rhythms happening at the same time Steve Reich Born in New York in 1936, Reich was initially in Rileys ensemble and became fascinated with tape loops. Its Gonna Rain and Come Out use phasing with tape loops of speech played on two different tape recorders at slightly different speeds. As the loops move out of sync they are heard as rhythms rather than speech. Eventually the loops come back into sync. The effect is trance-like. Drumming and Clapping Map are influenced by Reichs studies of the African music of Ghana. His music is rhythmically complex with much repetition.

Tehillim was influenced by traditional Hebrew chanting. Reich also composed Music for 18 musicians, The Desert Music and Different Trains which uses recorded speech. Background to Electric Counterpoint Electric Counterpoint is the last in a series of 3 pieces for soloists playing along with pre-recorded multi-track tapes of themselves. The other two pieces in the series are Vermont Counterpoint for flute and New York Counterpoint for clarinet. Electric Counterpoint was commissioned by the jazz guitarist Pat Metheny to perform at the Brooklyn Academy of Musics Next Wave Festiva l. Metheny recorded all 12 guitar and 2 bass guitar tracks himself. He then performed live backed by his own recording. Movement 3: Fast In the third movement the live guitar performs with 7 pre-recorded guitar and 2 bass guitar parts. The texture gradually builds up with the guitar parts entering in the following order: Section A: 1 1 Guitar1 [repeats a one-bar ostinato] 2 Live guitar [starts with 3 notes of the ostinato. One note addition technique leads to full ostinato by bar 6] 3 Guitar 2 [ostinato 1 played a crotchet later: rhythmic displacement] 4 Guitar 3 [note addition used to build up ostinato 1. The ostinato displaced by 5 1/2 crotchets] 5 Guitar 4 [ostinato 1 displaced by 2 1/2 crotchets]. Reich calls this a four-part guitar canon. The live guitar starts to play the resultant melody [a melody using a combination of the notes played on the other guitars]. The piece is in triple metre [3 beats in a bar] and suggests the key of E minor. 2 6 Bass guitars 1 and 2 emphasize the triple metre A 2 bar ostinato is introduced gradually using note addition. The tonality of E minor becomes clearer. The bass guitars are panned to the left and right speakers. The live guitar continues to play the resultant melody. 3 The live guitar introduces a new idea by playing percussive strummed chords, changing the texture. 7 Guitar 5 [introduces the sequence C, Bm, E5] 8 Guitar 6 [introduces the sequence C, D, Em] 9 Guitar 7 [introduces the sequence C, D, Bm]

There is a new rhythmic counterpoint between guitars 5, 6 and 7 and the live guitar as they play cross rhythms. 4 The live guitar returns to playing a resultant melody Section B: 5 The first big change of key to C minor. The texture is the same as in section 4. 6 The key returns to E minor. The metre changes to 12/8 for all guitars except guitars14. The bass guitars play a new ostinato. The metre changes back to 3/2. The bass guitars change back to ostinato 2. Bass 1 is inverted and has an additional note. 7 Return to C minor. The metre changes every 4 bars. 8 Return to E minor. The tension increases as changes in key and metre become more frequent. Guitars 5-7 and the bass guitars begin to fade out, gradually at first, then quickly at bar 113. 9 Live guitar plays resultant melodies accompanied by the four-part canon of ostinato 1. Shifts in key and metre continue until the music settles in E minor. The piece ends dramatically with a crescendo to a final E5 chord played together in all 5 remaining parts. Tonal Ambiguity: It is uncertain whether the music is in the unrelated keys of E minor or C major until near the end. Modal: The piece uses the E Aeolian mode. Texture: The first section begins with a sparse texture with one guitar, gradually building up until there are 5 layered parts. The parts are imitative, building up a fourpart canon with the live guitar part playing a resultant melody. The texture is mostly contrapuntal / polyphonic.

