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All we are aware that the basic purpoee of all sciences is to understand the natural phenomena that occur around us. Amongst all the branches of IlCience, physics is one of the most fundamental. It is the foundation on which the other physical sciences such as chemistry, geology, geophysics, astronomy etc. are based. Physics also plays a very impurtant role in the deve10pment ofbkllogical sciences.
In p~cs we perf'drm experiments, make measurements and then propose theories which predict the results of measurements. In this lesson you will first learn about the units of measurements. Every unit of measurement can be expressed in terms of the basic units. This wi11lead us to the concept of dimensions and their applications in other areas of physics.

We will a1IIo catagorise the physical quantities in two groups namely (i) sealanIlind (nl vectors depending upon their nature. Finally, we will learn the simple mathematical operations associated with scalars and vectors. You will find application of vectors in difl'erent fields of physics which you will learn in other leUons during your COW'IIeof study.

After studyjDa this lesson, you should be able to,

diStinguiah between theJUndl.unental and derived quantities and thfJir S1

write tI!e dirrumaions 0/ di,fffJl'81l1 physical quantitiea; apply the dirrumaional equations; tli/ffri'htUJte between scaler and !leCtor quantities with eJCl1mplea; find thIJ resultant o/two vectors, andresolve a vector into its components;

and compute the produd o/two vectors.




The laws of physics are defined in terms of physical quantities like distance speed, time force, area, volume etc. These quantities in tum are defined in terms of more basic qurntities like mass, length and time and some others which we will study later. If a person measures the quantity of milk, she should express the volume of milk in some accepted units of volume. Like-wise if an engineer measures the length of a road connecting two cities, he should express the di.tance in an accepted unit of length. Such a procedure makes the life more comfortable. When we travel we have an estimate of distance and time" which helps us proper planning of the journey. If there were no units accepted by all, the life would be miserable. Such units are much more essential in scientific measurements to facilitate communication of information at internationallevel.

1.3.1 The SII Units

Keeping this point of view in mind, there have been attempts over centuries in SC'Jeral developed civilizations to. suggest standard units of measurements at regional or national level. Without !.~':"'lg into the long histoty of the various stages of development in the system of units of measurements, we come to the year 1967 when the XIII General Conference on Weights and Measures, rationalised the MKSA (Metre, Kilogram, Second, Ampere) system of units and adopted a system based on six basic units. It was called the 'System International units' known as SI system of units in all languages. In 1"971 the General Conference added another b~c unit 'mole' for the amount of sub"tance to the Sl The present SI system of units bas _ n base or fundamental Units. These are listed in Table 1.1: Table 1.1: Ba.. Units of the SI Syiltem

Metre Kilogram Second Amp.ere Kelvin Candela Mole



Time Electric Current Temperature Lumino1.1.s Intensity Amount of Substance

m kg s A K Cd mol

The yard. and mile as units of length are still in use in USA. These are given in Table 1.2. Table 1.2: Units of leli.gth.till in use in claiIy life (USA). 1 mile 1 furlong 1 yard 1 foot 1 yard 1 inch 1 mile

= =

= =


8 furlongs 220 yards 3 feet 12 inch 0.9144 meter (exactly) 2.54 em (exactly)

Dimensions and \Lector Analysis The guiding principle in choosing a unit of measurement is to relate it to ~on man's life as far as possible. As an elllllD.ple, take th.\lnit of mass as lei,.", am or the unit of length as metre. In ou!" day to day business we buy food articles in kg or tens of kg. We buy cloth in metres or tens of metres. If gram had been chosen as the unit of mass:or millimeter as unit of length, we would be unnecessarily using big numbers in our daily life. It is for this Fe8SOn that the basic units of measurements are very closely related to our daily life. The SI system is basically a metric system. The smaller and larger units of the basic units are multiples of ten only. They follow strictly the decimal system. These multiples or submultiples are given special names. Theile are listed in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3: Prefbre. lor Po_n ofTen

Po_oJ PreJfx.



a f p n


100's 10-" 10-"


10""" 10-' 10-' 10' 10' U)3

10" 10'" 10's 10'

atto femto pica nano micro milli centi deci deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta

m c d da h
k M


femto metre picofarad nanometre micron milligram centimetre decimetre decagram hectometre kilogram megawatt giga hertz tera hertz


pF nm


dm dag hm kg



1.3.2 Standard. of , Length and Time

Once we have chosen the fundamental units ofthe SI, we must decide on the set of sta ndards forthe fundamental quantities.
(I) . . . . : The SI unit of mass is ktlogrtUrL It is the mass of a particular cylinder made of Platinum - Iridium alloy, kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France.

This standard was established in 1887 and there has been no change because this is unusually stable alloy. Prototype kilograms have been made of this alloy and distributed to member states. The national prototype of India is the Kilogram no f,7. This is preselVed at the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi.


(U, Lellath: The metric system was established in France in 1792. The metre (also written as meter) was defined to be 1/107 times the distance from the Equator to the North Pole through Paris. This standard Ws abandoned for practical reasons. In 1872 an International Commission was eet up in Paris to decide on more suitable metre standard. In 1875 the new metre was defined. It was defmed as the distance between two lines on a Platinum-Iridium Bar stored under controlled condition. Such standards had to be kept under severe controlled conditions. Even then their safety against natural dis~ters is not gauranteed, and their accuracy is also limited for the present requirements of science and technology. In 1983 the metre was redefmed as follows;
One metre is the distance travelled by light in vacuum in a time interval of 1/299792458 second. This definition establishes that the speed of light in vacuum is 299792458 metres per second. Following this definition a new prototype of one metre can always be prepared even if all the existing standards are destroyed in a natural disaster. This is the greatest advantage of this definition.
(iii' Time: The time interval second was originally defined in tern1s of the time of rotation of earth about its own axis. This time of rotation is divided in 24 parts, each part is called an hour. An hour is divided into 60 lIiinutes -and each minute is subdivided into 60 seconds. Thus one secondis equal to 1 186400 part of the solar day. To be more specific, the mean solar -rut, the basic unit of time, was defined as toX -t;xf,; part of the mean _far.", for the year 1900. This defmitionwas accepted upto 1960. It is known that the rotation of the earth varies substantially with time and tnerefore the length of a day is a variable quantity, may be very slowly varying.

The XIII General Conference on weights and measures in 1967 gave the following defmition of the time interval 'second.

ane second is the time required for Cesium - 133 atom to undergo
9192631770 vibmtions.

This definition has its roots in a device which can be named as atomic clock. The frequency of certain atomic transitions can be measured with an accuracy of 1 part in 101~. Theee frequencies (transitioni are exllem.ely stable and are least affected by the environment,

1.3.3 Derived Units

We have defined the three basic units in mechanics. When these basic units, interact, they give rise to quantities which are melllUred in derived units.. Thus, the units which are obtained by the combination of the fundamental units, are called derftIed WIlD. For example when distance and time interact, they give rise to speed acceleration etc. The speed is measured in metre per second (ml s). Similarly wheI).'length interacts with length. new quantities like area (m2) and volume (m3) etc result. The following tables give some of the derived units commonly used in mechanics and some derived units with special names.

Dimensions and Vector An@!ysis Tabl. 1.4: Bzampl of deri...d SI Unite


BIUnit square meter cubic meter meter per second meter per square se.c kilogram per cubic meter


wlume speed or velocity acceleration density

m' m3

m/s m/s" kg/m"

Table 1.5: Bzamplee ofden...d SI Unitnrith Special.ame.

force pressure energy, work Power

.MmIe newton



Unit Symbol

joule watt

N Pa J W




The SI system of units form a coherent set in the sense that the product of any two unit quantities leads directly to the unit" of the resulting quantity. When unit mass (kg) is divided by unit volume (m3) we stra,ight way get the unito(density kg/m3. We should be careful in writing the units of certain quantities in proper order. Let us take the example of work. The unit of work is Newton - meter which has been givena special name Joule. It should be written as Nm and not as mN. If written as mN it would mean 'milli Newton". Now. it is the time to check your progress. Solve the following intext questions and incase you have any problem. check answers given at the end of this lesson.

IRTEXT QUESTIORS 1.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. 2. 3. '" car ;" moving with a _eel of 80 km/hr. What i. th.. speed in Diatinguillh between the fundamental and the derived unit.


The radius of an atom i. 10-'0 m. What will be thiJo value in terms of micro mette?

................................................................... .................................................." .. ..


Th. total c:owred area of a h"".. ;" 4500 IqUIU8 fe.t. Expnaa thiJo ..... in jUare metres.



It is useful to assign dimension to physical quantities. The three basic dimensions of the three fundamental units. Lerigth. M8.S$ and Time are sym-

bolized respectively as L, M, T. The dimensions of other physical quantities

Physics arc expressed in terms of these symbols. See the following exaJllples.

ilJ speed_

distance time'

=; =T =LT


df"nsitv = -----=-, = -

mass kg volume m"

M -.3 = ML L3


force = massx acceleration =kgx,:: MLT-2

The dim~siona1 analysis is a very useful tool in checking the correctness of expr~ssions or equations relating various physical quantities. Let us exaJIline a few cases as examples. Exemple 1.1: The mechanical energy of a particle can be written in two difjtmmt forms as fa) l-'ll mrr and (b) mgh. Are both dimensionally same?

la) fbi

>,:, 1m"'" '," M (LIT)' = Y. ML2 'I'"2 mgh = 1M) (LIT') IL) = ML' 'J'"2

We therefore fmd that dimensionally both expressions for energy are equivalent. They differ only by a dimensionless multiplier, (Factor 1/2 in this rase). Example 1.2: Suppose a car starts from rest. The car COuenl a distanoe x in time t while moving with uniform acceleration a. Find an expression.jOr x in terms of t and a. Solation: Suppose the expression for x is of the form,

x ~ an t", (~ . is sign of proportionality) This formula will be correct only if the dimensions on both sides are the same. Left Hand Side (LHS) x= L' - L' MDT" Right Hand Side (RHS) d" t!' - (LIT')" - L"! 'J'"2'" T" - L" '1"'"..... - Lm MO T""""


If the two sides must have the same dimensions then by comparing the dimensions of L, M and T seprately we get


n-2m n- 2 =
n -

0 0


not the proper form of the

We know (may come to know later) that this expression. The correct expression is x y. at'.

The sign of p.opor1ionality is replaced by th, SlgIl of equality with the help of a dimensionless multiplier (1/2 in this case). Example 1.:J: In an experiment with a simple pendulum we come to a,qualitative conclusion thatthe timeperiod Tofthe pendulum depends on the kngth 6

Dimensions and Vector Analysis

of the pendulum l and theiu:iceleration du8 to grallityg. But we do not know the exact dependance. Find the eKQct expression for Tin terms of land 9
SolatioD : Let us assume that

IT' if

Dimensionally L.H.S. - T - LO M' 7'


"'fI' .. L"'(L/1")O 0

L - AI' ~

By comparing the powers of L. M and T on both sides m+ nm.--TJ

and -2n-1 n--2 ... m - +Y. and n - -Yo

... Tal".r or


You should bear in mind that the numerical constant (2 It ) cannot be deterI!lined from dimensional analysis.

1.4: It is known that.a particle moving in a circuWr orbit has an acceleration which depends on the orbital speed II and radius r 'afthe orbit. Determine the powers of II and r in the expression acceleration a - krI"r' where k as usual is a dimensionless quantity.


a- L/1" - LM' T-2 ""r" - (L/7)"'Lo - L-M'T"". Comparing the powers of L M and T OJl'both sides, we get
m+ n-l and m-2


a - kIP:--' - k -

Age;" the numerical value of kcannot be obtained from dimensinnalailalvsis. Now, take a pause and do the following questions.

IRTEXT QUESTIORS 1.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. A atone ia dropped &om the .........r .. boll buiIdiIIg. The velocity "with which the alOne hila the ground cIepeod. on the 'lei&ht h or the ~ and the """"Ioraticn due '.0 ~ g. Obtain the rior eo.. ...

"*' ................................................. _................................................................ ........ .



(X, t+ K,x) lib_ 'y. A and "' ..... in met.... and tin aeCoRd. Obtain the.dim ...siona or K, and K,
The diaplarement oCa m6'riu& perticleia Jlivenby the _ - o n Y- A Sin
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '-_._ . . . . .
~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u

.................... .

The accel""",tion or a,I"0vmg objeq.ito <tirectly' prpportiona! .to 'the invenoelypi'opOrtion tel ita maaa. What ia the' dimension of Coree?

applied force

8r; i




It is quite often useful to know/ calculate the approximate value of a particu1ar quantity. It helps us in checking the results of any lengthy calculation or to know the approximate magnitude of a quantity. The order of magnitude of a quantity is the power of ten of the number that describes the quantity. We know that the speed of light in vacuum is 3 x 10" m/s. We, therefore, say that the order of magnitude is 8 .. If a quantity increases by four orders of magnitude we mean to convey that the quantity has iIicreased by a factor 104 Ezample 1.S: The size of an average room is 6 x5x 4m:'. The room is to ~ completelyfilled with cricket balls without crushing them. Ifthe diameter of a ball is 5 em, estimate the number of balls that will fill the room. Solution: The volume of the room The approximate volume of a ball

= 6 x 5 x 4 = 120 m 3
= 5 x5x 5 x 10'" m 3
= 125 x lQ-6 m 3

(You know that the actual volume of a ball is given by 41fr' where T is the

radius of the ball.)

120 6 Hence the total number of balls = 125xl0-<i ::1 X 10 balls.

A more accurate Calculation may give a result which may differ by factor of ten only. .

Table 1.6: App1'Oldmate value. of certaiD m_ured CJu. .titiH Mean distance from earth to moon Mean radius of the earth Diameter of a hydrogen atom Diameter of anatomic nucleus Mass of Sun Mass of earth Mass ot a Mosquito Mass of an electron One year Oneday .. Period of a souM wave Period of a radio wave

3.8 x 108 m
6.4 x 106 m 1 i< 10-10 m lxlo-14 m 2 x 6 X l x 9.1 lO30 kg loo'kg lO-Skg x 10-31 kg

3.2 X 107s 8.6 X 104 s 1xlQ-3s lxlQ-6s

Now, check your learning by solving the following questions.

INTEXr QUES'I'lONS 1.3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~

1. A teacher consumes 0.4 unit of electricity per,hour in his bouse. The cost of electric~ ity i. Rs 3/- per unit. Estimate his tots! expenditure on electricity or year.

................................................................................................................."........ ..
2, Estimate the consumption of salt for the'whole country in one year for a popUlation of 900 x lQ".

Oimensions and Vector Anal}'llia

1.6 VECTORS AIID SCALARS / 1.6.1 Scalar Quantities

We know that the physical quantities are always described by some numbers with proper units attached with them. We describe the density of material, the volume of ajar, the distance between two cities, the Speed of a moving car, the forcethat pulls all objects towards-the earth and the torque that ~ens or closes a door. Some of these quantities are ~re8l1ed in numbers with units and it is a complete and correct d.:scription of that quantity. The examples are (i) density of copper - 8.9 x loa kg/m3 (ii) mean radius of the earth - 6.4xlo6m (iii) one day - 8.6 x 10" s; Such quantities do not require any direction to be specified for theif descritpion. These are knoWn as _ _ quantities. '
A _lar CJifAfdlCg has only magnitude and no direction.

1.6.2 Vector Quantities

A vector quantity is a physical quantitY that is described by both the magnitude and the direction. ~is a vector quantity. lfwe apply a fOrce of lOON
Oil an object, we must also SPeci1Y the dfrwctfonin which the force is being applied. Veloc:ftgis an other vector quantity. lfwe describe the motion of an object we mwrt specify how fast it is moving and the directiOn ofits motion.

A IMCCDr .-atuwhas magnitude and direction both.

VectorIIcan always be represented graphically. Let us say that a force of 501;)' N is applied on a body in the direction west to east. This vector quantity ~ C'lll be represented graphically all shown in Fig 1.1. below


ftc1.1: Gnq1Irk:Dl"""""-'af"- 'The line AB represents this vector. The length of the line AB, say 5 em, represents the magnitude SOON. The direction of the vector is from A to B (West to 'east). The pOint A is called the ~r and the point B with an arrow Diark is called the tip (head) of the vector. y ADDthervector CD ofmagnitude 300N force is1epresented by CD (3 em length) pointing in a different direction.

Any two vectors A. and B are said to he . ._ ifthey'bave the same magnit~l(le and point in the same direction. Graphically, therefore, all such vectors which are of the tiame length and parallel to ea,ch other are said to be equal all Shown herein Fig 1.2. The three vectors. A.,. B and c:': are of equal

o '-_______ x
PI&- 103: EqIAal- "'PI>


length (magnitude) and are parallel to each other (po1nt in the same direction). We therefore say that A = B =C.

1.6.3 Addition orVectors

When two or more vectors are added together, like scalar quantities, they must have the same units. Graphically, it is very easy tC' "dd two v~ctors and find the resultant sum.

L,,[ liS have 1"\) \~":llIr, A un.i 1\ :;1'01 ',w have 10 rind their veclor sum R =A + B ...


