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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

Submitted by: Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc 4 (Honours) in Construction Management

2008/2009

DISSERTATION: HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION


Planning, Construction & Logistics

Submission date: 3rd April 2009

Submitted by: Patrick Shaughnessy

Submitted to: GMIT (Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology)

Number of words: 16,309

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

High-Rise Buildings are gigantic projects demanding incredible logistics, management and strong nerves among all concerned in their planning and construction

No peacetime activity bears greater resemblance to a military strategy than the construction of a High-Rise Building (A. Starrett)

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page. i List of Figures and Tables. viii Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations. x Acknowledgments... xii Declaration... xiii Abstract. xiv Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction to research project..1 1.2 Hypotheses 2 1.3 Aims 2 1.4 Objectives.. 3 1.5 Parameters of study. 3 1.6 Research methods... 4 1.7 Primary & Secondary Research 5 1.8 Limitations. 5 Chapter 2 Planning for High-Rise Construction 2.1 Introduction 7 2.2 Planning for Design and Construction.. 8 2.3 Zoning and Town Planning for High-Rise in Ireland... 9 2.3.1 The Definition of High-Rise. 9 2.3.2 History of High-Rise Planning in Ireland... 10 2.3.3 The Building Boom 12 2.3.4 Issues For and Against the Planning of High-Rise.. 13 2.3.5 Effects on Infrastructure... 15 2.3.6 Locations for Tall Buildings in Dublin.... 16
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2.3.7 Recent Developments.. 18 2.4 A Typical High-Rise Planning Application 22 2.4.1 Floor plans. 22 2.4.2 Elevations... 22 2.4.3 Composite Drawings 22 2.4.4 Daylight & Sunshine Analysis. 22 2.4.5 Environmental Impact Statement... 22 2.4.6 M&E Design Report. 23 2.4.7 Waste Management Strategy. 23 2.4.8 Visual Assessment & Shadow Analysis 23 2.4.9 Transport Assessment. 23 2.4.10 Structural Engineers Report.. 24 2.4.11 Newspaper Notice.. 24 2.4.12 Compliance with Planning Report.... 24 2.5 Conclusion. 25 Chapter 3 Logistics Management on High-Rise Projects 3.1 Introduction... 27 3.2 Definition of Construction Logistics.. 28 3.2.1 Supply Logistics 29 3.2.2 Site Logistics. 29 3.3 Main Objectives of Construction Logistics 30 3.4 Logistics Management. 30 3.4.1 Supply Logistics Management 30 3.4.2 Site Logistics Management. 31 3.5 Logistics Information Flow Management. 32 3.6 Improvement of Logistics Management in Construction 33 3.6.1 Strategic Level... 33
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3.6.2 Structural Level. 33 3.6.3 Operational Level.. 34 3.7 Conclusion. 35 Chapter 4 Cranes for High-Rise Construction 4.1 Introduction 37 4.2 History of Cranes.. 38 4.3 Types of Cranes... 40 4.3.1 Mobile Cranes... 40 4.3.2 Fixed Cranes. 42 4.4 Crane Safety. 47 4.4.1 Crane Hazards.. 47 4.4.2 Safety Precautions 47 4.4.3 Inspection & Testing. 49 4.4.4 Assessment before Operation 50 4.4.5 Dismantling 50 4.5 Developers Options. 51 4.5.1 Purchasing a Tower Crane.. 51 4.5.2 Renting a Tower Crane 52 4.6 Conclusion. 53 Chapter 5 Specialist Building Techniques for High-Rise Construction 5.1 Introduction 55 5.2 Foundations.. 56 5.2.1 Pile Foundations 56 5.2.2 Functions of Piles 57 5.2.3 Types of Piles 58 5.2.3.1 Driven or Displacement Piles.. 58
Patrick Shaughnessy BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

5.2.3.2 Bored or Replacement Piles.... 60 5.2.4 Advantages/Disadvantages Different Pile Techniques... 62 5.2.4.1 Driven or Displacement Piles.. 62 5.2.4.2 Bored or Replacement Piles 62 5.2.5 Conclusion. 63 5.3 Supporting Structure 64 5.3.1 Concrete Frame Construction. 65 5.3.1.1 Precast Concrete Frame.. 65 5.3.1.2 In-Situ Concrete Frame 67 5.3.2 Steel Frame Construction 69 5.3.3 Concrete Frame Vs Steel Frame 71 5.3.3.1 Safety.. 71 5.3.3.2 Cost.. 71 5.3.3.3 Construction Scheduling.. 72 5.3.3.4 Design Possibilities 72 5.4 Exterior Faade Construction. 73 5.4.1 Curtain Walling.. 73 5.4.2 Design. 73 5.4.3 Technical Properties. 73 5.4.4 Production & Assembly.... 74 5.5 Roof Construction. 76 5.6 Interior Finishing... 77 5.7 Conclusion. 78 Chapter 6 Case Study St George Wharf Tower 6.1 Project Description.. 80 6.1.1 Facilities on Site 81 6.1.2 Location. 82

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BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

6.2 The St George Wharf Development.. 84 6.2.1 Site Layout. 85 6.3 The St George Wharf Tower.. 86 6.3.1 Design Features 87 6.3.2 Building Design, Layout & Floor Plans.. 88 6.3.3 Specification of Elite Apartments & Penthouses.. 91 6.4 Project Construction & Execution.. 94 6.4.1 Foundations... 94 6.4.2 Supporting Structure. 94 6.4.3 Exterior Faade. 95 6.4.4 Roof Construction. 95 6.4.5 Interior Finishing 96 6.5 Logistics Management on the St George Wharf Tower 97 6.6 Crane Selection on the St George Wharf Tower. 99 Chapter 7 Conclusions & Appendices 7.1 Conclusion.... 104 7.2 References 105 7.3 Appendixes... 108 Appendix 1 7.3.1 Character Areas in Dublin City 109 Appendix 2 7.3.2 High-Rise, Zones for Change in Dublin City. 110 Appendix 3 7.3.3 Logistics on St George Wharf Tower. 111 Appendix 4 7.3.4 Elevations and Floor Plans of the Tower.. 118

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BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

LIST OF FIGURES & TABLES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16a Figure 16b Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19a Figure 19b Figure 20a Figure 20b Figure 21 Building height categories and classification.. 9 Appropriate locations for Tall Buildings in Dublin.. 16 The Proposed Point Tower at the North Docklands.. 18 The Proposed U2 Tower at the South Docklands. 19 The Proposed Heuston Gateway Development 19 John Robersons Quay at South Docklands... 20 Proposed North Wall Quay in the Docklands. 21 Typical Construction Logistics Diagram.. 29 Jurans triple role and construction logistics process.... 29 QAY160 All Terrain Crane Payload 160 Ton. 40 KOBELCO CKE600 crawler crane.. 41 Base construction of the Favelle Favco M760D ... 44 Lifting Equipment of the Favelle Favco M760D 44 Liebherr 167E Stationary Crane.. 45 Liebherr 112k Travelling Crane on Rails. 46 Replacement Piles being Drilled by a Typical Crane Mounted Continuous Flight Auger Rig. 56 Precast Concrete Piles being Driven by a Nissha Hydraulic Hammer operated by a Liebherr Pile Driving Rig.. 56 Shows a piling rig driving precast concrete piles... 59 Shows a mobile truck mounted piling rig setup.. 60 A Computer generated 3D image of Concrete Piles and Pile Caps, with steel reinforcement 61 A Computer generated 3D images of Concrete Piles and Pile Caps, with steel reinforcement 61 Shows Concrete Piles protruding from the ground surface. 61 Shows workers installing steel in concrete pile caps 61 Precast Concrete Columns, Beams and Floor Slabs 66

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Figure 22 Figure 23a Figure 23b Figure 24a Figure 24b Figure 25a Figure 25b Figure 26a Figure 26b Figure 27a Figure 27b Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37

DOKA Wall and Floor Formwork Systems.. 68 DOKA Dokaflex 1-2-4 Versatile Floor Formwork .. 68 DOKA Doka RS Column Formwork . ... 68 Steel Columns, Beams and Roofing Sections 70 Intersection of Steel Beams and Columns.. 70 Steel Columns, Beams and Roofing Sections 70 Steel Frame Construction with Beams and Columns 70 Computer generated 3D image of a section through a Curtain Walling System 75 Computer generated 3D image of a section through a Curtain Walling System .. 75 Exterior Curtain Walling finish to Leper Business Centre, Belgium . 75 Internal Curtain Walling sections to Leper Business Centre, Belgium . 75 Computer animated image of the entire St George Wharf Development ... 80 Location of St George Wharf within London City... 83 St George Wharf buildings with their signature gulf winged roofs ... 84 Site layout view of the complete St George Wharf Development, including the new St George Wharf Tower. 85 Computer animated image of the St George Wharf Tower within the St George Development 86 Exterior Elevation of St George Wharf Tower 88 Typical Interior Layout of Floor Levels 2 to 47 of the St George Wharf Tower ... 89 Interior Layout of Floor Level 48 of St George Wharf Tower Main 6 Bedroom Penthouse .. 90 Diagram of Crane selection process followed by many general contractors on high-rise building projects .. 99 Shows the Crane selected for the St George Wharf Tower Project, the Favelle Favco M760D Kangaroo Crane. 102
BSc4 Construction Management

Patrick Shaughnessy

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LIST OF TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS 3D AC BC BMA CCTV CFA CO DCC DCC EG EIS ESB ETC FT GMIT H Ib IE IT KG M&E M MDF Min MPH NHBC PCC 3 Dimensional Air Conditioning Before Christ Broadway Malyan Architects Close Circuit Television Continuous Flight Auger Carbon Dioxide Dublin City Corporation Dublin City Council For Example Environmental Impact Statement Electricity Supply Board Et Cetera Foot Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology Hour Pounds Such as Information Technology Kilo Gram Mechanical and Electrical Metre Medium Density Fibreboard Minute Miles per Hour National Housing Building Council Pre Cast Concrete
BSc4 Construction Management

Patrick Shaughnessy

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

PLC RC SFC ST T TV UK WWW

Private Limited Company Reinforced Concrete Steel Frame Construction Saint Ton Television United Kingdom World Wide Web

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I the author would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude for all the assistance and support given to me throughout the dissertation period. I would like to especially thank the following: My supervisor, Mrs Mary Rogers, for her assistance, endless help and guidance throughout the dissertation period The building and engineering lecturers and staff at GMIT for their help and assistance throughout the dissertation period and college years Diana Ross of RPS Group for her time, help and information which I gained about planning, as part of my primary research Mike Cullinane, Project Manager at St George Wharf for his help, information and assistance during my site visit to the St George development to collect information for the dissertation case study My parents and siblings for their constant support, both emotionally and financially, and for their encouragement throughout my time at GMIT and especially during the dissertation period The library staff at GMIT for their assistance in locating necessary information, literature and documentation My many friends, who kept me going throughout the years and for making college life enjoyable, exciting and memorable My sister Laura for her help and encouragement throughout the dissertation period Finally I would like to thank all the readers and examiners who spent their time reading this report patiently. Hopefully this report will provide them with particular knowledge with regard to High-Rise Construction

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

DECLARATION

This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements and guidelines of the Bachelor of Science in Construction Management Honours Degree Course at Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT). I declare that the work contained in this dissertation is the authors own original work and that no part has been plagiarised from any source whatsoever. I certify that the ideas, designs, results, analysis and conclusions set out in this dissertation are entirely my own effort, except where otherwise indicated and acknowledged. I further certify that this dissertation is entirely original and has not been submitted for assessment in any other course or institute.

Name: Student ID: Course: Date of Submission:

Patrick Shaughnessy G 00191823 Bachelor of Science Construction Management 15/08/09

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

I hereby declare that this dissertation is my own work:

____________________________ Patrick Shaughnessy

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

ABSTRACT High Rise Buildings have been around for a long time and have always been dominant landmarks in many cities, visible from far and wide. High-Rise Buildings have always triggered major debates and aroused emotion. That is hardly surprising, considering that this type of buildings radiates more symbolic power than almost any other Within the Planning for Design & Construction chapter, the aspects required at the planning stage of high rise were investigated giving a brief description of zoning and town planning in Ireland, the definition of high rise and the history of high rise in Ireland. This chapter also outlines the Building Boom, the issues for and against the planning of high rise, the effects on infrastructure. The appropriate locations for high rise buildings in Dublin are identified. Finally this chapter gives a description of a typical high rise planning application. The Logistics Management on High Rise Projects chapter deals with key elements of preparing, planning and scheduling of the proposed works and it explains how vital these elements are in construction operations on site. The chapter, Cranes for High Rise Construction describes the types of cranes suitable for high rise construction along with their advantages and disadvantages. This chapter also gives an insight to the history of cranes, crane safety, crane inspection, testing and assessment before operation. Finally the Developers Options are looked at discussing the advantages and disadvantages to either purchasing a tower crane or renting a tower crane. Within the chapter, Specialist Building Techniques for High Rise Construction, the construction of the project is examined from the ground up beginning with the Foundations of the project. The next element examined is the Supporting Structure or Exoskeleton, this describes the building frame be it concrete frame or steel frame fabrication. The Exterior Faade Construction is then discussed, highlighting the design, the technical properties and the production and assembly. Finally Roof Construction and Interior Finishing are explained.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

The Final chapter is the Case Study which is based on the St. George Wharf Tower situated at Vauxhall, London, UK. The case study describes the development including location, the facilities onsite and close by. The tower is described in detail, explaining key design features such as the site layout and the buildings design specification, layout and floor plans. The projects construction and execution is described from ground up. Next, the logistics management procedures carried out on this project are explained. Finally, the crane selection for the construction of the tower is described.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH PROJECT

