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Revelation as Source of

The Classification of
& Sciences in Islam
-RKQS 1030-

Ani Amirah Bt. Mohd Zin

Najia Takhari
Noraeyn Bt. Samsuddin
Knowledge and Sciences
Knowledge (‘ilm)
• Literal: To know, to understand, to perceive,
to be familiar and acquainted with, intensive
• Technical: An understanding or
comprehension of something
which conforms to the true
nature of its reality and essence (Al-
: A system that gains from efforts of
human beings based on
hypothesis, observation, natural
laws and experiments (Western
Knowledge and Sciences
• Denoted as ma’rifah in Arabic.
• In depth understanding or
acquaintance of something by means
of rational thinking and reflection of
its implications or phenomena (Al-
• The knowledge about the structure
and behavior of the natural and
physical world, based on the facts
that you can prove such as through
Classification of Knowledge

by Al-Ghazali
1. Theoretical and Practical sciences
2. Presential and Attained knowledge
3. Religious and Intellectual sciences
4. Fard ‘Ayn and Fard Kifayah sciences
Theoretical and Practical
Theoretical Sciences
• Known as the states of beings as they are.

Practical Sciences
• Deals with man’s actions
• Aims at finding out the human activities
conducive to man’s well-being in this life
and the next.
• Applied mainly to the science of religion.
Present and Attained
Present knowledge
• Direct, immediate, supra-rational,
intuitive, contemplative
• Known as knowledge from on high and
knowledge of unveiling of the divine

Attained knowledge
• Indirect, rational, logical and discursive.
Religious and Intellectual
Religious sciences
• acquired from the prophets, do not arrived
by reason/hearing.

Intellectual sciences
• attained by the human intellectual alone.
Fard ‘Ayn and Fard Kifayah
Fard ‘Ayn
• Religious obligation that is binding on
every Muslim.

Fard Kifayah
• Fulfilment of the obligation by a segment
of the community would absolve the rest
of it of that obligation.
Duty to Seek Knowledge
in Qur’an and Sunnah and
Its Attributes
• Is the religion that emphasizes greatly on its followers to seek
• Khalifah of Allah on earth.
• Allah has granted us ‘aql.
• According to Ammar Fadzil, knowledge and wisdom as a lost
treasure that Muslims must strive for its discovery regardless
wherever it comes from.
Definition of Sunnah
• Second primary source of Shari’ah and knowledge.

• Literally; way of life, manner and habit.

• Technically; legislative Sunnah of the Prophet SAW , Sunnah

that link with legislation.

• Sunnah includes the way of life of the Prophet Muhammad

S.A.W., established practice, authentic and his whole lifestyle
including the Qur’an.
• Sunnah is dependent on Qur’an but the Qur’an is not
dependent on Sunnah.

For example, it is stated in the Qur’an that we must

pray, but it is not stated there how to do it, how many
rakaat, and when to do it.

• Prophet Muhammad S.A.W. is a role model and

leader, and also best example for mankind.
• Practices of the Prophet S.A.W.
• Sunnah also covered the whole life of the Prophet
• Prophet asked their companion to practice the Sunnah
and focus more to memorize and focus the Quran.
• For example, as based on the story of Ka’ab bin
Malik and Umar.
Duty to Seek Knowledge in
the Quran
• mention the terms of knowledge in
about 850 times.
• Qur’an is miraculous Book.
(e.g al-An’aam:122)
• Clear & Easy Book.
• Depicts Comprehensive Code of Life.
(Aqidah, Ibadah, Akhlak, Shariah)
as General Guide.
• Al – Ghazali
• Division of fard ‘ayn and fard kifayah
• We can see that al-Ghazzali has two-fold
division of reality, which consists of the
visible world and the world of dominance.
• How he categorized and divide the
sciences into its groups.
• People have to understand the knowledge
and sciences in Islam in the sense of its
purpose and its implication.