1.3. Addition oftwo ""ctors, graphlcaUy.

The two vectors are shown in Fig. 1.3. (a). T~ find the sum of the two vectors we adopt the following procedure. First, draw the vector A graphically. Then draw the vector B in such a manner that the tail of the vector B starts from the tip of Vector A as shown in fig. 1.3.(b). We know that a parallel movement does not change a vector. A. vector drawn from the tail of A to the tip oCB is the resultant vector R ~ A + B. Following the same procedure. We can find the sum of more than two vectors also. Let us take three vectors A, B and C and we have to find the vector RA+B+C

Flg 1.4: Addition o/three vt."Cfors in. a graphical manner

DrAwtb, \Tctor A. nr"wthevectorB such that the tail of B s1:8 tsfrom the

DiIlletlSlOnS and V"rtor Ana1~ s". tip of A. Then the vector which starts from the tail of A and ends at the tip of vector B is the sum (A+B) .. Following the same rule we can add the vector C to the Vector (A + B) and get to vector R = A t B + C. You can now appreciate that several vectors can be added together in the same manner. Now, following the graphical procedure illustrated above, you can easily sho.,

(i) A + B ~ B + A (commutative oj properly vector addition' (1.1) (ii) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C (Associative property of vector addition' (1.2)

1.6.4 Subtraction of Vectors

We define the negattueofvectoras a vector which has the same magnitude but points in .the opposite direction. If A is a vector of magnibloe '300 unit s pointing towards east, then -A is a vector of magnitude 300 units poil1ting towards west. Followmg this defmition of... negati,'c vector we can evaluate the difference of two vectors in the same way as we evaluated the sum of two vectors. Let us evaluate R = A - B ' Thi.." can also be written as R - A + (-Bl The graphical construction of finding A - B is shown in Fig 1.5. First we draw the vector A. We thm draw the Vector -B. To find A + I-B), we now draw the vector -'8 such that the tail of -B coincides with the tip of A. A vector wbich I t joins th.. tail of A to the tip of -B is the vector (A - B).

1.6.5 Law of Para11.1o....111. ofV.ctor.

We can find sum of two vectors anylitically without graphic'al construction ,also. Let us evaluate It A + B

Let A and B be two v"ctors and e the angie bl't\veen them. We construct a parallelogram. PQED where PQ - D& z A and PD-QE B Let EF be perpendicular to the line PQ. In A PFE




- (PF)" + (FE)" ..; (PQ + QF)" + (FE)' - (PQ)" + (QF)" +2(PQ) (QFl + (J'E)' - (PO)' + [(QF)" + (FE)") + 2 PQ.QF -(PQ)" + (QE)" + 2 1'9. QF -(PQ)' + (QE)",+ 2 PQ.QE,(QF /QE)
-.A2 + B'



+ 2AB cos e

(1 ..4)

(1.5) This expression for R 4i equation (1.5) gives us .the magnitude of the sw;n of two vectors A and inclined at an RDgle e between them .
. . . .Ic.ij Wbm. e "0 the twO ~ are parallel to each.other.

thenR -A+B


WbeDe-n/2, R- .JA'+B'

(1.6 bl


WhflI1e.. n the two vectors are anflparallel to each other. They are directed oppOllite to each other.
R .JA?+B'-2AB,
or R-B-A
(1.6 c)

The direction of the vectorR with respect toa reference direction be determined analytically. Let the reference direction be the direct:i.oA Oi one.of the vectors, 1lIIY Vector A and R makes an 8DIle a with ..


tan or. -

EP" EP' B sin 8 .. . --:-...........--:. PF PQ+QF A+B cos e . Baine tana=A+Bcose

Since A, and e' are lcnl)WD. the direction of. R' (angle a) can. be eaaib' calculated .,.alal _ _ :Wecandiscu.. the same speCiaJ. caseaforwbichwe obtained . the magnitude of R.

when e -0,

tan a-

0, . a- 0


The direction of R coincide_ with A

iiI' e .. n/2. tan a - B/A

iii) 8- ft.

tan a -0." will be ~ the vector A:or.

. ( 1.SC)


Again. it i. time to check your understanding.



Dimension$ and Vector AnalJo:Sis

INTEXT QUESTION'S 1.4"_ _ _ _~_ _~_ __


There are three vectors of magnitudes 8. 16 and 20 units oriented arbitrarily in the same plane. What are the minimum and m...mnum values of the;,. resultant?


A'man ~ 3.0 Ian toward. east and then 4 km towarda north. (a) How far away he is from the atartmg point? (b) What i. the direction of hi. final position?



There are two vectors A and B of equal magnitude with an angle Df 60' between them.. Determine the following graphica1J,y (a) A + Ii " (b) A - B (c) B -A (d) A + 2B (e) A - 2Il

............................................................................................................ ,...: ............... .

1.7 PRODUCT OF VECTORS 1.7.1 Scalar Product
The scalar product of two vectors.A and B is defined 11$ a sca1ar quantity which is B. product of the magnitudes of the two vectors multiplied by the cosine of the lingle between the two vectors A.B - AB cose. (1.9) Where e is the angle between the two vectors .A and Bi Fig 1.7. A dot 'sYJ1,lbol between A and. B is put to indicate the scalar product. For this reason the _far product is also called the dot product. The quantities TepTej!lented by the .Vectors A imd B need not have the same . units. The product AB cos e contairis the magnitudes oCthe veCtors onJ.y and is"a scalar quantity. It is therefore easy to appreciate the following relations. A.B - B:A - AB cos e A.(B +C)" - A.B + A.C



We Will find a p~ctical Ulle of~ relations in later Chapter. on mechanic-.

___ plel.S: 7he two vectors are o/magnitudes IA I- 30 and IB I- 40 and the angle 8 -55' ,calculate the magnitude and direction ofths Vector II - A + B.

IIoIutJoll I"

~per equation (1.5)


IRI -.JA~' + B~ +:lAB co~~ .


- ~(30)~ +(40)~ +2x30x40xcos 55 - (900 + 1600 + 2400 x 0.5736)" IRJ -. 62.2 (magnitude) Bain9 40xQ.81923 ::::2::;.;. .7:.,;:6-=..8 ~a.. A+ Beas9. 30+40xO.57'36 52.944


. 13


- 0.6189,

- 31.80

The l:1!suJl:antR~angleof31.8withvector

Byemple 1.7 I A carl is being puUed by man A towards e.ast with a force of


IN I 70N. Thesomecarl.isbeingpulledby .~ manBtowardsNorth-westwithaforoe 30N ~. 135"


"'_..J..._____ A.

(a) CalmlatethBresultantforoeacting on the cart. (hI Find the direction ofthis resultant

70 N

Is '

Eblutloll :
In this problem .

A-70N, B - 30 N,e - 135

. R- J(70)~+{30)2+2x70x30c~a135

- ~4900+900+4200xcoa(90+4S)" - ~5800-4200ain45-.J2821 . ... R,- 53.1 N.

BlliD.9 30x sin (90 +45) _~30.;;.,C;..;08;.;;.4.;;.,S ... ~.;..._ una- A+Bcoa9. - 70+30coa(90+45) -.70+30(41145) 30)(0.7071 21.213 4348 - 70-3D<.7071 - 48.787 - O.


V.OtM Produot

The vector product of two vectors A and B ia defined'" a third vector .C whole magnitude is AB sin 8 where 9 is the ~ between the vectors A and S. The vector product is written .

.... I ....







The msanltude of the prod,uct is

IC 1- AB sin 9

(1.12) (1.13)

There is a edmpte'rwe w find the dfleceton o/tIw wdor C. Stretchthe fingers of your rilht band along the vector A. Now curl the fingers from A towards S through the smaller ansle 8 between A and S. The Thumbwbich is erect points in the direction of the vector C. If one follows this rule one can easily aee b t


': A and S are in a horilontal plal!.e with an acute angle 9 between them as


Di1r.ensions and Vector Analysis shown in the figure 1.8 then A x B - C will point vertically upwards and B x A - -C will point vertica1ly downwards. Because of a cross ~ between A.and B, the ~rproduct is also called as cross product. We will make use of these relations later.



A vector can be resl'\ved into components with respect to a particular co-ordinate system. Fig 1.9 shows a vector A in a rectangular coordinate system. The tail of the vector coincides with the origin 0 of the co-oTdinate system. Let us draw perpendiculars



_________ X

axes. We get quantities A. and A.,. These are, called components of the vector A. The process is called ruolutfon o/~r into com,porwnta.

from the tip of the vector on the coordinate

1'1& 1.!I'"","""'P""0n,..!fhII_ A
aIDng 11M! _gular 00I>I'd/naI8 ...... " - , I.

The components A. and A., are A. A cos e ~ - A sin e (1.15) whflre e .1S the ansle which the vector A makes with + X axis. If we know the vector A i.e. we know the magnitude A and the direction with respect to a reference axis. we can obtain the components A. and A.,. Conversely, ifwe know the components, we can obtain the magnitude and direction of the vector. A. Acose A., - Asine A~ +A; A2(cos29+1Ii.n 28) A2

A. ~A; + A; (magnitude) (1.16) tane A.,/A. (direction) (1.17) The sign of tan e detennines tlle quadrant of the co-ordinate axis. . A more convenient wa,y to handle the resolution of more than one vectors in a three dimensional space is to introduce the concept of unit vectors. '!be vector A can be written as .


I I i

Where 1.0 is 'a unit,vector in the direction of A. (A cap over the letter represents a unit vector). In the rectangular co-ordinate system we choose t.l and k as unit vectors along the x, y and z directions respectively. Let us do some simple mathematics for a two dimensional system. This can be easily extended to three dimensions. Following the definition of unit vector.
A. A,.i + Ayj



B. B.i+Byl



This is shoWn in the Fig 1.10.





_ _ _ :It



-y ..... 1.10Cb)

..... ~.lOfIl}

"","l.lO'~~~""',io_",,'kr _ _ _ ,

!II .. ~ 9"

wll 1_",. _ _ ... "'" """'""" No

Suppose ~ attempt to find the sum of the two vectors A and B.

R=A.+B R,.- A,,+Bz

, thl\ ,Let e-veCtor

-VB,. make an _ ..... nl th X -8XIS. . e e WI


tanB=We solve the following problem to illustrate the efficacy or thiil analyticaJ . method of addition of vectors.


. . . .pte I.': 7\uo IIIJCtora are gillen below

.1.- 2i+31 and B .. 3i - 4) Find ths awn fJ/ths IIIJCtora A + s- .If.


Accordina to our nOtation

A" - 2, A.. - 3; .R,.. 2 + ~- 5


Bz - 3, B, " ,-4


. R_.JS3 +1 3 -.;J26*5.1 ' tg'e - RJR. - -1/+5 -, -9.2 e' .willlie 1n the lVquadrant. , .... 1 ' 7\uoJHIirUAG7IdBinthsXYpItme,hall8~(-.3, ~)m


4) m ,....,ci1l8l1l.

WWte.., .ssionaj'or posiCion 1IeCtcQ qf A. cUad B tA ~-,; (bl BvaluGM (JIA ,+ -,; IUId tA ,--,; ' .


(a) The poai~on vector RA -

1-3 i +2)) W.

JIg .; (2 i;':L4 hin

(h) R,.+",-(-31 +-2J)+{2i +4J)

- (-2i+6Jt

RA -


-13i +2])-,.(21 +4]) '-8j. 1/



. . . . . . . 1.10: f{avec:tOrCiatldtkdtouedDr. theraultia-9i .ia subtractedfrom C the ~ ia 5i + 4 j

lIoIattoa: Given,

_ .What ia the direction of.

+ C -'-91 -sl 0-."51+4)

By adding we

.e.:; 20--41. 4j;



By aubtractlnsWellet, , Therefore, tan' ,

2.--141 -12ja --71 -61


e - S- -6 -1.167 " AcCOfdinl to the tablea IP.ven here e is in the m quadrant.

, '8'- 221. . (i)

. B,.


)r. ..,... 1.111 GiCllm


What ia the (oJ ~ and (II) ditlill:JCiDia ofA

A-.-.. . I+1J
:. &"- i +4)
A.~ 1 and A,. -

+.- 61

(al By addiq Ii) and(ii) we pt 2A. -

21 + 8]

... ,

It. -,~It.:+It.~ It.,

(b) tan



" ..TIXT QUB&TIOR 1.1._____________


e -' A -I' e. tan-I (4).

TMre ill a ..... d'lll block CIa the 1Ioor. ' - - t A ill JNlIinI; it,,1Iitb. "'"'" .. .uS peI'IIOq B ill ~ it ~ the _ ,.... ... The cIInaIfaa. of 'the .... with ....,.. to the IIoor ill 30' In' both _ , Wbo WiD lie . . . to ....... the blOClk em the IIoor man --uaat\)- .uS wb:T? '



A vector A of magnitude 50 m is in the XY plane and makes an angle of 300 with the X - axis. What are the X i!lnd Y components of this veclor?


A force of 200 N is applied on a.body at an angle of 120 with the positive X - axi. What are the directions and magnitudes of the rectangular components of this force?

............. ...............................................................................................................


WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ __

Every physical quantity is measured in some system of units. We in physics adopt

the SI.,
In mechanics, kg, ~ and "" are the base units of the SI foJ' measuring ma.is,lengtl , ~d t~mp. r"'!,;Dectl,,-ely. The other 'units are cl~lled der;Vt::d UTl1t:" A standard mass ot an alloy material has been acceptp.d as stanaard kilograrn.


One meter i. the diatance travelled by light in Vl\CUum in secona. , 299192458 One second i. the time required for c. -133 atom to undergo 9192631170 vibratiOn. EvelY physical quantity h .. dimension.. The dimensional lll'a'Iyai. i. a u.eful tool UI check the correctn of mathematic expre.lion. There ere vector and .calar quantitie. Addition and .ubtrection of vectora - Law of perelle1"11l'&lX'of ""ctora. (i]Scalar product R A AS CO.' .9. (ii) Vector product R A , IR I AS oi.'l 8. The direction of R i. e1.o,derlllsd. A vector eon be re.olved inte it. component

1.10 TJtRMUfAJ, QUltSTIOIfS._ _ _ _ _ _ __

1, 2.

Th. aver..e .peed of the fute.t train in India i. 120 km/h" in metre per aecond?

What Will be the


Show that the expreuion ut + y, at', where a iii di.tenee, u i. speed lind a i. the aoce1oration of a -inbvina; particle, i. dimen.ional1y co.,..,ct. ' If X At + Elf (where x io diotan.e lind t i. time) i. dimenaionll1ly correct, then ah"", that (A + 3 BI'J h .. ~e dimenaion. of velocity. The diameter of lin atom i. about 10" m. E.timate the number of atom. in 1 m' a .olid. '

4. S.


A his boat i. relltin& on .tiIl water. There ere two rope. tied at the .ome point on the boat. One man pull. the boat 1110111 BOUth with a force 12 N mel another mail. pull. it al0lll eut with a force of lIS N. (aj What i. tho re.ultes)t force with which'the boat i. belni pulled? (h) What is the direction of its displacement?
A river i. flowina: toward. eut with ...peed of S Ie nIh . A owi2nmer io IWimmina from' the BOUth bank with a .peed 4 km/h IIIw~ heoding toward. north. (aj Will he be able'to reach the north bank exactly at the oppoaite point? (h) What i. the direction of hi. effeive .peed in water? (e) What i. hi. eective ape.d in the river?



A boy i. pu1lina table toward. south with .. force S N lind m. aioter i. pu1lina the _ e table toward, e..lt with a force 4N on the horizontal floor of !I:1e heu"'! . Th.... i. a force of friction of IN betw,en the floor and the tablit in .wry direction. 'ii1t.at iii the ' moanitude of the reoultes)t force which i. movin& the I":1>le?
A man


walkin& aero.. hill field. in a cIarIc nicht 10... hi. WIlY. He wll1ka 100 toward. weat and the"; 60 .tepa, toward. north and then .ame .tep. in 'another direction .0 that he apin com back to the .tarting point. How IIW\Y atop. and in


Dimensions and Vector Analysis


he walked in his third movemert? Sol"" the problem graphica1ly.

A person walks along the paths shown in Fig 1.11, starting from the point A and ending at the point B. Find the magni tude of his displacement.
I). particle moves with a velocity



v along east for 5 seconds and then towards


north with veloCity

for 5 seconds.

..~g 1.11


(a) How much is the change in velocity per second. (b) Change in velocity per second is de fined as acceleration. What is the direction of the' acceleration?

11. A block of mass 5 kg is sliding on an in clined plane making an angle of 30 with horizontal. What is -,;he m~tude of the' force driving the block along the plane?

Two vectors-are A"" 8 units and B "" 5

units. - The angle between them is 60". Find
Fig 1.12

(oj A.B (b) A x B and its direction, for the following orientation (A and B are in horizontal plane). .

Fill 1.13

13. Two vectors ...... given by A -' 3 -2

i j

and B-2 -5 j , Calculate (A i' B) and (A - B)


latex!: Q1aMtlozuI 1.1

h 60,,60 9' - - 22.'2 mi. 2, The- _...lndamental unite are independent units and they are only seven in number. Whereas the derived unit. are obtained by the combination of the fundamental units and there can be any number of derived units. 3. 1O.,"m - 1 micro metre. 4. 1 feet < .1 feet - 1 sq, feet 1)( 12 )( 12 x 2,54 x '2.54 10
- - - 4 =.O~,




80 x 1000



4500 aq feet -45< 9.29 - 418- m' I a _ Quatl.oa 1.2




rI' Ii' - (




-I,.... T'''''


L' 1-1

Lm+n T"":1m.


m+n-l, n-l-n;, n - 'f,o

(RHS) -2m --1

929 10

:. v


. Y'hl< or . g. .,--3 a L 9A

A sin (K,t + K,';


""ee LHS- Y-L'M"T"


dieplacem""t ia ..... in meter.

RHS - A .... (K,t + K,,>;I- L' . in ( ) mU8t be djrnenoiOllIe... K,f- L"M" T", DimenojOll of K, - 1':' K,x- )("LT", Dim.,oi"" of K. - L-'

Applied f'on:e

.cceJeration Cl--,

Fon:e .- _

IIoaIii: Q


A persoR may CODlume

ItVmootb 10 tVyur. For popalalion of 900 X 106 Tular la" - 9000 X 10 K

_ Q r at 1.4 ,1. 8, 16, 20 IDIIfPJitude.

Maximum of ........t will be ..ti_ all three ..... ponIIeI - 44 Wlit.. MiDimumwhen antipanllJel- 4 uniU. .

.: lr.

1.3 0.4 unitII per hour. In one dIIf 0.4 ~ - 9.6 unitII .:: 10 Wlite/dIIf. Per ,..... 3650 unitII. Cooot 3650 3 - Ra 10950 - . . ~...