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

1.0 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction In this chapter I plan to present a brief summary of my proposed research dissertation on High-Rise Construction, with emphasis on Planning, Construction and Logistics. Under the following headings; Hypotheses (1.2), Aims (1.3), Objectives (1.4), Parameters (1.5), Methodology (1.6), Primary & Secondary Research (1.7). 1.2 Hypotheses o How does the Irish Planning procedure effect the design and construction of modern High-Rise Buildings o o How is Logistics Managed on such complex and difficult building projects What are the most common, economical and effective building techniques for the construction of a High-Rise Building 1.3 Aims o The main aim of this research dissertation (on High-Rise Construction) is to produce a comprehensive document which can be used to sell the idea of High-Rise construction to Irish Construction Developers. Explaining the advantages & disadvantages of high-rise in terms of cost, speed, planning, building techniques, construction methods and building processes. o This Dissertation aims to, at a strategic level, investigate the planning and local authority guidelines & statutory rules as regards High-Rise design and construction in city centre and suburban areas. o This Dissertation aims to, at a strategic level, investigate through continuous research (during the dissertation period) the special building techniques implemented in modern day building construction of High-Rise Buildings. o This Dissertation also aims to at a strategic level examine crane construction for such High-Rise projects, different methods used in the past, the cost factor and possible future scenarios.
Patrick Shaughnessy BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

1.4 Objectives o My mission as regards this dissertation is to briefly describe the process of building a High-Rise building (i.e. Foundation, Shell & Core, Exoskeleton, M&E Services, etc using Case Studies and other various sources of information), how to management the construction process and deliver a quality product, I aim to sell this idea to Irish Developers!! o Another goal is to research different crane solutions which suit High-Rise developments and aim to find the best possible solution, with the most advantages as regards city centre developments. o This dissertation intents to (using buildings as case studies - St. George Wharf Tower, Vauxhall, London, UK) deliver a good understand of what qualifies as a High-Rise building, where should High-Rise be located (suitable areas), what makes a High-Rise building work and Impacts on the surrounding skyline and community. o Finally I plan to research and investigate the future of High-Rise developments, with regard to planning, new proposed projects coming to Irish cities and architectural gems that will form landmarks and add to our cities skylines. 1.5 Parameters of Study o This Dissertation Investigates briefly High-Rise Construction, as regards special buildings techniques and construction processs used, ignoring the building techniques and processes in huge detail and ignoring the conventional buildings method while concentrating on methods employed for High-Rise only. o This Dissertation demonstrates briefly crane construction and crane types used for High-Rise projects. Bringing to light the most common crane solutions and previously used operations with the aim to highlight the best possible solution with the most advantages for High-Rise Construction, Ignoring basic crane ideas which are used for standard construction projects.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

This Dissertation plans to distinguish the planning acts, laws and statutory rules with regard to High-Rise design and construction. Briefly describing what has to be included in a High-Rise Planning Application and what is submitted to the local planning authority, in terms of High-Rise Projects. Ignoring detailed planning laws and acts.

Finally this Dissertation studies the future of High-Rise in Ireland, where Ireland is going in terms of large, tall and sophisticated developments, briefly describing the planning rules that limit design and construction ideas, but ignoring planning acts and planning laws.

1.6 Research Methods o During 3rd year of my Construction Management Course I spend 6 months on placement with St George PLC at St George Wharf Development, Vauxhall, London. The Development comprises of large residential buildings with the new 50 storey High-Rise Tower which is currently under construction, I became fascinated with the project and the new High-Rise Tower and decided that High-Rise Construction would be my chosen dissertation topic. o I then went about finding relevant information about my chosen topic from the internet and GMIT library books, to ensure that there was enough information out there available and that the chosen topic/project was viable. This would help me creating this research Dissertation and further my study in terms of construction management. o I then when about researching past and on-going projects to find a part of the construction process that I was most interested in, and found crane fabrication & construction for these High-Rise projects to be fascinating. This is where I discovered Kangaroo Cranes their construction and History, used on the Twin-Towers and the new Burj Dubai project, I decided this is a route I want to go down and concentrate on this part of the Construction process.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

1.7 Primary & Secondary Research Primary Research o My primary research was obtained through discussion and interviews with project managers and planning consultants. I obtained primary research in the form of information and documentation in relation to Planning and My Case Study St George Wharf Tower. For the Planning Chapter, I interviewed a friend through email, Diana Ross who is a Planning Consultant with RPS Group and is based in Dublin. I was able to ask her numerous questions about high-rise planning and obtained all the information and documentation, which I needed in order to compile my chapter on planning for design and construction. For the Case Study on St George Wharf Tower, I went on a site visit in February to the development in Vauxhall, London where I under went my Construction Management placement period in year 3. I met with the project manager Mike Cullinane and was able to ask him numerous questions about the tower, I was also able to photocopy and print all the information and documentation, which I needed in order to complete my case study on the St George Wharf Tower. Secondary Research o My secondary research involved the examination of all relevant information from textbooks, magazines, newspapers, journals, articles, reports, blogs, thesiss, interviews, DVD & CD-ROMs, electronic databases and the internet 1.8 Limitations o The main limitations associated with the completion of this dissertation were the following: Time Limit Number of Words

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

CHAPTER 2 PLANNING FOR DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.1 Introduction

Ireland has not had a tradition of High Rise buildings, therefore, it is important for an examination of the factors, (Historical, Present and Future issues), that are combining to change the attitudes and planning guidelines to favour High Rise construction. This examination shows how the lack of landmark buildings, low - density usage of land (partially resulting in urban sprawl), and the requirement to meet projected future residential, commercial and office space demands, led Dublin City Corporation to commission a report into the viability of High Rise buildings in Dublin, from London Architects, DEGW.

Now with the introduction of new documents and publications such as: Maximising the Citys Potential Creating Urban Form and Character Developing the Citys Economy Dublin in Perspective A Future Scenario Sustaining Urban Communities Urban Height A strategy for Intensification and Height

These documents have since formed the basis of planning policies for High Rise buildings in Ireland, and details the projected heights and style of developments envisioned for future High Rise Construction in Ireland, and clearly shows, that tall buildings will feature in Irelands skyline in the immediate future.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.2 Planning for Design and Construction Skyscrapers are gigantic projects demanding incredible logistics, management and strong nerves among all concerned in their planning and construction. The complexity of the trades to be co-ordinated has become enormous. Many different experts are involved solely in the project planning: - Architects - Planning engineers for the supporting structures (engineering design and structural analyses) - Construction and site management (resident engineer) - Planning of the technical building services (particularly heating, ventilation, sanitation, cooling and air-conditioning) - Interior designers - Construction physics and construction biology - Planning and site management for data networks - Planning of the lighting and materials handling - Planning of the electrical and electronic systems - Planning of the facades - Surveying engineers - Geotechnology, hydrogeology and environmental protection - Design of outdoor facilities and landscaping - Surveying of the actual situation in surrounding buildings If we were to include all the contractors and specialists involved in the project as well, the list would be ten times longer. If we then consider that bankers, construction authorities, legal advisers and even advertising agencies or brokers must also be coordinated in the course of the entire planning and construction of a High Rise Building project, it soon becomes clear that highly professional management is essential for such a project.
Patrick Shaughnessy BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.3 Zoning & Town Planning for High-Rise in Ireland 2.3.1 The Definition of High Rise High building is a relative term. The original term refers to high buildings as those which are higher than their context. The desire to make a statement using height is a powerful imperative, which has forced the skyline of many cities ever upwards. In medieval times height was a symbol of power and security. Contemporary international examples of high rise buildings in the American and Asian context can be defined generally within a range of 200 to 300m. However in Europe high rise buildings fall mostly into the range between 100 to 250m. Reflecting construction, massing and urban character in the European context, global experience suggests four height thresholds: Low rise: up to 15m (up to 4 storeys, limited lift access) Mid rise: 5 to 50m (up to 12 storeys, groundscraper) High rise: 50 to 150m Super high rise: above 150m (only relevant in major metropolitan areas with significant demand)

Figure 1: Shows a diagram of building height divided up in four height categories Source: DEGW Managing Intensification and change: A strategy for Dublin Building Height Dublin City Corporation
Patrick Shaughnessy BSc4 Construction Management

High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.3.2 History of High Rise Planning in Ireland The development of modern Ireland , and in particular the city of Dublin, in an architectural sense, can be traced back to the 17th and 18th centuries when large numbers of the Landed Gentry and English Protestant settlers came to live in the towns and cities of Ireland. The existing towns and cities largely consisted of one or two level buildings, situated in a network of muddy, narrow lanes that were unable to accommodate the large coaches of the wealthy classes. From this background, the new residents of Dublin set about transforming the cityscape to reflect the emerging wealth of the nation, laying the ground work for the grand streets and squares which remain largely intact today still. The Wide Street Commission was established under an Act of Parliament in 1757. Its established created the Wide Streets Commission, which was essentially charged with the creating of wide and grandiose streets and passages in the centre of Dublin city. It can be said that Much of Dublins admirable symmetry and scale, dignified character and widely heralded spaciousness resulted from the Commissions Benevolent direction and enlightened planning The 19th century saw a rapid decline in both Irelands economic fortunes and population, some would argue, continued until the latter half of the 20th century. As a resultant of this economic downturn, many of the upper class society left Ireland, and abandoned their properties in the towns and cities of Ireland. This resulted in many large tracts of buildings and properties, being left idle and abandoned, creating dilapidated areas within towns and cities. This caused most of the people left in cities, to move away from the town centres, into the more fashionable suburbs. This took away most of the impetus from the development of town and city centres, and was one of the
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first early examples of urban sprawl. As there was little development during this time, there was no impact or change on the building Skyline of Ireland. The 1960s saw an economic turn around in Ireland. The country, particularly in Dublin city, saw a rapid expansion in new buildings being constructed. Along with the regeneration of existing Dublin city properties, a large number of new high rise buildings were constructed, such as Liberty Hall (48m, 17 storeys), OConnell Bridge House (32m, 12 storeys) and Hawkins house (33m, 12 storeys). This was also combined with the demolition of existing Georgian buildings, and the construction of modern office buildings. The demolition of Fitzwilliam Street Lower and the construction of the ESB Headquarters remains one of the worlds architectural travesties ever committed on this island. This exemplified the tide of development that was allowed to happen more or less unimpeded, due to a lack of coherent planning policies by Dublin Corporation. That developers were allowed to build once off High Rise Building was due to the fact, that the only real way to control building height in Ireland was through the powers bestowed on the planning authorities by the Dublin Corporation Act 1980. These powers were based on Sir Christopher Wrens height policies for London, and were completely outdated and inappropriate for 1960s Dublin

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.3.3 The Building Boom The Celtic Tiger economy in Ireland has dramatically changed the substance of life in Ireland within a very short space of time. Whilst the infrastructure has struggled to keep up, the urban realm has begun the process of rapidly transforming Dublin from low rise city of urban sprawl, to densely woven contemporary modern environment. The appetite to build tall is tempered by an apprehensive planning policy that reflects the cautious mood of the general public. The economic boom saw dramatic changes in the built environment. The need to meet the demands of the commercial office market resulted in construction of numerous office buildings until 2002. The existing residential stock was unable to address the needs of a predominantly young population. Furthermore unemployment was at an all time low and foreign workers from all over Europe began to arrive in Ireland in large numbers. Such increased demands on the residential supply resulted in the need for a major shift from low rise housing to multi-floor apartment living. Dublin, being the capital city, singly consumed most of the commercial and residential demands. Land prices soared with the value of development sites often surpassing those in London and New York. Suddenly, building higher was financially a very viable option. Ireland is predominantly a low rise country. Towns tend to exist at 4 storeys whilst a modest part of central Dublin has 6-8 storeys height. Unlike its European counterparts, Dublin does not have a history of apartment living. Simply not having a garden would be challenging too many who had grown up in houses. The popular consciousness is only learning about the concept. With the current predictions indicating that Dublins population (approximately 1.5 million) will double in the next 20 years, building taller is relevant for sustainability.
Patrick Shaughnessy BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

2.3.4 Issues For and Against the Planning of High Rise The debate concerning high buildings in most cities has focused on protecting historic urban character or the desire to present a modern image and compete globally. High buildings have an impact both on the groundscape in the form of activity patterns and block configuration and on the wider city character in terms of skyscrapers Some of the Reasons for the Planning of High Rise are as follows: Sustainability: By concentrating on intensifying functions at public infrastructure nodes, maximising the citys resources. Image: An icon of power, beauty and modernity. Desire: A commercial or personal demand to signify a presence. Global Positioning: A statement to compete with other world cities. Intensity of Land Use: High buildings reflecting higher densities and premium land values, especially for residential development. Attraction to Tenants: Towers become signature buildings with a recognised address (landmark) and the added advantage of often spectacular views. Some of the Reasons against the Planning of High Rise are as follows: Impact on existing character: Size, Bulk and height of buildings can change the urban grain of areas and potentially have a negative omnipresent impact city-wide. Effect on Microclimate: Without careful consideration of block and street profiles in relation to the location of towers, over shadowing and down drafts can create adverse climate effects both locally and in a wider context.

Patrick Shaughnessy

BSc4 Construction Management

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High-Rise Construction Planning, Construction & Logistics

BSc Construction Management Dissertation Year 4 - 2008/2009

Impact on city vitality: A 20 storey higher building could accommodate the population of a small village, effectively absorbing vitality and activity away from the street below.

Urban Condition: The construction demands and length of building programme for a major high rise cluster has a more disruptive effect on the local neighbourhood. It often requires large number of deliveries and a high intensity of activity in a small area of the city.

Inflexibility for mix of uses: Aside from a few expensive exceptions with varying vertical structures, it is inherently difficult to vary floor to floor heights and floorplate sixes efficiently accommodate the demands of different functions (Housing, office, storage, etc)

Floor Area Utilisation: Gross net, and net to lettable area is considerably reduced when compared to low and mid rise developments.

