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Chapter #9: The Confederation and the Constitution Big Picture Ideas 1.

. The Articles of Confederation, the first government set up after the American Revolution, was structured out of fear of a too-strong government. Therefore, the Articles were very weak on purpose. 2. Two things showed the Articles as being too weak to the point of being sterile: (a) it could not regulate commerce and the money situation was growing dim fast and (b) Shays Rebellion frightened many to the possibility that mobs might just take over and the government might be too weak to stop them. Due to these reasons, the Constitutional Convention was held. 3. The Constitution was written as something of a balancing act between strengthening the government, yet making sure it doesnt get too strong to take over. The resulting government was indeed stronger, but also a system of checks and balances were put into place to ensure no one branch becomes like the king had been. 4. After some negotiating, mostly with the promise of the Bill of Rights, the Constitution was ratified. IDENTIFICATIONS: John Lockes Second Treatise of Government All human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government. Federalist #10 Refuted the conventional wisdom which stated that it was possible to extend a republican form of government over a large territory Republican Government Political theory of representative government, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, with a strong emphasis on liberty and civic virtue. Influential in eighteenth century American political thought, it stood as an alternative to monarchical rule. Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for land sale in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt. Land Ordinance of 1787 Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories. Necessary and Proper Clause Clause that gives Congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers. Federalist Papers Collection of essays written by John Jay, Hamilton, and Madison. Shays Rebellion Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of mob rule among leader Revolutionaries.

Annapolis Convention A convention held in 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention. Philadelphia Convention 1787--12 colonies send delegates to revise the Articles of Confederation; Delegates soon agree the United States needs a new Constitution. Delegated Powers Powers given to the federal government by the Constitution.

English Traditions

Limited Govt
Magna Carta 1215 Bill of Rights 1689 Balance of power b/t King and Parliment

Colonial Governments Right to vote Natural rights philosophy Separation of powers


Checks and balances

Influe nc e s on The U. S Cons titution


NY State Constitution
Included Bill of Rights First popularly elected executive Right to petition Right to vote
The Iroquois Confederacy Peace, justice, power of good minds

Indians can do it, so can we

Reserved Powers Powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states. Concurrent Powers Powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments. Supremacy Clause The constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws. Anti-Federalists Cast the Constitution as antidemocratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government, and feared encroachment on individuals' liberties in the absence of a bill of rights.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: The Pursuit of Equality Know: Leveling, Society of the Cincinnati, Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, Abigail Adams, Republican Motherhood, John Singleton Copley 1. What social changes resulted from the American Revolution? The church and the state were increasingly separated. Constitution Making in the States Know: State Constitutions, Fundamental Law 2. What was the importance of the state constitutions? It established the right of the people living in their respective states. The state gave certain rights to the citizens so that their freedom and sense of individualism could be protected. Economic Crosscurrents Know: Navigation Laws, Empress of China, Speculation 3. What were the positive and negative effects of the war on America? The positive effects of the Revolutionary War were that the U.S. gained its independence, England lost its standing as an undefeated superpower. The negative effects of the War were that France collapsed and entered a violent era known as the French Revolution because of severe debt. 9 out of every 10 Americans were farmers and they had no navy and no army. A Shaky Start toward Union Know: Natural Rights 4. Why was the end of the war difficult on the national government? The new national government that emerged from the Revolution confronted a host of issues during the 1780s. The first major one to be addressed by Congress dealt with all of the land acquired in the West. Starting in 1784 Congress passed a series of land ordinances that provided for land surveys, sale of land and the foundation for the creation of new states. Creating a Confederation Know: Sovereignty, Articles of Confederation 5. What forces served to unify the separate states during the war? Among the significant results of the Revolution was the creation of a democratically-elected representative government responsible to the will of the people. However, sharp political debates erupted over the appropriate level of democracy desirable in the new government, with a number of Founders fearing mob rule.

