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UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:- Mr. Samiran Biswas S S u u b b m m i

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:-

Mr. Samiran Biswas

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF:- Mr. Samiran Biswas S S u u b b m m i

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our heartiest gratitude to Mr.Samiran Biswas, Mr. Chandan Kumar Ghosh, Mr. Dipak Chakrabarty for providing us with their proper guidelines and supervision to perform our final year project in the 8 th sem .Then I would like to thank Subir sir, Mr. Biswajit Biswas for their continuous inspiration during the whole project.

We would like to thank the whole ECE Dept. Of MCET for their continuous cooperation and clarification of doubts while carrying out project work.

Our special thanks goes to all the faculty members and college administration, MCET for their assistance and encouragement.

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WHAT

WHAT ISISIS ROBOTICS

WHAT

ROBOTICS ROBOTICS

Robotics is the science and technology of robot, their design, manufacture, and application.Robotics requires a working knowledge of electronics, mechanics and software, and is usually accompanied by a large working knowledge of many subjects.A person working in the field is a roboticist.

Although the appearance and capabilities of robots vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of autonomous control. The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain (its functionality being akin to the skeleton of the human body). The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles) and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. Most contemporary robots use open serial chains in which each link connects the one before to the one after it. These robots are called serial robots and often resemble the human arm. Some robots, such as the Stewart platform, use closed parallel kinematic chains. Other structures, such as those that mimic the mechanical structure of humans, various animals and insects, are comparatively rare. However, the development and use of such structures in robots is an active area of research (e.g. biomechanics). Robots used as manipulators have an end effector mounted on the last link.

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Obviously the line following robot will need to see the line, therefore we require an light detector of some sort. We also would like it if the line following robot could do this regardless of the ambient conditions (is the room dark or light? is it lit by sunlight or artificial light?). So the robot will also need its own illumination source. The weapon of choice here will be Infra Red (IR) light.

To make this easy for ourselves the light only needs to be

constant

if a white line is present then it will reflect a

... lot of IR from our source. If the line is black then we see

the opposite effect.

THE CIRCUIT

THE CIRCUIT

THE CIRCUIT

THE

CIRCUIT

All we need is an IR source, an IR photo-transistor and a couple of resistors! Here are the resources:

IR emmiters and detector pairs:

IR emmiters and detector pairs:

On top of these, it would be nice if the signal that we get could be TTL (on or off, 0V, 5V). So to do this we will also require our favourite BEAM chip, the 74AC240, heres the circuit:

Obviously the line following robot will need to see the line, therefore we require an light

Obviously the line following robot will need to see the line, therefore we require an light detector of some sort. We also would like it if the line following robot could do this regardless of the ambient conditions (is the room dark or light? is it lit by sunlight or artificial light?). So the robot will also need its own illumination source. The weapon of choice here will be Infra Red (IR) light.

To make this easy for ourselves the light only needs to be

constant ...

if a white line is present then it will reflect a

lot of IR from our source. If the line is black then we see the opposite effect.

Circuit operation is simple no line to follow put the .... input to the inverter high,

Circuit operation is simple

no line to follow put the

.... input to the inverter high, and therefore the inverter outputs a low, line detection turns on the transistor (or photodiode) and thus the inverter gets a low and outputs a high. If your robot is following a black line on a white page, then add another invereter after or before the first.

So what should the values for R1 and R2 be? and how do I

set up the 74AC240 chip exactly

The value for R1

..... affects the source IR brightness, for maximum brightness

we set R1 to give the maximum allowable forward current for the IR led. So what should it be?? Well, look at the datasheet for your LED, lookup the value of the maximum forward current. Now a simple bit of electronic theory tells us V=IR, I will assume you are using 5V because this is the volatge the 74AC240 should be run at (6V is OK ... 4 AA batteries).

Now lets say that the max forward current is 100mA so we have 5V = 100mA * R , therefore:

5/100*10^-3 = R = 50ohms.

Experiment with different values until you get a sensitivity

that you are happy with

too bright and the detector will

... see it when it shouldn't! Also remember this will affect the distance you can have it from the line you are following.

So how about R2? just set R2 to about 4K.

The chip setup is simple too

ground pins 1, 10 and 19,

... put 5V onto pin 20. Now choose a pin to input your signal

to, if we look at the 74AC240 datasheet on page 14, we will see a connection diagram, any pin with an I is an

input, follow it across to find its output. Pins 1 and 19 are the enable pins, which we have grounded to permanently enable the inputs on both side of the chip, this leaves you free to use any of the input pins. For example (in case I haven't spelt it out enough already) ... input your signal at pin 4 and take the ouput from pin 16.

The output signal could be used to directly drive your

motor

just connect one side of the motor to the ouput,

... and the other side to ground. If you do this for two motors (2 sets of line detectors will require two sets of emitters and detectors, but only one 74AC240 chip), then you have a basic line follower already! The left detector should be used to drive the right motor and vice versa The behaviour of this robot as it stands will be too turn a motor on IF a line is present, if both detectors are over the line then it will drive straight, if the left detector goes of the line, it will turn off the right motor causing the robot to turn back onto the line, if the right detector goes off the line then it will turn off the left motor and

again go back onto the line. If both detectors come off the line (end of line) then the robot will stop altogether, perfect!

74HC240 74HCT240

74HC240

74HC240

74HCT240 74HCT240

OCTAL BUFFER/LINE DRIVER

OCTAL BUFFER/LINE

OCTAL

OCTAL

BUFFER/LINE

DRIVER

BUFFER/LINE DRIVER WITH

DRIVER WITH

WITH

WITH 3333----

STATE OUTPUTS

STATE OUTPUTS

STATE OUTPUTS

STATE

OUTPUTS

General Description

The AC/ACT240 is an octal buffer and line driver designed to be employed as a memory address driver, clock driver and bus oriented transmitter or receiver which provides improved PC board density.

