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Chapter 20

Unifying Concepts of Animal Structure and Function

PowerPoint Lectures for

Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition


Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey
2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko

Introduction
How can geckos climb walls and stick to the ceiling?
The surfaces of gecko toes are covered by millions of microscopic hairs. Each hair has a slight molecular attraction that helps it stick to the surface. This adhesive relationship is an example of the correlation between structure and function.

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Figure 20.0_1

Figure 20.0_2

Chapter 20: Big Ideas

Structure and Function in Animal Tissues

Organs and Organ Systems

External Exchange and Internal Regulation

Figure 20.0_3

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ANIMAL TISSUES

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20.1 Structure fits function at all levels of organization in the animal body
Anatomy is the study of structure. Physiology is the study of function. Animals consist of a hierarchy of levels or organization.
Tissues are an integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function. Organs perform a specific task and consist of two or more tissues. Organ systems consist of multiple organs that together perform a vital body function.
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Figure 20.1

Cellular level Muscle cell Tissue level Muscle tissue

Organ level Heart

Organ system level Circulatory system Organism level Many organ systems functioning together

20.2 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: An animals form reflects natural selection


The body plan or design of an organism
reflects the relationship between form and function,
results from natural selection, and does not imply a process of conscious invention.

Streamlined and tapered bodies


increase swimming speeds and have similarly evolved in fish, sharks, and aquatic birds and mammals, representing convergent evolution.
Video: Galpagos Sea Lion
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Video: Shark Eating a Seal

Figure 20.2

Shark

Seal Penguin

20.3 Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function
Tissues
are an integrated group of similar cells that perform a common function and combine to form organs.

Animals have four main categories of tissues:


1. epithelial tissue, 2. connective tissue,

3. muscle tissue, and


4. nervous tissue.
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20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
Epithelial tissues, or epithelia, are sheets of closely packed cells that
cover body surfaces and line internal organs and cavities.

Epithelial cells come in three shapes:


1. squamouslike a fried egg, 2. cuboidalas tall as they are wide, and 3. columnartaller than they are wide.
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20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities
Epithelial tissues are named according to the
number of cell layers they have and shape of the cells on their apical surface.

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Figure 20.4

Basal lamina

Apical surface of epithelium

Underlying Cell nuclei tissue Simple squamous epithelium

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Simple columnar epithelium

Stratified squamous epithelium

20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues


Connective tissue can be grouped into six major types.
1. Loose connective tissue
is the most widespread, consists of ropelike collagen and elastic fibers that are strong and resilient, and helps to join skin to underlying tissues.

2. Fibrous connective tissue


has densely packed collagen fibers and forms tendons that attach muscle to bone.
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20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues


3. Adipose tissue stores fat in large, closely packed cells held in a matrix of fibers. 4. Cartilage
is a strong and flexible skeletal material and commonly surrounds the ends of bones.

5. Bone
has a matrix of collagen fibers embedded in a hard mineral substance containing calcium, magnesium, and phosphate.

6. Blood transports substances throughout the body.


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Figure 20.5

White blood cells


Red blood cell Plasma Cell nucleus Collagen fiber Elastic fibers Blood Matrix Boneforming cells Central canal

Bone

Loose connective tissue (under the skin) Fat droplets Cartilage (at the end of a bone) Adipose tissue

Cell nucleus Collagen fibers

Cartilageforming cells Matrix

Fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)

Figure 20.5_1

Cell nucleus Collagen fiber Elastic fibers Loose connective tissue (under the skin)

Figure 20.5_2

Cell nucleus Collagen fibers

Fibrous connective tissue (forming a tendon)

Figure 20.5_3

Fat droplets

Adipose tissue

Figure 20.5_4

Cartilageforming cells Matrix Cartilage (at the end of a bone)

Figure 20.5_5

Central canal Matrix Boneforming cells

Bone

Figure 20.5_6

White blood cells Red blood cell

Plasma Blood

20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement


Muscle tissue is the most abundant tissue in most animals. There are three types of vertebrate muscle tissue:
1. Skeletal muscle causes voluntary movements.
2. Cardiac muscle pumps blood. 3. Smooth muscle moves walls of internal organs, such as the intestines.

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Figure 20.6

Muscle fiber Unit of muscle contraction Muscle fiber (cell) Nucleus

Junction between two cells

Nuclei

Cardiac muscle

Muscle fiber Nucleus

Skeletal muscle Smooth muscle

Figure 20.6_1

Unit of muscle contraction

Muscle fiber (cell)

Nuclei

Skeletal muscle

Figure 20.6_2

Muscle fiber
Nucleus

Junction between two cells

Cardiac muscle

Figure 20.6_3

Muscle fiber Nucleus

Smooth muscle

20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network


Nervous tissue
senses stimuli and rapidly transmits information.

Neurons carry signals by conducting electrical impulses. Other cells in nervous tissue
insulate axons,

nourish neurons, and


regulate the fluid around neurons.
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Figure 20.7

Dendrites

Cell body

Axon

ORGANS AND ORGAN SYSTEMS

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20.8 Organs are made up of tissues


Each tissue performs specific functions. The heart has
extensive muscle that generates contractions,

epithelial tissues that line the heart chambers,


connective tissues that make the heart elastic, and neurons that regulate contractions.