The Articles of Confederation: America's First Constitution 6. What weaknesses plagued the Articles of Confederation? What was good about it? The greatest weakness of the federal government under the Articles of Confederation was its inability to regulate trade & levy taxes. Landmarks in Land Laws Know: Old Northwest, Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787 7. Explain the importance of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance. Enacted by Congress to establish orderly & equitable procedures for settlement & political incorporation of the Northwest Territory lying west of Pennsylvania north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River & south of the Great Lakes. The World's Ugly Duckling Know: Natchez, Dey of Algiers 8. Using examples, explain the title of this section. The British remained in the Americas where they maintained their fur trade with the Indians. The American states did not honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts and Loyalists. The British stayed primarily to keep the Indians on the side of the British so to defend against future attacks on Canada by the Americans. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy Know: Shay's Rebellion, Mobocracy 9. Were the United States of America in danger of falling apart under the Articles of Confederation? Explain. Yes. The Articles were loose and had no power to enforce its paper documents. Americans viewed anyone with too much power as a threat to their freedom and therefor refused to come under any rule. This sad state of matters brought much discord to the states which were considered sovereign. The nation was in debt and it had enemies on all sides. It had no way to repay war debt as it had no way to collect the money from the states, which some refused to pay. At this point, unless all the states agreed to one thing - things would stay as they were. A Convention of "Demigods" Know: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Patrick Henry 10. What kind of men gathered in Philadelphia for the "sole and express purpose of revising" the old government? An elite group of men with forthsight and wisdom. Patriots in Philadelphia 11. How does George Washington's quote, "We have, probably, had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our confederation." help to explain the purposes of our founding fathers? George Washington meant that while we always wish to think the best in people, when it comes to laws, government, and politics, men cannot be counted on to do what is best for the country, because they are concerned with what is best for themselves. Hammering out a Bundle of Compromises Know: Virginia (large state) Plan, Bicameral Legislature, New Jersey (small state) Plan, Great Compromise, Electoral College, Three-fifths Compromise 12. Describe the compromises that were achieved by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention. These debates were over representation in the legislative branch, slavery, and the growing rifts between the federalist and the antifederalist delegates. Safeguards for Conservatism Know: Checks and Balances, Separation of Powers

13. How democratic was the Constitution as originally written? It was not very democratic, because it allowed only property owning men to vote. The Clash of Federalists and Anti- federalists Know: Anti- federalists, Federalists 14. Who were the anti- federalists and why did they oppose the Constitution? The Anti- Federalists were those who opposed the Constitution. They did not want the union to have a strong central government, but instead wanted more power for the individual states. The Great Debate in the States 15. Did most of the states approve of the Constitution? Why? Yes, the states, and most of them, did approve the Constitution because they saw it as a document that best secured the beliefs of the early colonists. The Four Laggard States Know: Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, The Federalist 16. Explain some of the opposition to ratification of the Constitution. It eliminated a bill of rights and gave almost all of the governing power to the government and the three branches, rather than securing the power in the hands of the common man. They felt like it was becoming a monarchy again, with the people helpless and nothing to say. A Conservative Triumph 17. What does your text mean when it says that the Constitution, "...elevated the ideals of the Revolution even while setting boundaries to them? The minority had triumphed again, and the transition had been peaceful. Only about 1/4 of the adult white males in the country had voted for the ratifying delegates. Conservationism was victorious, as the safeguards had been erected against mob-rule excesses.

