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Process D1 : Establish the team

Objective : To determine the best possible team to solve the problem & to specify the team rules

No. 1

Input Decide to use the 8D method to solve the problem

Process Organise a small group of people as a team. These people should have process and/or product know-how. The team members must have the time, authority and ability in the technical disciplines to solve the problem and to implement corrective actions. The group must have a designated champion and a team leader. The group begins the teambuilding process. If possible the team should have 4 to 10 members (not too big a team). The make-up of the team can vary during the process, depending on requirements. Enter the team members in the 8D report, ensuring traceability i.e., first names and surnames, telephone numbers and e-mail addresses. Use the "assessment questions" to determine whether step "D1" is complete.

Output Step "D1" of the 8D report completed : names and roles of the team members : - Champion - Team leader - Each team member

Champion

As champion you are responsible for the system or process having the problem to be solved (the problem owner). you have the authority to make resources available to the team. you support team decisions. you ask the right questions in order to drive the progress of the team. you are not actually a member of the team but nevertheless you take part in team meetings as necessary. you are the interface between the team and the rest of the company. you can eliminate organisational hindrances. you ensure the right environment and the empowerment of the team.

Champion is appointed

VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Team leader

As team leader you are the business manager of the team and responsible for progress in the technical sphere. you must have the technical expertise and necessary leadership quality. you should have mastered the 8D method and lead your team accordingly. you ensure the ordered, organisational running of the team meeting. you draw up the agenda and papers for the team meeting. you are the spokesman for the team and the interface to the champion. you work with the team in setting out targets and tasks. you request a summary of the contributions made by the team members. you focus on the reason for the meeting. you provide information to the team. you lead the decision-making process. ...you summarize the decisions. you quit the role of leader when you take part in the discussion.

Team leader

Team member

As team member you provide technical input. you carry out tasks allotted to you. you offer information and ideas. you provide feedback and clarify queries.

Activities / behaviour as team member

VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report

Rules for decision-making :


Many teams have a problem with decision-making because there is always the question of taking responsibility. At the beginning of operations, specify how you wish to come to decisions. If you are the team leader you can set out briefly the various methods for making decisions. If you have decided on a method for decisionmaking you should also decide how you wish to document the decisions and, if appropriate, how you arrive at them. Within the team, consider whether and when exceptions can be permitted. Specify who is responsible for carrying out the decision-making process.

Activities / behaviour within the team :


Specify team roles quickly. Ensure that team meetings start and finish on time. Define clear objectives for your work, both shortterm and long-term. Agree within the team on the "rules of the game" under which you wish all team tasks to be carried out in future. Set out these rules in writing. Set out clearly in writing what you consider to be acceptable and unacceptable behaviour within the team. All team members should be clear that each individual person is responsible for the progress of the entire team.

(in this connection see also D5)

Comments :
The explanations are very comprehensive because the team process and the way team members work together are crucial in achieving a constructive solution.

VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Process D2 : Describe the problem


No. 1 Input Symptom (measurable) Positive result of the check on the pre-requisites for using the 8D method. Available documents regarding similar problems, such as 8D reports, FMEAs, process flow plans, control plans, layouts, drawings)

Objective : Describe the internal / external problem by identifying "What is wrong with what" and detail the problem in quantifiable terms. Process Define the problem Collect all the information regarding the problem. Determine as precisely as possible, based on facts, what defective product or process is involved : What item shows the defect / failure ? Arrive at a clear statement of what the defect / failure is. What is the defect / failure ? Look behind the symptom by posing the question : Who noticed what first ? Ask the first person who noticed the symptom to describe exactly what he/she observed. Collect all available documents on similar problems (8D reports, FMEAs, process flow plans, control plans,) Responsible : Team leader Output Definition of the problem Statement regarding the defective product or process. Statement regarding what the defect / failure is.

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Definition of the problem Statement regarding the defective product or process. Statement regarding what the defect / failure is.