- M L 'f<'



Ia.t Q I a




(bI __ -4/3-1.33 _ - IIboiat 53"


a- ....

,lin 30"
,... .. t l'IIMrin(Jthtt bled: ~ abOw ficwu it ia cle.- th.t pWI~



IAI - 1-11IIId .. 60".


. . tile bloc:k ia


tbN1 pu. . . . it .'


;" ,, , ,


.A.- 50 .,.. 3f1" -

25./i 0\ .. 50 iii! 3f1" - 25.



_ _ _ '.

;\h.l .L. .~1-1_l___ IO" _

" - 200 .... 120" - -1t.r.lc ,


". - 200 .... 120" -

roo./i .




see a number of things moving around you. People, animals; vehicles can be seen moving on land, fish, frogs and other aquatic animals are seen moving in water. The birds and aeroplane move in air. The sun and the moon appear to-move in the sky. Though we do not see but the earth (....1. which we live also moves. It is, therefore, quite apparent that we live in 8 world that is very much in motion. To understand and describe the phySlc. world around you, the study of motion "is very mucb, essential. Motion car. be in a straight line, in a plane or in the space. If the motin'~ -lfthe object is - in only one direction, it is said to be the "motion in a straight line'.. For example, motion of a car on a straight road, motion of a train along its straight rdils, motion of a freely falling body, motion of a lift, and motion o(an athlete running on a straight track.
In this lesson we shall confine our attention to we Illotion in a straight line -leading to the description of motion in general. In the next and the following lessons you will study about the laws of motion, motion in a plane and other various types of motions.


recall distance, ~placement, speed anq velocity; explain relative velocity and average velocity; define acceleration and instantaneous acceleration; draw and interpret position - time graph; draw and interpret velocity - time graph jor uniform and nOn-uniform motio"-,; explain Instantaneous velocity; ,,:.mve 0" ~ apply equaUons motion with constant acceleration; and dRscrib~ :flotion ul'lc/f.,- gravity.

Mter studying this lesson, you should be able to,

! I !

I i





In your earlier classes you would have studied that the total length of the path travelled by a body is distance whereas the difference between the initial and final position of the body is called its dfsplac4lment. Basically the displacement is the Sh~rtest distance between the two position and has a certain direction. Thus ~e displacement is a vector quantity' but the distance is a scalar. You would also h!!.ve learnt that the ra~ of change of distance with time is called speed whereas the rate of change of displacement of a body is lmown as its uelocUy_ Unlike speed velpci13T is a vector quanti13T.

2."3.1 Average Velocity

When an object travels with different velocities, its rate of motion is measured by its average veloci13T or average speed. The averageveloci13T of an object is defmed as the rate of change of displacement, whereas the average speed of an object is obtained by dividing the total distance travelled by the total time taken. Let XI and X, are the positions of the object at tl and t, times respectively. Hen"e, average veloci13T displacement v= time taken i.e.
v=X2 -X,

t2 _ tl

or v

= At



and, average speed

total distance travelled total time taken

For, understanding the average speed and average veloci13T clearly, read the following examples. , .

Example 2.1: An object is moving along the X - axis whose coordinate is x 20f' ms-2 , where t is the time variable. Calculate the average velocity o/the object over the time interval from 3 s to 3.2 s.

Solution ~ Given, X. 20 fI m!l'2

We lmow, the average velocity is given by the relation
2 = t2 -tl



--20)( (3 S)2 ms'"



As t, ~ 3.2 s X, - 20 x (3.2 sl" mr - 20 )( 10.;2 m - 204 m 204-180 3.2-3 24 - . msl = 120ms1 U.2


Motion in a Straight Line Hence, average velOcity= 120 ms-' Example 2.2: A man nms on a 300m circular track and comes back on the starting point in 2008, What is the average speed and average velocity afthe man? Sohtiou : .Given, - 300 m, 200 s The man comes back to th~ same point :, The displacement - 0 Total distance travelled = . Hence, average speed Time taken Total length of the track.

Time taken to cover this length

and, average velocity


=--ms =1.5ms 200 displacl!fuent Time taken =--=Oms- .





2.03.2 RelativeVeloclty
Whim we say that a bullock cart is moving at 10 km h- ' due south, it means the velocity of the cart with respect to the earth is 10 km h-1 , Infact, the

velocity of a body is always specified with respect to some other body, Thus, the velocity is relative in nature. SupP,OSe a girl is walking in the compartment of a moving train in the direction of the motion of the train. It means the girl is moving with respect to the train. Letthe train is going due west relative to the surface of the earth. The earth in tum is moving due east relative to the sun. The sun itself is moving around our galaxy. Our galaxy is moving relative to other galaxies. Thus ifyou want to find the absolute velocity of the girl, itttiay be a tedious job. All velocities are thus relative. The relative velocity of an object A with respect to another object -B is the rate at which A changes its position relative to B. For example, ttvA and' lie are the velocities of the two point objects along a straight line, the relative velocjty of B with respect to A will be VB - VA' The rate of change of the .relative position of an object with respect to the other object is knOwn as the ,..latfw -locCt.rI of that object with respect to the other.

I ,
! , I i ,

....... 2.3: A car A is moving on roadfrom North to South with a speed of 60 km/ 11. Another car B is movingfrom South to North onthe same road with Q speed of 70 km/ 11. What is the velocity of car B relative to the car'A?

....~,; ~nsidering the direction from South to North as positive, The velocity (ve) of car..l3 - + 70 km/h And, theveIocity (v~) of car A = -60 kIn/I-.


Physics Hence, the velocity of car B relative to car A . - v - v .~ ("{;O) = 130 lan/h.

70 -

2.3.3 Acceleration
Whiletravelling in bus or car, you would have noticed that some titne it speeds up and some time slows down, thus changing its velocity. This change occurs with time: Just as the velocity is defined as the time rate of change of position, the acceleration can b.e dilfVwd as ttrne rt:d:e oJ change oJ velocity. The average acceleration of an object is given by, . Final velocity - Initial velocity Average acceleration (aa.) = Til;o.e taken for change in .velocity


= t2 -tl

U 2 -VI


= M


1 he' fnstantaneotIs ciccelenztion a is dejiried as the limiting value of the average acceleration, as we let t.t approach zero;
lim flv dv a = M ~ 0 At = dt (2.3)

.lU::celeration is a vector quantity and its Sf unit is m/s' .

.\cceleration is a vector and therefore has a direction. In gerteral. for horiz!lfJtal motion, when the aC,celeration is in the same direction as the motion or velocity (notmally taken: to be in the positive direction), the direction is positive. However, an acceleration.may be in th~ apposite direction ofth~ mo-' tion. Then the acceleration is taken as negative which is often ca1led a deceleration or ~ hample 2.4: A cyclist starting from rest attains a veloctty of lS'fanI hiP.
> .

3 min, .compl!1e the accelerQ.t!on ofthe cyclist. f;ollltion : Given, VI = 0


15 lanlh t

(25) '"6


= 3 miri - 180 s.

6 180 a = 0.023 m/s'. , Hence, acceleration of cyclist = 0.023m/ s". Now, it is time to check your progress. Solve the fonowing questions.

:. AcCeleration a

=V 2-1\1 . I t


25 1

INTEXT QUESTIONS 2.1 ____________----'

. I, Is it pooaible to have some aver.., speed but avera,ge velocity to be - . . for a moW1g object? .

............................................................................................................................ ,
. . . . . . . . . . . .~ . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 2.

A womlUl went to the market at a speed of 8 lan/h. Finding market closed she returned back to her home with a speed of 10 lan/h. If the market i. 2 km ~ from her home calculate her average velocity and average speed.
................................................................H ................................ ;


Motion in.a Straigbthme


Can a moviDg body have relali'lle velocity ....... with .........,t to ""other body? Clive example.
Two can A and B atart. from the same point to



JDOVe in perpendicular direebDllll with uniform _de of 30 km/h and 40 km/h reepectiYely. Calculate the <eIative speed of A with respect to B. .



If you roll a ball on ground, you will notice that at different times, the ball has different positions. The different positions and corresponding time can be p~otted on graph giving us certain curve. Such a curve is known as position - time cwve. Generally,. the time is represented on x-axis whereas the position of the body is represented on y-axis. Let us plot a position - time graph for a body at rest. You see the stationary body does not change its position with time. Hence, the position-time graph for a stationary body comes to be a straight line paralled to the time axis. Ifth~ body was at a position of20 m at a certain time and it is at rest, the graph comes to be as shown in Fig 2.1.

1'1& a.l. abodyat,.

- graph far

2.4.1 Position-Time Gral'h rol' 'Unirorm Motion

Now, let us consider a case when an object covers equal distance in equal interval of time. For example, if the object covers a distance of 10 m in each second for 5 seconds, the positions of the object at different times Will. as shown in the following table. Time(!) in (s)

1 10






In order to plot this data, take time on x-axis assuming 1 em as 1 s, and position on y-axis with a scale of 1 cm to be equal to 10 m. The position-time graph will be as shown in Fig 2.2.


The. curve comes to be ~ht line CI?ld it shows that the slope of the curve is constonti~e. the time rate of change of position oCthe object is constant. It means the speedof the object 1S uniform. Hence, such a motionfn which



1'1& a.a I


for unifOPAl


the _locft:g of the mOltIng object fa constant fa known as wtfform motion.

In other words we can say that when the moVIng object covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, it i's called unVorm motion. For uniform motion the position - time graph is a straight line inclined to the time axis.

2.4.2 Position-Time Graph for.l'fon-UniformMotion

Let us take an example of a train wh,ic:h starts from one station speeds up, then m()Ves with uniform velocity for certain duration and before stopping at other ,station Slows down. In this case you will find that the d'lstcinca r:ouered In equal fnteroala oftVrur __ not equaL Such Cl motion eanbe called as lion-unifOrm motion. Ifthe distances covered in successive intervals are increasing, the Dlotion is said to be accelerated motion. The position-time graph for such an object is as shown in Fig. 2.3, Fromthis graph you will notice that tjJ.e OA, Be and CD portions represent uniform motions but with different velocities. The' portion AB shows the stationaiy position of the body. HoweVer, th.e wholejoumey shown by the graph represents non-uriiform motion.


time (I)



- - .. -

. - - - -. -I C

t, I t , I



l'I&a.4, _ _ _ " .. "


See the Fig. 2.4, the position-time graph can be a coritinuous curve also. It means the djstances covered in different intervals of time are di!ferent. Hence, the velocity of the body is changing continuouSly. In such a sitUation in any interval of time the average speed ,of the body can, be determined. The fnstantcureous ~ can also be determined which will be equal to the slope of the cUrve at that'instant.

2.4.3 Interpretation of Positlol1 - Time Gr.aph

As you have seen, the position - time graph of different moving objects can be different. lfit is.straight line parallel to the time axis:; you cansav that . the body is at rest. (Fig' 2.3) But the straight line having inclination with time axis shows that the motion is unifonn.


Motion in a Straight Line

(al Velocity from position - time graph: The slope of the straight line of position - time graph gives the velocity of the object in motion.- For determining the slope, choose any two points (say A and B) on the straight line (Fig. 2.3) and form a triangle b'y drawing lines parallel to y axis and x-axis. Thus. from Fig. 2.3. the velocity ofthe object,

t 2 -t, At AC Hence, velocity of object = slope of line AB.

It shows that more the slope (lUI At) of the straight line of position - time


X 2 -X1



graph, more will be the velocity. Notice that the slope is also equal to" the tangent of the angle that the straight line makes with a horizonta1line, i.e., tan 6 = lUI At. Any two corresponding IU and At intervals can be used to determine the slope and thus the velocity.
Example 2.5: The position - time graph pf two bodies A and B is as shown in the figure. Which ofthem has larger velocity? Solution: The body A has larger velocity. Because the slope of the x - t graph for body A is greater. (bl Instantaneous velocity: Asyou have learnt that the velocity of the uniform motion in a straight line is same at every instant. But in the case of the non-uniform motion the position - time graph comes to be a curved line as shown in Fig.2.4. As a result the slope or the average velocity varies, depending on the size of the time intervals selected.' In such a case the velocity of the particle at some one instant of time or at some one point of its path, is called its instantaneous



o """':;'-+--r---r-r--

2 3
Time (seconds)
FIg 2.5 : Displacement-time grophfar



Taking the limit At~ 0, the slope (lUI At) of a line tangeni: to the curve at that point gives the instantaneous velocity. However, for uniform motion the average and instantaneous velocities are the same.
Example 2.6: The position -,time graphfor the motion of a point object is as shown in figure. What distances . 12 with what speeds are travelled by ob- Ii! ject in tiem (i) 0 s to 5 s, (ii) 5 s to 10 s, 'ii 8 (iii)10s to 15 s (iv) 15 s to 20s? , 4 What is the average speedfo" this total journey in time 20 s?



2.5 5

time (s)

15 17.5 20


Sobattoa: iJ . During 0 s to 5 s distance travened 4 ~ Distance 4 4 The speed . . . . - ---,.,-=-=0.8 m Is . Time 5-0 5 . D) During 5 to 10 s distance travelled - 12 - 4 -8 ~ 12-4 8 'The speed - _-=-=1.6 ~/s 10-5 5 iii) During 10 to 15 s~taI.1ce traveiIed .. 12 -12-6 'The speed- 0 iv) During 15 s to 20 s distance travelled -12~. Distance 12 12 . The speed - . =2.4 ~ /s Time 20-15 5

Stop, and solve the following questions to check your progress.

IlV'tEXT QUBSTIOBS. 2.2,-,-_,-_-,-",--",--_~,--~ 1. Draw the pooition~. time _h r.... amotio;; with -.. lOIXieIendion.




rolb!win& fi&w'e ahowa the m.pi"""",ant time _ h for twa _dent. A ";d B
. . .

the fo11cnrin&.
~. Who

who _from th.;.- ochooilOl1clreed>e. their . home. See;t, airefull:y a n d _ '

! ~ ..................................... .

reachea home

! ....................................... ! - ~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u

..(iVI Who mowa fat?

H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(vi ~;... the apeeda of.A and B when they . ""'.. each other? ..
(vil Who.takea


3 4


6 .1'-

............................ ~.,............:! .................. ; ......................................... : ... ~ ............ ~ -

......................................................................... ....................... ..............................


m;;.;.;,,~and maximUm time-to reacI1.hqti,.e?'


. ............... ~ .......................... ~-.................. ~-. 4. WhIch of the follcnriD&_h;'nOt ~...- , . .


.. .....;..................: ..............'~ ........... ~ .................. ,.~ ................... ~~~.'......... ~.~ ..................

...... .. ... ............ ................... ..... ....... .... ,.?

~ ~ : , ~ ~ aive~ of your .....,.;".-, .-




Motion in a Straight, Line



Just like the position - time graph, we can plot a graph between the velocities of the moving body and the corresponding time. Such a graph can be termed as velocity - time graph. For plotting a velocity - time graph, generally the time is taken on x-axis and the velocity on y-aXis.

2.5.1 Velocity - Time Graph for Uniform Motion

As you know, in the uniform motion in a straight line the velocity of the body

remain constant i.e. there is no change in the velocity with the change in time. The velocity-time graph for such a uniform motion is a straight line parallel to the time axis, as shown in the figure 2.6.


2 3 4


u-'J 0 m/s



n .. 3.6, Velo<:ily-tim& graph

fOr uniform -

n .. 3.7,

Veloc/ty'Timegraphfora motion: with constant aooelero:tion.



Graph for Non-Uniform Motion

If the velocity of a body changes uniformly with time, the acceleration is ,constant. For constant 'acceleration the average and the instantaneous accelerations are equBI.

The velocj.\y - time graph for such a motion of a body, is a straight line inclined to the time axis, as shown in the figure 2.7 by the straight line All. It is clear from the graph that the velocity increases by equal amounts in equal intervals of time. Since, the slope of the straight line is constant, the acceleration of the body is constant and its magnitude is given by


II, -111


t, -t,


However, there may be case of nonuniform motion in which the rate of v.uia.tionin the velocity is not constant. In such a situation, 1h,e slope of the velocity - time-graph will va!)' at every instant, as shown in Fig 2.8.


"iii' 3.8, Velocity-time graph/or ..

motin w:ill wJ:bg a _ t i n .



2.05.3 Interpretation ofVeloo1ty - fimeGraph

As you ha~ seen the. velocity - time graph 9f a body using v -.tBRlpn -

determ.ine the disUulce travel1edby the body and also the accd.eration of the body at different instants. Let us study qpw can we do so.


Ia! Detel'lllliDatloa or the dlst_c.. tta_Ue. b,.. the body: Consider,-it velocity - time graph as shown in the .FiaIu;e 2.7, the porti!in ~.ahows the motion with Constant acCeleration, whel'eas the portion CD. shows the constantly retarded motion. The portion BC represents .unifom:a motiOll.
The distance travelled by the body from time under the cmve between t, and t.. . Thus
distance - area oftrapaziumKLMN - Y.)( (KL + MN) )( KN

t, to t.. is given bythe.area


- Yo)( (v, + v.l )(

(t.. - t,l

(It) DeteI'iIIl_tioa orthe _"ratioa or the bod,.: As you haVe relld earlier in this

, lesson:, the acceleration of a body is defined as the ratio of the change in its velocity l;9 the time taken. tfyou look at the velocity time graph giVen in the Fig 2.9. The average acceleration is represented by the slope of the chord AB, which is giv~ by
average acceleratlon ((1..) -, 4t

~-- - - - - -


"' . . .


If the point B is taken ClOser and closer to the point)\, and then the average acceleration be computed over shorter and shorter intervals of:time. ,As you have seen earlier, the ~ _r.ratfDn at the point A is defined as the ,limiting value of the average acceleration when the seccmd point is , taken closer and closer to the first. ThUll, the instantaneous a.ceeb:ation. ,limit Av

a - At -+ 0

At = dt


Thus, u..slo'p oJ the ~t at CI point oft u..'.,.lodqf - __ .,...,. , gfNsu..' _z..atfon at that fnstant or at that point. '

'bemple 2.7: 7JteiJelocity-timegraphsfor , three different bodies.A, B, and C are given in the folJm.ujng.firJun.,
Which one htJs the maximum iJccel ation and how tnuch? (ii) Calculate the distances travelled by theSe bodies injirst 3 s. . (iii) Which of theSe three bodies cover the maximum di8tcince at the endof,their journey? (iv) What are the vef:!ties at the instant of2 s?