Inflexibility of Floor Space: High Rise buildings have traditionally been limited in form and floorplate configuration. The vertical separation reduces the opportunity for adaptation and organisational interaction.

Phasing: Unlike a low rise building which can be constructed in phases, he high rise structure has to be built in one attempt.

Change of Use: Limited by the constraints on typical floor plates to expand upwards and outwards.

Construction Costs: Can be 75% more expensive than a low rise development.

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2.3.5 Effects on Infrastructure Within the last 10 years it has often been said that Ireland is a first world economy with a third world transport system. Within Dublin, there are a few train networks and no underground/metro. The aged road network in the city centre together with the arterial bus routes, frequently get clogged and movement is slow. The absence of sufficient infrastructure results in too many people having to commute to work by car. Growth has happened so quickly that the long term nature of infrastructural development lags far behind. The explosion of 2 storey housing and low rise developments over the last 30 years has seen Dublins urban and suburban land sprawl for miles. The Dublin commuter belt has increased from 25km to 100km in recent years. Not only is commuting a lifestyle obstacle but it is a major undesirable in the light of current sustainability issues. Co emissions and the carbon footprint of Dubliners are impacted directly by the proximity of locations and their associated densities. In 2004 the first route of the new LUAS network opened, signalling the beginning of the citys infrastructural modernisation.

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2.3.6 Identification of appropriate locations in Dublin for Tall Buildings The study identified zones within Dublin as potential location for tall buildings

Figure 2: Shows Zoning in Dublin for potential Tall Buildings Source: DEGW Managing Intensification and change: A strategy for Dublin Building Height Dublin City Corporation 1. Set piece conservation - fantasy pieces within Conservation areas as protected settings (e.g. The Georgian Mile, Trinity College). 2. Conservation areas - areas potentially for designation as Conservation areas in Dublin. These are areas of dominant character - whilst there may be inconsistencies in the scale, height, grain etc. within this area there is a distinguishable predominant character (e.g. Grafton Street area).
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3. Areas of existing dominant character and fine grain These areas have the potential for gradual/ considerable character change. Over a medium to long term, these areas due to change in use and demand, relatively low density, natural decay and lack of a strong visual identity or intrusive character have the potential to evolve. (e.g. Smithfield and Temple Bar) The above areas are effectively restricted in potential for change in the interests of preserving character and historic values. 4. Areas of diverse character areas open to considerable change - Potential for the development of new character area within contextual constraints. These areas have possibilities for extensive redevelopment due to change in use, grain, scale, ownership etc. (e.g. area southeast of Heuston, James Gate etc). In this area Buildings of 40-50m can be considered in context if carefully designed and constructed. 5. Large Brownfield sites potential new character areas which present the possibility for developing new morphologies in the medium to long term due to change in use, accessibility, introduction of new service infrastructure, building typologies etc. (e.g. Docklands, Poolbeg peninsula). These are the areas with the most potential for tall buildings and associated new typologies. Predominantly located in the Docklands and to the further east of the city.

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2.3.7 Recent Developments Until recently the tallest building in Dublin / Ireland was Liberty Hall, standing at 17 storeys, 58m high, this 1960s constructed building is Dublins only claim to a Tall Building Few tall building proposals have been completed beyond Dublin and many have been rejected within the city itself (e.g. Sean Dunnes, Berkley Court) However Developers are very keen to invest in building tall but are generally on the receiving end of adverse reaction from the narrow-minded public, often unaccustomed to buildings no higher than 8 storeys. However the market demand for tall buildings does exist. With Dublins cosmopolitan culture, the shift from low rise to high is more likely to be achieved in the nations capital. Efforts to introduce tall buildings have been focused on several key city centre sites: The Point Tower

Figure 3: The Point Tower at the eastern end of North Docklands Source: Google Images This 32 storey high mixed use tower, with apartments, offices and roof top bar, designed by Scott Tallon Walker Architects, will provide a pinnacle at the mouth of Dublins River Liffey.
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U2 Tower

Figure 4: Proposed U2 Tower in Dublins South Docklands Source: Google Images This building is associated with U2 due to their private investment in the development, which will house their studios. A design competition for the project yielded a very notable twisting tower design at 130m by Burdon Craig Dunne Henry Architects The positive association with U2s worldwide success, as Irelands greatest export, will hopefully draw a positive public response towards this tall building. Heuston Gateway

Figure 5: Heuston Gateway on Dublins Western Edge at 134m Tall Source: Google Images
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To the west of the city at Heuston, Dublins key infrastructural route to the west of Ireland, a 134m office building will be constructed. The highly legible design by Paul Keogh Architects is conceived as a Gateway to Dublin from the West. Like the Point Tower, Heuston Gateway exists at the fringe of the city.

Sir John Robersons Quay

Figure 6: Proposed mixed use Development at South Docklands Source: Google Images Directly adjacent to the site of the proposed U2 Tower, the mixed use scheme consists of four new urban blocks, three of which are residential courtyards of 5 to 7 storeys with 230 apartments, and the fourth incorporates offices in a 100 meter tower.

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North Wall Quay

Figure 7: North Wall Quay, proposed 30 storey tower at 120m tall Source: Google Images Traynor OToole Architects in collaboration with Wilkinson Eyre Architects completed a design proposal for a 400,000 sqft office tower on a very tight site in the heart of the Docklands, close to the city centre.

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2.4 A Typical High-Rise Planning Application Unlike typical planning permission for residential and commercials applications documents to be included in a High-Rise planning application are as follows: 2.4.1 Floor plans A floor plan in architecture and building engineering is a diagram usually to scale, of the relationships between rooms, spaces and other physical features at one level of a structure. Dimensions are usually drawn between the walls to specify room sizes and wall lengths. Floor plans may include notes to specify finishes, construction methods, or symbols for electrical items. 2.4.2 Elevations An elevation is an orthographic projection of a 3-dimensional object from the position of a horizontal plane beside an object. In other words, an elevation is a side-view as viewed from the front, back, left or right. An elevation is a common method of depicting the external configuration and detailing of a 3-dimensional object in two dimensions. Building faades are shown as elevations in architectural drawings and technical drawings. 2.4.3 Composite Drawings Composite drawings are all other drawings of the buildings design from the landscape drawings to drawings of particular fixtures and fixings that the architect has selected for the proposed development. 2.4.4 Daylight & sunshine analysis This is a detailed report which assesses daylight and sunlight levels for the proposed development, using computer based programmes the levels of both daylight and sunlight can be calculated in particular rooms of the proposed building. 2.4.5 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) An environmental impact statement (EIS) is an assessment of the possible impact - positive or negative - that a proposed project may have on the environment; considering natural, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts to decide whether to proceed with the project.
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Seven key areas are required: 1. Description of the project 2. Alternatives that have been considered 3. Description of the environment 4. Description of the significant effects on the environment 5. Mitigation 6. Non-technical summary 7. Lack of know-how/technical difficulties 2.4.6 M&E Design report The M&E Design report will described the Mechanical and Electrical fit-out of the building from the ground up, Including detailed descriptions of all plant and equipment to be used Lifts, Riser information and Plant room details. 2.4.7 Waste Management Strategy The waste management strategy will describe how waste created during construction and thereafter by its occupants, is dealt with from collection to disposal and removal from the development. 2.4.8 Visual assessment & shadow analysis This report contains detailed computer generated 3D images of the proposed development before and after construction from all angles and also illustrates the shadow patterns of the proposed building at various times of the year typically: March 21st, June 21st and December 21st at 8am, 1pm and 4pm. This gives the planners an exact graphic illustration of the shadows that the new structure will cast. 2.4.9 Transport assessment The transport assessment is a detailed report of the transport amenities around the proposed development, the report discusses: 1. The transport policy 2. Access by foot 3. Access by bicycle

4. Public transport 5. Parking and servicing 6. Highway Impact 7. Traffic Management Plan

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2.4.10 Structural engineers report This is a detailed report of the structural engineers findings and designs for the proposed development, the report may contain: Foundation design details Superstructure design Load bearing walls and structural elements in the building Stairway design Roof and enclosure design details 2.4.11 Newspaper notice A Notice should be paced in a local newspaper recommended by the local planning authority, the notice should contain: The name of the planning authority The name of the applicant Location postal address of the proposed project/development Type of planning permission sought The nature and extent of the development 2.4.12 Compliance with planning report This document is a report containing information, which shows how the development complies with all planning and development regulations. The report describes how the proposed development complies with all the recent planning policies: National development plan National spatial strategy Sustainable development And all other guidelines While the above items are the regular items to be included by a developer for a High-Rise planning application, the Local Authority can virtually demand anything they deem necessary in order for them to make an adequate decision.

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2.5 Conclusion It has become know that cities like Dublin, London, New York and Tokyo are becoming more and more crowded. These cities are in fact bursting at the seams, it is expected that by the year 2050 most of these cities will double in population, how will these cites accommodate so many people? The pressure will become enormous and people wont be able to move, there growing and growing massively, the cities themselves cannot expand much further there is simply no room left for that kind of urban sprawl, there is only one solution build taller buildings to accommodate more people. Designers, architects and engineers believe that building taller represents the best solution for the ever looming population explosion. It is critical that the designers, developers and planners in Dublin, Ireland and the rest of the world take on the challenges of tall building environments directly, in the interest of sustainability, economic development and future proofing the cities and countries of the world, regardless of the pro and cons which may exist. Such a process appears to be most achievable by positive interaction, enabling these parties to collectively explore the possibilities with creative energy and exchanging ideas. Such cooperative interaction must be coupled with fundamental thought, to achieve solutions to urban complexities that are now shared worldwide. Within Dublin, Ireland and other major cities lies the potential to establish modern, contemporary and fashionable cityscapes permeated by sustainability, expression and community.
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CHAPTER 3 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT ON HIGH-RISE PROJECTS

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3.1 Introduction Logistics management is extremely important for the construction of a highrise building, logistics on high-rise rise buildings can become a nightmare as the construction sites can often become overcrowded, cramped and congested. Logistics management concepts and tools have a great value for construction firms searching for speed, productivity and competitiveness improvement, providing costs reduction and better customer satisfaction. Logistics management supports the purpose of trying to promote a better integration between internal and external actors who support logistic activities. By carefully preparing, planning and scheduling the proposed works the outcome become more realistic and achieve by all members of the construction team. If the tasks and schedules are carefully monitored the actions in order to improve logistics efficiency and effectiveness in the building production process become clear and obvious. In this chapter the logistics management actions like: Just in time philosophy Materials management, Quality management and movement.

The above actions are carefully examined and investigated to find there pros and cons on-site and there contribution to logistics management and control.

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3.2 Definition of Construction Logistics Logistics is defined as the management of the flow of goods, information and other resources including people, energy and materials, between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet the needs and requirements of consumers. Logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, materials-handling, packaging and security. The council of logistics management defines logistics as the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. In construction terms, logistics can be understood as a range of processs combined to guarantee at the right time, cost and quality: Material supply, storage, processing and handling Manpower supply Schedule control Site infrastructure and equipment location Site physical flow management Management of information related to all physical and services flow

These processes are achieved through planning, organisation, directing and controlling activities before and during the construction works. Logistics functions in a construction firm can be divided into the following a) Supply Logistics b) Site Logistics

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Figure 8: Shows typical construction logistics tasks Source: Project Managers Satisfaction in Construction Logistics 3.2.1 Supply Logistics Supply logistics are related to activities that are recurring in the production process. These activities are basically: supply resources (materials, equipment and manpower) specification, supply planning, acquisition of resources, transport to site and delivery and storage control. 3.2.2 Site Logistics Site Logistics are related to physical flow planning, organising, directing and controlling on-site. This effectively means management of materials, handling systems, safety equipment and site layout management.

Figure 9: Shows Jurans triple role and construction logistics process Source: Project Managers Satisfaction in Construction Logistics
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3.3 Main Objective of Construction Logistics The main objective of a high-quality logistics system in a construction firm is to maximise the customer service level and to minimise total cost in its activities. In other words, the objectives are to generate value to the customer and to reduce cost in the production process. 3.4 Logistics Management 3.4.1 Supply Logistics Management Supply function is currently pointed as being responsible for production process delays and stops, because the lack of material can delay the completion of an activity, causing productivity loss. Quality Movement and Just in Time principles have been influencing positively the supply logistics process. Quality Movement consists basically on the diffusion and implementation of Quality Management Systems in a construction firms. These systems can help supply logistics improvement using the following procedures: a) Specifications and purchase orders b) Suppliers section and qualifications c) Material quality assurance d) Material and component delivery inspections Just in Time philosophy is based on the principal that no activity should start in a system until it is necessary. In the same way, no material should arrive on site without being necessary. Some management practices that are associated with the Just in Time philosophy are: a) Defects elimination b) Self quality control and immediate feedback c) Waiting time between activities reduced d) Material handling volumes reduced e) Adjustment of suppliers to same idea
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From an operational point of view, another important aspect of supply logistics management efficiency is production planning, which includes supply plans. Production plans can be effectively divided into three levels. The first level should contain a global plan establishing a budget, schedule, activities sequencing and resources forecasting. The second level should contain a more detailed three to four week plan adjusting the schedule resources forecasting. The third level should have a commitment plan showing how much resource will be consumed each day. 3.4.2 Site Logistics Management There are tools available that can be used to aid site logistics management they are associated with site preparation phasing, site layout planning, handling systems and checklists. - Site Preparation Phasing Site preparation phasing can be defined as a stage of the production process dedicated to preview in advance, before site activities start, usually a diagram showing the potential problems that can crop up during the project execution. In order to determine the problem that may be encountered the construction company must review site conditions and design descriptions, study the technical solutions and develop detailed production plans. When this stage is complete there will be a collection of drawings, diagrams, plans and documents which will be used throughout the project timeline which will aid with the logistics on-site. During the site preparation phase the main contractors, suppliers, planning engineers, designers, and foremen should participate. - Site Layout Planning Site layout planning is defined as a service which is a part of construction process responsible for the decision of the size, shape and location of working areas which can be fixed or temporary, circulation routes on site are also
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decided which are necessary for the development of execution operations and for identifying the construction areas, transport areas, vehicle and pedestrian routes. Factors that influence site layout planning are: general production schedule, execution period, construction methods, equipment in operation, space demand and availability. - Handling Systems A handling systems study usually takes place on construction projects of a massive size. The handling system study considers usual materials, supplies and resources that will be use on the project. Taking in account their characteristics for example: their size, weight, geometry, technical properties etc the construction team will select construction handling equipment and machinery which will be used to lift, move and place the objects into position. The construction team will then produce detailed studies: process flow charts, labour productivity studies and cycle time studies of the handling systems. Process flow charts will be very useful tool to identify all the stages a material passes, from site delivery to its application. Labour productivity and cycle time studies are useful for selecting the correct equipment with the proper capacity. - Checklists for Site Control A checklist is a very important and interesting management tool for site logistics diagnosis and control, checklists also help with the decision making process in site layout planning. Therefore checklists have a double function: to control site logistic performance and to aid site layout planning. 3.5 Logistics Information Flow Management An information system and information management involves sending, receiving and recording information in an organisation. The information system regularly promotes internal relations within the construction firm and also promotes external data and information exchange. It can be classified as a system for operations support or a system for decision making support.