The texture builds up gradually and thins out towards the end. Once all parts have been introduced, the texture remains fairly constant. Clever panning and interweaving rhythms give the impression of changes in texture. Changes of Rhythm and Metre: In this piece rhythmic development is just as important as melodic development. There are changes in metre between 3/2 and 12/8 in section B. To the listener it feels as if the piece is in 3/2 metre with interesting cross rhythms occurring. The counterpoint was composed with quaver rests to enable a rhythmic counterpoint when the two parts were played out of sync with each other [not phasing because they stay out of sync]. The interplay of the bass parts adds rhythmic interest. Resultant Melody: The live guitar part plays a resultant melody. The interweaving guitar 1-4 parts seem to share a melody when played together. The live guitar plays a melody derived from their combined notes on one guitar. This is a technique used frequently by Reich. Panning: A recording studio technique to make instrumental sounds seem to come from different speakers. The 3 strummed guitar parts and the bass guitar parts are separated with panning. The Reason For The Name Electric Counterpoint The piece is written for electric guitar The texture is mostly contrapuntal All but one track was recorded on tape It makes use of studio effects

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 7: All Blues by Miles Davis What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

All Blues from Kind of Blue Genre: Modal Jazz [ a jazz style in which the solos are based on modes instead of the chord changes ]. This leads to longer, freer improvisations. Time Signature: 6/4 [compound duple time] Mode: Myxolydian, using G A B C D E F G [ F is the flattened 7th note in the key of G ] Head: The main melody accompanied by the 12 bar blues chord progression Chorus: Each repetition of the blues chord progression Changes: The chord sequence in a jazz song Harmony: All Blues is based on the 12 bar blues chord pattern, but there are altered or extra notes added to the harmonies in bars 9 and 10 of the changes [chord pattern], and blue notes are used frequently. Although the home note is G throughout, a lack of conventional cadences and the frequent use of the blue flattened 7th [F natural] makes the music sound modal rather than in the key of G. The 12 bar blues chord progression is: G7 / G7 / G7 / C7 / C7 / G7 / D7#9 / Eb7#9 / G7 / G7 / G7 / G7

Altered chords: G7#9 is G B D F A# [ the altered note is A# ] , D7#9 is D F# A C E# [ the altered note is E# ] Voicings: The pianist, Bill Evans varies the order of the notes in the chord from the bottom note to the top. The order of the notes is called voicings. Rhythmic devices: Swung rhythms, syncopation [an off beat rhythm], triplets [a lazi-ly instead of ru-nning rhythm: 3 notes played in the usual time value of 2], rhythmic displacement [a similar rhythm played in a different part of the bar] and cross rhythms [different rhythms played at the same time]. Structure: All Blues is a head arrangement, consisting of variations of the head [main tune] over a 12-bar blues progression. There is an introduction at the start, a coda at the end, and a 4 bar riff introduces each of the main sections.

Order of Events Four bar introduction [rhythm section of piano, drum kit, bass]. The bass plays riff 1, [an ostinato pattern repeated throughout.] The piano plays a trill in 3rds. The drum kit plays a 3 beat waltz rhythm quietly with brushes. Four bar riff 2 [saxophones and rhythm section]. The saxophones play a stepwise figure in parallel thirds moving up to the blue 7th of G [F] and back. Head 1.The main 12 bar head melody played for the first time on the trumpet using a Harmon mute with its stem removed. The melody has a rising leap of a 6th with the long high note decorated with a mordent. It then moves stepwise using a narrow range of a 5th. Head 2. Riff and head are repeated Trumpet solo. Riff 2 of the link is played followed by four 12 bar choruses for un-muted trumpet. The texture changes as the piano trills are replaced by comping [the piano playing the background chords] using the accompaniment rhythms based on riff 2. The drummer adds the ride cymbal and uses unpredictable syncopated hits on the snare. The trumpet solo is modal, using the mixolydian mode over the G7 and C7 chords. A diminished scale is used over the altered chords. Trumpet techniques include grace notes [appogiaturas], blue notes [using B flat and F natural], ghost notes [produced with a very faint tone] and the fall off [a short downward glissando at the end of a note]. The melodic phrases are longer and are higher and wider in range than that of the head. Link repeated, but without the 2 saxophones Alto saxophone solo. More angular than the solo of Davis, with more leaps, shorter phrases, more chromatic notes, more rhythmic with strong accents on the beats, a thick tone, sudden groups of fast notes, fast scales and arpeggios in semiquavers and triplets. The melody is sometimes triadic [using the notes of a chord], has leaps, blue notes and a wide two octave range. There is a swung rhythm with syncopations [offbeat accents] and triplets. Link [riff 2] Tenor saxophone solo for 4 choruses. Less vibrato than Adderleys alto sax solo. The first chorus is simple with ideas exploring the mode. The second chorus has short 3 and 4 note ideas with sequences and complex rhythms. The 3rd and 4th choruses combine extremely fast scales, arpeggios and triplets with long sustained phrases. The phrases have different lengths and enter on different beats of the bar. Link [riff 2]