Develop a definition of the description of the problem (Problem statement). A problem definition - is a simple, precise statement of the item and the defect, the cause of which is not known. In the case of complex symptoms, consider breaking down the problem into sections for individual treatment. Draw up a list of "IS / IS NOT" facts. Describe the occurrence in terms of : - What ? - Where ? - When ? - How many (how often; how significant ? Do not draw any conclusions (don't ask why) !!! The form used for assembling the IS/IS NOT facts contains precisely those questions necessary in order to collect comprehensive data : - What is the item revealing the defect ? - What is the defect / failure ? - Where on the item can the defect be seen ? - Where was the defect first observed ? - Where has the defect been seen since ? - How many items are affected ? - How much of the item is affected ? - How many defects per item can be seen ? - Does the occurrence of the defect follow a trend ? Use the "IS NOT" column to answer what, where, when, how many) the defect has not occurred. Does the quality department have data providing important information : line diagrams, diagrams showing a pattern, Pareto charts, etc. ? Draw up a "To Do" list.

Description of the problem

Completed "IS / IS NOT FACTS" form (what, where, when, how many)

Up-dated 8D report D2 Up-dated To Do List

List of actions with items outstanding Evaluate all the aids available, such as SPC data, machine ("To Do" list). log books, production measurement data, Check the make-up of the team. Document all decisions and changes to the problem or process. Agree the results of the collection of "IS/IS NOT" facts with the customer. Check whether the collected data show clearly a difference between specification actual performance, or whether the product/process was never good. Character of the defect. Brief statement of what the defect is.

Complete step "D2" of the 8D report. Responsible : Team leader

VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report Collection of "IS / IS NOT" facts (Appendix)

Comments :
In D2 the objective is to describe the problem to be processed, clearly and as comprehensively as possible, based on the facts available. Collecting data and facts in D2 often appears to demand a lot of time and effort and it requires trust in the system to cause this amount of work within the team. However, once it is seen how much more quickly and effectively all the later stages can be handled, the team members are happy to bring all the facts together. Be careful not to draw any conclusions. The subconscious mind will always look for reasons in order to answer a problem as quickly as possible. Too many open questions cause stress.

Tools & techniques :


Brainstorming (creative methods,) 8D reports covering similar failures Customers' reports Reports of experience Dealers' reports Quality studies Rework and repair reports Process, product and system audits

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Process D3 : Immediate containment action(s)

Objective : To define, verify and implement the immediate containment action(s) (ICA) to isolate the effects of the problems from any internal / external customer until permanent corrective actions (PCA) are implemented and are effective. Validate the effectiveness of the ICA.

No. 1

Input 8D report D2 with a current description of the problem Current "To Do" list from D2

Process Define actions which will provide 100% protection for the customer.

Output

Defined ICA which provide 100% protection for the Use the quality tools (see elementary aids, VDA Volume customer (the 4) to evaluate which action protects the customer best. customer no longer sees the symptom) Buy time for the analysis of cause(s). Service action if Protect the customer from the effects of the problem. necessary Restrict the problem in terms of costs, quality and time. Check whether a service action is necessary (by the vehicle maker). Responsible : Team leader

Defined ICA which provide 100% protection for the customer (the customer no longer sees the symptom) Up-dated 8D report (up to "D3" without verification)

Verification of ICA : Before implementation, demonstrate that the action - achieves what is intended (by comparing data before and after) and - no new problem occurs. Verification activities may include : - Tests and demonstrations - comparison of the new action with similar, proven improvements - review of newly developed documents before approval/release : All documents (procedures, drawings, specifications, etc.) must be checked for accuracy before they are released. Verification is a process which evaluates that the intended change is made without causing a new problem. Verification can, for example, be carried out by a crossdepartmental team which assesses the change and its effect, including any effects on the organisation. If possible a pilot introduction should be carried out in order to demonstrate the effects of the change. There should be team consensus on the decision. Implement the ICA. Responsible : Team leader

Verification results, in 8D report (D3) Approved/released documents. ICA implemented.

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Verification results in the 8D report (D3) Approved/released documents. ICA implemented.

Validate the ICA. - Demonstrate continuously that the action has the intended effect without causing a new problem. - Although the customer is the last testing point for validation, validation by the customer is not the right way to carry out validation. Validation before release to the customer - Demonstrate continuously the expected effect of the actions before introducing the change to the customer. - The activities may include tests , inspection, observations and other quality tests. Validation by the customer - Demonstrate continuously the expected effect of the actions after introducing the change to the customer. Proof of effectiveness is achieved when improvements are seen at the same indicators which indicated the symptom. The improvements can be observed and demonstrated with a flow diagram. Responsible : Team leader

Up-dated 8D report with : Verification and validation data for the ICA. Reasons (if applicable) why an ICA is not necessary. Reasons for the selected ICA (decision and criteria method). Action plan for coordinating the ICA ("to do" list) Action plan for the next steps ("to do" list)

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report Decision criteria method (Appendix)

Comments :
Characteristics of an immediate containment action (ICA) Temporary elimination of the effect / symptom. An action which prevents symptoms arising from one or more problems from having any effects on personnel, organisations or specific vehicle drivers. An ICA makes use of the data collected at the D2 stage. An immediate action attacks the symptom. is verified for effectiveness before implementation. is observed for its effect. is not merely a quick solution which is then forgotten. is replaced by the selected permanent corrective action (D6) - not to be forgotten ! generates costs.

VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Process D4 : Root cause(s)


No. 1 Input

Objective : to determine all possible causes, decide on and demonstrate the main (root) cause, indicate the point where the fault slipped through (the "escape point". Process Output

8D report completed up to and D4 is the actual analysis of the cause(s). It including D3 : must be carried out with care and without allocating blame. Facts are all that count Verification and validation data no deductions or subjective assessments. for the ICA. Make sure that the problem has been caused by a change here, "change" means sudden Reasons (if applicable) why an and continuous and not a problem which ICA is not necessary. occurred on the first day. Reasons for the selected ICA (decision and criteria method). Action plan for coordinating the ICA (decision-making work-sheet) Measurements are carried out, which show that the specified requirements are not met. Determine all the differences between what "IS" and what "IS NOT".

Allocate all the differences to the relevant Action plan for the next steps changes and date these changes. (if involved in the management review) ("to do" list). Within the team, develop all possible theories regarding potential causes. Use the experience and creativity of the team e.g., current problem members. description, process Each theory which might explain how the sequence, FMEA, work instructions, maintenance problem could have occurred is identified as records, SPC, a possible cause. Isolate the root cause by testing all the theories of causes against ALL the facts from the "IST / IS NOT" exercise. Isolate the "escape point" the point in the process where some-one could have recognized the problem and prevent its effects but did not do so. Use the cause & effect diagram, the process flow chart and problem-solving sheets: Work-sheet : IS / IS NOT differences / changes. Write down all the differences: Ask what is unusual, strange, striking or unique about the "IS" data. Completed work-sheet : IS / IS NOT differences / changes

- cause & effect diagram - action plan Consider the influence of personnel, methods, materials, machines, measurements and the environment (revise the cause & effect diagram).

Ask what has changed with regard to the differences. Keep asking Why? as you work toward the root cause (the "why" staircase) until there is no longer a clear answer to the question. VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version 9

Use the work-sheet : Testing the theories for causes Responsible : Team leader 2 - cause & effect diagram - action plan - 8D report Verify the cause Verification of the most probable cause can take place only in the real world, where the problem occurs. Verification of the cause is the confirmation that the cause has actually caused the problem. Verification should be carried out in two stages : - passive verification - active verification Passive verification is carried out by observation. With passive verification a check is made as to whether the cause is present. If it cannot be demonstrated that the cause is present, there is every chance that the "most probable cause is not the real cause. - Verified cause - Up-dated 8D report

Active verification is a process, in which the effect of the cause can be switched on and off. Responsible : Team leader 3

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Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report, IS / IS NOT data collection (appendix) IS / IS NOT DIFFERENCES / CHANGES (Appendix)

Comments :
Terminology regarding causes Possible cause" Each failure which was identified often (in a cause & effect diagram), which describes how an effect could occur Most likely cause" A theory which, after assessing the data, best explains the description of the problem. "Root cause" A verified cause which explains the occurrence of the problems and has been verified both passively and actively. Terminology regarding the "escape point" (the point at which the problem slipped through) "Control system" A system which is established in order to observe the product and/or process. It ensures that the quality requirements are met. It covers responsibilities, procedures and resources. The system has one or more control points, at which the product / process is checked. "Control point" A point in the control system at which the product / process is checked for compliance with defined quality requirements. "Escape point" The earliest point in the process at which the problem could have been detected but was not detected.