Chapter #10: Launching the New Ship of State Big Picture Ideas 1. Alexander Hamilton, get the U.S. on a solid foothold. With the Bill of Rights quickly ratified, the top problem the new nation faced was financial in nature. 2. Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton developed a plan that included (a) starting a national tariff, (b) starting a tax on whiskey, (c) setting up a national bank, and (d) paying off the national debt. 3. Politics quickly fell into two camps: (a) those who followed Thomas Jefferson became the DemocraticRepublicans and (b) those who followed Alexander Hamilton became the Federalists. 4. Turmoil broke out Europe with the French Revolution, mostly between England and France. The U.S. nearly got sucked into European issues, but both Washington and John Adams kept the America out of war. This was best for the U.S. IDENTIFICATIONS: Washingtons Cabinet Established by George Washington. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox. Judiciary Act of 1789 Created by the first Congress to create effective federal courts. Organized the Supreme Court with a chief justice and five associates and established the office of attorney general. Federalists A political party that believed in a strong government run by the wealthy, government overseeing and aid over business, and a pro-British foreign policy. Democratic-Republicans A political party that believed in the common people, no government aid for business, and a pro-French foreign policy. Hamiltons vision vs. Jeffersons vision Hamilton believed in a strong central government that could rule over the people and enforce laws and regulations that will lead the country. He essentially favored the wealthy. Created a national bank. Jefferson wanted a fairly simple, agrarian lifestyle because he supported the common man. He did not want any remote resemblance of the British in the American government and wanted the people to hold power. Report on Manufactures and Report on the Public Credit Hamilton urged the expanded use of protective tariffs as a means to protect the nation's infant industries. He argued that the United States could only assure its political independence by maintaining economic independence. Hamilton's report that contained recommendations that would at once strengthen the country's credit, enable it to defer paying its debt, and entice wealthy investors to place their capital at its service. Jays Treaty Written by John Jay. It said that the Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. Also, Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the Revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Pinckneys Treaty Agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Floridas border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans. Washingtons Farewell Address Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, and not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism. Midnight appointments The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration. Revolution of 1800 Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution." Judiciary Act of 1801 Law that the Federalist Congress passed to increase the number of federal courts and judicial positions; President John Adams rushed to fill these positions with Federalists before his term ended. XYZ Affair A diplomatic incident in which American envoys to France were told that the United States would have to loan France money and bribe government officials as a precondition for negotiation. Chisholm v Georgia Granted federal courts the affirmative power to hear disputes between private citizens and States.

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS: Washington for President Know: George Washington, Cabinet, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, Henry Knox 1. Was Washington an important president? Explain. George Washington was our country's first President, which makes him historically very important. He established the executive and judicial branches of the federal government of the US. He set the precedent for future Presidents. The Bill of Rights Know: James Madison, Ninth Amendment, Tenth Amendment, Judiciary Act, John Jay 2. What important steps were taken by the first congress? The first congress established New York as their temporary capital. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit Know: Funding at Par, Assumption of State Debts 3. How did Alexander Hamilton's economic plans lead to the District of Columbia? After six months of debate, Hamilton, Jefferson and Madison met and worked out the Compromise of 1790. The capital would move permanently to Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia).