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20.8 Organs are made up of tissues


The small intestine
is lined by a columnar epithelium, includes connective tissues that contain blood vessels, and has two layers of smooth muscle that help propel food.

The inner surface of the small intestine has many fingerlike projections that increase the surface area for absorption.

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Figure 20.8

Small intestine

Lumen Epithelial tissue (columnar epithelium)

Connective tissue

Smooth muscle tissue (two layers) Connective tissue Epithelial tissue

20.9 CONNECTION: Bioengineers are learning to produce tissues and organs for transplants
Bioengineering is seeking ways to repair or replace damaged tissues and organs. New tissues and organs are being grown using a patients own cells.

These techniques
remove the risk of tissue rejection and

may someday reduce the shortage of organs available for transplants.

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Figure 20.9

20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


Each organ system
typically consists of many organs,
has one or more functions, and works with other organ systems to create a functional organism.

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Figure 20.10_L

Circulatory system

Respiratory system Pharynx Larynx Trachea

Integumentary system Hair Skin Nails Skeletal system

Nasal cavity Heart

Bronchus
Lung Blood vessels

Bone Cartilage Urinary system Digestive system

Muscular system Skeletal muscles Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra

Mouth Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus

Figure 20.10_R

Endocrine system Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis (male) Ovary (female) Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland

Lymphatic and immune systems Lymph nodes Appendix Bone marrow Lymphatic vessels Thymus Spleen

Reproductive system

Nervous system

Brain Sense organ (ear) Spinal cord Nerves Oviduct Ovary Uterus Vagina Seminal vesicles

Female

Male

Prostate gland
Vas deferens Penis Urethra

Testis

20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


The skeletal and muscular systems support and move the body. The digestive and respiratory systems obtain food and oxygen. The circulatory system transports these materials.

The urinary system disposes of wastes.


The integumentary system covers the body.
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Figure 20.10_1

Circulatory system

Respiratory system Nasal cavity

Pharynx
Larynx Trachea

Heart

Bronchus Lung
Blood vessels

Figure 20.10_2

Integumentary system Hair Skin

Nails

Figure 20.10_3

Skeletal system

Bone Cartilage

Figure 20.10_4

Muscular system Skeletal muscles

Figure 20.10_5

Urinary system

Digestive system

Mouth Esophagus Liver

Kidney

Stomach

Ureter
Urinary bladder Urethra

Small intestine
Large intestine Anus

20.10 Organ systems work together to perform lifes functions


The lymphatic and immune systems protect the body from infection. The nervous and endocrine systems control and coordinate body functions. The reproductive system produces offspring.

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Figure 20.10_6

Endocrine system
Hypothalamus

Pituitary gland
Thymus Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland

Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis (male)

Ovary (female)

Figure 20.10_7

Lymphatic and immune systems

Lymph nodes
Appendix Bone marrow

Thymus
Spleen

Lymphatic vessels

Figure 20.10_8

Nervous system

Brain Sense organ (ear) Spinal cord Nerves

Figure 20.10_9

Reproductive system

Seminal vesicles Female


Oviduct Ovary Male

Prostate gland
Vas deferens

Uterus

Penis Vagina
Testis Urethra

20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


New technologies
are used in medical diagnosis and research and allow physicians to examine organ systems without surgery.

X-rays help create images of hard structures such as bones and teeth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
takes advantage of the behavior of the hydrogen atoms in water molecules and provides three-dimensional images of very small structures.
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Figure 20.11A

Femur (thigh bone)

Torn meniscus

Tibia (shin bone)

20.11 CONNECTION: New imaging technology reveals the inner body


A newer X-ray technology called computed tomography (CT)
produces high-resolution images of cross sections of the body and can detect small differences between normal and abnormal tissues in many organs.

Positron-emission tomography (PET) helps identify metabolic processes at specific body locations.
CT and PET images can be combined for an even more informative image.
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Figure 20.11B

20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


The skin consists of two layers:
1. The epidermis
is a stratified squamous epithelium and forms the surface of the skin.

2. The dermis
forms a deeper skin layer and is composed of dense connective tissue with many resilient elastic fibers and strong collagen fibers. The dermis contains hair follicles, oil and sweat glands, muscle cells, nerves, sensory receptors, and blood vessels.

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Figure 20.12

Hair Epidermis Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Hypodermis (under the skin) Adipose tissue Blood vessels Oil gland Hair follicle Sweat gland

Dermis

20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


Skin has many functions.
The epidermis
resists physical damage, decreases water loss, and prevents penetration by microbes.

The dermis
collects sensory information,
synthesizes vitamin D, and helps regulate body temperature.

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20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet light
causes skin cells to release melanin, which contributes to a visible tan, and damages DNA of skin cells and can lead to
premature aging of the skin, cataracts, and skin cancers.