Motion in a Straight
Solution: (i) Since the slope of the v - t graph gives the acceleration. As the slope of the v - t graph for A body is maximum


... its acceleration is maximum.

... a = fl.t


= 3 _ 0 = 3 =2 m / s


(ii) The distance travelled by a body is equal to the area of the v - t graph ... In first 3 s, " the distance travelled by A = Area OAL - V.x6x3-9m. the distance travelled by B = Area OBL - II. x 3 x 3 = 4.5 m. the distance travelled by C .. II. x 1 x 3 = 1.5 m. (iii) At the end of the journey, the maximum distance is travelled by the bodyB, - II. )( 6 x 6 - 18 m.
(iv) At 2 s, the velocity of A the velocity of B the yelocity of C

4m/s 2m/s - 0.80 mls (approx.)



As we have studied earlier, for describing the motion ofan object, the physical quantities like distance, velocity and acceleration are used. For the cases

of constant acceleration; the velocitY acquired and the distance travelled in a given time can be calculated by using one or mOl"e of three equations. These equations, generally known as equations oJrrwtionJorconstant acceleration or kinematical equations, are easy to use and will frod many applications in this course. In order to derive these equations, let us take initial time t, to be zero i.e, t, = O. We can then assume t, - tbe the elapsed time. The initial position (x,) and initial velocity (v,) of an object will now be represented by Xu and va and at time tthey will be called x and v (rather than X, and v,). According to the equation 2.1 the average velocity during the time twill be



2.7.1 Jl'irst Equation of Motion

The first equation of motion helps in determining the velOCity of an object after a certain time when the acceleration is given.
As yo:u know from the defmitiQIl of accelerat:ion,

....'hange in velocity (a) T' Acceleration " une taken

... a=v-Vo t (2.5)


Physics This equation gives

v= va + at


This is known as the first equation of motion.

Example 2.8: Ifa car startingfrom rest has an acceleTation of 1 Qm/8'. Haw fast will it be going after 5 s?
sOlution: Given, .. 0 Initial vel~ity va Acceleration a = 10 m/s' Time t = 5 s Using first equation of motion v = vo+at Mter, time t = 5 s, the velocity v = 0 + 10 x 5

- 50m/s

2.6.2 Second Equation of Motion

Second equation of motion is used to calculate the position of an object after a time t when it is undergoing constant acceleration a.
F'lmn the definition of average velocity...you know


So, x -!Ii, + v t


Since, the velocity increases at a uniform nite . the aver:age velocit;y, v... will be midway between the ~tial and final veloci~; :. v.. - (v + vo)/2 (2.8) Combining the equations (2.7) and (2.8), we get,

v x=x o +(v+ o}t


Putting v Vo + at,

x=x o + ( vo+at+Vo) t
2 (2.9)

This is known as the second eqllation of mOUon.

Bample 2.9: A car A is travelling on a straight road with a Wliforrn speed. of 60 /ani h. ,Another car B foUowing it is moving with Wlifarm velocity. of 70 /ani h. When the distance betuJeen them is 2.5 Ian, the car B is given (J deacceleration of20 /anlh". At what distcznoe time wiU the car Bcatch up with A?


SOlution: Suppose the car B catches up car A, at a distance x after t time. For car A, the distance travelled in t time X 60 )( t For car B, the distance travelled in t time is given by

Motic.n ill a Straight Line x

= ~ + vot + Y. at' = 0 + 70 x t + y. (-20)x t' = 70t- 10 t' .

x But. the ~ betweenbvo cars is


:. (70 t- 10 f') - (60 1) = 2.5 or 10 t' - 10 t+ 2.5 = 0 It gives t .. hour :. x ~ 70 t - 10 t' = 70 x.- 10 X (Y. . = 35 - 2.5 = 32.15 kill.

2.6.3 Third Equation of Motion.

The third equation is used in a situation when the acceleration, position and initial velocity are known, and the final velocity is desired but the time tis not known. From equation (2.7). you have. x- ~ + v. t or x


_~ + (11+2110


But from equation (2.5), you have V-Vo

t -

I i

Substituting this into the above equation, we get

x x


o (

V+vo IV-v o ) 2 a

2a ) On aolving this for Ii', we obtain,

- xo+ (

v' -v~'



This is known as third equation of motion. Thus, the three equations for constant acceleration are, v = vo+at x - ~ + vot + Y2 at' and v 2 =II~ +2a (x-xol

Bxample 3.10: A motorcyc1.ist moVes along a srraight road with a constant accelerution 4 ms-2 Ifinitially she was at a position of 5 m and had a velocity of 3 m.s-'. find (i) the position and velocity at time t - 2 s. (ii) the position of the motorcyclist when its velocity is 5 m.s-'. Solutio. : We are given, ~ - 5 m, Vo - 3ms-', a- 4 ms-2 (i) Using equation

Physics x = x., + vot + II. at' = 5 + 3 x 2 + II. x 4 Position, x ~ 19 m. From equation v = vo:" at = 3+4x:;1 Velocity, v = 11 m ....


Using equation v" = vo' + 2a (x-x.,) (5)' (3)' + 2 x 4 x (x- 5) We get; x = 7m. Hence position of the motorcyclist (x) = 7 m.

2.6.4 Motion under gravity

You must 'have noticed that when we throw a body in the upward direction or drop a stone from a cectain height, in both the cases they come down to the earth. Do you' knoY\' why they come to the earth and what type of path they follow? It is because of the gravitational force acting on them. Such type of motions under the influence of gravity only, are also one dimensional or motion in a straight line. Thefreefall ofa bodytowarcb the earth-1$one of the most common uample of motion with (nearly) constant acceleration. In the absence of air resistance it is found that all bodies, irrespective of their size or weight, fall with the same acceleration at the same point on the earth's surface. Though'the acceleratl,on due to gravity varies with altitude, but for the small distances compared toJhe earth's radius, it remains constant throughout the fall. For our practical use the effect of air resistance and the variation in acceleration with altitude is taken negligible . .The acceleration of a freely falling body due to gravity is denoted fly d'. At or near the earth's surface its magnitude is approximately 9.8 m/s'-r-More precise values, and its variation with height and. latitude will be discussed in detail in the lesson 5 of this booklet.

Example 2.11 : A stone is droppedfrom a height of 10 m and itfalls freety Calculate the following, (i) distance travelled in 2 s. (ii) velocity o/the stone when it reaches the ground. (iii) velocity at 3 s.
SolutioD : Given, Height(h) - 10 m. Initial velocity (vo) = 0 Considering, initial position (Yo) to be zero and the origin 0 at the starting point. Thus, the y-axis (vertical axis) below it will be negative. Since, the acceleration is downward .in the negative. y - direction, the value of

a--g- -9.8m/s ..
Using the equation (2.9), Y - Yo + .vot + II. affl We get, Ii - 0 + 0 - II. gff' - -Iia x 9.S )( (2)' --19.6m.


Motion in a Straight Line

The negative sign shows that the distance is below the starting point ill downward direction.
At the gro~nd Y = -10 m,
.ote: It is important to mention here that In the above example sign of the
acceleration. velocity and position will be positive if

Using equation (2.10), v' v; + 2 a(y- Yo) = 0 + 2 (-9 8) (-10 - 0) v = 14 m./ .

(iii) Using v = Vo of at at t = 3s v - -29.4 m.l.

you take origin at the

ground Ieve.I.

This shows that the velocity of the stone atf m 3 sis 29.4 mls and it is in downward direction. Take a pause and solve the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 2.3,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


A body atarting &:om reat covera a diatance of 40 m in 4 a wttll eonatant IIcceleration along a straight line. Compute itlllinal veloci1;Y .nd the time i1!quired to cover half of
the total distance .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . , .


A car moves along a straight road with constant acceleration 5 mt r. Initially at 5 m its velocity was 3 m/a. Compute ita position and velocity at 1-2 s .

.......... ..................................................................................................................


With what velocity should a body be thrown vertically upward 80 that it reaches a height of 25 m? And how long will it be in air?

4. A ball is thrown upward in the air. 'Is its acCeleration greater while it is heine thrown or after it is thrown?




The ratio of the displacement of an object to the time interval is known as ~ velocity.

The total distance travelled dovided by the' time taken ia a - - . speed. The rate of change of the relative polition of an objeCt with roap8Ot to the other object i. known as the relauve velocity of that object -:nth respect to the Clther. The change in the velocity in unit time io called acceleration. The position-time graph for a body at reat, i8 a atr.t line parallel to the time axio. The position - time graph for'" ~opn motion i... straight line inclined to the time axis. ' A body covering equal distance in equal intervals of tim. is aaid to be in unitorm motion. The veloCIty of a particle at Borne one instant of time or at aom.e one point of ita path is called its instantaneous velocity. The slope of .the position - time graph gives the velocity. The velocity - time graph for a body moving: with constant acceleration io a straight line inclined to the time axis. .


The area under the velocity - time waph gives the diatance travell4d. The acceleration of the body can be computed by the slope of velocity- time waph.

For explaining the motion of a bodyJ fonowing three equation are used, v - Vo + a.t (ii) X - "b + Vo t +Y.o at'


v -

v~ + 2 a.(x- "iJ


TERJIIlNAL QUESTIONS._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Distinguish between average speed and average velocity.

A car A moWigwith a speed of 65 ian/h on a straight rooul, is ahe~ef moto<cyde B moWig with the speed of 80 ian/h in the &ame direction. Wh81 is the velocity of B ,reIaIive to A?


How long does a car take to travel 30 m, if it accelerates :Cram rest at a rate of 2.0 m/ r? .
A motorcycliat covers hslf of the dist.mce between two place. ata speed of 30 ian/h and the second hslf at the speed of 60 'ian/h. Compute the average speed of the

5. A duck flying directly south f.,.. the winter flies with a """stant velocity of 2P km/h for 25 km. How 10"11 doe. it take for the duck to fly this diatance?


B_alore is 1200 ian from New Delhi by air (straight line distance) and 1500 ian by train. If by air it take. 2 bra and by tl'ain20 hrs, fwd the ratio of the average speed in both ~B.' '
A car accelerates 010"8 a straight road from rest to 50 km/h in 5.0 s. What is the magnitude of it~ average acceleration?



"- body with an initiol""locity of 2.0 mI. i. accelerated at 8.0 m/r for 3 ..oonda. (i) How far doe. the body travel during the period of acCeleration? (ii) How far would the

body travel if it were initiolly at reat?


A boll i. released from reat from the top of a. clilI. Takin8 the top of the, clilI as the 'reference (zero) level and upwards as the positive direction. Draw (i)th. displacement-time graph, (il) distance-time graph. (iii) velocity-tUne graph, (i>') speed time graph.

10. A 11011 thrown vertica1ly upward. with a velocity v. from the top of the clilI of height II, . falla to the beach below. Taking \>each ... the reference (zero) level, upward as the .p"..,ttive direction, draw the motion graphs. ce. the graph. between (i) distance -' time; (ii) velocity - time, (iii) displace!nent. time, (iv) speed time grapha.
11. 'A body ia thrown vertica1ly upwa..-d, with a velocity of 10 m/a. What will be the value of the velocity and acceleration 'of the bolly, at the highest point?

12. Two objectJo 'Of different in_., one of 10 g and other of 100 g are dropped from the same height. Will thll][ reach the ground at the same time? Explain your answer.

13. What happens to the unifO("m motion of a body when it i. given an acceleralion at right angle to ita motion?
14. What does the slop of velOcity-time graph at any instant represent?


....... QIIptl 2.1 1. Yea
2: 4 Average speed - ~ - - X 20 2+2


Yes, two movine with same velocity in the same directioo. After 1 hr, the relative distance between A and B will be


8" +


-11.89 km/h, average ""Iocity - 0

- 4(30)2 + (40)2 - 50 km.


Motion in a Straight Line

Hence, re1atiye speed of A with respec..1:

Next using ,; - vo' + 2" (x fl


to B is 50 km/h.

lOJ2 ma-



See Fig 2.2 (i) A, (n) B covera more distance,


(iii) B, (iv) A, (v) SP"'!d 'It.{- - 1.5 km/h, speed of B. - 0.75 (m;.f!!\ (vii) A takes minimum time. .',

Using eq (2.9), x. 21 m, and using eq. (2.6), ,,- 13 ms-I. At maximum height v . 0, using eq, (2.10), "0 ms- I - 22.6 ms-I The body will be in air for the twice of the time it takes to reach the maximum height - 4.5/ . The acceleration of the ball is greater while it is thrown.



In the unifonn motion.

.(a) is not poaaible. because the distance covered cannot be less or zero. _Q_2.3 1. Using x - "i. + vot + Y, at'





In the previous lesson you have studied that it is possible to desCribe the motion oCai'!. object in terms of its displacement, velocity and acceleration. But have yo\!. ever wondered what causes an object to move? What causes a ball rolling along the ground to come to a stop, apparently on its own?

From our everyday experience we mow that we need to push or pull 'an almirah if we wish to change its position in a room. Sin:l:arly, a football has to be kicked in. order to Send it over a large distance. A I;:ricket ball has to be hit hard with a bat to send it across the boundary for a six. Some kind of muscular activity is involved iri these situations and the action and its effect is quite visible. There are, however, many situations where the action is not visible. .For example, what makes rain drops fali on ground? What makes-the earth go round the sun? In this lesson you will discover a close relation between force and motion in the form of Newton's laws of motion. The concept of foree developed in this lesson will be useful in different branches of physics. Let us study about Newton's laws of motion which enable us to predict the behaviour of iI. particle or a sySt~ of particles under the influence of different forces.

After studying this lesSon, you should be able to,
e1qJlain the meaning of inertia and relate it to force; Mate Newton's laws of motion and illustrate them with examples; dlJjfne momentum, impulse and calculate them in a given situation; e1qJlain tluf law of conservation of momentUm and illustrate it with

fri.cti.on and rolling friction;

define coefficient of.friction and distinguish between static.fridioJ1, kinetic

sUggest different methods of reducing .friction and highlight the role of friction in every-thly life; and analyse a given situation and apply Newton's laws of motion using.free body diagrams.

Laws of Motion



A large number of objects around us are known to remaiI). wherever they are placed. These objects cannot move on their own from one pJe.c;; to another place. These objects have to be forced to change th~.r state of rest. Similarly an object which is moving at constant velocity has to be forc~J to change its state of uniform motion. na. Wn4ent:tI of an oI#ject to nmudn In Its state of rest or In Its Stat. of unfform lfnecrr motion is CCln.d

The state of rest or the state of motion of an object are not absolute. In the . prevwus lesson you have already studied that an object at rest with re, spect to one observer may appear to be in motion with respect to some other observer. Observations show that u.. cIumtIe In -lodtfI of an oI#ject can on,., 1M brov"lat ff _ _ netfore. acts on u.. 1HHIg. You are veIY well familiar with the term force. We use it in so m~y situations in our everyday life. We are exerting force when we are pulling pushing, kicking, hitting etc. Though a force is not visib~e but its effect car. be seen and experienced. Forces are known to have two kinds of effect.'! : (a)

2'IIeJI ..... change thII .,... and thII afire of an oI#ject.. For example, a balloon changes shape according to the forces acting on it.



frr/IuInu:e thII naotfon of an object.

A force can set an

object into motion or it can bring a moving object to rest. A force can also change the direction of motion. In lesson seven you will study about another effect of force - the rotational or turning effect of force.

3.3.1 Force and Change i.D Motion

Motion of any body is characterised by its velocity. We come across many situations where the velocity of an object is gradually increasing or decreasing. For example, in the case of a body falling freely, the velocity of the object increases continuously. Similarly, in the case of a ball rolled on some horizontal surface, the velocity of the ball is seen to decrease gradually to zero. Observations show that some force is responsible for change in velociq. of a body. Dfrectfon ofIMlodtfI of a bodJf .. alWCIJIII In u.. dfrectfon of its motion. na. ___ of thII bocCIt rDfII change dqtmtltng tq.IOn 'the "" . .CIon offlw.torr- adfntI on it. Ifsome force acts on a body in the direction of its motion, the velocity of the body will increase in magnitude. If the direction of force on the body is opposite to the direction of motion the magnitude of velocity will decrease. In both these cases the object moves in a st:raistlt line. However, if some force acts on a body in a direction perpendicular to its velocity, the magnitude of Velocity of the body remains constant. SUch a force is able to change only the direction of veJ.ocityofthe body. It is'important to note that_locftg of a bodJf changes _ ."., _ -fort:e .. aedng on it. Force is a vector quantity, forthis reason when several forces act on a body simultaneously, their single equivalent foree can be found by vec~or acdition about which you have alreadr read in lesson 1. Every fOl' " has a


Physics magnitude and a direc~n. The effect, a force acting on a system can pr(Jdu~e, depends on, (a) the mgnitude and direction of the force; (b) the poi'nt of application offorce; and (c) the duration for which it acts.