Piano solo for 2 choruses. The style is calmer with more intricate comping with the left hand as the right hand plays long melody notes in the first chorus. In the second chorus the 2 hands combine into a chord based solo using parallel 7th and 9th chords, sometimes with the left hand in contrary motion [left and right hand move in opposite directions]. The middle range of the piano is used with a limited range of notes. Link [riff 2]. Piano reintroduces the trill idea. Saxophones play riff 2 in 3rds again. The ride cymbal is played more quietly.. Head 3. The trumpet played with a mute again. Link [riff 2]. Head 4. The trumpet played with a mute again. Link [riff 2]. Coda [Outro]. Trumpet uses only the tonic and dominant notes in the first 2 phrases. Davis then uses the same simple legato [smooth] phrase he played at the end of the head. Saxophones play riff 2. Piano plays trills. The song fades out towards the end of the final chorus. Ingredients of solos: Riffs and arpeggio ideas the musicians have learnt, scales and modes, clever rhythmic development. Instruments All Blues requires six performers who use the traditional frontline instruments associated with jazz of the period [trumpet, alto sax and tenor sax], and a rhythm section of piano, bass and drums. Drum kit: Highly syncopated snare drum part. Steady beat on ride cymbal. Variation in how ride cymbal is hit to change texture and dynamics. Piano: Provides chordal accompaniment throughout the piece. Evans changes the voicings and the rhythm of the accompaniment. He adds interest by either including trills or leaving them out. Double Bass: Plays riff 1 as an ostinato pattern constantly throughout the piece. The playing technique is pizzicato [plucking the strings].

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 8: Grace by Geoff Buckley What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Grace by Jeff Buckley What you need to know Be able to write the triads of Eb, F, G, F# The opening chords move in parallel motion over a descending chromatic bass line Vocalisation is a passage of wordless singing Falsetto is singing using the head voice Melisma is used on the word love in the pre-chorus [several notes sung to one vowel sound] My fading voiceis ironically sung in a higher register in the pre-chorus Be familiar with the order of the sections [structure] The lowest guitar string has to be tuned to a D [drop D tuning] Recording techniques for voice include vocal compression and EQ Recording techniques for guitar include flanging [doubling a sound and changing its pitch giving a whooshing and phasing effect, and distortion Grace was composed in 1991. The album was released in 1994. Structure: Verse-And-Chorus Form Section 1: Intro-Verse-Pre-chorus-Chorus Section 2: link-Verse 2-Pre-chorus-Chorus Section 3: Middle 8 Section 4: Link-verse 3-Outro The link is he same as the intro and is in 2 sections separated by an Em chord. Harmony There are dissonant sounds because harmonies were created by sliding traditional chords such as Em up and down the guitar fretboard whilst keeping some strings open as a drone. The lower guitar string was in drop D tuning to enable power chords and for its deeper and darker sound. Although many of the chords are root position triads, the harmonic progressions are often chromatic [with notes moving in semitones in parallel motion] rather than functional [chords used to emphasize the key]. Some chords have 7ths and /or are inverted, and decorative non-chord notes appear in all of the parts, including the bass. There are some very dissonant effects, particularly in the chorus, where open guitar strings clash with the harmonies, as well as in places where Buckley deliberately pitches a note to clash with the underlying chord. [such as F natural above a chord of E minor at the start of the bridge]. At the start, and in some other places, the notes of chords are finger-picked as arpeggios and other patterns rather than being sounded together.

Chord Chart Link Part A: Fm / Gm / Em Link Part B: D A/D / D A/D / D A/D / D G5/D Verse Em / Em/F5 Em / Em / Em/F5 Em / Em/Eb5 / Em / F5 Em / Em/Eb5 / Em Pre Chorus: Em F#dim G6 A6 / Bm A6-9 / Em Chorus Em/F5 Em / Em/Eb5 / Em/F5 Em / Em/Eb5 The key is not clear at the beginning- it is just a series of minor chords. The tonality is ambiguous, although it occasionally settles towards E minor. The harmony is often chromatic and dissonant. Tonality The song is in E minor, but this is very unclear until half way through the first verse-the introduction begins on an unrelated chord of F minor and then focuses on chords of D major, and the first half of the verses use a chromatic progression. There are also chromatic progressions in the chorus and there are no conventional cadences in E minor. This tonal ambiguity continues throughout. The tonality of the verse and pre-chorus is modal / minor. Instrumentation 2 guitars Vocals Bass Drums Instrumental Techniques Use of power chords Drop D tuning Use of bar chords Pull-offs in the introduction Hitting strings on the word far [col legno] Arpeggio introduction of lead guitar Busy strumming patterns in electric and acoustic guitar Electric guitar played high in its register Flanged guitar sounds towards the end Cymbal splashes Kick and snare drums keep the basic beat Atmospheric fills on the toms