Problem caused by a change

continuous
Expected

Quality

Expected

Actual Time

sudden

Quality Actual Time

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Tools & techniques :


Robust design Environmental tests and analyses Measurement system analysis Benchmarking

First-day deviation
(The actual figure never achieves the required level)

First-day deviation
Expected

Quality
Actual

Time

Process D5 : Planned permanent corrective action(s)

Objective : Select the best permanent corrective action in order to eliminate the cause of the problem

No. 1

Input - Cause & effect diagram - Verified cause - Action plan - Up-dated 8D report

Process Select the best corrective action to eliminate the cause of the problem. Select the best corrective action to prevent the problem from slipping through at the "escape point". Verify that both these decisions are effective, once they have been introduced Ensure that no new causes of problems have been introduced as a result of the corrective action. Eliminate the cause of the problem. Verify this in D5 and validate it in D6. Criteria for the permanent corrective action : Solve the problem at the level of the cause. Do not generate any new problems. Verify the effectiveness of the action.

Output - Action plan - Up-dated 8D report

Responsible : Team leader

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- Verified cause - Action plan - Up-dated 8D report

Use the attached work-sheet : DECIDE ON THE CRITERIA METHOD

Essential criteria : What Essential criteria are objectively measurable, non-negotiable, realistic features regarding the decision. They often involve money, completion dates, company regulations and legislation. Why Essential criteria are minimum criteria. This means that some decisions are filtered out. How Essential criteria must be objectively measurable and realistic. Desirable criteria : Was Desirable criteria are features which are desirable in decision-making. They are subjectively / objectively measurable. Why Desirable criteria enable you to determine which of the remaining decisions should be preferred. How Desirable criteria generate the criteria required to make the ideal decision, taking resources into account, in order to reach the necessary end-result. Responsible : Team leader 3 Criteria entered in the work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD Decide on the relative importance of the desirable criteria : What Desirable criteria have a relative importance to each other in terms of the end-result. Why The relative importance enables the effect of each available option to be evaluated in order to determine the relative advantages. How Some desirable criteria are more desirable than others. Award 10 points to the most important criteria, compare the other criteria to it and award them points accordingly (scoring (1-10). Responsible : Team leader

Criteria entered in the worksheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD.

Criteria and importance entered in the work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD

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Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria and importance

Select a decision : What Generate a list of the alternatives. Why The "band-width" gives you a high-value selection. How Some of the alternatives may have already been suggested for example, by the manager. Others may already have been considered on the basis of the personal experience of other people. Some examples may have been taken from technical magazines, literature, etc. Bear in mind that this process may require several team meetings, if data need to be collected from outside the team. Responsible : Team leader

Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria and importance

Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria and importance

Compare the choice against the decision-making criteria : What A comparison enables you to determine how well the possible decision fulfils the decision-making criteria. Why You carry out the comparison so that you can select the best solution from all the possible solutions. How 1. Compare the essential criteria, checking the solutions (variants) to see if they are appropriate (yes or no). 2. Then check the solutions against the desirable criteria. Award the best solution 10 points and evaluate the other solutions in relation to this, with scores of 1 to 10. 3. Multiply these "how good" values with the importance of each desirable criterion. Enter the result of this multiplication in the Points column. 4. Produce total figures for each variant (solution).

Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria, importance and totals for the individual variants.

Consider the following : Write down objective information 14 VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

regarding the desirable criteria and not merely yes, no, good or bad. Try to use the entire points band-width, from 1 to 10. Responsible : Team leader 6 Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria, importance and totals for the individual variants. Analyse the risk What In the risk assessment, consider what can "go wrong". Why It is essential to consider the risk. Often solutions will bring not only advantages but also negative side-effects (the "network" theory). How Draw up a statement of risk : If an event occurs, it will have the following consequences ("FMEA thinking) Examine the probability of occurrence and the severity of the possible effects. Relate the results of these considerations to the essential and desirable criteria. Is the solution really a solution ? Or does it also contain a possible new problem ? Responsible : Team leader Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria, importance and totals for the individual variants. Completed risk analysis work-sheet. Come to a fully-weighed decision. What A fully-weighed decision is based on all the information and the conclusions which have been drawn. Why You make the fully-weighed decision in order to make the best possible decision. How When weighing up the advantages and disadvantages you may find that the solution initially proposed is no longer the optimum solution. Responsible : Team leader Decision Work-sheet : DECISION ON THE CRITERIA METHOD with criteria, importance and totals for the individual variants.