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An efficient information system is one that is able to appropriately use data resources transmission, receiving and recording within a construction firm. On the other hand, an effective information system is one that is able to supply the internal systems with the correct information at the correct time. Some general principles for an effective information system are: a) Analysis of information needed b) Integration of information needs c) Elaboration of an appropriate information system d) Selection of equipment and software e) Gradual implementation with constant evaluation 3.6 Improvement of Logistics Management in Construction Facing all the challenges described above to develop logistics management, some general guidelines are proposed as follows. The guidelines are organised into three different levels: strategic, structural and operational 3.6.1 Strategic Level Some strategic guidelines for logistics improvement are: Decision of customer service level desired, desired stock levels and acquisition request attendance time Decision of logistics goals to be reached in short, middle and long time and performance indicators for them Decision of relationship politics with suppliers

These strategic guidelines are general logistics management policies and procedures for decision making. The construction firm must understand what logistics is and must establish clear objectives to control performance. 3.6.2 Structural Level Structural level guidelines are related to structural organisation of construction firms through a systemic view. Determination of logistic managers or agents responsible for the logistic process. There are two way to structure logistics within a
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companys organisation. Construction firms can opt to develop new administrative functions that will in turn coordinate activities or can create a logistics pole which consists of a collective forum involving multiple agents for logistics coordination. Definition of an information system and a mechanism for information exchange among employees within the logistic process. Construction firms must seek a tool in the future, which will permit information exchange in real time. Definition of a general procedure for purchasing

3.6.3 Operational Level In an operational level it is necessary to develop the following guidelines: Definition of critical materials for physical flow Elaboration of supply plans considering the three levels of planning it should be developed in a general initial plan, an intermediate plan for shorter periods and a commitment plan for daily activities Planning of transport machinery and equipment used in a daily schedule

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3.7 Conclusion Logistics and logistics management on a high-rise building can be a daunting and overwhelming task. However if the logistics are managed efficiently and effectively on-site this can lead to improvements in productivity and output, with a slight reduction in costs and better customer satisfaction, and over all achieving more profit for the construction firm. When construction firms implement logistics management actions like Just in time philosophy Materials management, Quality management and movement.

The logistics management procedure on construction sites becomes a lot easier and more straightforward to manage and supervise. The main task of an integrated logistic system for a high-rise project is to provide just-in-time deliveries, eliminating most of the material handling and storage on site, to shorten the time of project completion by eliminating reasons of work stoppage and to minimise disturbances to local traffic. Shifting most or all of the logistics management and processes onto logistic managers and logistic professionals allows construction companies to reduce their fixed costs and to concentrate on the main development.

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CHAPTER 4 CRANES FOR HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION

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4.1 Introduction

Material Handling is a very important part of the delivery process of a construction project and cranes are the most important resources used in achieving this, especially on a construction site. The construction crane as we know it today has been around for about 50 years and has seen vast improvements in the machinery and controls incorporated in the crane. Construction cranes come in various shapes and sizes for the designated construction site. The cranes are capable of lifting and moving objects of different size and weight. The tower crane which is the most common of the cranes is a familiar piece of equipment on major construction sites. They are rather difficult to miss as they often rise hundreds of feet into the air and have an extensive horizontal reach also. Selection of the crane type, number and location to be used in a high-rise building is a major issue in planning and organising the construction operations. Selecting the type of crane to be used for the project depends greatly on skilled judgement. There is certain information available to assist the decision in the form of: work study data, previous projects and manufactures specifications. However this information is incomplete and generally requires the planner, manager or management team to make bold decisions as regards crane selection, selecting a crane requires prediction as regards the materials and the conditions the crane will face while on site. The crane is a very important piece of machinery which has aided in the construction of buildings including High-Rise buildings for many years, in this chapter different cranes types and solutions are investigated in order to find the best possible solution for High-Rise building construction.

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4.2 History of Cranes

The problem of How to lift a Load has been around for years and from the earliest times people have faced this problem. Dragging and carrying items was the usual solution to the problem until the wheel was invented, then carts which could be driven or pulled were used, people worked together to move and lift heavy objects. The Egyptians lifted and moved enormous heavy stone blocks in construction of huge pyramids and vast tombs. It is believed horses and other animals were harnessed and used to provide the power to deliver motive force for lifting and moving heavy objects. The crane for lifting and slewing heavy loads was invented by the ancient Greeks in the late 6th century BC. The introduction of the winch and pulley hoist lead to the replacement of ramps as the main mean of vertical motion. The glory days of the crane in ancient times came during the Roman Empire, when construction activity soared and buildings reached massive dimensions. The Romans adopted the Greek crane and developed it further. The simplest Roman crane consisted of a single jib, a winch, a rope, and a block containing three pulleys. Therefore having a mechanical advantage of 3:1, bigger and heavier cranes featured five pulleys. The five pulley crane was usually operated by 4 men and was capable of lifting 3000kg. In some cases the winch was replaced by a treadwheel which had a larger diameter and meant that the maximum load doubled and 6000kg could be lifted with ease.

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During the middle ages the treadwheel crane was reintroduced on a large scale after it had been abandoned in Western Europe with the demise of the Roman Empire. Generally it was thought that vertical transport could be done more safely and inexpensively using treadwheel cranes. Typical areas of application were harbours, mines and building sites in particular towering gothic cathedrals and churches. However it is suggested that newly introduced machines like the treadwheel and wheelbarrow did not completely replace the more labour-intensive methods like ladders, hods and handbarrows. In contrast to modern cranes, medieval cranes and hoists were primarily capable of a vertical lift but were not used to move loads for a considerable distance horizontally. In building construction it is assumed that building blocks and other materials were lifted directly into place, in a straight up manner, workers were able to manipulate the movement laterally by a small rope attached to the load. Its thought that medieval cranes rarely featured ratchets or brakes to stop the load from running backward The modern crane of today was first introduced in 1957 in the United States and has since been of huge benefit to the building and heavy construction industries. The tower crane of today has become an integral part of the changing skylines in many cities throughout the country and indeed the world.

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4.3 Types of Crane Cranes used for Construction 4.3.1 Mobile Cranes - All Terrain Crane A mobile crane has the necessary equipment to travel at speed on the public highway, and on rough terrain at the construction site using all-wheel steering. All terrain cranes combine the roadability of truck-mounted cranes and the manoeuvrability of rough terrain cranes. All Terrain Cranes usually have 2-9 axles and are designed for lifting loads of up to 1200 metric tons, but are limited by the height they can reach, usually a maximum of 35 - 40 metres.

Figure 10: Shows the QAY160 All Terrain Crane Payload 160 Ton Source: Google Images

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- Crawler Crane A crawler crane is a crane mounted on an undercarriage with a set of tracks that provide stability and mobility. Crawler cranes range in lifting capacity from 40 to 3500 metric tons. Crawler cranes have both advantaged and disadvantages depending on their use. Their main advantage is that they can move around on site and perform each lift with little set-up, since the crane is stable on its tracks with no outriggers. In addition, a crawler crane is capable of travelling with a load. The main disadvantage is that they are very heavy, and cannot easily be moved from one job site to another without significant expense. Typically a large crawler must be disassembled and moved by trucks to its next location.

Figure 11: shows the KOBELCO CKE600 crawler crane Source: Google Images
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4.3.2 Fixed Cranes Exchanging mobility for ability to carry greater loads and reach greater heights due to increased stability, these types of cranes are characterised that they do move during the period of use. However, many can still be assembled and disassembled. - Tower Crane Tower cranes are common pieces of equipment on any major construction site. They are rather difficult to miss as they often rise hundreds of feet into the air and have an extensive horizontal reach also. Tower Cranes are used for lifting all types of materials including steel girders, concrete, glass and floor slabs. The tower crane is a modern form of balance crane. The tower crane can be erected on the ground, where it is usually fixed to a pile cap or within the building, for example, within the lift shaft or other floor opening. Tower cranes often give the best combination of height and lifting capacity and are used in construction of tall buildings. The tower crane may be freestanding, or guywires which are attached to the building as it is built, may be used to provide additional stability as the crane becomes taller. Tower cranes that are erected inside buildings maybe wedged or bolted at various floor levels for extra support. A turntable, which permits slewing of the jib, is mounted near the top of the tower. The operators cab may also be on the turntable, but can be mounted on the jib, or partway down the tower. The crane operator either sits in a cabin at the top of the tower or controls the crane by radio remote control from the ground. In the first case the operators cabin is most usually located at the top of the tower attached to the turntable for maximum visibility.

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The jib and counter-jib are mounted to the turntable, where the slewing bearing and slewing machinery are located. The counter-jib carries a counterweight, usually of concrete blocks, while the jib suspends the load from the trolley. The Hoist motor and transmissions are located on the mechanical deck on the counter-jib, while the trolley motor is located on the jib. Swinging, hoisting, trolleying and travelling motions are powered by electrical hydraulic or diesel machinery placed at a conventional location on the crane. The lifting hook is usually operated by using electric motors to manipulate wire rope cables through a system of sheaves. A tower crane is usually assembled by a telescopic jib (mobile) crane of greater reach and in the case of tower cranes that have risen while constructing very tall skyscrapers, a smaller crane will often be lifted to the roof of the completed building to dismantle the tower crane afterwards. In order to hook and unhook the loads, the operator usually works in conjunction with a signaller. They are most often in radio contact, and always use hand signals. The signaller directs the schedule of lifts for the crane, and is responsible for the safety of the rigging and loads. There are three general types of tower crane: Climbing Stationary Travelling Climbing Climbing cranes use several ingenious arrangements to increase the height of the tower and to elevate the jib. The climbing crane usually rises within the building as it is erected. Most climbing cranes use hydraulic jacks at the base to raise the entire tower and tower sections are added underneath. There is also a type that has a similar jack attached which engages the frame under the turntable. This allows the turntable and jib to be raised so that sections may be added under the turntable. When climbing within the building, using its
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climbing frames and hydraulic lifting mechanism, the cranes lifting limitation is limited only by the height of the building.

Figure 12: Shows the base construction of the Favelle Favco M760D Source: Google Images

Figure 13: Shows the Lifting Equipment of the Favelle Favco M760D Source: Google Images
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Stationary A stationary (static or fixed) crane can be erected on a suitable concrete base or other substantial mount. The crane can either be freestanding or supported/tied to the building using guywires and props, depending on the height and manufactures design. The crane consists of a stationary vertical tower mounted on a fixed foundation. The tower is of a fixed height and increases in height are not possible for this type of crane. The upper section of the tower supports the jib which is designed to permit horizontal rotation through 360 degrees. The trolley and lifting mechanism is fixed to the longer arm know as the main jib. The second shorter arm known as the counterweight jib extends out horizontally opposite the main jib.

Figure 14: Shows a Liebherr 167E Stationary Crane Source: Google Images
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Travelling The addition of a rail-mounted undercarriage to the crane allows free travelling under load on straight or even curved tracks. The tower and jib are similar to the construction of the fixed tower crane above. This type of crane is especially useful when the application requires a larger area than the working radius of the tower crane permits. Increases in height are also not possible for this type of crane.

Figure 15: Shows the Liebherr 112k Tower Crane fixed on rails Source: Google Images
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4.4 Crane Safety 4.4.1 Crane Hazards Major causes of crane accidents include Contact with energised power lines (45% of accidents) Overturning of cranes Dropped Loads Boom Collapse Crushing by the counter weight falling Improper outrigger setup Rigger failure Collision with other crane or building

4.4.2 Safety Precautions Every crane should have a descriptive booklet which gives a comprehensive and easy understanding of the design characteristics, installation preparation requirements, erection procedures, operation techniques, repair and maintenance recommendations and general safety precautions. The booklet should be accessible on every construction site. General 1. All parts of the crane and supports should be designed and constructed to with-stand the maximum stresses for the intended use 2. A second safety secure attachment of the counterweights i.e. safety ropes, rods and chains to hold the counterweights in addition to the basic system 3. Guards should protect all moving parts including pulley block The Cab 1. Cab should be constructed of fire retardant material and be large enough to allow ample ventilation and space for the operator the perform all is/her duties 2. A proper type and size fire extinguisher should be fitted in the cab
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Brakes 1. All cranes should be equipped with brakes capable of stopping a full rated load of the jib in any position. There should be an adequate safety factor. 2. The crane should be fitted with a device to control acceleration and deceleration rates, to prevent damage to the mast section from torsion effects Controls 1. The cranes controls should be designed and located so the operator can manage the crane efficiently 2. The operating instructions and safety procedures should be posted in the operators cab 3. All controls must be clearly labelled indicating their purpose and modes of operation Safety Devices 1. The crane should be fitted with height limit switches, moment limit switches, and variable and maximum load limiters equipped with a signal that will actuate until corrective action is taken. These devices should be sealed and tamper proof 2. An audible warning device, which may be activated from any operating position 3. Safe access ladders both in the tower and on the jibs, which have landing platforms, toe boards and handrails fitted should be included where required. All masts should have a standard interior fixed ladder which is used for climbing the tower.