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20.12 The integumentary system protects the body


Hair
is an important component of the integumentary system of mammals,

helps to insulate their bodies, and


consists of a shaft of keratin-filled dead cells.

Oil glands release oils that


are associated with hair follicles,
lubricate hair, condition surrounding skin, and

inhibit the growth of bacteria.


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EXTERNAL EXCHANGE AND INTERNAL REGULATION

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20.13 Structural adaptations enhance exchange with the environment


Every organism is an open system that must exchange matter and energy with its surroundings.

Cells in small and flat animals can exchange materials directly with the environment.

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20.13 Structural adaptations enhance exchange with the environment


However, as organisms increase in size, the surface area
is too small for the corresponding volume and too far away from the deepest cells of the body.

In these organisms, evolutionary adaptations


consist of extensively branched or folded surfaces, which increase the area of these surfaces and provide for sufficient environmental exchange.

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20.13 Structural adaptations enhance exchange with the environment


The respiratory system exchanges gases between the external environment and blood.

The digestive system acquires food and eliminates wastes.


The excretory system eliminates metabolic waste. The circulatory system
distributes gases, nutrients, and wastes throughout the body and exchanges materials between blood and body cells through the interstitial fluid that bathes body cells.
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Figure 20.13A

EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT CO2 O2 Food Mouth

ANIMAL

Digestive system Heart

Respiratory system Interstitial fluid

Nutrients

Circulatory system Body cells

Intestine

Urinary system

Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (urine)

Figure 20.13B

Trachea

20.14 Animals regulate their internal environment


Homeostasis is the active maintenance of a steady state within the body.
External environmental conditions may fluctuate wildly. Homeostatic mechanisms regulate internal conditions.

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Figure 20.14_UN

Figure 20.14

External environment
Internal environment Small fluctuations

Homeostatic mechanisms

Large fluctuations

20.15 Homeostasis depends on negative feedback


Control systems
detect change and direct responses.

Negative-feedback mechanisms
keep internal variables steady and permit only small fluctuations around set points.

Animation: Negative Feedback

Animation: Positive Feedback


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Figure 20.15_s1

Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C

Figure 20.15_s2

Brain activates cooling mechanisms.

Temperature rises above set point Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C Temperature falls below set point

Brain activates warming mechanisms.

Figure 20.15_s3

Sweat evaporates, cooling the body.

Brain activates cooling mechanisms.

Blood vessels dilate.


Temperature rises above set point Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C Temperature falls below set point

Blood vessels constrict. Brain activates warming mechanisms.

Shivering generates heat.

Figure 20.15_s4

Sweat evaporates, cooling the body.

Brain activates cooling mechanisms.

Blood vessels dilate.


Temperature decreases Cooling mechanisms shut off. Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C Temperature increases Warming mechanisms shut off. Temperature falls below set point Temperature rises above set point

Blood vessels constrict. Brain activates warming mechanisms.

Shivering generates heat.

Figure 20.15_5

Sweat glands secrete sweat that evaporates, cooling the body.

The thermostat in the brain activates cooling mechanisms.

Blood vessels in the skin dilate, increasing heat loss. Temperature decreases The thermostat shuts off the cooling mechanisms. Temperature rises above set point

Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C

Figure 20.15_6

Homeostasis: Body temperature approximately 37C Temperature increases

The thermostat shuts off the warming mechanisms.

Temperature falls below set point

Blood vessels in the skin constrict, minimizing heat loss.

Skeletal muscles contract; shivering generates heat.

The thermostat in the brain activates warming mechanisms.

You should now be able to


1. Describe the levels of organization in an animals body. 2. Explain how size and shape can influence the structure of an animal.

3. Define a tissue, describe the four main types of animal tissue, and note their structures and their functions.
4. Explain how the structure of organs is based on the cooperative interactions of tissues.
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You should now be able to


5. Explain how artificial tissues are created and used. 6. Describe the general structures and functions of the 12 major vertebrate organ systems.

7. Describe and compare X-ray, CT, MRI, and PET imaging technologies.
8. Relate the structure of the skin to its functions.

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You should now be able to


9. Describe the systems that help an animal exchange materials with its environment. 10. Describe examples of adaptations to increase the surface-to-volume ratio.

11. Define the concept of homeostasis and illustrate it with examples.


12. Explain how negative feedback is used to regulate internal body temperature.

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Figure 20.UN01

Structure

Function

20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities. Sheets of closely packed cells

20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues. Sparse cells in extracellular matrix

20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement. Long cells (fibers) with contractile proteins

20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network. Neurons with branching extensions; supporting cells

Example
Columnar epithelium

Loose connective tissue

Skeletal muscle

Neuron

Figure 20.UN01_1

Structure

Function

20.4 Epithelial tissue covers the body and lines its organs and cavities. Sheets of closely packed cells

20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues. Sparse cells in extracellular matrix

Example
Columnar epithelium

Loose connective tissue

Figure 20.UN01_2

Structure Function

20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement. Long cells (fibers) with contractile proteins

20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network. Neurons with branching extensions; supporting cells

Example
Skeletal muscle

Neuron

Figure 20.UN02

a.

b.

c. d. e.