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Basic Procedure in

Social Research

Presented to: Dr. R. S. Patel

Prepared By : Jilpa Patwa
Sir K. P. College of commerce, Surat
Class of M.Phil -2008
Roll No: 10
Date: December 20, 2008.
Objective of the presentation
Ø To have an idea about different stages which are the
component of whole research process
Ø To get familiar about the various steps involved in
Ø Introduction
Ø Stages of Research Process
1. Problem formulation
2. Planning and research designing
3. Planning a sample- sampling process and various
4. Gathering the data- the methods of data collection
5. Processing
6. analysis
7. interpretation and conclusion
8. report writing
Ø Summing up
Ø References
What is research?
Research involves-
Ø Defining & redefining the problems
Ø Formulating hypothesis or advocating the solution
Ø Collecting-organizing and determining data
Ø Making deduction and reaching interpretation
Ø Testing conclusions to determine whether suitable for formulating
by: Clofford woody
Thus research is an organized work which requires proper planning.
Phases of The Research Process

Formulating Conclusions &
Preparing The Report
Formulation of
the Problem
Processing and
Analyzing the Data

Defining the
(2) New Problem
Planning & (4)
Research Design Gathering the Data

Planning a Sample
The research process
The research process involves a series of closely related ,
continuous overlapped and inter-dependent steps.
2) selection and formulation of research problem
3) Literature survey
4) Development of working hypothesis
5) Research design
6) Sampling strategy
7) Pilot study
8) Data collection
9) Processing and analysis
10) Testing hypothesis
11) Interpretation and generalization
12) Report writing
Formulation of the Problem

A Problem well defined is a problem half


State the
Understand Isolate and
Determine Research
Determine the Identify the Determine
the Questions
The background Problem, The unit
Relevant And
subject of the Not the of analysis
variables Research
subject symptoms
Formulation of Hypothesis
Ø An unproven propositions that tentatively explains certain facts or
phenomena and empirically testable.
It may be:
Ø Based on a chance or expectation
Ø rests on the findings of another studies
Ø Stemmed from the body of theory

Omission of important information or a faulty assumption
about the situation can be extremely costly
Planning & Research Design
Research design:
Ø It is the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for
collecting needed information strategies involved in analyzing
the data.
Ø Research design is the selecting the way towards the aim of
It is a process of using a small number of items or parts of a larger
population to make conclusions about the whole populations.

Sampling Process:
the Select actual
target Sampling unit

Select the Determine the Determine

Sampling frame Sampling sample size
Sampling Techniques
Sampling Techniques

Non Probability Probability

Sampling Sampling

Convenience Sampling Simple Random Sampling

Judgmental Sampling Systematic Sampling

Cluster Sampling
Quota Sampling

Straightified Sampling
Snow Ball Sampling
Other Techniques

Selection of Sources of Data & Methods
Method of Data

Primary Secondary

Observation Internal
Personal External

It is desirable to have a well thought out frame work for the

processing and analysis of data prior to their collection
Measuring and Scaling
Ø Scaling is a generalized idea about a class of objects,
attributes, occurrences or process.
Ø It is very complex task when it concerns the qualitative
Gathering Data
Ø Data is a recorded measure of certain phenomena.
Ø For data collection researcher should have to investigate and
record the facts.
Ø Data in its original form does not meet our requirements.
Ø We have to convert it in to a meaningful form, which is called data
Data Processing
Ø It is the process of examining errors and omissions in the collected
data and making necessary corrections

Ø Coding is the process of classifying the answers to meaningful

Ø It refers to the orderly arrangement of data in a table or other
summary format
Ø Tables and graphs help to simplify and clarify the data
Analysis-Testing hypothesis
Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand & interpret
the data.
Ø To test hypothesis properly
Ø Present the results of the research study
Ø Make readers understand the problem

Tools For analysis

Ø Mean
Ø Median
Ø Mode
Ø Standard Deviation
Ø Regression
Ø Correlation
Ø Trend Analysis
Ø The purpose of interpretation is to explain the meaning of data.
Ø Interpretation is simply telling what the data “look like”

Ø Conclusion is the most eye catching part of the research, because they
are the goal of the research
Report writing
Report Parts

Prefatory Parts Main Body Appended Parts

Title Page Summary Introduction Limitations Data

of Objectives
Methodology Conclusions
Results and
Letter of
authorization Recommendations
General tables
Table Area 1
of Area 2
Final Area Bibliography

Ø The purpose of report preparation is to convey the whole results

of the study in sufficient details to interested person.
Summing up
Ø Research process has a cyclical nature
Ø All the stages are overlapped and functionally interrelated
Ø A researcher has to think a few step ahead, for this he must
have the knowledge of not only the research methods but also
the logic behind the methods
Ø C.R.KOTHARI, research methodology – methods and technique,
Wishwa Prakashan New Delhi,2002.
Ø WILLIAM ZIKMUND, business research methods, Oklahoma state
university, 2007
Ø S.MOHAN, R.ELANGOVAN, research methodology in commerce,
deep & deep publication pvt.ltd. New Delhi, 2007
Ø G. C. BERI, Marketing research, Tata McGraw hill publishing ,
new Delhi, 2000.
Ø SANJAY NARULA, research methodology,
SAWCHUK, work and organizational behaviour, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2007
Thank You