3.3.2 Newton's First Law of Motion

We see that in order to move a trolley at constant velocity it has to. be continuously pushed or pulled. Similarly, a horse is seen pulling the cart moving at constant velocity. Is there any net force acting on the trolley or the cart in the situations mentioned here? Galileo was the first to state that in the absence of any-external influence a botly .. annot only be at rest but also moves'.miformly.in a straight line .. He, therefore, regarded uniform rectilinear motion also to be natural siate of borlic<;.
It is now known that action of the horse on the cart is needed fOF balancing

out 'he force of friction on the cart. Similarly force of friction on the trolley ('an be overcome by continuously pushing <>f pulling it. Galileo drew the (',,,ldusion that in the absence of force of friction, a body such as a cart or a trolley, when once set in motion would continue to move at constant velocity. Isaac Newton generalised Galileo's conclusions in the form of a law known as Newton's first law of nwtion which states that a body cOlltinues to. be in the .ftote of rest or in ti,e state of IIlliform motioll ill a straight lille ulliess and until it is actect IIpCIn by sOllie lIet e.weri,"1 force.
As you know. the state of rest or motion of a body depends on its relative

position with respect to the observer. A person in a running car is at rest ",ith respect to another person in the same car. But the same person is in motion with respect to a person standing on the road. For this reason it becomes necessary to record measurements of changes in position, velocity and acceleration and force with respect to a "hosen frame of reference. A reference frame relative to which a body in translatory motion has constant velocity if no net external force acts on it is known as an inertial Jrame oj reJerence. Such a name follows from the property of inertia of bodies due to which they preserve their state of rest or state of ~nifQrm linear tilotion. A reference frame fIxed to the earth (for all practical pur poses) is considered an inc;rtial. frame of reference. . Nowtake a break and try to solve the following questions.


Is it .:orr('ct hi stIlt! that 8 body alnays moves in the direction of net uternal force actinll! nn It


What physical quantity is a measure of inertta of a body?



Laws of Motion
Can a force change only the direction of velocity of an object keeping ita m8f!)litude constant?


What are the different effe.cta a force is capable of producing?



Study of collision of bodies has revealed that there is a quantity mass multiplied by velocity whose net value for the colliding bodies remains unchanged in a collision. TIle prod.w:t oJ _ moJ a body and fta wlocftB 11 U called its linear momentwlt or sfm.ply momentum p. So
P =



In the SI system of units momentum is measured in kgm/s. Momentum is a vector quantity. The direction of momentum vector is the same as the direction of velocity vector. Momentum of an object, therefore, can change

on accoUnt of change in its magnitude alone or direction alone or both. The following examples illustrate this point.
Bxamp1e 3.1: A 2 kg object is allowed to faU freely at t = 0 s. What will be its momentum at fa) t = 0 s, (b) t = 1 sand fe) t = 2 s thping its free-fall ?

Solution: (a) As velocity of the object at t - 0 s is zero, the momentum t'f the object will also be zero.
(hI At t = 1 s, the Velocity of the object will be 9.8 m/s [use v = Vo +atJ pointing downward. So the momentum of the object will be ~

= 19.6 kg, ml s pointing downward. (c) At t = 2 s, the velocity of the object will be 19.6 ml s pointing down
P, = (2 kg)x (9.8 ml s)
ward. So the momentum of the object will now be


(2 kg) x (19.6 m/s) = 39.2 kg m/s pointing downWard.

Thus ,e see that the momentum of a freelyfalling body increases in magnitude only and points in the same direction. Now you think what causes the momentum of Ii freely-falling body to change in magnitude?

_ p i e 30:1 : A rubber ball ofmass 0.2 kg strikes a rigid vertical waU with .a speed of 10 m/ s and rebounds along the original path with the same speed. Find the change in momentum of the ball.

Bolutloa : Here the momentum of the ball has same magnitude before and after the impact but there is a reversal in its direction. The magnitude of momentum is (0.2 kg) (10 m/s) i.e. 2 kg ml s.


If we consider initial momentum vector to be along +x axis, the fmal momentum vector wiD be along-x axis. So if 1', - 2 kg mis, PI = -2 kg m/s and cha"&'l in momentum .0Cthe ball- P,- PI - (-2 kgm/s) - (2 kg m/s)-4kgm/a.

Here negative sign shows that the momentum of the ball changes by 4 kg m/s in the direction of -x axis. What causes this change in mome -tum of the ball?


In actual praotice a rubber ball rebounds from a rigid wall with a speed which is less than its speed before the impact. In such a case the magnitude of the momentum also change ..

3.4.1 Newton's Second Law of Motion

It is now known that a body moving at constant velocity will have constatit momentum. It is already known from Newton's fIrst law of motion that no

net external force acts on such a body.

In example 3.1 we have seen that the momentum of a ball falling freely under gravity increases with time. It is well known that such a body falls under the action of gravitational force acting on it. So there appears to be a connection between change in momentum of an object, net force. acting on it and the time for which it is acting. Newton's second law Of motion gives a quantitative relation between these. According to it tIuI rat:. of change of momentum of a body is dfrectly proportional to tIuI net force acting on tIuI body. Change in momentum of the body takes place in tIuI dfrection of net extern4IJorce acting on tIuI body.

This means that if IJ.p is the change in momentum of a body in time IJ.t due to some net external force F not on it, then





=k~ -At

Here value of k, the constant of proportionality, .depends on the choice of units for .F, p and t. In the SI system of units p is measured in kg mis, tis in s and Fis measured in kg ml s'. That gives k = 1. So
= I1p I1t In the limit !J.t .... 0, we can write




dp dt


From equation 3.1, it follows that change in momentum of a body is in the direction of net external force on it. Change in momentum of a body 4uring any time is taken as fInal momentum of the body minus initial momen tum of the body. From Newton's tirst law of motion it follows that a body at rest,j:a[l not mOve on .its own. Similarly if itis already moving, it can not change its velocity on its own. You may recall that if a body has constant velocity, its acceleration must be zero. You may also recall that by change in veloci.ty we mean change in magnitude of velocity or change in its direction or both. Newton's fIrst law also tells us that some net force must act on an object to change its state of motion. So net force acting on an object is the cause of acceleration of the object. Newton's second law of motion gives a quantita- . tive relation between force and acceleratio<"l. rf riue to the application of ~,et f"orce, the velocity of body changes by dv in time dt, then dp = mdv.


Laws of Motion Then the equation 3.2 gives, dv




Example 3.3: A ball of mass 0.4 kg which starts rolling on the ground at 2Om! s when pushed comes to a stop after 10 seconds. Calculate the force which stops the ball, assuming it to be constant in magnitude throughout. Solution :Given,
m=O.4kg v = 0 mls
m(v - u)

u =20m/s = 10 s


0.4 kg (Om Is - 20m Is)

= -D.8 kg m/s' = -0.8 N Here negative sign shows that force on the ball is opposite to its direction of motion. It is evident from the fact that there is a decrease in the momentum of the ball. You are already aware that the ball comes to rest because' of the action of force of friction on it.

1m pulse:

From equation 3.1 it follows that it is the product p.; At that determines change in momentum of a body. So a desired change in momentum can be brought about by a large force acting for a small duration , or by a small force acting for a long duration of time. The quantity F M is called the impulse. Thus, the cha.nge in momentum of a. body is equal to the fmpulse. Like momentum, impulse is also a vector quantity and is in the direction of the change in momentum. Its SI unit of measurement is kg mls or Ns. In deriving equation 3.1 it was assumed that force Fremains constant over time M of its action. There are many situation where the time of action of force is very small, for example, during the impact of a ball and a bat. In such cases F is considered as the average force.

Inertial Mass: The mass of a body defmed by Newton's second law of

motion is called inertial mass of the body. From Newton's second law F m=a The known value offorce and the experimental determination of the acceleration of a body as a result of the force can help us to measure inertial mass of the body. Now stop and by solving the following questions check how much you have learnt.


INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

L Two objects of different m4.Sses have same momentum. Which cf them, is moving faster?


2. A ball i. thrown up at a speed of 20 mls by a thrower. If the ball return. to the thrower with the aame speed of 20 mls only, will there be any change in (a) momentum of the ball? ................................................................................. (bl magnitude of the momentum of the ball? ...................................... ,........................ . When a ball falls from a height, its momentum increases? What caueee increase in ita momentum?


.............................................................................................................................. ...


In which case will there be larger change in momentum of the object? (al A 150 N force acta for 0.1 s on a 2 kg object initiatiy at rest. (bl A 100 N force act. for 0.25 on a 4 kg. object initially at reat.

.......................................................................................................................... ..


I. it con-ect to say ~t a fast moving object poaaessea more force than a slow m~ object? Why? .


An ob~~d i. moving at a constant speed in c?natant momentum? Why?


circular path.

Does the object have

Bampl_ &4 : A ronstant force of 50 N is applied to a body "f 1 0 kg moving initially with a speed of 1 0 m/ s. Haw long will it take the body 10 stop if the force acts Qn it in a direction opposite to its velocity.

Solutioa : Given, Mass of the body,

F nct

Tofind :



-lOkg --SON -lOm/s

=0 =?

Formula(s) F oet = m("

or t-lOOkgm/s -SON

-/,o ) or -50 N

10 kg(

O-l~m IS)

lOOkgm/s SOkgm /s2'

t.:I .._ad.



It is the gravitational pull of the earth which allows an object to acc:e1era;.c;

toward earth. Does the object also pull the earth? Similarly when wi push an almirah, does the almirah also push us? If so, why don't ?til move in the direction of that force? These situations compel us to asJt whether a single force such as a push or a pull exists? It has been ob c served that actions of two bodies on each other are always mutual. Here, by 'action' we mean 'force of interaction'. So, whenever two bodies interact, they exert force on each other. The force of interaction could be action-at-a-distance type or a contact force type. Thus forces have been found to emerge in Pairs always. But generally we are concerned with one of the forces in a pair which is acting on the object of interest.

3.5.1 "ewtoll'. Third Law of 1I0Uoll

On the basis of his study of interaction between bodies, Newton formulated third law oJ motion which states that to -,." cu:tfon tIwN ..


f 1

Laws of Motion

equal and opposite reactl.on. The action and req:ction act on differentbodfes.
Here by 'action' and 'reaction' we mean force. It follows from here that a single isolated force does not exist. Thus, When we exert some force on a table by pressing our finger against it, the table also exerts a force of equal magnitude on our finger in the upward direction as shown in Fig. 3.1. Do the forces f, and J; shown here cancel out? It is important to note that f, and J; are acting on different bodies. . The action and reaction in a given situation appear as a pair of forces. Anyone of them cannot exist without the other.

Fig 3.1 : Force f, exerted by the finger on table and force J.,. exerted . by the table on the finger.

If one goes by the literal meaning of words, reaction always follows an action. Whereas action and reaction introduced in Newton's third law exist simultaneously. For this reason it is better to state Newton's third law as when two objects fnteract, the force exerted by the first object on the second (the action) is equal fn magnitude and opposite fn direction to the force by the second object on the first (reaction). Vectorially, if .F'2 is the force which object 1 experiences due to object 2 and F2I is the force which object 2 experiences due to object I, then If m, and

m, are the masses of objects 1 and 2 respectively then

m, a,

F'2 = -F2,


3.5.2 -Internal and External Forces

As you have studied that some net external force on an object causes the object to accelerate. If a car .breaks down it ~ either be towed by some other vehi~le or pushed from behind. Here the force exerted on the car by the tOwing vehicle or the push froin behind acts as the external force on the car. Can the car be moved by a person who is sitting in the car and pushing it from inside? Such a push is called fntemalforce and has no role to playas far asinotion of car is concerned. To make the distinction betWeen in.ternal forces and external forces clear. let us look at some specific examples.


Fig 3.2: Two blocks on a fridtionless horizontal sUrface.

a) Consider two blocks A and B. placed in contact with each other on a f=tionless horizontal suril'ce. When some external force f is applied to


Physics them in the direction shown in Fig. 3.2, both the blocks move to the left with the SI!Jlle acceleration. But, what causes the block A on the left to accelerate? It is the force / which the block B on the right exerts on it. In accordance with Newton's third law, block on the left also exerts force/on the block on the. right. However, the forces of magnitude f each which these blocks exert on each other are internal to the system of blocks. b) Whenever bodies collide, the forces involved are 'internal'to the colliding bodies taken as a system. So the absence of any external force on the system dem~ds that total momentum'of the system should be consenred.

3.5.3 Forces in Equilibrium Nuntber oJ Jorr:es fICtlng on cui object or a .".,.". _ said to lHI In equilibrium if the 1I8ctor _ oJ all the Jorca is aero. In accordance
with Newton's second law, acceleration of such an object or system will be zero. Let us take an example. Consider a block of mass m resting on some horizontal surface as shown in Fig 3.3(a). In this situation we can talk about a number offorces. Such as, . (i) gravitational pull of the earth on the block equal in magnitude to mg. (u) force of magnitude mg which the block exerts on earlh.


7 7 >;;"')P

r I>"
Pia. 3.31_)

7> PI&- a.31b)

(ill) force of magnitude mg which the block exerts on the surface normally on which it is resting. (iv) force of normal reaction N exerted by the surface on the block in accordance with Newton's third law.

Fig. 3.3(b) shows the forces acting on the block. Since the block is in equilibrium N mg. In the situation described above, is there any frictional force acting on the block? In the next section you will study problems where more than two forces are in equilibrium. Now, it is time for you to check how mUch you have learnt.

INTEXT QUESTlO:NS 3.3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1, When a high jumper l e _ the ground, where doe. the force which accelerate. the jumper upward. come from ? Identify action - reaction force. in each of the following situations: (a) A man kicks a football. ,........................................ ,............................................ .



Laws of Motion
(b) EIorth

pun. the moon. ....................................................................................... .

(e) A ball hit. a wall.................................................................................................


What is the magnitude and direction of the IP"vitationai force which a 60 kg woman exert. on earth?


Name the forces which are in equilibrium in each of the following aituationsi'
(a) A book reating on a table .................................................................................. ..
(b) A cork Boating in water ..................................................................................... .

(e) A pendulum bob suspended from the ceiling with the help of a string.

5. Three blocks of JDa8II m each are pieced on top of a table as ebown. Name & force each which i8 internal and external to the system of blocks.

1 2 3

6. A woman _ _ a large force on an almirah to pueb it forward. The """""" i. not puebed backward be<:auaa the aJmirah _ a amall' force on' woman" I. the BrIIl.Dent gMm here .....- ? Wb,y 1"



Momentum possesses a very useful property of being conselVed under certain conditions. It has been experimentally confirmed and has been proved also that if two bodies interact, the vector swn of the momenta of these bodies remains. unchanged provided the force of mutual interaction is the only force acting on the bodies. The same has been found to be true for more than two bodies interacting with each other. Generally, a numb~of bodies interacting with .each other are said to .be forming a system. If the bodies in a system do not interact with bodies outside the system, the system is said to be a closed system or an isolated system. The law of conservation of momentum is valid for isolated systems only and can be stated as the ..etor InIm 0/ the momenta 0/ IIocffa comprising an _raw spn.m remaflul constant. Here, it follows that it is the total momentum of the bodies forming an isolated system remains unchanged and the momentum of individual bodies may change in mllgllitude alone or direction alone or both depending upon the tyPe of interaction. What causes the momentum of individ:ual bodies in l'n isolated system to change momentum? Conservation of linear momentum is applicable in wide range of phenomena such as collisions, explosions, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay etc.



3.6.1 Conservation of Momentum asa Consequence of Newton's Laws

According to Newton's second law of motion, equation 3.1, the change in momentum !J.p of a body wheh a force F acts on it for time Mis !J.p~ F M. It follows from here that ffno force acts on the body, the change in momentum of the body will be zero. Therefore the momentum.of the body will remain unchanged. This explanation can be, applied to a systelll of bodies also.

Newton's third law can also be used to arrive at the same result. Consider an isolated system of two bodies A and B which interact with each other for time M. If FA and Fa are the forces which they exert on each other then, in accordance with Newton's third law
FA =-F.a !J.p, ___ /lpB

or !J.p, + !J.Pa


or !J.Ptotal

So there is no change in the momentum of the system.

3.6.2 A Few IllustratioDs of the CODservatil)D of Momentum

a) Recoil of a gun : When a bullet is fIred from a gun, the gun recoils. The velocity v, of the recoil of the gun can be f01:IDd by using the law of conservation of momentum. Let m be the mass of the bullet. being fired from a gun of mass M. If VI is the velocity of the bullet, then the velocity v, of the gun will be such that

m VI + Mv~ = 0 or mvI --Mv,

or v2 = M



Here, negative sign shows that v, is in opposite direction to VI' As generally mM, the recoil velocity of the gun is much smaller than the velocity of the b u l l e t . . b). CoUiHion : In a collision we may regard the colliding bodies as fonning a system. In the. absence of any external force on the colliding bodies such as the force of friction, the system can be considered to be an isolated system. The.forces of interaction between the colliding bodies being internal to the system will not be able to change the momentum of the colliding bodies. Example 3.S : Two coupled troUeys, each of mass m, are moving with initial velocity v. They collide anq couple with three stationary trolleys also of mass m each. What wiUbe the velocity of the trolleys after the impact?
Solution: Let Ii be the velocity of the trolleys after the impact. Momentum before collision * 2 mv Momentum after collission - 5 mil


Laws of Motion
In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum 2 mv := 5 mil

or v'=-v 5
0) E:&plollioD of. bomb: A bomb explodes into fragments through the

release of stored energy. Consider a bomb at rest initially which explodes into two fragments A and B. As the momentum of the bomb was zero before explosion, the total momentum of the two fragments formed will also be zero after the explosion. For this reason, the two fragments will fly off in opposite direction with equal momenta. If the masses of the two fragments are equal, the velocities of the two fragments will also be equal in magnitude .

) Rocket propulsion: Flight of a rocket is an important practical application of conservation of momentum. A rocket is a two-body system. It consists of a shell with a fuel tank, which can be considered as one body. The fuel in the fuel tank can be considered as the other body. The shell is provided with a nozzle through which high pressure gases are made to escape. On firing the rocket, the combustion of the fuel produces gases at very high pressure and temperature. Due to their high pressure, these gases escape from nozzle at a high velocit;y. The rocket flies in the opposite direction. The propulsion of the rocket can be explained as follows:
Foran earth based observer, the total momentum of the rocket (shell and fuel) is zero before launching. As a result of combustion of fuel, the ejected gases acquire certain momentum. Considering the shell and the fuel to be forming a closed system, their total D;l.omentum must also be zero after launching. Therefcire, the shell acquires a momentum equal in magOitude to the momentum of the ejected gases but in opposite direction. PropUlsion of a rocket is different from the recoil of a gun in atleast one important aspect as far as the conservation of momentum is concerned. Unlike the bullet, the entire gas from the rocket is not ejected at once. In actual practice, the rocket loses fuel at some rate which is generally constant.
Again it is time to check your progress. Solve the following questions.