Vocal Techniques Soars in falsettos on the words pain and leave Last verse an octave higher for the words my fading voice Vocal sliding [glissandos] Ends with soaring nonsense syllables Vocalisation: a passage of wordless singing Virtuoso performance In the second part of the verse [pre-chorus], Buckley moves to a higher register for my fading voice. The word love has a falling melisma [several notes sung to one vowel sound] Melody The melody of the vocal solo has a very wide range exceeding two octaves. Most phrases [apart from the first in each verse] tend to fall, contributing to the sad mood of the song. Sometimes Buckley slides between notes [ glissando]. The melody contains a mixture of stepwise movement and leaps which include falling 5ths in several phrases . The melody of the first verse and chorus are repeated for the second verse. After the bridge the first half of the verse is sung an octave higher than before. Buckley improvises on fragments of the chorus melody in the coda. First half of verse Low in Buckleys range Moving mainly by step Slides between the descending leaps Second half of verse A higher register for my fading voice More leaps in the melody, the main leaps descending Phrases mostly falling A falling melisma on the word love Chorus Falling melody lines A long melisma on the word fire Verse 2 A repeat of verse one, but a high E on love Reaching a top A and the highest note, a top B

Word Setting Mostly syllabic [a different note for each syllable], but with long melismas [several notes to one syllable] on words such as loveand fire. There is vocalization in the bridge. Use of Technology The track starts with a synthesizer playing falling intervals with heavy modulation. This effect is repeated in later sections. Various synthesizer sounds are used in the second verse to fill the gaps between vocal phrases. The rhythm guitar part has been double tracked [overdubbed] to thicken the sound. Guitar effects include distortion and, in the coda, flanging. The vocal track uses delay and the lower frequencies of Buckleys voice are removed in final verse through the use of EQ [equalization]. The additional vocal parts in the bridge and elsewhere are produced by overdubbing. Metre and Rhythm The score is notated in compound quadruple [12/8] metre. The drums keep the pulse going with the bass drum emphasizing beats 1 and 3, and the snare drum on the backbeats [2 and 4]. The guitar semiquavers create an urgent mood from the beginning. The vocal part has a very free feel and has grace notes, triplets and much syncopation except at the start of the bridge where the vocal rhythms are more static. The bass is often syncopated, and pairs of dotted quavers sometimes create cross rhythms against the groups of three quavers in other parts. Texture The texture changes as instruments are left out or brought back in. additional sound effects from the guitars and strings make the texture of verse two more complex than verse one. Other Songs on the Grace Album Lilac Wine, Hallelujah, Corpus Christi Carol, Mojo Pin, Last Goodbye, So Real, Eternal Life, Dream Brother, Lover You Shouldve Come Over.

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 9: Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad by Moby What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad? by Moby Moby Richard Melville Hall [Moby] was born in 1965 in New York. He studied the classical guitar from the age of 9 and later joined various punk bands such as The Vatican Commandoes, Flipper and AWOL. Moby dropped out of university in 1985 to pursue a career as a DJ and gigging with his band AWOL. After some years of hardship, Mobys 1991 single Go took him into the UK top ten, making use of a sample taken from the TV series Twin Peaks. Moby is passionat e about human and animal rights, and about his Christian faith. Background Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad was the fourth single that Moby released from his album Play, released in 1999. The song reached No.16 in the UK charts. By 2008 Play had sold over nine million copies. Mobys song Extreme Ways was used in the Bourne movies. Club Dance Music Club Dance Music would normally be played in nightclubs by DJs. Influences on club dance music are Dub [remixing an original song by removing tracks and overdubbing sound effects]; Scratching [spinning a record by hand to make a scratching sound over the music]; Toasting [talking rhythmically over the music]; Chicago House [Creating a piece by cutting and remixing existing tracks and adding a four to the floor exaggerated bass drum beat from a drum machine; Garage [like house, but more melodic]. Metre and Rhythm The beginning does not have a clear pulse, but the rest of the song is in quadruple metre [four beats in a bar]. The accompaniment of the main section is based on a mostly unchanging drum loop with an emphasized backbeat [beats 2 and 4]. The synthesized strings have sustained chords. There is syncopation in the other instrumental parts, including voices. A silent bar [apart from echoes] adds variety. Harmony and Tonality Most of the song is in the Dorian mode of A. The female vocal sample is later accompanied by the chords of F and C, even though the music has not modulated to C major. The harmony is diatonic [only using notes found in the original key]. Only a few [6] root position chords are used.