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4.4.3 Inspection & Testing Inspection and testing should only be done by competent and experienced personnel. All inspection and test results should be recorded in log books on site. Records should include the inspection dates, findings and actions taken. The crane should be completely inspected and tested before being put into operation. Cranes and their accessories should be inspected and testes each time they are put into service and after remaining idle for an extended period. A full test of all function should be made after erection and before the tower crane is approved for operation A daily inspection should be made on: The condition of the brakes under no-load conditions The condition, adjustment and functioning of various safety devices and limiting devices. The electrical power installations The overload controls

A weekly inspection should be made on: Wire ropes on hoist and trolley Guys Electric power cables Jib and counterweight jib guy Hoist rope anchorage on winding Foundation fixture Bolts and pins

All maintenance work and repairs should only be performed by qualified personnel in compliance with the manufactures recommendations

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4.4.4 Assessment before Operation Both the crane operator and safety personnel should demand the following information before any crane operations commence: What is the object/s which need lifting? What is the weight of the object/s? How far it is from where the crane must sit to where the object must be placed? And obstructions - building, trees etc? Does the object/s have lifting points, if so how many? Access to the site? Stability of ground? (Mud, gravel etc) Area to set up crane? Any utilities in that area? (Power lines, underground utilities etc) Rigging needed?

The safety Manager or safety personnel on site will ask for: The annual crane inspection certificate The operators certificate and credentials Daily inspection results and findings

4.4.5 Dismantling A check should be made of all telescopic devices prior to dismantling operations. Qualified supervisory personnel and proper positioning of workers and employees are important aspects of these operations. Dismantling procedures should follow the manufactures specifications.

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4.5 Developers Options (A) - Purchasing a Tower Crane (B) - Renting a Tower Crane 4.5.1 Purchasing a Tower Crane When the construction company requires a tower crane for their latest job, the developer must keep in mind that although the new crane guarantees the highest quality and latest features, but will cost hundreds of thousands or even millions to buy the new crane needed to complete the job, the developer should keep in mind how much profit they stands to make. When looking to buy a crane to add to the developers heavy construction equipment fleet or replace and older crane the developer should be aware that they dont have to buy the latest crane to hit the market. Why buy a new crane when older models are just as good at a fraction of the cost. For example a good condition 5 year old aerial tower crane could be purchase for 150,000. If in good condition, the savings should make a colossal difference to the developers company finances in the long run. Buying a used crane makes sense as the developer is left with more cash flow on the given construction job, they then have the ability to buy more construction equipment, afford more repairs and afford more employees. Of course the developer/construction company should perform a number of feasibility studies to discover how much the company can comfortably spend on the new or used crane and its accessories.

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4.5.2 Renting a Tower Crane Most construction companies however chose to rent their tower cranes from a crane hire company. The crane hire company usually ships the crane to the site, assembles it and charges a monthly fee while the crane is on site. The typical fee for installation and disassembly is around 45,000. This price includes shipping the crane to the construction site, renting the mobile crane used to erect the crane, the cost of the crew that carry out the crane assembly etc. A typical monthly fee for a standard tower crane is approximately 10,000, with an additional charge to rent the climbing frame and extra sections.

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4.6 Conclusion The crane dates back to the 6th century BC where it was invented by the Ancient Greeks. From starting with just a winch and a pulley, it has been developed to a highly upgraded piece of machinery which is more complex and which can carry out many manoeuvres and tasks. Today many different types of mobile and fixed cranes exist. The crane finally chosen for a development is usually one which can carry out the required tasks most effectively and efficiently. Climbing cranes have become the most suitable and effective crane solutions for the construction of High-Rise buildings and have been chosen in the past and present for the construction of well know projects i.e. The Twin Towers, NYC, Sears Tower, Chicago and the famous Burj Dubai, Dubai. Crane safety is a very important factor as the hazards associated with cranes are very dangerous and so strict precautions have been implemented and certain requirements have been made in relation to the inspection and testing of cranes. Certain implications also apply to the assessment before operation and the dismantling of cranes. For developers, the decision for whether to buy or rent a crane depends on how economically effective it will be on the profitability of the development.

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CHAPTER 5 SPECIALIST BUILDING TECHNIQUES FOR HIGH- RISE CONSTRUCTION

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5.1 Introduction In this chapter the specialist building techniques using in the construction of High-Rise buildings are investigated, from the ground up to the roof level every aspect of the construction process is examined, and the pros and cons of each process is stated in order to find the most suitable and appropriate methods employed in the construction of High-Rise buildings. In this chapter we look at foundation construction for High-Rise buildings and the different types and modes used in modern day High-Rise construction, the advantages and disadvantages of each method is examined in order to find the most suitable method. Also in this chapter we study the superstructure or exoskeleton construction of High-Rise buildings and the different methods used in High-Rise construction. The building methods are compared directly to one another and the advantages and disadvantages of each method is stated in order to find the best possible solution. Also in this chapter we look at the exterior Faade Construction of High-Rise buildings, the design characteristics, technical properties, production and assembly methods are analysed and reviewed in order to give us a deeper understanding of how the Faade is designed, produced and secured to HighRise buildings. Also in this chapter we investigate the roof construction of High-Rise buildings, we look at the main design and functions of the roof and see how roofs are commonly constructed in modern day High-Rise buildings. Finally in this chapter we examine the Interior Finishing in High-Rise Buildings, the different types and the most appropriate solutions commonly used in High-Rise buildings today.

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5.2 Foundations While foundations are out of view once the building is completed, they are of enormous importance for ensuring that the dead weight and live loads of the building are safely transmitted to the subsoil. These loads are not minute. The dead weight of a high-rise building can amount to several hundred thousand tonnes. This value may be exceeded several times over by the live loads which are taken as the basis for designing the building and include the loads from equipment and furnishings, people or moving objects, as well as wind or earthquake loads. More importantly these loads often exert different pressures on the subsoil resulting in uneven settlement of the building. In order to avoid such developments where possible, these buildings must be erected on subsoil of high load-bearing capacity, such as solid rock. However even if a strong subsoil is found near the surface, shallow foundations will frequently be disregarded in favour of a system that transfers the load to deeper layers on account of the high bending moments to be absorbed from horizontal forces. 5.2.1 Pile Foundations Pile foundations are probably the most common method for high rise building foundations and have been used for many years. The main components of this type of foundation are the pile caps and the piles. Piles are long slender members which transfer the load to the deeper subsoil of higher bearing capacity. The main types of materials used for piles are steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials can be driven, drilled and jacked into the ground using mechanical equipment. The piles are often grouped together and connected to large pile caps at ground level to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. (Pile caps are large concrete blocks into which the heads of the piles are embedded)

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Figure 16: (a) Shows Replacement Piles being Drilled by a Typical Crane Mounted Continuous Flight Auger Rig (b) Shows Precast Concrete Piles being driven by a Nissha Hydraulic Hammer operated by a Liebherr Pile Driving Rig Source: Google Images 5.2.2 Function of Piles Like other types of foundations, the main purpose of pile foundations is: a) To transmit a foundation load to solid ground b) To resist vertical, lateral and uplift load Buildings and structures are usually built on piles when the soil immediately beneath there base does not have the required bearing capacity needed for the building. The bearing capacity of the soil will be established from the site investigation report the structural engineer will also used these findings and results when designing the foundation for the proposed building or structure.
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In the cases of heavy construction such as high rise buildings it is very likely that the bearing capacity of the soil will not be satisfactory, and the building or structure should be built on pile foundations. Examples of where pile foundations may provide a solution: Where a soil of adequate bearing capacity lies to deep for the economic use of standard foundations Where the soil immediately beneath the structure is soft and of poor bearing capacity For structures transmitting significant horizontal or inclined loads On construction sites where the ground surface is steeply inclined For structure transmitting very high concentrated loads

5.2.3 Types of Piles Generally there a two types of pile systems a) Driven or Displacement Piles b) Bored or Replacement Piles The piles can be prefabricated and then driven into the ground or they can be produced on site in the form of drilled piles. The latter is more common in city centre and high density areas, in order to keep noise, vibration and disruption to a minimum. 5.2.3.1 Driven or Displacement Piles a) Prefabricated piles are driven into the ground using a pile driver. Driven piles are usually constructed of reinforced concrete or steel. Concrete piles are typically available in square, octagonal and circular cross sections. Steel piles are either pipe piles or of a beam type section. Driving piles, as opposed to drilling piles is advantageous because the soil displaced by driving the piles compresses the surrounding soil causing greater friction against the sides of the piles and therefore increasing their load-bearing capacity.
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Figure 17: Shows a piling rig driving precast concrete piles and also shows a section through a Wests Shell Pile Source: Advanced Construction Technology 4th Edition
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5.2.3.2 Bored or Replacement Piles b) Bored piles (Replacement piles) are considered to be non-displacement piles, a void is formed by boring or excavating before the piles are produced. The Piles are produced by casting concrete and steel reinforcement into the void. Some soils such as stiff clays are particularly amenable to the formation of piles in this way as the bore hole walls do not require temporary support. In unstable ground, such as gravel the ground requires temporary support using casing or bentonite slurry, the slurry is displaced once the steel and concrete is placed into the void.

Figure 18: Shows a mobile truck mounted piling rig setup with a telescopic Kelly bar operating a continuous flight auger and also shows a section through a typical rotary bored pile Source: Advanced Construction Technology 4th Edition
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Figure 19: Both figures (a) & (b) above show computer generated 3D images of Concrete Piles and Pile Caps, with steel reinforcement incorporated Source: Google Images

Figure 20: (a) Shows Concrete Piles protruding from the ground surface (b) Shows workers placing and installing steel reinforcement for concrete pile caps Source: Google Images
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5.2.4 Advantages & Disadvantages of Different Pile Techniques 5.2.4.1 Driven or Displacement Piles Advantages o Do not corrode or rot o May be inspected for quality and soundness before driving o Construction is not affected by ground water o Can withstand high bending and tensile stresses o Can be driven in long lengths o Can be re-driven if affected by ground heave Disadvantages o Relatively difficult to cut o May break during driving o Displacement of soil may affect adjacent structures o Can be damaged during driving o Noise and vibration during driving o Piles with very large diameters cannot be driven 5.2.4.2 Bored or Replacement Piles Advantages o Can be inspected before casting and can easily be cut or extended to the desired length o Length can easily be adjusted o Noise and vibration reduced by internal drop hammer o An enlarged base can be formed which can increase the bearing capacity of the subsoil o Very long lengths are possible o Piles are designed to working stress

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Disadvantages o Special techniques required for concreting in water bearing ground o Can be easily extended above ground o Boring or drilling may cause instability and settlement to adjacent structures o Enlarged bases cannot be formed o Cannot be driven where headroom is limited o Concrete cannot be inspected after installation 5.2.5 Conclusion Which method is chosen will ultimately depend on both the structural concept and the soil conditions prevailing on site. Drilling piles in a whole variety of forms can be used when working with large pile diameters and very long piles. Modern equipment can easily drive piles measuring up to 2m in diameter to depths of well over 50 m. The piles are then combined into appropriate pile groups in accordance with the loads to be transmitted by the building. Although the load-bearing capacity can be roughly calculated on the basis of soil characteristics, the maximum permissible pile load is determined by applying test loads to the finished piles with the aid of hydraulic presses and comparing the resultant settlement with the permissible settlement.

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5.3 Supporting Structure The supporting structure or superstructure is basically a building frame constructed of reinforced concrete, precast concrete or structural steel. The purpose of any framed building is to transfer the loads of the structure plus any imposed loads down through the frame to a suitable foundation as before described. Framed buildings are particularly suitable for medium to high-rise structures and low-rise industrial buildings. The choice of material selected for the proposed framed structure can be a result of a series of factors such as site conditions, economics, availability of labour and materials, time factor, statutory regulations, capital costs, maintenance costs and personal preference. Framed buildings are of simple construction, they consist of numerous columns and beams which carry floor or roof slabs. The main elements in a framed building are as follows: Main Beams: Span between columns and transfer the live and imposed loads exerted upon them to the columns Secondary Beams: Span between and transfer their loadings to the main beams. Their primary function is to reduce the span of the floor or roof they are supporting Tie Beams: internal beams spanning between columns at right angles to the direction of the main beams. Columns: Vertical members that carry the loads transferred by the beams down to the foundations Floors: May or may not be an integral part of the frame, they provide the platform on which equipment can be placed and people can circulate. Besides transmitting these live loads to the supporting beams they may also be required to provide a specific fire resistance, together with a degree of sound and thermal insulation Roof: Similar to floors but the roofs main function is to provide a weather-resistant covering for the proposed structure
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Generally there are two types of building frame which form the supporting structure or superstructure of a high-rise building: a) Concrete Frame Construction b) Steel Frame Construction 5.3.1 Concrete Frame Construction Concrete or reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used modern building materials. A typical building frame can be constructed of precast concrete or in-situ concrete. 5.3.1.1 Precast Concrete Frame Where precast concrete is used the wall panels, beams and columns are prepared offsite, once they are delivered they are then craned or lifted into place and fixed by appropriate means. Foundation connections can be made by placing the columns into pockets left in the foundation. The columns are then positioned in the correct place, plumbed and wedged to give added rigidity. The column is then grouted into the base. Alternatively the columns can have base plates attached to them and using fixing bolts, the columns can be secured to the foundation. Column connections can be achieved in a variety of methods. In simple connections a direct bearing and grouted joint can be used. Where connection of reinforcement is required, the reinforcement from both upper and lower columns is left exposed, lapped together and finished with in-situ concrete. Beam connections are similar to that of column connections, a projecting concrete bearing haunch is cast onto the column and the end of the beam is placed onto this haunch.