Features

_ ICC and IOZ reduced by 50% _ Inverting 3-STATE outputs drive bus lines or buffer memory address registers _ Outputs source/sink 24 mA _ ACT240 has TTL-compatible inputs

MEASUREMENT AT

MEASUREMENT AT

MEASUREMENT

AT AAA GLANCE

GLANCE GLANCE

Height of the base from ground = 8.7 cm

Diameter of the wheel = 3.2 cm

Free space = 0.1cm

Width of wooden base = 0.5 cm

Breadth of base = 17.6 cm

Length of lower base = 23.7 cm

Number of motors used = 3

Revolving base :

Breadth =15.5 cm Length= 30.7 cm Length of arm =31cm

Length of grabbing hand = 9.6cm

Maximum extendable length of grabbing hand =10cm

The bot rests upon four wheels. Out of four wheels, the two rear wheels are driven by two separate geared motors of 100 rpm each which are connected on the same axis. The D.C motors are operated at 12 volt with normal power supply of 220- 230 volt using a Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS). The wheels can rotate in both clockwise and anticlockwise direction. The rest two front wheels can rotate 360 degree on both ways to support the bot in any direction. Left and right movement of the bot is due to free rotation of front wheels keeping the left and right rear wheels constant at one time respectively.

UPPER BASE

UPPER BASE

UPPER BASE

UPPER

BASE

Above the lower base of the bot, the turn table platform is of 30.7 cm length and 15.7 cm breadth. The upper revolving base

is connected with

an

arm which

lifts

and

lowers

down the

material and also

keep

the

blocks in horizontal

and

vertical

position. The turn table is rotating in both directions through a

geared motor of 10 rpm. Horizontal movement of the arm

depends on

the clockwise and

anticlockwise movement of the

motor shaft of the turn table. The motor is actually fixed with the lower base keeping the shaft at a certain height. This shaft has got a rubber padding on its tip. turntable there is a rubber padding.

CONTROL

CONTROL

CONTROL

CONTROL

The mechanical structure of a robot must be controlled to perform tasks. The control of a robot involves three distinct phases - perception, processing and action (robotic paradigms). Sensors give information about the environment or the robot itself (e.g. the position of its joints or its end effector). Using strategies from the field of control theory, this information is processed to calculate the appropriate signals to the actuators (motors) which move the mechanical structure. The control of a robot involves path planning, pattern recognition, obstacle avoidance, etc. More complex and adaptable control strategies can be referred to as artificial intelligence.

LOCOMOTION

LOCOMOTION

LOCOMOTION

LOCOMOTION

For simplicity, most mobile robots have four wheels. However, some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots, with only one or two wheels.

Two-wheeled balancing: While the Segway is not commonly thought of as a robot, it can be thought of as a component of a robot. Several real robots do use a similar dynamic balancing algorithm, and NASA's Robonaut has been mounted on a Segway. Ballbot: Carnegie Mellon University researchers have developed a new type of mobile robot that balances on a ball instead of legs or wheels. "Ballbot" is a self-contained, battery-operated, omnidirectional robot that balances dynamically on a single urethane-coated metal sphere.

APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS

APPLICATIONS

1. The robot can be used as a guider to guide the visitors from the entrance to the main office . 2. It can help doctors to carry the medicines from one ward to another . 3. The main purpose is to rescue the people by extinguishing fire in a building . 4. When man power does not work to rescue then the robot can done this job.

LIMITATIONS AND EXTENSIONS

LIMITATIONS AND EXTENSIONS

LIMITATIONS AND

LIMITATIONS

AND EXTENSIONS

EXTENSIONS

In the present condition it can extinguish fire only in the way

and

not

in

all

the rooms.

It

can be extended

to

a

real

fire

extinguisher by replacing the fan by a carbon-di-oxide carrier and

by making

it

to

extinguish

fires

of

all

the

room

using

microprogramming. Also the robot could not be run through the batteries because

at some conditions the current requirement for the circuit rises to

about .8A which batteries.

is

very

high

and can not be obtained using

CONCUL ATION

CONCULAT

AT

AT ION

ION

ION

CONCUL

CONCUL

We made it possible using various electrical and mechanical components. It includes in total five geared motors of varying rpm. We have made a differential steering set-up for the various movements of the lower base. The other movements of

the upper base, arm and the grabbing system is provided by

mechanical

coupling, pulley system

and

a

pivoting

system

respectively. Ball bearing, free rotating wheel etcetera are used for the movement of the bot. For the electrical connection part

we

had

used switches, relays, connecting

cables, and

other

components.

 

In our journey we had met with several problems, especially while working with the grabbing part. We solved most of the problems and finally arrived up till this. Moreover all type of electronic goods were not available in our nearby market and for small things we had to travel a long way from Behrampore to Kolkata. However it was fun working in such an innovative and energetic team.

Finally we present to you, MASS, our robot. Though it looks somewhat poverty stricken due to its rickety limb, it is capable of performing its task in an efficient way. We had just tried to utilize our meager resources optimally.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

These are some of the sites we visited:- http://www.hobbyengineering.com/rmapIndex.html http://www.ridgesoft.com/buildingbots.htm http://www.seattlerobotics.org/guide/infrared.html http://www.robotroom.com/RBFB.html //line following robot http://www.mstracey.btinternet.co.uk/interest.htm

http://www.dudi30.republika.pl/galeria/index.html

//New robot every week http://www.robotics.com/robomenu/index.html

THANK

YOU