Timbre The timbres are either synthetic or sampled. The male and female vocals are edited samples taken from old recordings of gospel music. The percussion sounds such as claves, shaker, snare drum and bass drum are produced on a Roland drum machine. The bass and string parts are produced on synthesizers, and the piano sounds on a digital sound module. Electronic processing such as reverberation, delay and EQ has been used to edit the sounds. Structure Two-chord sequences arranged in 8 bar blocks. Chord Sequence 1 [Verse: Why Does My Heart Feel So Bad] Am / Am / Em / Em / Gm / Gm / D /D /

Chord Sequence 2 [first half of chorus: These open doors] C / C / Am / Am / C / C / Am / Am /

Chord Sequence 2b [second half of chorus: These open doors] F / F / C / C / F / F / C / C / Studio Effects Sampling: After trying to remove the background noise of traffic etc. from the vocal samples, Moby decided to leave them in to retain the emotional quality of the recordings. The background noise acts almost like another percussion instrument , and adds to the texture. Reverb and delay are used on vocal sample 2 when the section changes. Panning and EQ are used for each sound. In the piano introduction there is a sense of movement from one speaker to the other [panning]. In verse two the bass and higher frequencies have been removed using EQ, giving a singing down a telephone wire effect. The original sample was re-sampled at a lower bit rate to give a more grainy [poorer quality] sound. Order of Events Introduction The time signature is 4/4; the key is A minor; the tempo is 98 bpm. The piano plays chord sequence 1.

Verse 1 1: Verse 1 has four repeats of chord sequence 1. An untidy vocal sample is accompanied by the simple piano chord sequence. 2: The drum / percussion loop is introduced. A sustained synth. pad plays bass notes. A similar sustained synth.pad [doubled by the high piano notes] is the response in a call and response texture with the vocal sample. 3: A synth. bass part begins. An additional synth. pad plays mid to high range sustained chords to fill out the texture. 4: The piano plays a different rhythm, decorating the rhythm with sus4 and sus2 chords. [the third of the chord is replaced by either the 4 th or the 2nd note]. Chorus A: Chord sequence 2a begins, lifting the music. The key is ambiguous [it could be A minor or C major]. The second vocal sample [these open doors] is introduced. The texture is similar to verse 1, but the answering piano phrases are more subtle. The synth. backing recedes more to the background. B: Chord sequence 2b begins. The key is now C major. The sample is played faster. It answers itself in a call and response pattern. Verse 2 !: At first verse 2 is similar to verse 1 part 4. An echo effect [delay] and EQ is applied to the vocal part, making it sound thinner. The echo is also delayed with several quicker repeats of the echo fading away into the distance. 2: The same as verse 2 part 1. Break All parts drop out for a single bar. Only the dying repeats of the delay on the EQed vocal echo, the snare drum delay and the falling off reverb from the other parts can be heard. Chorus A: Vocal sample 2 is used with much reverb and delay, making it sound distant. The sample blends with a lush string pad which has reverb The drums enter. B: The reverb on the vocal sample is reduced, making it sound clearer. B: Part B of the chorus is unexpectedly repeated.

Outro The texture is reduced to just the first vocal sample accompanied by a soft synth. pad playing chord sequence 1.