Decision

Verification, feasibility test

Justification of the final 15

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decision Check to make sure that the solution works in practice. Examples : experiments, trial runs, tests. Responsible : Team leader Verification data for the permanent corrective action(s). Risk analysis, FMEA

Action plan for the next steps. Up-dated 8D report 8 - Action plan - Up-dated 8D report Describe the result of the decision : What the result is a brief statement containing the desired end-result of the decision. Why the end-result must be known in order to determine the range, or scope of the decision and also to focus thinking and further action on this. How you describe the end-result by defining the actions and the item(s) involved. Responsible : Team leader Brief description of the decision, including the range, the actions and the item(s) involved. Up-dated 8D report

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report, Work-sheet : decision criteria method

Tools & techniques


FMEA Process capability methods Process flow diagram Design of experiments (DOE) Creativity techniques TRIZ Benchmarking Organisation charts Process control checks Weibull analysis

Summary
Important factors in D5 are : Take the right decision Weigh the advantages and risks No hasty introduction Verify that the selected action will be successful

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Process D6 : Implement and validate permanent corrective actions (PCAs)


No. 1 Input Brief description of the decision, including the range, the actions and the item(s) involved. Up-dated 8D report

Objective : Plan and implement the chosen permanent corrective actions (PCA) and stop the immediate containment actions (ICA). Validate the PCA. Observe the long-term results. Process Output - Permanent corrective action - Plan Do Check Act list - Implementation plan

Plan and implement the selected permanent corrective action (PCA). The team proceeds on the principles of : Plan Do Check - Act 1. Describe the objective. 2. Set out the standards and conditions which must be met. 3. Specify the stages of the action. Preventing problems regarding the planned PCA 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Specify the main stages. Identify barriers. Identify preventive actions. Identify safety/security actions. Look for key words covering safety/ | security actions. 9. Specify who is responsible for what action. Responsible : Team leader

- Permanent corrective action - Plan Do Check Act list - Implementation plan - Final permanent corrective action - Plan Do Check Act list - Implementation plan

Final plan 10. Check, revise and communicate the final plan. Responsible : Team leader Validation The validation is successful if it is demonstrated that the problem no longer occurs. Proof can be provided using a performance chart (failure statistics over a long period). Responsible : Team leader

- Final permanent corrective action - Plan Do Check Act list - Implementation plan - Confirmation that the validation is successful. - Up-dated 8D report

- Confirmation that the validation is successful. - Up-dated 8D report

Stop the immediate containment action (ICA) Part of "D6" is to conclude and stop the immediate containment action (ICA) which was intended to protect the customer. The ICA is no longer required because the permanent action (PCA) has eliminated the cause of the problem.

ICA are stopped. Up-dated 8D report

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Continuing the ICA would use important resources (causing unnecessary costs). The ICA would also hinder the validation Responsible : Team leader

Tools & techniques :


Action plan Process flow chart FMEA Initial sample inspection report (ISIR) (Production Part Approval Process, PPAP) Process descriptions Work descriptions SPC Flow charts Process capability checks

Forms / information :
8D report Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Summary : If you cannot prove that the problem is solved, it is not solved !

Process D7 :
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Objective : Prevent the recurrence of the failure VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Prevent recurrence
No. 1 Input - Confirmation that the validation is successful. - Up-dated 8D report. - Other information sources : - FMEA - ISO and VDA documents - Process flow charts - Timing plans - Control plans - Report of experience from the teams (lessons learned) - Provisional solutions

which has been eliminated in the system. Give recommendations for improvements, also covering other systems in which the problem might occur. Process Prevent recurrence This is an action to prevent the occurrence of current problems, similar problems and systemic problems. The current problem is the problem covered by the present 8D process. In "D7" the team examines the same problem from the systemic perspective. Similar problems are problems of a similar nature to the problem covered by the present 8D process. The team leader for the current 8D process initiates the necessary actions if appropriate. Show what practices and procedures in the system allowed the problem to occur and to slip through without being detected. Identify possible practices and procedures for preventing the problem in the current system. Identify possible practices and procedures for preventing similar problems in other systems. Modify the necessary systems prevent current or similar problems from occurring. Preventive actions fall within the area of responsibility of the current team leader ! Output

Possible improvements to practices, procedures, etc. Up-dated FMEA, control plan, process flow chart (if appropriate) and layout.

Possible improvements to practices, procedures, etc.

As a team, give recommendations for systemic improvements if necessary / possible. It may be necessary to appoint a different team champion in the case of systemic problems.

Recommendations for systemic improvements, procedures, etc.

Recommendations for systemic improvements, procedures, etc.