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Advantages Mixing, placing and curing of the concrete is carried out under factorycontrolled conditions, which results in uniform and accurate products Repetitive standard units reduce costs In general the frames can be assembled by semi-skilled labour Frames can be assembled on site in cold and wet weather, unlike insitu concrete frames which need fine weather for construction. Disadvantages Mechanical lifting plant is required to position the precast units Structural connections between the precast concrete units can present both design and contractual problems System building is less flexible in its design than purpose made structures.

Figure 21: Shows the installation of Precast Concrete Columns, Beams and Floor Slabs within a Building Source: Google Images

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5.3.1.2 In-Situ Concrete Frame All work associated with the in-situ concrete frame takes place on-site. Once the foundation is complete and the ground floor slab is in place work can begin. Formwork for the columns and beams is erected and once the steel has be put into position the concrete can be poured into the formwork, then the floor construction begins the level formwork is put into position and once the fabric steel mesh is in placed the concrete for the floor can be poured, when the concrete is cured the formwork is removed and the process is repeated for the floors above. Advantages Insitu concrete frame can be designed to take any shape, according to their formwork, thus is more flexible to design. The concrete frame provides inherent fire protection for a few hours Concrete frames offer reduced building operating costs (eg - Heating and Cooling) due to its high thermal mass. Disadvantages Insitu concrete frames require curing time Insitu concrete frame is manufactured on site and therefore quality control is more difficult

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Figure 22: Shows the installation of DOKA Wall and Floor Formwork Systems for In-Situ Concrete Construction Source: Google Images

Figure 23: (a) Shows DOKA Dokaflex 1-2-4 Versatile Floor Formwork for In-Situ Concrete Floor Construction (b) Shows DOKA Doka RS Column Formwork for In-Situ Concrete Column Construction Source: Google Images
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5.3.2 Steel Frame Construction Steel frame construction refers to the building technique generally know as skeleton frame which comprises of steel columns and horizontal I- Beams, constructed in a square or rectangular grid to support floors, walls and the roof of the building which are attached to the frame. The steel frame needs to be protected from fire as steel softens and often melts at high temperatures and can cause the building to collapse. In the case of columns, fire protection is usually done by encasing the columns with fire resistant materials such as masonry, concrete or plasterboard. The beams may also be cased in concrete, plasterboard or sprayed with a protective coating to insulate it from the heat of the fire and thus protecting the structure. Advantages Steel buildings are strong, durable and safe Low maintenance costs are generally associated with steel buildings Steel buildings are environmentally friendly Construction is fast and is of very high quality compared to other building techniques Steel frame buildings enable good design, they are rigid and dimensionally stable Disadvantages Steel without adequate protection is susceptible to corrosion and deterioration Steel buildings are not fire proof and need extra fire protection Steel conducts heat and studies show a steel stud will conduct 10 times more heat than a wooden stud

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Figure 24: (a) Shows Steel Columns, Beams and Roofing Sections Fixed to Concrete Pad Foundations (b) Shows the Intersection of Steel Beams and Columns Source: Google Images

Figure 25: (a) Shows Steel Columns, Beams and Roofing Sections (b) Shows Steel Frame Construction with Beams and Columns Source: Google Images
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5.3.3 Concrete Frame Vs Steel Frame 5.3.3.1 Safety Concrete Concrete requires no additional fireproofing treatments to meet fire regulations and codes, and performs well during both natural and manmade disasters. Because of concretes natural heaviness, mass and strength buildings constructed of reinforced concrete can resist winds of more than 200 miles per hour and performs well even under the impact of flying debris. Steel It is know that steel can soften and melt with the exposure to extremely high temperatures. However, with the addition of passive fire protection, such as spray-on fireproofing, building built from structural steel can sustain greater temperatures. Steels strength and ductility, combined with solid engineering and design, make it a safe choice in seismic zones. Steel framing does very well under high wind loads because it is ductile meaning it has the ability to bend without breaking and can absorb that kind of energy. 5.3.3.2 Cost Concrete The cost of ready-mix concrete remains relatively stable, even with the increased cost of steel it has had a minimum effect on reinforced concrete building projects. Steel Structural Steel has experienced an increased in cost of about 50-percent since November 2003. The overall impact on a steel frame construction building would see an increase in cost of about 10-percent

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5.3.3.3 Construction Scheduling Concrete Many construction experts claim that buildings constructed of concrete can almost always be built faster and when compared to structural steel, sometimes twice as fast. It is not uncommon for in-situ reinforced concrete buildings to rise one floor every other day. Developers can finish projects faster, earn a profit, recoup capital, and move onto the next project. Steel While concretes 2-day cycle may seem to give it an advantage, steel provides many benefits of it own. Some construction experts believe structural steel framing systems are the way of the future and believe they result in accelerated schedule. Quality is enhanced because of off-site fabrication. Off-site fabrication will usually also reduce actual on-site time and on-site construction. Advancement in building information modelling such as AutoCAD and other 3D modelling software, have integrated the design, detailing and fabrication of steel, which have resulted in an accelerated process. These productivity increases make steel a valuable construction material both now and in the future. 5.3.3.4 Design Possibilities Concrete Another important advantage of concrete is it can take any shape. Concrete takes the shape of the formwork and therefore it can be used to create advanced and exclusive designs for modern buildings. Concrete can be used to create virtually any form of structure with ease. Steel Steel has the highest strength to weight ratio of any construction material. With new construction methods, steel buildings remain a popular choice for constructing office and multi-storey buildings. Steel can accomplish extremely long spans in structures without intermediate columns and is a very flexible material in terms of different ways to address design requirements.
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5.4 Exterior Faade Construction 5.4.1 Curtain Walling Currently the main type of building faade used for high rise construction is curtain walling. Curtain walling refers to a building faade which does not carry any dead load from the building itself other than its own load. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors and columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to withstand air and water penetration, wind forces acting on the building and its own dead load forces. With the introduction of curtain facades the size, shape and number of windows included in the faade are no longer limited by structural requirements, since the loads are mainly transmitted by posts and columns. 5.4.2 Design Today's modern facades are considered as external wall elements equal to one floor in height and inserted between the respective structural floors. Curtain walls are typically designed with aluminium members, the aluminium frame is usually infilled with glass, which provides and architecturally pleasing building and floods the building with natural daylight. Other common infills include: stone veneer, metal cladding panels, louvers and operable windows. Almost any desired appearance can be produced so that the building can be defined and fit in with its surroundings. Non-supporting metal facades suspended in front of the building have become increasingly popular for economic reasons, particularly in high-rise construction. 5.4.3 Technical Properties Modern facades must meet complex requirements as regards construction technology, engineering design and construction physics. Thanks to its lightness and almost unlimited possibilities for profile design, aluminium has largely become the material of choice for the outer framework. The panes are
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made of high-grade glass filled with noble gases or with a surface coating that reflects infrared light. On the inside, modern facades are highly impermeable to water and water vapour in order to prevent damage due to moisture. Despite the large areas of glass, protection against the sun is more important than heat loss today due to good thermal insulation of modern facades. Even where soundproofing and fire protection are concerned, glass and metal facades are at least the equal of conventional constructions. Modern facades also require a sophisticated ventilation and cooling system. The air-conditioned or twin facade is a case in point. Here an additional facade of laminated glass is arranged in front of the conventional facade, thus creating a space through which air can circulate. More complex ventilation concepts for routing air into and out of the building may be realized by including additional vertical and horizontal bulkheads. Individually controlled ventilation flaps are capable of providing a more natural and far less complex exchange of air. 5.4.4 Production & Assembly Due to the extensive know-how required with regard to material properties, construction physics and on account of the great manufacturing depth, modern facades are only produced by specialized companies based on the architect's design and in accordance with functional, as well as structural aspects before subsequently being assembled. The degree of prefabrication in modern facades is considerable. The frames, glazing, parapet lining, sunshades and anti-glare finish, as well as thermal insulation and sealing are usually assembled into single-storey facade elements in the manufacturer's factory. In the meantime, fixing elements can be mounted on the shell of the high-rise building. The facade elements as such are usually fitted without the help of scaffolding, thus greatly reducing the total construction time required for this work. The frame profiles are assembled and fixed together using permanently elastic rubber profiles which ensure that the facade remains impermeable to air and water.
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Figure 26: Both figures (a) & (b) above show computer generated 3D sections through Curtain Walling Systems Source: Google Images

Figure 27: (a) Shows the exterior Curtain Walling finish to Leper Business Centre, Belgium (b) Shows the internal Curtain Walling sections to Leper Business Centre, Belgium Source: Google Images
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5.5 Roof Construction There are no fixed rules governing the roofs of high-rise buildings. The roof design depends only on the architect's draft and on the purposes and functions to be fulfilled by the roof. Most roofs of high rise buildings are flat. Usually the mechanical drive systems for the elevators are installed on the roof along with specialist equipment required for cleaning the faade. A heliport or parking space can also be set up on the flat roof of a large highrise building. Air handling units and air-conditioning systems are sometimes positioned on the roof, however this has become less common on modern high-rise buildings. Due to the great height of buildings, air-conditioning and heating systems are now decentralized and spread over several individual floors. Additionally, every installation and equipment placed on the roof means another opening in the intact roof skin and this can give rise to leakage problems, particularly on flat roofs. It is therefore advantageous to transfer such systems to lower floors. Overhead glazing is another type of roof commonly found in high-rise buildings. Such roofs keep out the elements while at the same time creating spacious assembly areas, usually in the centre of the building. Atriums and convention halls are two pertinent examples. High-rise buildings with a sloping roof are usually rounded off by an antenna system with appropriate lightening protection.

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5.6 Interior Finishing Walls, ceilings and floors in high-rise buildings are no different to those in other buildings. The choice of materials and structures depends on the intended use of the building. Since particular importance is attached to flexible use of high-rise buildings, the partition walls, floor structures and ceilings will be of corresponding design. When considering the interior finishing, a distinction must basically be made between load-bearing elements which are required for structural reasons and those which merely partition off the rooms and installations. Load-bearing elements as discussed before are usually made of concrete or steel, as well as of combinations of these materials. Due to the relatively small area available per floor, fire-resistant elements such as structural concrete fire walls are usually only to be found in the core areas incorporating the elevators, stairwells, service and installation shafts. A vertical breakdown into fire compartments is mostly obtained with the aid of fire-resistant floor constructions. The installations for air-conditioning, ventilation, lighting and fire alarms are usually located between the Ioad-bearing ceiling and a suspended false ceiling. Small-scale electrical installations are contained in trunking in the screed flooring. Elevated false floors are installed if numerous connections are required, such as in computer centres. Cables can then be routed as desired in the space below the floor; the equipment is connected to sockets in socalled floor tanks. False floors are to be found almost everywhere in modern office towers and high rise buildings, since cables can be re-routed without difficulty, as is increasingly required on account of the rapid pace of change in office and communications technology. Moreover, the space below the floor can also be used for ventilation and airconditioning installations, particularly in computer centres. Particular attention must be paid to the question of fire protection in such false floor constructions.

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5.7 Conclusion The construction methods explained above are the most suitable for HighRise Buildings, the construction process is the most important part of the whole High-Rise construction procedure and can often last for a number of years. The construction methods above have been developed and redeveloped again and again over the years and now these techniques are rather complex, skilled and experienced labour is required in order to carry out these operations both effectively and efficiently. Selecting the construction techniques, which are explained above for the proposed High-Rise building is a very important aspect of both design, planning and construction and can result in series of factors such as site conditions, economics, availability of labour and materials, time factor, statutory regulations, capital costs, maintenance costs and personal preference.