Customs Duties and Excise Taxes Know: Revenue Tariffs, Protective Tariffs, Excise Taxes 4. Explain Hamilton's overall economic plan for America. Fund the national debt and to have the federal government assume the debts owed by the states. He also wanted a strong national bank so that the power of the government could increase. Basically, he wanted the rich to be powerful. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Know: Bank of the United States, Strict Construction, Loose Construction, Elastic Clause 5. How did the issue of the Bank of the United States reveal a difference in understanding about the Constitution between Jefferson and Hamilton? The essential disagreement between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proposed Bank of the United States was whether the Constitution granted the federal government the power to establish such a bank. While Hamilton believed the Constitution had an Elastic Clause, Jefferson followed it strictly word for word. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania Know: Whiskey Rebellion 6. Was the Whiskey Rebellion a victory for freedom, order, or both? Explain. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 is regarded as one of the first tests of federal authority in United States history and of the young nation's commitment to the constitutional rule of law. So basically, it is a sort of victory not for freedom but for the government. The Emergence of Political Parties Know: Factions, Parties 7. Why did political parties develop during George Washington's presidency? Were they good or bad? The first political parties in the U.S. after the Revolutionary War developed as a result of the debate over ratifying the Constitution. They were the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. In Washingtons eyes they were bad because the leaders of both parties, Hamilton and Jefferson constantly disagreed and fought over things. The Impact of the French Revolution Know: Democratic-Republicans, Federalists, French Revolution, Reign of Terror 8. In what way did the French Revolution expose the differing views of Democratic-Republicans and Federalists? The French Revolution decisively shaped American politics in 17931800. Federalists warned that American Republicans threatened to replicate the horrors of the French Revolution. The Republicans responded with support, even though the horrendous Reign of Terror was instigated by Robespierre. The Republicans denounced Hamilton, Adams, and even Washington as friends of Britain, as enemies. Washington's Neutrality Proclamation Know: Franco-American Alliance, Neutrality Proclamation, Citizen Genet 9. Explain the reasoning for and against Washington's Neutrality Proclamation. George Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality was designed to keep America out of foreign wars. Washington wanted the foreign countries to deal with their wars and problems themselves, because he was afraid that if America formed allies with them, it could be dangerous. Embroilments with Britain Know: Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers, Treaty of Greenville 10. How did British actions towards Native Americans and American merchant ships incite many Americans?

Britain was responsible for external matters like foreign affairs, trade, Native American affairs. To the colonists, the Stamp Act violated their right not to be taxed without representation; it undermined the independence. Actions toward the Native Americans reminded the Americans of their old days. Jay's Treaty and Washington's Farewell Know: Jay's Treaty, Farewell Address 11. Did John Jay betray American interests in Jay's Treaty? The Democratic Republicans saw the Jay's Treaty as being too concessionary toward the British as a response to their seizure of American ships, giving them "the right to continue fur trade with the Indians" and requiring "America to repay debts incurred to England during the Revolutionary War." By contrast, the Democratic Republicans "felt America was again obligated to fight Britain for its liberty." Moreover, it was drafted by Federalist Chief Justice John Jay, who was "notoriously pro-British," causing the Democratic Republicans to fear from the outset that Jay would betray his own country and not act in America's best interest. John Adams Becomes President Know: John Adams, High Federalists 12. What handicaps did John Adams face as he became president? John Adams faced the financial difficulties and deficits of the United States. Unofficial Fighting with France Know: John Marshall, XYZ Affair, "Millions for Defense, but Not One Cent for Tribute 13. What French actions brought America close to war in the closing years of the 18th century? Several times between 1898 and 1914 the economic rivalry in Africa between France and Great Britain, and also between Germany on one side and France and Great Britain on the other, almost precipitated a European war. Adams Puts Patriotism above Party Know: Napoleon Bonaparte, Convention of 1800 14. How did avoiding war with France hurt John Adams' political career? During Adams' presidency, the U.S. faced its most serious international crisis yet: an undeclared naval war with France. In the Jay Treaty, France perceived an American tilt toward Britain, especially in a provision permitting the British to seize French goods from American ships in exchange for financial compensation. France retaliated by capturing hundreds of vessels. The Federalist Witch Hunt Know: Alien Laws, Sedition Act 15. Explain the reasons for the passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien and Sedition acts were passed when Andrew Jackson was in office as the fourth president and many did not agree with him and began writing negative things about the president so the act was passed. The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions Know: Compact Theory, Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, Nullification 16. Which was more dangerous to the US Constitution: the Alien and Sedition Acts or the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions? Explain. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions condemned the Sedition Act as a violation of the Free Speech Clause to the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. In 1798, the Federalist-controlled Congress passed four acts to empower the president of the United States to expel dangerous Aliens from the country; to give the president authority to arrest, detain, and more. Federalists versus Democratic-Republicans 17. What were some key differences between Federalists and Democratic Republicans?

Federalists favor the federal government having more control, whereas Democratic-Republicans favor giving the states more power. The Republicans wanted an agrarian society.