Possible reaction to improvement proposals from the teams : "D7" results are the area of responsibility of the current team champion. 1. The champion authorizes the current 8D team to implement appropriate action; or 2. The champion authorizes others to

Action (1 to 5) by the team champion, depending on his decision.

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implement appropriate action; or 3. The champion calls for further investigations; or 4. The champion rejects the team's recommendations; or 5. The champion forwards the recommendations (escalation).

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report

Tools & techniques :


5 x "why" ? Process flow chart FMEA SWOT QFD Interviews with experts

Summary :
Behind all causes there are systemic errors which must be eliminated. The objective is to modify the system in such a way that the problem cannot occur. "D7" prevents similar problems from occurring. The team also has the opportunity to propose fundamental improvements to the system.

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Process D8 : Congratulate your team


No. 1 Input Completed 8D report, stages D1 D7.

Objective : Recognize the team and individual contributions to what has been achieved. Close the project. Process Recognition and praise within the team and for individual contributions. Performance within the team can be recognized. This does not mean that there is no recognition outside the team. Effective recognition must be targeted in a measured manner and at the right time. Recognition increases self-esteem and motivates people to work in future 8D teams. Recognition and praise should be tangible. Responsible : Team champion Output Recognize the team and individual contributions.

Recognize the team and individual contributions.

Complete any actions and documents not yet brought to a conclusion. This includes : Completion and archiving of documentation. Recognition and evaluation of the experiences in the team process. Presentation of results to the team champion. Feedback to team members on their efforts (praise and criticism). Responsible : Team champion

Closure of the 8D method. Documentation of the process Revised list of 8D experience for all solved problems. Complete 8D report.

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix); Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Forms :
8D report

Tools & techniques :

Summary :
It is important that ... individual contributions are recognized as well as the team's performance. incomplete work and documents are brought to a conclusion before the team is disbanded. success is appreciated.

- Optional Prepare to clarify the problem /


VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Objective : Immediate interim containment action (IICA) if necessary. Decide on the use of the 8D method. 21

immediate interim containment action / prepare the 8D method


No. 1 Input The problem or symptom is reported by an internal or external customer or by the person affected. Process Ask the first person who noticed the symptom to describe exactly what he/she observed. Check whether an immediate interim containment action (IICA) is necessary. Determine whether other internal or external customers might be affected by this or a similar problem and implement appropriate actions. Check for a reasonable possibility of making up for a possible loss of production. 2a - Proof that an IICA is necessary - Action plan to coordinate the IICA Define and initiate an immediate interim containment action (IICA) if necessary. Inform the customer if appropriate. Check the way in which the IICA will operate and ensure that no undesirable side-effects occur. 2b Immediate interim containment action; information to the customer if appropriate As a reaction to a symptom of a problem, check whether it makes sense to employ the 8D method (a team solution is necessary). Check the pre-requisites for using the 8D method : 1. The symptom is defined and quantified e.g. : - what has been observed ? - what parts or products are affected ? 2. You know the customer where the symptom has occurred and those affected. 3. The cause is not known. 4. Management provides the resources required to eliminate the root cause of the problem and for preventive actions. 5. The complexity of the symptom cannot be handled by one person alone that is, a solution by a team is required. Decide whether or not to use the 8D method. Decision : Output - Proof that an IICA is necessary (2a) - Reason for the IICA (for example, a decision-making worksheet) - Action plan to coordinate the IICA - Proof that an IICA is not necessary (2b) (for example, a decisionmaking worksheet)

Immediate interim containment action; information to the customer if appropriate

Result of a check on the pre-requisites for using the 8D method

If the 8D method is not to be used (3a) If the 8D method is to be used (3b)

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Decision :

Use a different method and justify your VDA-Volume 4: 8D Method, Long Version

Do not use the 8D method 3b Decision : Use the 8D method

reasons Start the 8D method. Document all decisions and also each and every change to the problem or process.

Reference data :
Assessment questions (Appendix)

Tools & techniques :


Elementary aids : VDA Volume 4

Comments :
Symptom : An event or effect which has occurred with a customer which is quantifiable and indicates that one or more problems exist. The symptom is an effect of the problem, which is detected at the customer's premises or in-house. Problem : A quality deficiency, a deviation from an expected result (specified value), special causes within specification limits if the limits are set too wide, or other unexpected effects. Immediate interim containment action : An action which immediately protects the internal and/or external customer in the short term for example : - out-sorting defective parts - stop production - stop shipments

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