IRTJtXT QUESTIONS 3.4-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


1. the momentum of a ball falling freely conse"",d? Why?


Can a bomb, .initially at rest, explode into (a) two pieces which fty in -opposite directions to each other? (h} three pieces which fly in mutually perpendicu1ar directions?

3. Why i. the velocity of recoil of a gun much smaller than the velocity of the bullet?


Two balls of maoa 0.2 kg each are moving along the same line towards each other with a vel"city of 10 mls just before colliding. What will be the total momentum of the
balls after the collision?

.................................................... .......................................................................... .




It is well known that when we push a ball to make it roll along the ground, the ball does not continue to travel for ever. It rather comes to rest after travelling some distance. Thus the momentum of the ball which was imparted to it during initial push changes to zero. We have already studied that some force on the ball is responsible for change in its momentum. Such a force called the .frlctlonalforce emerges whenever bodies in contact tend to move or move with respect to each 'other. It is the force of friction on an almirah which has to be overcome When we push or pull it along the floor to change its place.
Force offrlctWn is a eontactforee and is always db BCted along the MUfaees in contact. It is commonly known that friction is caused by

roughness of the surfaces in contact. For this reason deliberate attempts are made to make the surfaces rough or smooth depending upon the requirement. Friction opposes the motion of objects,. causes wear and tear and is responsible for loss of mechanic:iJ. energy. aut then, it is d)le to friction only that we are able to walk, drive vehicles and stop moving vehicles. Friction thus plays a dual role in our lives.

3.7.1 Static and Kinetic Friction

It is commQn eXperience that certain minimum force is required to move an object over a surface. To illustrate this point let us consider a block resting on some horizontal surface as shown in Fig. 3.4. Let some external force F _ be applied to the block in the direction showns, such that the block does not move. Ttris is possible only if some other force is acting on . the block which is ofthe same magnitude as Fext but is in oPPosite..ditection. Such a force is called the force of statfe.frlctlon and is represented by symbol I.. As Fext is increased, I. also increases and remains equal to F.., in magnitude untill it reaches a critical value I.(max). When F"", ill. increased further, the block starts to slide and is then subject to klnatle .frlctIon. It is common experience that force needed to set an object into motion is larger than the force needed to keep it moving at constant velocity. For this reason the maximum force of statU:.frlettott fJmax} between a pafr Of stDf- in contact will be larger than the force of kinetfe friction f. between them. Fig. 3.5 shoWs'the variation of lhe . force of friction with the external force.




f_ -------smooth sliding


(at rest)


Ftc 3.4: Farces acting on the block.

Fi&: 3.5: Variation offorce of[rictiOTL


Laws of Motion For a given pair of surfaces in contact, what are the JaLton on which f.(max) and f. depend? It is an experimental fact that f. (max) is directly proportional to the normal force F". So f.(max) ~ F" or f. (m~) = Il. F. (3.6) Here Il, is called the coe.t/fcfent of static .frk:flon. As f. Sf. (max), f. S Il. F. It has also been experimentally found that maxfmumforce of static.trWtion between a pair of surfaces is fndepende~t of the area of contact. Similarly, f. = ~ F" (3.7) Where ~ is the coe.tficUmt of kfnetfc jrk:tfon. Generally Il. >~, but there are exceptions. Moreover, coefficients Il, and ~ are not really constants for any pair of FN surface such as wood on wood or rubber on concrete etc. Value of It. and Il" for a given pair of materials depends on

roug""-. cleanness, temperature. humfdity etc.

As discussed earlier, the normal force F" of the surface on the block can be found by knowing the. force with which the block presses the surface. As shown in Fig 3.6, the normal force FN on the block will be mg where m is the mass of the block. Fill 3.6: Nor;maJforce on the block.

Example 3.6: A 2 kg block is resti,lg on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of static friction between the surfaces in contact is 0.25. Find .he maximum force of static friction between the surfaces in contact.

Solutlon: Here F" = mg and 11. = 0.25 As f.(max) = 11, F. = 11. mg - (0.25) (2 kg) (9.8 m/s2) - 4.9 N.
Example 3.7: A 5 kg block is on a horizontal surface for which It. = 0.1. What will be the ~leratlon o/the block if it is pulled by aID N force acting on it in the horizontal directWn?

. As f.. ~ FIf where F" - mg Therefore f. - II., mg - (0.1) (5 kg') (9.8 m/s2) - 4.9 kg m/s2 - 4.9 N Net force on the block = F"", - f. - lON-4.9N - 5.1 N

and therefore, acceleration - a =

F ..... 5.1N --=-m Skg



So the block will have an acceleration of 1.02 externally applied force.



in the direction of


3.7.2ROlliDg Friction
It is CO!ll!llon experience that it is easier to push or pull objects which are on wheels. The !llotion of a w~eel is different frO!ll the sliding !llotiQn. It is rolling !llotion. The friction in the case of rolling !llotion is known as rollfngfrlctfDn. For the sa!lle nor!I1al force, rollingfriction is !lluch S!llaller than sliding friction. For example when . steel wheels roll over steel rails, rolling friction 7T~;>;?;i>' ~ is about 1/100" of sliding friction between steel and steel. 'JYpical values for coefficient of rolling friction It,are 0.006 for steel on steel and .... 3.7: Deformation of the jIDt 0.02 - 0.04 for rubber on concrete. su.r/Dce during rolling.


In the case of roIling !llotion of a wheel On SO!lle surface, the point of contact of the wheel has zero relative velocity with respect to the surface. This mean the point of contact of the wheel has no sliding motion. oDJ.y the centre of the wheel moves forward. The origin of roIling friction can be explained as follows. When a ball rolls on some flat surface, it slightly deforms the surface. Figure 3.7 shows the deformation oCthe flat surface during roIling. Because of the surface deformations, a roIling ball.1'!;uI to climb a hill as long as it is rolling. 1f the surfaces in contact are harder, lesser will be the surface defor!llalions and hence smaller the rolling friction.

3.7.3 Importance of Friction

Friction plays very important role in our life. It is because of frictiOn only that we are able to walk o~ hold a tooth brush in our hand. Appreciable friction is required between the brake shoe and the rim of a bicycle for the purpose of stopping it when required. And interestingly, it is the force of friction only which sets a vehicle driven by an engine IIito motion. Discussed below is a situation highlighting role of friction. . WaIldDI: When we are statlding on the floor thereis no net force acting on us in the horizontal or vertical direc.tion. As we begin to walk, we must have some acceleration in the forward direction. Which means that some net external force must act on us in the .forw~ direction. From where does this force come? We create this force on us by pushing the floor in the backward direction. It is due to the friction between the floor and our feet that we are able to obtain the desired force on us. Fig 3.8 showa the direction in which floor is to be pushed by the feet to experience force of friction on it in the forward direction. That explain, why it is difficult for us to walk on a S!llooth/slipper surface.

foIward force of frIdIon

.... 3.8: Forces on the feet whl1e walking.

backward push on the floor


Laws of Motion Force of friction~offers hfndrturce too. CIt is the force of friction which brings a moving bi-cycle to rest on a level road if we stop paddling it. Do we need to paddle a bicycle to move it at constant speed on a level road? Friction is responsible for great amount of energy loss in machines. As you will study in lesson 6, work is required to be done in overcoming force of friction. For this reason deliberate attempts are made to reduce friction where it is undesirable.

3.7.4Methods of Reducing Friction

Wheel is considered to be greatest invention of mankind for the simple reason that rolling is much - much easier than sliding. Making use of rolling friction are the ball bearings. In a ball-bearing steel balls are placed between two co-axial cylinders as shown in Fig. 3.9. Generally one of the two cyclinders is allowed to tum with respect to the other. Here the rotati,?n of the balls is almost a frictionless motion. Ballbearings fmd application in almost all type of vehicles and in electric motors such as electric fan.

na: 3.9: Balls in the ball-bearing.

URe of lubrl.cants such as grease or oil between the surfaces in contact reduces friction considerably. In h"avy machines, oil is made to flow over moving parts. It reduces frictional force between moving parts at,.! also p 'eventS them from getting over heated. Presence oflubric8:nts such as oil and grease infact, changes the nature of friction from dry friction to fluid friction which is considerably smaller than the former.

noiu of compressed and purl/fBd air between the surfaces in contact . also reducClsfriction. Italso prevents dustand dirt from collecting on the moving parts. A hover crnft is made to run on a cushion of air provided by powerful air pumps.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 3.5_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

A tal-'e is tv<


on a floor. 18 aome force: of friction acting on the table?

2. 3.

A book i. \ying on an inclined plane. Is some force of friction acting on the book?

With F, - 20 N and F, .. 15 N the block of mass 3 kg i. ididing at constant speed. What will happen when F, is t,emoved?
In pushing a box up an inclined plane, i. it better to puah horizontally or to push


para11el to the inclined plane? Why?

.........................., ................................................................................................... ..
On the next p"~' . 'few Guidelines are given which will help you in solving pr lems: A nt.l A!r of solved examples have also been given at the md of t' section. You may try them yourself before go'ing through their solution.




2. 3.
Draw a simple, neat diagram of the system. as perthe given deJocriptIon.

Isolate the objet:tof~ This object will. be called the,.,...1/o4g now. Considez all eJil:4rrt4r.forca acting on the free body and mark them by arrows touching the free body with their line of~ clearly represented.


Now apply Newton's second law l:F- rna (or l:F. = rna. and l:Fy = may)

Rememher: (i) Thore must be net force on the object along the direction of acceleration of the object. Iii) For obtaining a Complete solution, you must have as many independent equations as the number of unknowus.


If the free body diagram of an object is made with reference to a noninertial frame; pseudoforces like the centrifugal fOrce will. slso be considered as real fOrces acting on the object in addition to all other external forces. The direction of such a force will. be opposite to the direction of acceleration of the frame of reference. In some situations you may bave to consider rotationsl motion of the object and hence the experessions, torque, To. 11X, torque = fOrce x fOrce arm are to be used. In such situations one has to balance clockwiae m0ments' with antic10ckwise moments about some axis about which the object rotates or tends to rotate.


Bzemple 3.8: Two blocks of masses m, and '?12 are connected bya string and placed on a smooth horizontal surface. The"lock of mass m2 is pulled by aforce F acting parallel to the horizontal surface. What Will be the acceleration of the blocks and the tension in the string connecting the tr.oo blocks (assuming it to be horizontal)? SolutloD: Let a be the acceleration of the blocks in the direction of F and let the tension in the ~ be T. On applying l:F - rna In the Component form to the free body diagram of m. and. m... we ~ N - 1m. + 11I.)g - 0 and F -1m. + m)a fiii;t--F N- 1m. + 11I.)g, and a = m, + m '

to the free body diagram of

On applying rF- rna in the component fonn m. we get N, - m.g - 0 and T- m, a

N, -

m.g and T = m,.( m, : 111:1)


T=( m,.+111:1 1Rt }F


Apply rF - rna once again to the free body diagram of m... and see whether you get the same expressions fOT a and T.

Laws of Motion
Blra:IDple 3.9: Two masses m, and m2 (m, >mJ are 60nnected at the two ends of a light inextensible string thm: passes over a light frictionless fof.ed

pulley. Find the acceleration of the masses and the terision in the string connecting them when the masses are released.
Solution: Let a be the acceleration of mass m. downward. The" aeeelera tion of mass m.., will also be a only but upward. (Wh:y?). Let T be the tension in the string connecting the two masses.

On applying l:F - ma to" m. and m.., we get

m g- T- m a T- m.., g- m.., a On solving equations (1) and (2) fOil a and Twe get

(1) (2)


ml - 11'1:2 } ( m. + 11'1:2 9

At this stage you can check the prediction of the results thus obtained for the extreme values. of the variables (i.e. m. and Either take m, = or m, and see whether a and Ttake values as "expected.




BKample 3.10: A trolley ofmass M = 1 0 kg is connected to a block of mass m - 2 kg with the help of a massless inextensible string passing over a light frictionless pulley as shown in Fig (a). The coefficient of kinetic fricIion be-

tween the trolley and the surface is Il .. 0.02. Find a) acceleration of the' trolley. b) tension in the string. Solutio.: Fig (b), (c) shows the free body diagrams of the trolley and the block. Let a be the acceleration of the block and the trolley. For the trolley, F. .. Mgand TMa where JL.FH

.. JL. Mg So T-11,. Mg .. Ma (1) For the block mg - T" rna (2) On adding equations (1) and (2) we get mg- I1,.Mg" (M-+ m)a
" _my=----=-Il-".t_Mi:,.9 or a .. M +m

t.. ..

t.. ..



I S2) - (o.o2)(IOkg)(9.8m I S2)

(IOkg + 2kg)


19.6kgm/s -I.96kgm/s -147 12 "I2kg -. m s

So a .. 1.47 m/s' From equation (2) T .. my - ma .. m (g - a) .. 2 kg (9.8 mis' - 1.47 m/s'l .. 2 kg (8.33 m/s'l So T .. 16.66N




3.6,~_ _ _ _ _ _ _.,..-_ _

A block of mass m is held on a rough inclined surface of inclination 8 . Show in a diagram, various forces acting on the black.


A force of 100 N acta on two blocks A and B of m ....se. 2 kg and 3 kg respectively placed in contact on a smooth horizontal surface as shqwn, What i. the magnitude of force which block A exert. on block B? What will be the tension in the string when a 5 kg object suspended from it is pulled up with (s) a velocity of 2 m/s ? (b) an acceleration of 2 m/s' ? In the reference frame attached to a freely falling body of mas. 2kg, what is the .magnitude and direction of inertial force on the bO,dy?




WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ __

The fIurrtIa of a body is its tendency to resist any

in its velocity.

Newton'. JIr.c __ states that a body remains in a state of rest 'or in a state of unifonn motion in a straight line as long as net external force acti.."1g on it is Zero.
For a single particle of mu. mmoving with velocity called the linear momentum as p _ mv. r

we define a vector quantity p

The impulse of a force F on a particle is equal to the change in momentum of the body and is given by the area under the Force~time curve.
Naurton:". . . . . . . law states that the time rate of change of momentum of a body is. proportional to the re.ultant force acting on the body.

According to- Newton'. second law, acceleration produCed in a body of conatant mass i. directly proportional to net -..mal force acting on the body or F - rna Th. proportiona1ity factor between the net external force and the acceleration it cau... in any object i. the object'. inertial mass.

-.a'. tJdnf ..... atate. that if two bodies A and B inte,'act with each other, then tho .force which body A tixerta on body B will be equal and oppolite to llie fQrce which body B exerts on bodv A.
According to the law of conservation of momentum if no net external force acta on a , syatem of particlea, the total momentum of the of particle. will remain con'atant reprdie8B of tho natura of foree. between the particle.


Frictional force i. the force which acta on a bodywh~n the body attempta to alide, alide. or roU. alOIll! a surface. The force of friction i. alwa.v. parallel to the .urface. in contact and oppoaite to the direction of motion of the object. In the case of objects ~ by oome internal mechanism .uch aa a wheel driven by an engine, the f~ C'.! of friction causes motion. The maximum force of lOtatic friction f. (max) between a body and a surface is propor'tional to the normal for"" K acting on the body. This maximum force 0=0_ when the body i. on the verge of a!id:ng. For a body sliding on oome sunace, the magnitude of the force of kinetic friction 1. i. given by 1. where "" i. the cociIicient of kinetic friction for the surfaces in contRct.



Laws of Motion
Use 6f rollers and ball - bearings reduces friction and aaaociated eneriY 10ues conoiderably lUI rolling friction i. much amaDor than kin.tic friction. Newton'. laws of motion are applicable only in an inertial. frame oC reference. An inertial frame .is one in which an ioo1eted object haa zero acceleration.. For an object to be in static equilibrium, the vector aum of all the force. acting on it must be aero. nu. is a nocoll8NY and .ufficient condition. for point objecta only.


TERMIKAL QUESTIOIfS,_ _ _ _ _~_ __

Which of the following will alw"3'll be in the direction of net external force acting <in the body?
(aj displacement'

(cl acceleration

(bl (dl

velocity momentum.


When a COI18timt net external force acta on an object, which of the following mq not change? (aj pooition (bl apeed (cl velocity (dl acceleration . Justify your anower with an example each.



I!. 0.5. kg ball is dropped from such a height that it tal!:e. 4 seconds to reach the

Calculate the c!>ange in momentum of the ball.

In which case will there be larger ch&nge in momentum of a 2 kg obj<;ct? (aj When 10 N force acta on it for 1 (bl When 10 N force acta on it for 1 m. Calculate change in momentum in each cue. I!. ball of mao. 0.2 kg fall. in air with an acceleration of 6 on the ball.



Calculate the airdrag


I!. load of maoa 20 kg is lifted with the help of a rope at constant acceleration. The load co...... ": height of 5 m in 2 aeconda. Calculate the tension in the rope. I!. ball of maas 0.1 kg moving at 10 mls i. deftected by a wall ~ the same speed in ilie direction shown. What is the II1II8Jlitude of the change in momentum'of the ball?
each with a apeed of 900


Find the _ _ recoil force on a machine gun that i. firina 150 bullets per minute, mI . Maoo of each bullet is 12 g.


E>q>lein wb,y, when _ching faat moving ball, the handa ..... drawn back while the ball is being brouaht to reat.