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 10: Skye Waulking Song performed by Capercaille What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Skye Waulking Song by Capercaillie Background Waulking is a traditional process used for making tweed fabric more flexible and waterproof. A waulking song would be sung to keep everyone in time and to make the work sociable and fun. One person would improvise the lyrics for a verse, and the rest would join in after each line using non-sense syllables. Although tweed is mostly manufactured by machines today, the waulking tradition still continues in parts of Scotland. Skye Waulking Song is a shortened version of a collection of songs by Alexander Carmichael about Seathan, son of the King of Ireland. Capercaillie Capercaillie were formed in Oban High School in the West Highlands of Scotland in the early 1980s by Donald Shaw [accordion and keyboards]. Capercaillie is the name of a rare species of grouse [a native bird]. The band helps to promote Scottish folk music and often sings in Gaelic. Their first album was Cascade. Other albums were Sidewaulk [in English], Delirium [a rhythmical fusion of folk songs with electric instruments]. Coisich a Ruin became the first Scotts Gaelic song to reach the top 40 in the UK charts. Story and Lyrics The song is a lament [a song of grief] sung by Seathans wife, telling of his deeds, his character, recollections of time spent with him and his death. The full title of the song is Cuir MAthair Mise Dhan Taigh Charraideach [My father sent me to a house of sorrow]. What you need to know Fiddle Playing technique The playing technique at the beginning of the song is a tremolo [the bow is moved rapidly backwards and forwards across the string]. The player is also playing sul ponticello[ the bow is close to the bridge] to create a thin sound. Language : The language is Scottish Gaelic The texture of the opening Starting with the synth. and fiddle, the texture builds up gradually, introducing the other instruments after 9 seconds. The texture is sparse. The bouzouki and keyboard play an interweaving melody. After 33 seconds the voice joins in, adding to the sparse polyphonic texture. The texture becomes monophonic when the voice sings on its own.

Instruments Accordion, Wurlitzer piano, synth., uilleann pipes , vocals, acoustic bass, electric bass, fiddle, bouzouki, guitar, drums [bass drum and high-hat] and percussion [shaker] The reason for nonsense syllables 1. The rest of the women to join in the singing as a response to the main singer 2. The main singer to think of what to sing in the next verse The traditional pipes used are Uilleann pipes Tonality The tonality is modal. The key is ambiguous at the beginning, but the Aeolian mode of E [or E minor] is established by the end of the introduction. The key seems to change to G major [G Ionian] in verse 4. In verse 7 the song briefly returns to E minor before changing again to G major. Fusion The song fuses Western instruments [drum kit, synth, bass] and studio production techniques with a folk music form, melody and instruments [fiddle, bouzouki]. Order of Events Introduction Sustained keyboard sound suggesting E minor Fiddle plays a tremolo Drum enters together with a tremolo electric piano which plays in counterpoint with the bouzouki The bass plays staccato [short, detached notes] together with the bass drum The key is now E minor The time signature is ambiguous: It feels like 6/8 [duple] or 12/8 [quadruple] but the shaker and high-hat play in triple time Verse 1 The instruments play the same as in the introduction The voice sings My father sent me to a house of sorrow There are cross-rhythms between the voice and the other instruments, making the metre ambiguous Break: The fiddle plays more effects than melody, along with the backing instruments

Verse 2 The voice is the main rhythmic feature, singing in 12/8 time [compound quadruple] Verse 3 The last line is sung unaccompanied as a link to the next section Verse 4 The accordion joins in along with a strummed acoustic guitar and bouzouki accompaniment Backing vocals join in with the nonsense syllables The drum parts also plays in 12/8 time The bass part is more prominent The chord sequence changes to C / G / Em / G / Verse 5 The same as verse 4 The accordion plays countermelodies to the vocal part Verse 6 The same as verse 5 Instrumental Uilleann pipes solo along with the fiddle in heterophonic texture [playing a similar melody in slightly different ways]. The accordion provides accompaniment and sometimes doubles the melody. The instruments [especially the accordion] emphasise the 2 nd and 5th beats, adding rhythmic interest Verse 7 The chord sequence changes to Am7 / Em / Em / G / for one verse only The dynamics reduce so that the voices can be prominent [backing vocals sing nonsense syllables] All instruments stop for the last line The drums build up to the last verse Verse 8 The chord sequence returns to C / G / Em / G /

The full band plays Outro Vocals improvise to the nonsense syllables Instruments weave a counterpoint with each other The chords alternate between C and G for the remainder of the song A long fade out ends the song