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CHAPTER 6 CASE STUDY ST GEORGE WHARF TOWER

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6.0 St. George Wharf Tower - Case study St George Wharf Development

Figure 28: Shows a computer animated image of the entire St George Wharf Development facing the River Thames Source: St George Wharf Website www.stgeorgewharf.com St. George Wharf Tower Nine Elms Lane, Vauxhall, London SW8 2LR 6.1 Project Description St George Wharf is located in SW8, Londons most central riverside location. The award winning riverside development has established itself as a most prestigious London address. With a dramatic series of waterfront buildings that cascade towards the river's edge, spacious contemporary apartments and penthouses offer panoramic views across the Thames. With commercial space that has attracted cafes, bars & restaurants to the development and with more space available for the future.
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Broadway Malyan were the architects who St. George asked to create the new riverside symbol for the Vauxhall area and there response was a stunning suite of gulf winged buildings and the superb tower that raise dramatically out of their own landscaped environment. Floor-to-ceiling glazing drenches the apartments in natural light, while the river views from the balconies and terraces are breathtaking. Take in the river views from your own private terrace, or through your apartment's abundant glazing. 6.1.1 Facilities on Site On site facilities include A Private Business Centre Residents Health & Fitness Suite Gym & Tonic for private residents to relax and work out Young's Waterfront Bar and Restaurant is an excellent place to meet and drink with friends Hudson's Convenience store for all your grocery needs. Tesco Express Convenience store 24 hour concierge service to assist all customers All apartments have a video entry phone system and a CCTV network that monitors communal areas and the car park. - Other Facilities Close By Sitting and watching the Thames roll by can be relaxing. So can a riverside walk into the centre of London, but there's more to St George Wharf than the river. St George has restored and recreated the natural river habitats that are so rare along the Thames to provide a more attractive setting for the riverside walkway. There's a wealth of bars and restaurants down Northcote Road for meeting up with friends, not to mention the cafs and restaurants in Vauxhall area itself. For day-to-day shopping, you'll find a good choice of major retailers, such as Waitrose, and a multiplex cinema at Vauxhall Southside.
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6.1.2 Location Just like New York and Tokyo, London is a major economic centre. London thinks, lives and works on an international stage. The capitals rich culture and vast range of leisure activities are legendary. Vauxhall is well positioned for customers to enjoy all that London has to offer. London is the economic hub of Europe and offers some of the most exciting shopping and entertainment experiences in the world. See a famous show in the West End or shop at the many designer boutiques on the King's Road and Sloane Street, which are just short journeys from St George Wharf. Be inspired by the world famous Tate Modern art gallery or dine in one of London's exceptional cafs and restaurants, many of which are right on the doorstep. Vauxhall is well located for travel into the heart of London and beyond. Vauxhall train station and underground is just five minutes walk away with trains to Waterloo taking just 5 minutes. Victoria and Clapham Junction stations are also close by and if you're travelling further afield then the underground or overland trains can easily reach all of London's airports. With an on-site managed car park and easy access to the motorway network, driving a car is an equally attractive option. Overland Trains Waterloo, Mainline Rail Underground services 5 minutes Clapham Junction 5 minutes Airports by train and underground Gatwick via Clapham Junction 40 minutes Heathrow via Green Park 58 minutes Stansted 80 minutes City Airport 35 minutes Eurostar Trains From King's Cross St. Pancras Paris 2 hours 15 minutes Brussels 1 hour 15 minutes

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Figure 29: Shows the location of St George Wharf within London City Source: St George Wharf Website www.stgeorgewharf.com

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Figure 30: Shows a view of the signature St George Wharf buildings with their gulf winged roofs facing the River Thames Source: St George Wharf Website www.stgeorgewharf.com 6.2 The St George Wharf Development St. George offer an exclusive selection of prestigious properties at St George Wharf the most exclusive being the Elite apartments and Penthouses. At St George Wharf the interior detailing has been carefully considered. The sophisticated interior specification of these magnificent apartments includes comfort cooling, a coffee machine in the kitchen, mood lighting, Opus sound system and specialised wiring for telephone and IT points in all principal rooms. The principal bedrooms include built-in wardrobes and all apartments come with underfloor heating as standard. The apartments also have panoramic views of the River Thames and beyond from their spacious terrace or balcony.
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6.2.1 Site Layout

Figure 31: Shows a site layout view of the complete St George Wharf Development, including the new St George Wharf Tower Source: St George Wharf Website www.stgeorgewharf.com So far the development as a whole after over 7 years of construction, as outlined in red above, is only about 75% complete. The front blocks which face the river - Bridge House, Fountain House, Drake House, Ensign House, Flagstaff House, Galleon House, Hamilton House, Jellicoe House and Kestrel House are fully complete. The further two blocks at the back Commercial Offices and Hobart Hanover House also fully complete. So from the Figure above all that is left to construct is Aquarius House situated at the top left hand corner of the image, construction of this block began in April 2008 The famous St George Wharf Tower situated at the bottom right hand corner of the image, construction of the tower began in January 2009 Completion of the whole development is planned for late 2013
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6.3 The St. George Wharf Tower

Figure 32: Shows a computer animated image of the St George Wharf Tower within the St George Development Source: St George Wharf Website www.stgeorgewharf.com St George Wharf Tower, also know as Vauxhall Tower, is a residential high rise building which is part of the St George Wharf Development. When complete, the tower will be 181 meters (595ft) tall with 50 storeys making it the tallest residential building in the UK. With an outstanding selection of 223 one, two and three bedroom apartments available and with penthouses ranging all the way up to an amazing six bedroom, designed to the highest specification with un-comparable views of London and the River Thames. To complement the most premium of lifestyles the impressive building will provide residents with a swimming pool, health & fitness suite, 5 star hotel style concierge and private dinning and entertainment rooms.
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6.3.1 Design Features The exceptional location of St George Wharf on the river Thames called for a landmark building to further enhance the new architectural landscape. The proposal for a striking and elegant tower, which would become UKs tallest residential building with the highest environmental status, will be an iconic building for London. The structure will be topped by a wind turbine, which will power the towers common lighting. At the base of the tower, water will be drawn from the London Aquifer and heat pump technology will be used to remove warmth from the water in the winter to heat the apartments. The tower will require one third of the energy compared to a similar building of its size and CO released will be between one half and two thirds of normal emissions. The tower will be triple glazed to minimise the heat loss and gain, ventilated blinds between the glazing will further reduce heat gain.

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6.3.2 Building Design, Layout & Floor Plans

Figure 33: Shows the Exterior Elevation of St George Wharf Tower Source: Broadway Malyan Architects
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Figure 34: Shows the typical Interior Layout of Floor Levels 2 to 47 of the St George Wharf Tower, there are 6 Apartments on each floor Source: Broadway Malyan Architects

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Figure 35: Shows the Interior Layout of Floor Level 48 of St George Wharf Tower Main Penthouse valued at 22 Million Sterling Source: Broadway Malyan Architects

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6.3.3 Specification of Elite Apartments & Penthouses - Specification Grounds & Landscaping Extensive landscaped grounds Riverside walk and piazza Underground managed car parking Balcony or terrace with river views to every apartment Interior-designed entrance foyers and carpeted communal areas Lift to all floors 'Gym & Tonic' private residents health and fitness suite Residents business centre Cafs, bars, shops and restaurants The Apartments Kitchen Custom designed kitchen with stone worktop and upstands (Choice of colours) Integrated brushed stainless steel finish electric single oven and hob Integrated extractor hood with light, fridge/freezer, microwave, Coffee machine Waste disposal unit Washing machine and Dryer Integrated dishwasher Recessed ceiling downlighters with dimmer Mood lighting control Ceramic floor tiles (Choice of colours) Underfloor heating Glossed Skirtings and Architraves Choice of paint colour to walls Comfort Cooling and A/C with control panel and remote Octopus sound system (available as an extra in all principal rooms including En suite)
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Bedrooms Recessed ceiling downlighters with dimmer Mood lighting control Built-in wardrobes with glass or mirrored sliding doors 5 amp lighting circuit in all bedrooms Underfloor heating Glossed Skirtings and Architraves Choice of paint colour to walls Full height glazing making the most of the light and sunshine Floor finishes Carpet, Timber etc available as an option Comfort Cooling and A/C with control panel and remote Octopus sound system Living/Dining Room Recessed ceiling downlighters with dimmer Mood lighting control Comfort Cooling and A/C with control panel and remote, provide a comfortable temperature within the apartment Recessed ceiling downlighters with dimmer Mood lighting control 5 amp lighting circuit Fully height sliding door to gain access with trickle vent Underfloor heating Floor finishes Timber Solid, semi solid or Laminate etc Glossed Skirtings and Architraves Choice of paint colour to walls Full height glazing making the most of the sunshine and light The Digital lifestyle package to all apartments provides complete flexibility for all telephone and IT points in principal rooms. European channels, Satellite TV channels, Digital TV and Broadband available Octopus sound system

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Balcony / Terrace Fully paved exterior balcony / terrace Exterior water supply Fully height sliding door to gain access with trickle vent Exterior lighting and power supply Frosted Glazing partition between Apartments Bathroom and En suites White sanitary ware Chrome finish taps Chrome finish thermostatically controlled showers Ceramic floor and porcelain wall tiling (Choice of colours) Recessed ceiling downlighters Joinery cabinets and vanity units with push fitting vanity doors Shaver socket Chrome heated towel rail Frameless shower screen Underfloor heating Mounted shower above bath and screens Octopus sound system General All doors throughout the apartment are manufactured Oak doors with brushed chrome ironmongery Handles, hinges etc All Skirtings and architraves are MDF profile boards with a 3 coat satin white gloss finish, all apartments are paint throughout in a choice of colours (Customers Choice) Warranty Full 10 year NHBC Warranty and Building Control Certificate for every apartment
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6.4 Project Construction & Execution 6.4.1 Foundations The foundations on this project which will support the high-rise structure are Bored or Replacement Piles as described before in Chapter 3 (3.1.3.2) The CFA Piles: Continuous flight auger piles are designed and constructed around the geotechnical design report to meet the buildings live and imposed loads. The CFA bored piles (Replacement piles) are considered to be nondisplacement piles, a void is formed by boring or excavating before the piles are produced. The Piles are produced by casting concrete and steel reinforcement into the void. Some soils such as stiff clays are particularly amenable to the formation of piles in this way as the bore hole walls do not require temporary support. In unstable ground, such as gravel the ground requires temporary support using casing or bentonite slurry, the slurry is displaced once the steel and concrete is placed into the void. The piling for the building has been designed for St George PLC by JSA Consultant Engineers and the piling sub-contractors for this project are Stephensons Holdings PLC 6.4.2 Supporting Structure The purpose of any framed building is to transfer the loads of the structure plus any imposed loads down through the frame to a suitable foundation. The supporting structure or superstructure of this high-rise building or tower will be constructed entirely of in-situ concrete. All the work associated with the in-situ concrete frame takes place on-site. Once the foundation is complete and the ground floor slab is in place, work can begin. Formwork for the columns and beams is erected and once the steel is put into position the concrete can be poured into the formwork once cured, the floor construction can begin once the level formwork is put into position and once the fabric steel mesh is placed, the concrete for the floor

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can be poured, when the concrete is cured the formwork is removed and the process is repeated for the floors above. The in-situ frame of the building has been designed for St George PLC by JSA Consultant Engineers and the formwork & concrete frame subcontractors for this project are Stephensons Holdings PLC. 6.4.3 Exterior Faade The main type of building faade used for high rise construction is curtain walling and this project will be no different, triple glazed curtain walling sections with a light blue tint have been selected as the exterior finish for this high-rise tower. The curtain walling sections will not carry any dead loads from the building itself, just the loads of the sections themselves. These loads are transferred to the main building structure through connections at floors and the exterior columns of the building. The curtain wall for this project like any other is designed to withstand air and water penetration, wind forces acting on the building and its own dead load forces. A special feature of this curtain wall design is the triple glazed units which were selected by the architects Broadway Malyan to minimise heat loss and solar/heat gain, another feature of this distinctive faade is between the glazing ventilated blinds have been incorporated which will further reduce heat gain and provide fresh air to the interior of the building. The cladding faade for the building has been designed for St George PLC by ARUP Consultant Engineers and the cladding sub-contractors for this project are Schneider GB Ltd 6.4.4 Roof Construction The roof of this building is like that of any other high-rise building, the sole purpose of the roof of course is to keep the building weather tight and protect the buildings interior from the external elements.

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A unique feature of this project is the 6 metre wind turbine that will be placed on the roof of the building which will generate electricity to power the lighting in the communal areas of the buildings, hallways, lift lobbies and the basement car park. 6.4.5 Interior Finishing St George as the main member of Berkeley Group Holdings PLC has a reputation of being of the UKs largest and most professional construction companies. St George also has a reputation for providing top quality apartment and homes with superior attention to detail. The interior of the building comprising of 50 stories is entirely residential. The floor areas are divided up using internal masonry fire walls between apartments and internal metal stud partitions between rooms. a) Ground Floor Layout The ground floor compromises of a reception area with a large waiting room and post room, a business area with a bar and a meeting/conference room b) Level 1 Level 1 contains of a fully equip health suite including an infinity swimming pool with a Jacuzzi and hydro pool , a gym with weights and a treatment room, level 1 also has a large dining room with a fully functional bar. c) Level 2 Level 47 Levels 2 to 47 comprise of the residential apartments, on a typical level there is 1 no. 3 bed elite apartments, 3 no. 2 bed apartments and 2 no. 1 bed apartments which are fully equip with their own ensuites/bathrooms, fully fitted kitchens and wardrobes. In the lobby areas there is an escape stairs to ground level and a refuse chute to dispose of rubbish. d) Level 48 Level 50 (Penthouse) The Penthouse which spans 3 floors is to be of exceptional design and quality. On level 48 the lobby area has a triple height ceiling with a stainless
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steel and glass staircase. Also on this floor is a formal reception room, a large family room, a large industrial kitchen, dining room with bar, wine cellar and cigar storage. There is also living quarters for staff with includes a kitchen, reception and sleeping rooms. Level 49 includes of an infinity swimming pool with a hot tub, a steam room, message room, gym, study, media room, a large bar and a bedroom with a large ensuite. Level 50 contains 3 large bedrooms with ensuites and another large master bedroom with a large sitting room, large fully fitted ensuite, a walk-in wardrobe and dressing area. 6.5 Logistics Management on the St George Wharf Tower One of the main disadvantages of a development that is near completion is that space for storage of materials, construction equipment and machinery becomes somewhat limited. Logistics on a high-rise project like this one can become a nightmare if proper planning, organisation and management are not put into practice from the start of the project. Site Logistics and Logistics Management as discussed in chapter four deals with the following processes, which are all of equal importance on a project as vast in magnitude as this one: a) Material supply, storage, processing and handling b) Manpower supply c) Schedule control d) Site infrastructure and equipment location e) Management of information related to all physical and services flow a) Material supply, storage, processing and handling is a vital factor on a congested high-rise project like this one, the just-in-time philosophy as discussed in chapter 4 (4.3.1) will be employed on this project, where the materials and supplies needed for the project will be delivered to the site
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only when needed, this way less storage space is required as the materials delivered are used and put into operation right away. b) Manpower supply is important on a project as big and immense as this one, the programmed completion time for the St George Wharf Tower is just a little over three years, as the liquated damages fee per day overdue is very high on this project, contractors and sub-contractors should pay particular attention to the right amount of manpower required on this site. c) Schedule control on a high-rise project is of major importance as there is no way of phasing a high-rise project the entire project has to be completed at once there is no room for delays or errors. If the project falls behind it is vital that management make all the necessary changes and adjustments to get back on track. d) Site infrastructure and equipment locations should be carefully thought out prior to commencement of the works, planners, managers and logistics consultants should carefully consider equipment selection and equipment location in order to optimise site operations and site construction processes. e) Management of information on a high-rise project can be a daunting task, since there is so much information required in the planning, construction and implementation of such a building, drawings and documents will be issued and re-issued over and over again, so it is important that everyone on site is working from the same hem sheet as such, on this project their will be a full-time document controller employed by St George to look after this process. All in all the logistics can be handled efficiently and economically on a project like this one if the correct procedures are put into operation from the start. St George have opted to employ two full-time experienced Logistic Managers for this project, which effectively should aid in the process of logistics management and thus save time before and during construction.
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6.6 Crane Selection on St George Wharf Tower Material Handling is a very important part of the delivery process of a construction project and cranes are the most important resources used in achieving this, especially on a construction site. Selection of the crane type, number and location to be used in a high-rise building is a major issue in planning and organising the construction operations. Selecting the type of crane to be used for the project depends greatly on skilled judgement. There is certain information available to assist the decision in the form of: work study data, previous projects and manufactures specifications. However this information is incomplete and generally requires the planner, manager or management team to make bold decisions as regards crane selection, selecting a crane requires prediction as regards the materials and the conditions the crane will face while on site.