10. I!. CODatant-force of ....,..utude 20 N act. on a body of maoa :I kg initially at reat for 2 .econdo what will be the velocity of the object after (aj 1 second from start? (bl 3 aecondo from .tart?
11. How doe. a force acting on a block in the direction shoWn here keep the oIiding down the wall?


blQck from

12. I!.:I kg block is reotiQg on horiaontal ourface. The coefficient of otatic friction be, tw.en the block and the surface is 0.5, ~ will be the magnitude and direction of the force of friction on the block when the ~de of tho extema1 force acting on the block in the direction shoWn is (aj 0 N (hI 4.9 N (c) 9,8 N

13. For a block on surface the maximuut"force of static friction is 10 N. What will be the, force of friction on the block when a 5 N extema1 force i. applied to it parallel to the owface on which it is reating? .
14. What minimum Coree F is required to keo;p a 5 kg block at rest on an inclined plene of inclination 30". The coefficient of lllatic friction between the block and the inclined plene i. 0.25. 15. Two blocks P and Q oC maoaea .... - 2 kg and m, - 3 kg reapective1)t are placed in contact with eaqh other on a hoiUontai friCtionie.. aurfllce. S~meextema1 Coree FION i. applied tt. tho block P in the directiori shown in Fig Find the following, .


(a) acceleration of the blockS (b) force which the block P exerts on block Q.

16. Two blocks P and. Q of masses "" - 2 kg and m., - 4 kg are connected to a third block R of mass M as shown in Fig. For what maximum value of M will the SYH.t~ be in equilibriUm? The frictional force acting on each block is half the force of normal reaction on it.

17. Explam the role of friction in the case of bicycle brakes. What will happen if a few drops of oil are put on the rim?
18. A 2 kg. block i. pushed up "" incline plane of inclination 8 - 37 imparting it a speed of 20 mI.. How much d;.tance will the block travel before coming to reat? The coefficient of kinetic friction between the block. and the incline is "'" - 0.5. Take 9 - 10 mIs' and use am 37 - 0.6, cos 37 - 0.8.


IDtext Questwus



(e) If the force with which a man kick.



The statement is true for a body which was at rest before the application of Borne net foree. Inertial mass Yea A force can cause translational and rotational motion. [t can al80 deform bodies. Object of smaller m .....
(e) Yes (b) No.

lutext Questlous 3.2


2. 3. 4.


Momentum of the falling ball increue. because gravitational force acta on it in the direction of ita motion. In caoe (b) the change in momentum will be It i_ the F.lit proauct that give. the change in momentum. No. Foree ia not related with momentum. It i. related with the rate of change of momentum. No. Thousb the speed is constant, the velocity of the object change_ due to change in'direction. Hence it. momentum Vrill not be constant.




lutext Questioua



The jumper i. accelerated upward by the force which the ground exerts on the jUlllbp..... 'lhis force 1. the reaction to the force which the jumper exert_ on the ground.

a football is action then the foFCC whi!'b the football exerts on the man will be ita reaction. (b) 1 the force with which earth pulls the moon i. action then the force which the moon exert. on the earth will be ita reaction, (c) If the force which the ball exerts on the wall is the action then1h& furce which the wall exert. on the ball will be ita reaction. Gravitational force on a 60 kg woman i. 60 x 9.8 N i. 588 N. In """"rdance with Newton'. third law the gravitational force exerted by the woman on the earth will alao be 588 N. It will be directed radially outward. (a) gravitational force on the book and the reaction force qf the table. (b) gravitational force on the eorkand the upthrust i.e. buoyant force. (e) gravitational force on the bob and the tension in the string connecting the bob. Force internal to the sy.tem of blocks : The force with which bloCk 2 pres... block 3. l1"orce external to the system of blocks: 'nle reaction force of .the table,. on the blocks.


Laws of Motion
IDtext Queatioaa 3.4

IDtext QueRioaa 3.15




No. The momentu'm of the ball is not conserved because a freely - falling object is under the action of ,a net external force. (a) Yes. The two pieces formed as a result of explosion will have equal. and opposite momenta so that the total momentum of the pieces fonned is zero as before the explosion. (b) Three momentum vectors ean never produce a zero resultant if t:heJ' are not in one plane, a bomb initially at rest cannot explode into three pieces which fly in mutually perpendicular directions. Such an occurrence is not possible as it violates the law of conservation of momentum. In accordance with the law of conservation of momentum, agun recoil. with the same ma.gnitude of momentum u that of the bullet. A. the m .... of the gUn i. generally much larger than the bullet, the ...coil ".,1oc:ity of the gun i.


ratezt QueRioaa 3.6

(h) force of friction f

No, 2. Yes,' 3. 5 m/s2 It is better to push the box by applying the force parallel to the inclined plane. When the force is applied horizontally. only a component of this force will act along the intended direction of motion. Moreover another component of this force will press the box on the incline thereby increasing the force of reaction of the inc:1ine on the box. As a result of thia, the force of friction on the box will also increase.

Various forces acting on the block are (a) force of reaction N of the inclined plane



much _aIler. Zero.


(e) gravitational force mg. Fig. shows them in their appropfiate directions. 60N (8) 49 N (h) 59 N. 19.6 N in the ".,rticaJJY upward .direc-




In the previous ~o lessons you have studied concepts related to moUat' -in a straight line and Newton's Laws of Motion. Certainly these are not eno~_ to describe motion in a plane. Can you describe the JIlotion of object<; moving in 8: plane using the concepts discussed in these l~nlll':How ever, you have also learnt to represent motion graphically in twr -d4nensions. So we will cany forward from there and introduce certain rteweoocepts in this lesson to descn'le motion in a plane, i.e.;motion in two di mensions. In this lesson, you will mainly study about projectile !11~ and circular motion. We will introduce the related concepts 01 ~~ speed, centripetal acceleration, centripetal and centrifugal force to eXplain this kind of motion. Studyin& this lesson will help you answer interesting questions like the followinl : What should the position and speed of an aircraft be so that tli~_ food or medicine packets dropped from it reach people a1J"ected by fioodiior earthquakes? How should an athlete throw a discuss or ajavelin so ~ft covers the maximum horizontal distance? How should roads be deatg;Wd. so.that cars t!Ikini a ~ around a CUlVe do not go oft'the road? Wll.l): should the speed of a satellite be so that it moves in a circular orbit aro~:r:i the earth? And many other such questions. In the next lesson you IidIR. study abol,lt ~other law of nature discovered by Iaaac Newton, _ nam the univ~ law of pvitation.



After studyin& this lesson, you should be able to,

dsjine projectile motion and circular motion and give emmples 0/ both; dsrive expre88W"fIJJforthe time o/flight,orange and ~ hlJighto/a projec:ftle; dsrive the equation o/the trajectory 0/ a projectile; clerive expresaio"fIJJ /orvelocity, and acceleration 0/ a pa7ticle in cim.dar motion; dsjine radial and to.ngeniial acceleration.

--- ------------------

Motion in a Plane



The motion of a cricket ball hit for a six, ajavelin thrown by an athlete, a food packet dropped by an aeroplane are some common examples of projectile motion. To study their motion, we have to first derme projectile motion. So let us begin by asking : What is a projectile motion? You know that near the surface of the earth, every object falls freely with a constant downward acceleration of about 9.81 m S2 due to gravity. Now suppose you throw a ball from some initial position with some initial velocity. Then if all other effects, namely, effects of wind and friction due to air are ignored, the acceleration of the ball is equal to g, the acceleration due to gravity. Thus, the motion of the ball is motion with constant vertical acceleration and zero horizontal acceleration. This kind of motion is called projectile motion. .m general, we deJfne projectile motion as motion which has constant velocity in a certain direction and constant ac celeration in the direction perpendicular to that oJ velocity. A football hit by a child, a speeding bullet, experience only constant vertical acceleration with constant horizontal velocity. Hence they ate all examples of projectile motion (see Fig 4.1). Can you think of some more examples?
In most such cases, the body moves with an initial vertical component of velocity. But we can also launch the body (also called the proJectUe) horizontally without any initial upward component of velocity.

Y\ L x<tV,

. ".

",4.1: _ _ I.. of


Having dermed projectile motion, we would like to determine how high and how far it goes and how long it remains in the air. These factors are important if we want to launch a projectile to land at a certain target - for in, stance, a football in the goall

4.3.1 Maximum Height, Time of Flight and Range of a Projectile

Let us analyse projectile motion to determine its maximum height, time of flight and range. In doing so, we will be ignoring all other effects such as wind or air resistance. We can characterise the initial velocity of an object in projectile motion by its vertical and horizontal components. Let us take the positive x-axis in the horizontaidirection and the positive y-axis in the vertical direction (Fig 4.2). Let us assume that the initial position of the projectile is at the origin 0 at t o. As you know, the coordinates of the origin are x cO, y - O. Now suppose the projectile is launched with an initial velocity va at an angle 90 , known as the angle oJ eleucltion, to the x-axis. Its components in the x and y direction are,


II... - 110 COS. 9. IIOy - II.

sin 90

(4.1 a) (4.1 b)

I'tc 4.3 I

Maximum height, time offlight and range of a projectile.

Let a,. and a, be the horizontal and vertical components, respectively, of the projectile's acceleration. Then a,. - 0, a, - -g - -9.81 ms-" (4.2) The negative. for fly appears as the acceleration due to graviW is in the negative y direction in the chosen coordinate system.

Notice that ,,-isconatant. Therefore, we can use Eqs (2.6 and 2.9) to write expreeaions lor the horizontal and vettica1 components of the projectile'. velociW and position at time t. These are given by "~ Horizontal motion (4.3 a) since a,. - 0

(4.3 b) Vertical motion . lIy - IIOy -gt (4.3 c) . Y -IIOyt - '12 ge. (4.3 d) .The vertical position and velociW components are also related through Eq (2.10) as (4.3 e) You will note that the horizontal motion (given by Eq. 4.3 a and b) is motion with constant velociW. And the vertical motion (given by Eqs. 4.3 c and d) is motion with constant (downward) acceleration. The vector'sum of the two respective components would give us the velociW and position of the projectile at any: instant of time. .
-(Ill - .,.

(&fly - &fIOf)

Now let u. make use.of these equations to find out the maximum height, time of flight and range of a projectile.
As the projectile travels through the air, it climbs upto some maximum height (h) and then begins to come dOMl. At tIac tnaCant whim tIac pi rpetlJa ,. at tIac madmwnlutfght, tIac oertic:al c:omporumt oJ fa wloclty This is the instant when the projectile stops to move upward and does not yefbegin to move downward. '''':-'I1S, putting lIy - 0 in Eqs. (4.3 c and d), we get

'a' . .ximum. height:


Motion in a Plane

0- vOy- gt



vsin6 0


Thus, the maximum height of the projectile is Maximum height

Ih=~S:260 I


Note that in our calculation we have ignored the effects of air resistance. This is a good approximation for a projectile with a fairly low velocity. Using Eq, (4.4) we can also determine the time for which the pr~ectile is in the air. This is termed the time oJ flight.

(b) Time of flight: TM eun. oJflfghhJ a proJectUtJ fit eM ttm.

fnWntal IHttuMen the fIIatant oJ fa ~ an4 the Instant wheft U hits the grormd. The time t given by Eq. (4.4) is just the time for half the flight of the ball. Therefore, the total time of flight is

Time of flight

IT .. 2t..

2v0 sin8 9 0


Finally we have to fuld out the distance travelled horizontally by the projectile. This is also ca)led its ""'fI&

(0) Ran,e : The range R of a projectile is calculated simply by multiply-


. ing its time of flight by its horizontal velocity. Thus, R - (II.) (2t)

211 6 ) _ (llocos6 o) ( oam 0 9


- Vo

(2sin60cos6 0 )

Since, 2 sin 6 cos 8 - sin 2 8, the range is

You can see that the rangeofa projectile depends on . its initial ~~ ........., II and its direction given by 80


Now Can you determine tf. .. angle at which a disc or a javelin should be thrown 80 that it covers ma...c mum distance horizontally? In other words, for what angle would the range be maximum? Clearly, R will be maxim~ for any speed when sin 2 6. - 1 or 2 60 Thus for R to be nuu:imum at a given speed "0 , 8. - 45. Let us determine these quantities for a particular case.



Bxample 4.1: In the centennial Olympics held at Atlanta in 1996, the gold medallist fwmmer thrower threw the hilmmer to a distance of 19.6 m. Assuming this to be the maximum. distance, calculate the initial speed with which the hammer was thrown. What was the maximum height of the hammer? How long did it remain in the air? Igl;l.Ore the height of the thrower's hand above the 9round.. .
Solution: We can ignore the height of the thrower's hand above the ground. Thus the launch point and the point of impact are at the same height. We take the origin of the coordinate axes at the launch point. Since the distance covered by the hammer is maximum, it is equal to the hammer's rangefor eo = 45. Thus we have from Eq (4.7).

or It is given that R
Vo -


=Rg, Vo =.JRg

19.6 m. Putting g

9.8 ms-2 we get

~(19.6)m (9.S ms-2 ) _14.01:!D.s- 1

The maximum height arid time of flight are given by Eqs. (4.5) and (4.6), respectively. Putting the value of Vo and sin eo in Eqs (4.5) and (4.6) we get (i90.0S)m2S-2



2x9.8 ms-Q 2x (9.8.J2}ms-l

- 2.4Sm

2 xt=1.43s 9.8msNow, that you have studied some concepts related to projectile :!D.otion and their application, you may 1ike to .check your understanding. Try solving the following problems. .


IKTEXT QUESTIONS 4.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Identify example. of projeetile motion from amo"l the followins aituation. (a) An archer ahoot. an arrow at a tarpt (b) Rocke are eject.d from an expIodi"l volcano (c) A truck move. on a mountainou. road (dj A bomb i. rel ....d from a bomber plan. (e) A boat in a river



Which of the following oiat.",ent. about projeetil. motlorl are true? (i) Th. horioontal component of velocity ciuonP. with time. (ii) Th. vertical component of velocity ~. with time. (iii) Th....... depend. only on the angle of elevation. (iv) Th. tim. of flight depend, ..only on initial velocity. (v) Th. tim. of flight depend. only on the vertical component of initial ""locity.
............................................................. J.........................................


Three baU. thrown at different angIea reach the earn. lIIIilWrlum. height ~Fis. 4.5). (a) Are the vertical componento of the initial velocity the aame for aU the balta? If not, which one h .. the leut vertical velocity component? . (b) Will they aU hove the earne time of fllsht? (e) Which one h .. tho greatelt horiaontal velocity component?


Motion in.a Plane


In the 1968 Olympicain Mexi.c:o City, Bob Beamon broke the recorc\ for the 1on&:jump with ajump of 8.90 m. "-'me hill initia1_ed on take oirto be 9.S ....-1. How clo.. did he come to the maxinium pollllible ranse in the abaence of air reoiatarice? The value of g in Mexioo city i. 9.78 m ....

Although we have discussed quite a few things about projectile motion. we have still not answered the original question: What is. the path or trajec:oty of the projectile? So let us determine the equation for a projectile's trajectOl.y. .

4.3.2 The Trajectory ora ProjecWe

Do you recognise the shapes of. the projectile trajectories of Figs 4.1, 4.2 and4.3? It is easy to determine the equation for the path or trajectoty of a projectile. You just have to eliminate t from Eqs (4.3 b) and (4.3 d) for x and y. Substituting the value of t from Eq (4.3 b) in Eq (4.3 d) we get

x x2 y=vOy_o_-tg_o

(4.8 a)

UsingEqs (4.1 a and b), Eq (4.8a) becomes (4.8 b) 9 2 x 2 (vocos6 o ) This is the equation of a parabo'lll. You will use this equation in the terminal questions. Thus. if air resistance is neg1igible, the path oJ ""II""~ ItIunchM wWa _ _ horl8Ontal and vertfcal velocfl:Jl .. CI parabola or CI portion oJ CI parabo'lll. In Fig 4.3 you can see IIOme ~ectories of a projectile at different angles of elevation. Eqs 4.5 to 4.7 are often handy for solving problems of projectile motion. For example, these equations are used to calculate the launch speed and the angle of elevation required to hit a target at a !mown range. But you must keep in mind that these equations do not give us a comilia 4.3: lhpdorIa ptOj:II1. plete description of projectile motion. Now, let us summarise the important equations describing projectile motion launched from a point (x yJ with a velocity va at an angle of elevation, 9 .

y - (tan 601 x -


Bta_tloaa or JIaooJeatne Motlo. :

v va cos 9 Vy - va sin e - gt x- AU+ (v. cos 9)t Y - Yo + (vosin 9) t-V. gf'

a.- O


(4.9 a) (4.9 b) (4.9 c)

(4.9 d)


Physics Notice that these are more general than the ones discussed earlier. The initial coordinates ape left unspecified as (x;,. y.l rather than being placed at (0. 0). Can you dirive this general equation of the projectile trajectory? Do it before studying futther? Thus. far you have studied motion of such objects in a plane. which can be put in the category of projectile motion. In projectile motion. the acceleration is constant both in magpitude and direction. There is another kind of two-dimensional motion of interest in which the acceleration is constant in magnitude but not in direction. This is circular motion. which you will now study.



The motion at constant speed of a phonograph record or a grinding wheel, the moving hands of an ordinary clock, a vehicle turning around a traffic roundabout can all be idealised as examples of circular motion. The movement of gears, pulleys and wheels involves circular motion. The simplest kind of circular motion is uniform circular motion. Examples are a point on a rotating fan blade or a grinding wheel moving at constant speed. One of the most useful applications of uniform circular motion is putting artificial satellites in circular orbits around the earth. We have benefitted immensely from .he INSAT series of satellites and other artificial satellites, haven't we? So let us first learn about uniform circular motion.

4.4.1 Uldform Circular Motion

By definition, unVorrn circular motton is motton with constant ap.ed en a clrc,. or along a cfrculczr CII'C.




I'tc 4.4(a)' Po.sitions of" particle in

unifonn ci"",Z", motion.

See Fig 4.4a. It shows the positions r, and r2 of a particle in uniform circular motion at two different times t. -and t., respectively. The word 'unifonn'refers to constant speed. We have said that the speed of the particle is constant. What about the particle's velocity? To find out recall the definition of average velocity and apply it to the points P, and P2 for uniform circular motion:

= t2 -t,

'"2 - r.