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 11: Rag Desh What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Rag Desh Sections of a full raga performance Alap Jor [Jhor] Jhalla Gat Features of the Alap [Introduction] Very slow Free time Unmetred [no regular pulse] Soft dynamics Explores the notes of the raga The melody is fragmented [broken up] Gat The gat is the fixed composition [previously worked out]. It is the last section of a raga. Improvisation Improvisation is an essential skill in the performance of Indian raga Rasa The rasa is the mood and emotion associated with a particular raga. Each raga has its time of day for performance, as well as a particular mood. Rag Desh is usually performed at night and is associated with the monsoon rainy season. The primary moods of Rag Desh are devotion, romance and longing, with origins in courtly love songs known as thumri. Sargam Sargam consists of naming the notes of the rag. The ascending and descending notes in Rag Desh are: Sa, Re, Ma, Pa, Ni, Sa, Ni, Dha, Pa, Ma, Ga, Re, Sa Oral Tradition Indian ragas are not written down, but are passed down from one generation to the next via the gharana master-pupil system

Features of the rhythm Fragmented Complex Irregular patterns Common Sitar playing techniques Meend: the left hand pulls the string to create a pitch bend Tan: a fast, scalic passage Portamento: sliding Mictrotonal: an interval less than a semitone The role of the tabla The tabla plays the tala [rhythmic cycles] Provides a strong rhythmic accompaniment for the composition The tabla often has a competitive dialogue with the melody intrument Tambura The tambura plays the drone notes [using mostly the tonic and dominant notes, sa and pa] Vocal techniques used in version 2 Melisma: several notes sung to one vowel sound Ornaments Rapid tans: scale-like passages Instruments Melody: Sitar [plucked strings], sarangi [bowed fretless strings], sarod [fretless strings, metal fingerboard, lower in pitch than the sitar], bansuri [flute], voice, esraj bowed fretted stringed instrument. The sitar, sarod and esraj also have sympathetic strings which vibrate without being plucked. Drone: Tambura [four strings] Rhythm: Tabla [small set of two drums], pakhawaj [large double-headed drum with a larger head on one side and a smaller head on the other], small Indian cymbals

Comparison of Versions 1, 2 and 3 of Rag Desh Instruments Version 1: Sitar and tabla Version 2: Voice, sarangi, sarod, pakhawaj ,cymbals and tabla Version 3: bansuri, esraj, tambura and tabla Structure Version 1: Three movements- Alap, gat 1 and gat 2 Version 2: Two movements- Alap and Bhajan [song] Version 3: Three movements- Alap, gat 1 and gat 2 Tala [rhythm played on the tabla] Version 1: Jhaptal Tal [10 beats] Version 2: Keherwa Tal [8 beats] Version 3: Rupak Tal [7 beats] Alap Version 1: Sitar explores the notes of the rag. Some notes are decorated. Version 2: The sarod, then the singer introduce the notes of the rag. Version 3: The tambura plays a drone on sa and pa. The bansuri [flute] explores the notes of the rag. Gat 1 or Bhajan Version 1: The sitar plays the fixed [previously worked out] composition. There is a medium tempo [speed]. The tabla joins in with the 10 beat jhaptal tala. Version 2: The tabla plays the keherwa tala. The sarod plays a short solo, followed by the sarangi. Excitement increases as the music becomes louder and faster. There is a verse-chorus pattern. The vocal verses are separated with short sarod solos answered by sarangi interludes. Version 3: The tempo begins slowly. The bansuri plays a lyrical unaccompanied melody. The tabla then joins in with the 7 beat rupak tal. The music then becomes faster and dramatic as the solo instruments improvise around the gat. The tabla embellishes the tala pattern. The bansuri plays the gat. The bansuri and tabla take it in turns to improvise and accompany. Tihais mark out the ends of sections.

Gat 2 Version 1: Faster than gat 1. The tabla plays the 16 beat tala tintal. The sitar drone strings are strummed, creating an exciting jhalla rhythmic effect. The piece ends with a tihai [a short phrase played three times, across the beat, before finishing on the first beat [sam] to signify the end of a section]. Version 3: A fast tempo. The tabla plays the 12 beat ektal tala. The bansuri plays an embellished gat containing a wide range of pitch, fast scalic passages [tans] and slides. The piece ends with several tihais. Harmony and Tonality Rag Desh is based on the notes of its rag, which includes an altered [inflected] note. The two main notes of the rag [sa and pa] form a drone during the alap, but the music is not tonal, and there are no chords to accompany the melody as in western music. Texture Mostly the Rag Desh pieces are monophonic [a single melodic line with tabla accompaniment]. Structure The structure is based on variations of the notes of the rag. The three versions start with the alap [introduction]. Pre-composed ideas [gat] are used alongside spontaneous improvisation. The chakkradar tihai [three times three repetition of phrases] acts as a coda at the end of sections. The Meaning of Version 2 Version 2 is a Hindu devotional song [bhajan] in praise of Lord Krishna, a deity worshipped by many Hindus.