Figure 36: Shows the Crane selection process followed by many general contractors on high-rise building projects.
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Figure 33 shows that the main factors that affect crane selection by the contractors management or planning team are as follows: Shape and size of the building Type of structure and construction Materials specification and geometry Site constraints, access and egress

St George being the principal contractor on this development were responsible for selecting the type of crane to be used and operated on this high-rise tower, the St George Project Planner on the St George Wharf Development made a simple list of the factors affecting the crane selection on this superior high-rise project, they were as follows: - Technical Factors Site Constraints Site topography Access an egress on site Terrain conditions Site layout and operational conditions Shape and size of the proposed building Weight and size of materials Cranes capabilities Method of operation Building structure and method of construction Construction schedule Size and number of cranes Cranes availability Running costs Purchase Vs Rent Dismantling Method
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- Contractual Factors

- Economical Factors

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The management team then consider the options available to them and selected the Favelle Favco M760D Climbing Crane for the project, which would be situated within the stairwell and lift-shaft of the proposed project. The Kangaroo or climbing crane is so-called because it rises with the structure, three floors at a time, one of the main reasons this type of crane was selected was because of the speed of construction, the tight and short programme on this project is extreme for a project of its size. St George found that a considerable amount of time could be saved using this crane as apposed to, two standard tower cranes. This crane also suits this type of project, as the building is of a circular nature and the crane will be situated within the central stairwell of the building. The Climbing crane uses several ingenious arrangements to increase the height of the tower and to elevate the jib. The climbing crane usually rises within the building as it is erected. Most climbing cranes use hydraulic jacks at the base to raise the entire tower and tower sections are added underneath. When climbing within the building, using its climbing frames and hydraulic lifting mechanism, the cranes lifting limitation is limited only by the height of the building. The Favelle Favco M760D has the following features: Maximum lifting capacity - 64 t (141,095 Ib) Tip capacity - 10 t @ 55 m (22,270 Ib @ 180 ft) Boom working radius up to - 70 m Single line pull - 32 t Hoist speed - 120m/min (400 ft/min) Luffing boom Fly jib - 12 t (26,455 Ib) Split machinery deck for ease of erection and dismantling External and Internal climbing systems (in this case Internal) State-of-the-art load moment indicator
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St George being the principal contractor had the option of either buying the tower crane at the start of the project or renting the tower crane. After careful consideration St George decided renting the tower crane from a crane hire, company was a more economical option. The crane hire company shipped the crane to the site, assembled it and charge a monthly fee while the crane is on the project construction site. The fee for installation and disassembly of this Favelle Favco M769D Kangaroo crane is around 35,000. This price includes shipping the crane to the construction site, renting the mobile crane which is used to erect the kangaroo crane and the cost of the crew that assemble the crane. A typical monthly fee for a tower crane like this one is approximately 8,000. The crane is expected to be on this project for a total of 28 months, this sums to a figure of 224,000, add the additional erection and dismantling charge of 35,000 and the total cost of the tower crane for the project is 259,000. This is allot less than 825,000, the original cost of purchasing the crane

Figure 37: Shows the Crane selected for the St George Wharf Tower Project, the Favelle Favco M760D Kangaroo Luffing Tower Crane
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CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS & APPENDICIES

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CONCLUSION The previous chapters give a detailed insight into high rise construction and they sell the idea of future high rise construction in Ireland. The advantages and disadvantages of all aspects involved with high rise construction were examined and explained. This dissertation investigated many areas including the planning guidelines and statutory rules for high rise construction, the special building techniques implemented and the future of high rise developments in Ireland. The dissertation delivers a comprehensive understanding of what qualifies as a high rise building, appropriate locations and what makes a high rise building work in terms of fulfilling the occupants requirements. After investigating the possible cranes solutions suited to high rise construction, I conclude that climbing cranes, also known as kangaroo cranes, although more expensive were efficient and more suitable for city centre high rise developments. The chapter on logistics successfully demonstrated how they should be dealt with on a complex and difficult projects. As logistics management on a high rise building can be a daunting and overwhelming task, it is important to develop a successful logistics strategy and this chapter outlines how to do so. In following the guidelines efficiently and effectively onsite, this will ultimately lead to improvements in productivity and output, with reductions in cost and better customer satisfaction. The chapter on construction techniques describes in detail the construction process from the ground up, beginning with foundations, supporting structure, exterior faade construction, roof construction and interior finishing. Finally, the case study takes an in-depth look at the St. George Wharf Tower development located at Vauxhall, London which is one of Londons newest residential landmarks.

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REFERENCES Chapter 1 Introduction to Research Project N/A Chapter 2 Literature Review Appendix 1 Chapter 3 Planning for Design & Construction 1. DEGW (2000), Managing Intensification and Change, A Strategy for Dublin Building Height. London: DEGW. pp 35-36, 45-47 2. Duffy, BD, 2008. The Need for Vision: Tall Buildings in Dublin. pp 2-9. Available from: www.ctbuh.org/Portals/0/Repository/T15_Duffy.409361519fc1-4aea-8a82-3d03f5f071ef.pdf 3. Stubbs, MS, 2008. Maximising the Citys Potential. Dublin City Council. pp 1-17. Available from: www.dublincity.ie/Press/PressReleases/Documents/MichaelStubbs.pdf 4. Skehan, CS, 2008. Dublin in Perspective, A Future Scenario. Dublin City Council. pp 1-45. Available from: www.dublincity.ie/Press/PressReleases/Documents/ConorSkehan.pdf 5. OLaoire, S OL, 2007. Creating Urban Form & Character. Dublin City Council. pp 5-77. Available from: www.dublincity.ie/Press/PressReleases/Documents/SeanoLaoire.pdf 6. Munich Reinsurance Company (2000), High-Rise Buildings, Munich, Germany: Munich Reinsurance Company. pp 25-29 7. Grehan, RG, 2006. High-Rise Planning Application, Dublin City Council. Available from: www 8. Wells, MW, 2005. Skyscrapers, Structure and Design. UK: Laurence King Publishing Ltd. 9. Lepik, AL, 2008, Skyscrapers, Design and Construction. 2nd Edition. Berlin: Prestel Verlag
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Chapter 4 Logistics Management on High-Rise Projects 10. Sobotka, Czarnigowska, Stefaniak, AS, AC, KS, 2005. Logistics on Construction Projects, pp 203-215. Available from: www.ikb.poznan.pl/fcee/2005.06/full/fcee_2005-06_203216_logistics_of_construction.pdf 11. S.Russell, Seong, J S.R, JS, 2003. A Project Managers Level of Satisfaction in Construction Logistics, pp 1133-1136. Available from: www.engr.wisc.edu/cee/faculty/russell_jeffrey/016.pdf 12. Poppendieck, MP, 2000. The Impact of Logistics Innovations on Project Management, pp 1-7. Available from: www.poppendieck.com/papers/Logistics.PDF 13. Harel, Langer, Kull, OH, DL, IK, 2005. Modern Logistics Execution, pp 1-6. Available from: http://lipas.uwasa.fi/~phelo/ICIL2008TelAviv/33.pdf 14. Proverbs, Holt, DGP, GDH, 1999. Logistics of Materials Handling Methods in High-Rise In-Situ Construction, pp 659-673. Available from: www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid 15. Borges da Silva, Ferreira Cardoso, FBDS, FFC, 1999. Applicability of Logistics Management in Lean Construction, pp 147- 158. Available from: www.ce.berkeley.edu/~tommelein/IGLC-7/PDF/DaSilva&Cardoso.pdf 16. MacDonald, AJMcD, 2009. Logistics. America: Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistics

Chapter 5 Cranes for High-Rise Construction 17. J.Verschoof, IJ.V, 2002. Cranes Design, Practice and Maintenance. 2nd Edition. UK: Professional Engineering Publishing 18. Marshall, BM, 2008. How Tower Cranes Work. America: How Stuff Works. Available from: www.howstuffworks.com/tower-crane.htm 19. Keller, JK, 2009. Crane Safety, Safety Department. America: Capital City Group: Available from: www.ccgroup-inc.com/site/safety.html

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20. Weinstein, FW, 2006. Managing Risk on High-Rise Projects, Tower Crane Risk Management. America: Cranes today Magazine. www.felixeng.com/appfiles/article-04.pdf 21. Der Riss, BDR, 2009. Liebherr HC-L Cranes. America: Liebherr. Available from: www.liebherr.com 22. Alkass, Alhussein, Moselhi, SA, MA, OM, 1997. Computerised Crane Selection for Construction Projects. Canada: Cambridge College. Available from: www.arcom.ac.uk/publications/procs/ar1997-427436_Alkass_Alhussein_and_Moselhi.pdf 23. Upton, JU, 2003. Modern Steel Construction. Canada: MDP Ltd. Available from: www.modernsteel.com/Uploads/Issues/December_2003/30724_products. pdf 24. Batu, JB, 2009. Construction Tower Crane Specifications. Australia: Favelle Favco. Available from: www.favellefavco.com/main-tower.php 25. Bartlett, LB, 2009. Cranes Explained. America: Ezine Articles. Available from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Cranes-Explained&id=314888

Chapter 6 Specialist Building Techniques for High-Rise Construction 26. Munich Reinsurance Company (2000), High-Rise Buildings, Munich, Germany: Munich Reinsurance Company. pp 31-50 27. Abebe, Smith, AA, IS, 2005. Pile Foundations. UK: Napier University. Available from: www.sbe.napier.ac.uk/projects/piledesign/guide/contents.htm 28. Whitaker, TW, 2008. Pile Foundations. America. Available from: http://data.bolton.ac.uk/staff/phm2/files/Sem1/J3%20PJ4%20Geotechnics/ Pile%20Foundations%20v1.00%20Oct2008.pdf 29. Aditya, MA, 2009. Deep Foundations. America: Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_foundations 30. Alexsh, JA, 2009. Steel Frame. America: Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_frame

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31. Smith, JS, 2008. Steel Frame Construction. America: Steel Framing Alliance. Available from: http://web.dcp.ufl.edu/stroh/SteelFrame.pdf 32. Silverstein, LS, 2003. Concrete Vs Steel. America: Corus. Available from: www.rlsd.co.uk/pdf/steelvconcrete.pdf 33. Yakut, AY, 2004. Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction. Turkey: Middle East Technical University. Available from: www.worldhousing.net/uploads/RC_frame.pdf?pr=Array 34. Wilde, EW, 2004. Concrete Frame Construction. America: Sustainable Concrete. Available from: www.sustainableconcrete.org.uk/main.asp?page=123 35. Moloney, KM, 2003. Concrete Frame. America: BCIS. Available from: www.rics.org/NR/rdonlyres/C04BEB03-6271-4A12-8ABBC503258905C0/0/concrete.pdf 36. Grell, AG, 2006. Steel Vs Concrete. America: Sorell. Available from: www.sorell.dm/newsletters/V5-07-06.pdf 37. McFall, RMcF, 2007. Improving Concrete Frame Construction. UK: BRE. Available from: http://projects.bre.co.uk/ConDiv/concrete%20frame/LinkIm_Con_Frame_C on_Web.pdf 38. Schofield, JS, 2009. Curtain Wall. America: Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curtain_wall 39. Garg, NKG, 2009. Use of Glass in Construction Industry. America: Science Tech. Available from: www.techno-preneur.net/informationdesk/sciencetech-magazine/2009/march09/Use-of-glass.pdf

Chapter 7 Case Study St George Wharf Tower 40. Brack, EVB, 2009. St George Wharf Tower. UK: Wikipedia. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_George_Wharf_Tower 41. Jensen, LRJ, 2009. St George Wharf Tower. UK: Broadway Malyan. Available from: www.broadwaymalyan.com/projects/skills/residential-mixed-use/vauxhall-tower

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42. Lowman, DL, 2009. St George Wharf Tower. UK: St George PLC. Available from: www.thetower-stgeorgewharf.co.uk 43. Hawking, SH, 2009. St George Wharf, Vauxhall, UK: Skyscrapernews. Available from: www.skyscrapernews.com/st_georges_wharf.htm 44. Lowman, DL, 2009. St George Wharf Development. UK: St George PLC. Available from: www.stgeorge-wharf.com/index.cfm?articleID=1

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