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BATCH MEMBERS: SELVARASAN.P SIVARAJ.R VIGNESH.B VIMALRAJAN.A (50408103040) (50408103044) (50408103054) (50408103058)


Department of Civil Engineering.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

Pile foundation. Types of piles. Classifications of piles by material. Functions of pile cap Load calculation(both Dead load and live load). Impact factor for live load. Moment calculation. Shear force calculation. Design of pile (for piles acting individually and group). Reinforcement details of a pile. Efficiency of pile group. Design of pile cap. Reinforcement details of pile cap. Conclusion Reference

1. Pile foundation.

Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground, located at certain depth below ground surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles.

2. Types of Piles
Types of piles based on the mechanism of load transfer. There are two types of piles. They are,

Bearing piles Friction piles

3. Classification of piles by material

Timber piles, Concrete piles, Steel piles.

In this project, cast in- situ concrete piles are used.

4.Functions of piles

To transmit a foundation load to a firm ground To resist vertical, lateral and uplift load Piles can also be used in normal ground conditions to resist horizontal loads. Piles are a convenient method of foundation for works over water, such as jetties or bridge piers.

5. Load calculation (Dead load)

Load from Box girder Total area of box girder = 7.4 m2

Self weight of the box girder

Self weight of the box girder is 18,500 kN. Load from wearing course

Load from wearing course is 1237.5 kN

Load from pier Average solid rectangular area = 640.000m3

Combined semi-circular area (cut water) = 251.327 m3

Total volume = 891.327 m3 Self weight of pier is 22283.175 kN

Total dead load = Self weight of box girder + load due to weathering coarse + Self weight of pier. Total dead load is 42021 kN.

Load calculation (Live Load Tracked vehicle)

Max Live load = (70 x 9.81) = 686.7 KN

6. Impact factor for live load

From graph, curve for reinforced concrete bridges denotes 8.8 percent for spans more than 45m. Impact factor of live load for bridge = 60.43 kN

Total load on pile cap

Total load on pile cap = 42081 kN

7. Moment calculation
Max. B.M. Occurs when the load is at mid span.
B.M. at mid span = 1510.75 kNm. Moment on pier due to water current in lateral direction

Projected Area of pier = 70.55 m2

k = 35, co-efficient of pier with semi circular cut water. F = kAV2 = 96.89 kN Mean velocity at distance = 5.67 m

Moment = Force x Distance

Moment on pier due to water current = 550.00 kNm.

8. Shear force due to Impact factor of live load

Maximum shear force is occurs in the supports of the girder.
Max. Shear force at Supports = 30.215 KN.

9. Design of a pile
Cohesive factor, c = 50 kN/m2 Adopted length of pile = 30m. Diameter of each pile is (hp) 1.5m. Spacing between two piles S = 4.5m

To find the number of piles:

Qug = n c d L 108402.75 = n (50 x x 1.5 x 23) n = 15 For piles acting individually Qug = n x Qup Qug = 15 x (c x Ap)

Where, c = 50
A = DL = 141.37 m2 Qug = 106028.75 kN

Check for group action

For group action of piles, Qug = 4 BpcLpc + Apc c Nc For clay, Nc = 9 Apc = Lpc x Bpc = 287.5 m2 Qug = 198375 kN Ultimate load bearing capacity of group of piles, Qug = 198375 kN Hence the design of pile foundation for the bridge is safe.

10. Reinforcement details of a pile

Diameter of pile = 1500mm Pitch = 50mm

Clear cover to longitudinal bars = 75mm (min. cover = 40mm) Area of longitudinal steel, Asc = 10799.22 mm2 Diameter of core, Dk = 1318 mm Area of core, Ak = 1364334 mm2

Dia. of column corresponding to centre of helical bars, dh

dh = Dk Dia. of helical rod dh = 1302 mm Gross area of pile, Ag= 1767145.868 mm2

Area of Concrete, Ac = 1756346.648 mm2

Ultimate load carrying capacity for the pile, Pu Pu = 1.05(0.4 fck Ac + 0.67 fy Asc) = 17906.2 kN Load for each pile = 7166.261 kN

7166.261 kN < 17906.2 kN

Therefore a pile can carry the ultimate load from above structures. Consider one pitch length of the column P = 50 mm Length of helix per pitch length = ( x dh) 2 + P2 = 4090.659 mm Volume of helix per pitch length = 822475.837 mm3 Volume of core per pitch length = Ak x P = 68216700 mm3

Ratio of volume of helical steel to volume of core = Volume of helix per pitch length / Volume of core per pitch length = 0.0121 This value should be 0.36 [(Ag / Ak) 1](fck/fy) 0.005

0.0121 0.005
Hence the provision of helical reinforcement is satisfactory.

Spacing of longitudinal bars Diameter of core, Dk = 1318 mm x Dk = 4140.619

Spacing of longitudinal 32 mm dia. rods = 197.17 Therefore provide 195 mm spacing between each longitudinal bars.

11. Efficiency of pile group

By using Converse Labarre formulae, we can find the efficiency of pile group g = 1 /90 {[ (n-1)m + (m-1)n] / mn} = tan-1(d/s)

g = 0.709
Therefore efficiency of group of piles = 70.9 %

12. Design of pile cap

Choosing depth of the pile cap: hpc = 1/3 (8hp + 600) mm for hp 550 mm hpc = 4200 mm Therefore depth or thickness of the pile cap is 4.2m Self weight of pile cap = 30187.500 kN Total load including pile cap = 72268.5 kN Factored load = 108402.75 kN

13. Reinforcement details of pile cap

To find area of steel by Truss action, H = PL/4d = 29036.45 kN. Area of steel required, As = (PL) / 4(0.87 fy) d

As = 80422 mm2
Minimum reinforcement, Ast = 0.12 % x b x d = 5040 mm2 Provide 32 mm diameter bars Spacing = ast / Ast x 1000 = 159 mm Ast (Provided) =196237mm2 Ast (Provided) > Ast (Required) Due to the larger depth of the pile cap, provide 2 legged stirrups. Hence the provided reinforcement for pile cap is safe.

This project has given opportunity to understand the basic principles of pile foundation design. In the project pile and pile cap have been designed with reinforcement details During the course of the project we have gained knowledge about designing of pile cap and loading criteria. The pile foundation is designed as per IS 2911- 1979, Part 1 concrete piles, section 2 Bored cast in situ piles. We have learnt the application of AUTOCAD during the course of this project.

Books referred
Bridge Engineering by S. Ponnusamy.

Soil mechanics and Foundations by B.C. Punmia.

Limit State Design of Reinforced Concrete by P.C.Varghese. Design of reinforced concrete structures by S. Ramamrutham. Design of Pile Foundation by Satyendra mittal.

Indian Standards referred

IS 456:2000 - code of practice for reinforced concrete. IS 2911- 1979, Part 1 concrete piles / section 2 Bored cast-in-situ piles. Indian Road Congress 6 -2000. Tamil Nadu Highways Manual, Standard Specifications for Bridges.