Set Work Revision Summary Notes for the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Set Work 12 Yiri by Koko What you need to know about each piece clearly explained Short, clear and concise revision summary notes Be confident in answering questions on the set works Some sample answers for Section B questions Clear descriptions of melody, structure, texture, rhythm, harmony, tonality, instrumentation etc. Musical words for each piece summarized and clearly explained The information you need to gain the very best grades in the Edexcel GCSE Music Examination Easy tailor-made hand-outs for teachers to revise the set works with their students A time-saver for busy music teachers and students, saving you many hours of preparation

Yiri performed by Koko You need to know: Ostinato: A musical pattern that is repeated constantly Call and response: musical dialogue between a lead singer and chorus Hexatonic: A seven note scale Tremolo: Rapidly playing one balaphone note with two beaters to sustain the sound Drums including the djembe [with ropes for tuning and a goat skin head], talking drum [wide range of tones produced by striking the head in different places, altering the tension of the skin while the note is sounding to create a sliding effect and using the left hand to dampen notes], dunun [bass drum] and bora [a drum made from a gourd] Agogo bell Balaphone: a type of xylophone with 21 wooden bars and bottle shaped gourd resonators Rhythmic pattern of 2 semiquavers followed by a quaver First 3 vocal phrases begin on the tonic and end on the dominant Last 2 vocal phrases begin on the dominant and end on the tonic Layered texture The music has 3 main elements 1 Balaphone ostinato [when played together the ostinati produce a complex polyphonic texture] 2 The drum ostinati: a constant one-bar pattern with a little variation at the beginning of the bar of 2 quavers, crotchet, 2 quavers, crotchet 3 The vocal line: call and response structure Background Yiri is the 4th track on Kokos album Burkino Faso: Balafons et Tambours dAfrique released in 2002. Yiri means wood. Koko is a group of 6 musicians led by singer and balaphone player Madou Kone from Burkino Faso in West Africa. They are French speaking. Sequence of Events 1 Introduction: High balaphone solo uses tremolo on all 7 pitches of the heptatonic scale. The section is monophonic [one unaccompanied tune] and contains acciaccaturas [crushed notes].. 2 A second, lower pitched balaphone joins in to create polyrhythms [several different rhythms played together]. The music is in quadruple metre [4beats in a bar]. There are parallel octaves. In bar 12 there are parallel 5ths, then parallel octaves again in the following bar.

3 Drums enter playing an ostinato. The lower balaphone plays the Db, C, Ab falling idea introduced in bar 8 but with a different rhythm. There are more complex rhythms from bar 21 with syncopation [an off-beat rhythm] in each bar. Bar 21 changes to triple metre [3 beats in a bar]. 4 Unison voices [singing the same tune] have a short repetitive melody. The falling phrases are echoed by the balaphone in bars 28-30. 5 Short instrumental with balaphone solo playing falling phrases and drums and balaphone playing continuous ostinati. Each bar syncopated. 6 Voices for second verse. A repeat of the chorus with some differences in balaphone accompaniment. 7 Instrumental with balaphone in low register strongly emphasizing the tonic [Gb]. 8 Solo voice [call] begins with a long held note then short falling phrases. 9 Voices [response] in unison. 10 Solo voice [call] starts with long note and continues with falling phrases. 11 Voices [response] in unison, the choir echoing the final solo phrase. 12 Solo [call]. Balaphone introduces cross rhythms with groups of 3 semiquavers in bars 68-69. 13 Instrumental balaphone solo in high register. Next chorus introduced by a bar of 3 / 4 time. Full choir with some instrumental interjections [bar 77]. 15 Dialogue between voices and instruments. Chorus B has same falling pattern as A. 16 Instrumental with balaphone emphasizing the Gb. 17 Full choir in unison with instrumental accompaniment. 18 Coda: instrumental ending. A new idea introduced. Piece ends with ting on agogo bell.