!ir !it

(4.10 a)

The vector !iris shown in Fig 4.4a. Now suppose you make the time interval M smaller and smaller so that it approaches zero. What happens to !i,.? In particular, what is the direction of lu? It approaches the tangent to 66

Motion in a Plane the circle at the point PI as lit tends j;o zero. Mathematically, we define the instantaneous velocity at the point PI as

v - /1t~O I1t

_ limit I1r

= dr

(4.10 b)

Thus, for uniform circular motion the magnitude of the velocity, i.e., its speed is constant but the velocity vector is not constant. Can you say why? This is because the velocity (which is tangential to the path) is changing direction continuously as the particle travels around the circle (Fig. 4.5b). Because of this change In velocity, uniform circular motion Is accelerated motion. Our main aim in this section is to determine the acceleration of a particle in uniform circular motion. This is also termed centripetal acceleration for reasons you will learn in a short while.

Centripetal acceleration: Consider Fig (4.5). Let the constant

speed of the particle be v and the radius of the circle be r. We have to find the value of acceleration at an instant t, i.e., the instantaneous acceleration of the particle. For this, we have to consider the change in the particle's velocity in an extremely short time inteIVal 11t. In Fig (4.5a) you can see the particle at two positions r l and r 2 , respectively, at instants t, and t, . The intetval lit = t, - tl is very small. The difference between these position vectors is I1r= r 2 - r I

-- i1 ... ~D. AyE

8 "





I'll: 4.11 7Wo posiliona ofptJItic/e in circular motion.

As we decrease t further, r will become smaller (Fig 4.5b). Now look at Figs. 4.5a and b. The velocity vectors at time tl and t, are now placed tail to tail and their difference is
The .angle betweetl the position vectors is 8. Since the velocity vectors are . al~ perpendicular to the position vectors in circular motion, the angle between VI and 1'3 is also 8. Since .the angles 8 in the' triangles ABC and DEF are equal, they an similar. Hence, we have .

v-v2 -v,


Mapitudeofv Magnitudeofr We can rewrite this as Magnitude of




v r


~ r


(magnitude of "


Physics Now,jf At is made very small, A9 will also be very small. Then the straight line segplent Ar will approximately coincide with the circular ~ between points A and B. Thus the arc length is simply equal to the distaAce travelled by the particle in an extremely small time interval M. Therefore, magnitude of v = vir x (distance travelled in time A9. The magnitude of the acceleration at the instant t is equal to the magnitude of Av diVided by the time interval At, as we make At smaller and smaller making it approach zero. Thus limit magnitude of A v a = At--?O At

limit distance travelled in time At


= -;: x At--?O

Now the distance travelled in time At divided by the time At, (as At is made smaller and closer to zero)is just the speed v of the particle.Hence, we have
a = -x v


a=v r

(4. 11 a)

What is the direction of this acceleration? Study Fig. 4.Sb again. For very small At the direction of Av will be perpendicular to VI and v2 (which will be nearly parallel in this limiting case). Hence the instantaneous acceleration is perpendicular to the instantaneous velocity. Since the velocity vector is tangential to the circle; the _leratfon ~r points along the ~fus, to-u the centre o/the clrclcr. Since the acceleration of the particle is directed towards the centre of the circle, it is called centripetal _leratfon. Thus, whenever you see a particle moving at constant speed v in a circle (or a circular arc) of radius r, you may be sure that it has an acceleration directedto:ward the centre of the circle, of magnitude rP I r. To sum up : Particle in uniform cireufar motion has a centripetal acceleration given by

v f2 r


v2 r


where ;. is the unit vector directed from the centre of the circle to the particle (Fig. 4.5c). Notice that the 'centripetal acceleration given by Eq. (4.11) is changing direction continuously (Fig. 4.Sc). Hence, uniform cirClilar motion is not a case of motion with constant acceleration. 'l1lat is why we cannot use the kinematical equations in this case. We will now work out an example to give you a feel for the magnitude in real life situations.
Example 4.2: Astronauts eKpe7ience high accelemtion in theirflights in space. In their training at NASA in USA for such sitrd:iDns, they are placed in a closed capsule which is fixed at the end of a revolving arm of rodius15 In. The capsule is whirled around-a circular path, just like we whirl a stone tied to a string in a horizontal circle. If the ann rellOlves around the ciTcle at a rate of 24 revolutions per minute, what is the centripetal acceleration of the capsule?


Motion in a Plane
Solution: The circumference of the circular path is 2Itx(radius)=2ItxlS m. Since the capsule makes 24 revolutions per minute or 60 s, the time it

takes to go once around this circumference is

211: x15m the speed of the capsule, v - (60 / 24)s

~~ s.


38 ms-'

The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration

_v _(38m.s-"_96 a --1- ms -2


You may now like to work out some problems to fix these ideas in your mind.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


In unifonn circular motion, (oj Is the speed constant? (bl I. the velocity constant? (c) Is the magnitude of the acceleration constant? (d) Is acceleration constant? Explain.


An athlete runs around a circular track with a speed of 9.0 ms] and a centripetal acceleration of 3 ms-~. What is the radius of the track?


The Fermi lab aCcelerator is one of the largest particle accelerators. In this accelerator, protons are forced to travel in an evacuated tube in circular orbit of diamete, 2.0 Ian at a speed nearly equal to the speed of light c (99.99995% of the spe.d oi light). What is the centripetal acceleration of these protons? Take ~ - 3 X 108 ms-1

So far you have studied about objects moving in a circle at constahtspeed. But when you start moving a merry-go-round from rest, the speed of a particle on it varies, until it acquires a constant value. What is the velocity and acceleration of such a particle aoving in a circle with 7ariable speed? Let us find out.

4.4.2 Non-Uniform Circular Motion

To deal with such a situation, it is useful to introduce the-concepts of angular veloCity and angular acceleration. Consider once again a partide in circular motion (Fig. 4.5a). The particle turns by an angle .1.6 in time M between the two positions r, and r. We define the average angular speed of the particle as

= _8.... 2 _-_8.!..\ t2 _t\


(4.12 a)

When the angle turned or the angular speed ilia. changes with time, we

defme ~IIS fUlgUlar ."eed as the limit of the ratio .1.6/M as M is made approach zero.

limit . .1.6 .1.t-tO .1.t



(4.12 b)


Physics So ifwe know 6(t), we can find CD. The units of angular speed are radian per second (00 8""'). If the angular speed of a particle is not constant, then 'it has an angular acceleration. Let CD, and co,. be the angular speeds att:iID.es t. and t,., respectively. The - . " , . atIf/I,lar _ l e i oflan is defined as



t -'t,


(4.13 a)

where AID is the change in the angular speed in the time interval.1t The fnatantcIrI80us angular crcc.Ie, __ n is the limit of the ratio AID/M as .1t approaches zero.

limit AID dw a= .1t-+O .1t .. dt

(4.13 b)

Non-uniform circular motion is actually an example: of motion with constant angular acceleration. Let us now determine the velocity" and acceleration a of a particle in circular motion in terms of CD and a , the angular speed and angular acceleration. Consider Fig 4.Sa once again. For very small values of .16, the distance M of the particle between the points A and B is related to 6 as follows : M " rA.6 (4.14) where r is the radius of the circle and it is constant. The average speed v is given by

v =-=r.1t ~


Making .1t smaller so that it approaches zero and using Eqs. (4.10 b) and

v .1t-+b .1t = r 4t~0 M


limit .18





The direction of "is of COU1'8e along the tangent to the circle. To obtain the acceleration, ~ first fu}d the average acceleration, i.e.,

.1v AID =-=r.1t .1t

limit AID

and make .1t app~ zero. ThUs, using:J!:q. (4~ 13 b) ~ have

~ .. T

4f-+n M .. I'D


Motion in a Plane This is the component of acce1etation which arises when the particle's speed II is changing. The situation now is as follows: A particle is in circular motion such that both the magnitude and direction of its velocity are changing (Fig. 4.5a). The velocity is along the tangent to the circle but now the acceleration has two components - one of these is along the tangent to the circle given by Eq. (4.16) (see Figs. 4.5b and c). This component is called the ~l_r.ratfon.
In addition you will recall that a particle moving in a circular path has a

radial component of the acceleration given by rP/ror Ol"rfrom Eq. (4.15). To sum up, the linear acceleration of a particle moving in a circle has two components. radial acceleration - a,. - - - r - -aJl r ;.


(4.17 a) (4.17 b)

tangential acceleration - a,. - or r II

where ri is along the tangent to the circular path and is positive by convention for anticlockwise motion. Note that G r is always present as long as anguJar speed is not zero : ~ is present as long as angular acceleration is not zero. You should, now, work out some problems to fix these.ideas in your mind.

JJITEXT QUESTIONS 4.3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Conoider a point on the edee of rotating wheel. (aJ Wh"" tho wheel rotate. with conlOtult angular velocity, doe. the point have .. radial acceleration? Doe. it have a tanpntial acceleration?

...... ......................................................................................................................... .

(h) When the wheel rot_ with conatant angulllJ' acceleration, doe. the point have a radial acceleration? Doe. it have a tanpntial acceleration?

Do the magnitude of tho.. acoe1arationa ch..... with time in both cue.?


The .IIJ'th'. orbit about the .un is nOllJ'ty cir<:ular. What is the angular speed of the .1IJ'th (taken as a particle) about the .un? What i. it. llilear speed? What i. it. acceleration with reapect to the sun? Aooume the radius of the orbit to. be 1.5 10' m .

3. A meny-SO-round of radius 2 m atarto from reot. Its angu1ar .peed increase. at a constant rate of 0.1 rad 0-2. What ~ntial acc:01eration doe. a child standing at ita ouw edee have?

So far you have studied that an object moving in a circle is accclerating. This acceleration has two components - one directed toward the centre of the circle (called ewtb ptal fir radial _leratfoftl; other along the tangent (called tangentfal _lenition). Now you have also studied Newton's laws in lesson 3. From Newton's second law you know that since the object in circuIa.r motion' is accelerating, a net force must be acting on it. What is the direction and magnitude of this force? This is what ~ vill find in the next section. Then we will apply NeWton's laws of motion l<' (nUorm


Physics circular motion. This will lead us to answers about why road are banked, orwhy pilots feel pressed to their seats when they fly aircrafts in vertical loops.



Let us flrst determine the force acting on a particle that keeps it in uniform circular motion. Consider a particle moving with constant speed v in a circle of radius r. From Newton's second law, the net external force acting on a particle is related to its acceleration by F= r n a ' (4.18) For a particle in uniform circular motion, a points toward the centre of the circle and its magnitude is a = !Plr. Therefore, from Eq. (4.18), the net external force on the particle must also point toward the centre of the circle. .

mv 2 mv 2 (4.19) IFI=- . r r This net external force directed toward the centre of the circle with magnitude given by Eq. (4.19) is called the centripetalJorce. An fmportG"nt thing to understand and remember is that the term 'centripetalJOree' don not refer to a type oJJorce oJ interaction lflee the Jorce oJ grauf.tatiqn or eliectrfcalJorce. This term only tells us that the net force of a certain magnitude.,acting on a particle in uniform circular motion is directed towards the centre. It does not tell us how this force is provided.

Thus, the force may be provided by the gravitational attraction between two bodies. For example, in the motion of a planet around the sun, the centripetal force is provided by the gravitational force between the two. Similarly, the centripetal force for a car travelling around a bend is provided by the force of friction between the road and the car's tyres and by banking the road. You will understand these ideas better ifwe apply them to certain concrete examples.

4.5.1 Banking of Road.

Consider a car of mass m travelling with speed v on a curved section of a highway (Fig 4.7). T() keep the car moving uniformly in the circqlar path", a force must act on it. It should be directed towards the centre of the circle and its magnitude must be equal to m!P I r. Here ris the radius of CUrvature of the curved section. y




J"I& 4~7 : Banking oj roads.


Motion in a Plane Now the force of friction between the road and the tyres is often not enough to keep the car in a circular path. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an additional force so that the sum of this force and the force of friction is equal to the centripetal force. Such a force is provided by "banking" of road on cUIVed sections. As a matter of fact, roads are designed to minimise the reliance on frictipn. For example, when car tyres are smooth or there is water or snow on roads, the coefficient of friction becomes negligible. Roads are banked at curves so that cars can keep on track even when friction is negJigible. What is banking of the road? Banking raises the outer edge of the road above the level of the inner edge (Fig. 4.7a). The angle of banking, e, is adjusted for the sharpness of the CUJVe and the maximum allowed speed. Let us now analyse the free body diagram for the car to obtain an expression for e. Let us consider the case when there is no frictional force acting between the car lyres and the road. The forces acting on the car are the car's weight mg and F N , the force of normal reaction. The centripetal force is provided by the horizontal component of F.. Thus, resolving the force FN into its horizontal and vertical components, we can write .

'" . e_ mv "N Sll1 - - r

(4.20 a)

Since there is no vertical acceleration, the vertical component of FN is equal to the car's weight: F. cos e - mg (4.20 b) We have two equations with two unknowns FN and e to determine e, we eliminate F. from Eqs. (4.20 a and b). Dividing Eq. (4.20 a) by Eq. (4.20 b) we get

mv /r tane =----'--mg





Hpw do we interpret Eq. (4.21) for limits on v and choice of e? Firstly, Eq. (4.21) tells us that the angle of banking is independent of the mass of the vehicle. So even iarge trucks and other heavy vehicles can ply on banked roads. Secondly, e should be pater for high speeds and sharp curves (i.e., for lower values of". For a given e, if the speed is less than v given by Eq. (4.21), the car will tend to slide down the incline, i.e., move towards the inner edge of the curved road. And if the speed is more than v, it will tend to slide up; i.e., move towards the outer edge of the' CUIVed .road. So a vehicle driver must drive within prescribed speed limits on curves. Other_wise, the vehicle will be pushed off ilie road and there may beaccidents.. Usually, due to frictional forces, there; is a railge of speeds on either Side of v. Vehicles can maintain a stable circular path around CUIVes if their speed remains Within this range. To get a feel of actual numbers, consider the design of a racetrack of radius 300m which has to allow for speeds 73

Physics upto 50 ms- 1 What should the angle of banking be? You may like to quickly use F.q. (4.21) and calculate 6. 1 8 0' tan -I (50ms- )2 = tan-I (300m) (9.81ms 2) You may like to consider another application.

4.5.2 Aircrafts in vertical loops

On Republic Day and other shows by the Indian Air Force you may have seen pilots flying airhafts in vertical loops (Fig. 4.8a). In such situations, at the bottom of the loop, the pilots feel as if they are being pressed to their seats by a fone of gravity equal to several g's. Let us understand why this happens. Fig. 4.8 b shows the 'free body' diagram for the pilot at the bottom of the loop. The forces acting on him are mg and the normal force N exerted by the seat. The net v~rtically upward force is N nig and this provides the centripetal acceleration :

Fi& 4.8 : (a) Aircrafts in vertical loops

(b) Free-body diagram for a pilot

N-mg=ma=miP/r orN=m(g+ u2/ij In actual situations, v = 200 m S-I and r = 1500 m which gives
(200ms-1 )2 ] N = mg [ 1 + 9.81ms-2 x 1500m

= mg x 3.7

So the pilots feel as though force of gravity has been magnified by a factor of 3.7 and say that they are experiencing 3.7 9 force. If this force exceeds set limits. pilots may even black out for a while and it could be dangerous. You may now like to apply these ideas to some other situations.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.4,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Aircraft. an: usually banked while taking a tum when flying at a constant speed (Fig 4.8). Itt is the f,?rce exerted by the air on the aircraft. Explain why airc:ractB are banked. Draw a freebody diagram for this aircraft. Suppose an aircraft tra.velling at a speed l.I - 100 ms- l makes a tum at a banking angle of 30. What i. the radius of curvatul'e of the turn? Take g10 ms-l ,


Calculate the maximum speed of a car which ~~-_.uc:es a tum of radius 100 m on t't horizontal road. TI.e coefficient of friction betwEt'n the tyres and the roeict is 0.90. Take g. 10 ms-'.


Motion in a Plane
An interesting act performed at variety shows is to swing a bucket, of water in a vertical circle such that water does not pour out while the bucket is inverted at the top of the circle. For this trick to be performed successful)y, the speed of the bucket must be larger than a certain minimum value. Determine an expression for the minimum speed of the bucket at the top of the circle in terms of ita radius R. Calculate the speed for R - 1.0 m.

So far you have studied about motion from the point of view of inertial observers. Do you think we are all inertial observers? Remember that the earth is rotating on its axis, i.e., any object on it accelerates. Thus, any frame of reference attached to the earth is non-inertial. So for an accurate description of phenomena occurring on the earth we need to use a n~n inertial frame of reference. You can find several examples of non-inertial frames in your immediate environment. For example, a rotating merry-goround, a bus accelerating from rest. a car rounding the corner and a ball falling freely.



Suppose you are standing on a roadside observing the motion of two buses, A and B. Bus A moves with a constant velocity and Bus B accelerates with respect to you. Then the frames of reference attached to you and Bus A w'e inertial frames of reference with respect to each other. And the frames of reference attached to you and Bus B are non-inertial frames of reference with respect to each other. In general, theframes of ~.,..nce moufng with unVOrm wlocfty wfth ,..spect to each other are burnkd and thou acceleratCng with to each other are non-fnerttaL


Imagine you are sitting on a bench in a park and observiJul these activities going around you : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) A child sitting on a rotating meny-go-round; A ball thrown up in the air An elderly man sitting on another bench in a park A youth walking leisurely (with a low uniform speed)

Suppose you attach a frame ofrelerence with the child, the ball, the elderly man and the youth mentioned in (i) to (iv). Can you identify which of these frames are inertia1 and which ones non-inertia1 with respect to you? Clearly, the frames of reference in (i) and (ii) are non-inertial as they are acceleratiIlg. Now that you know what is meant by a non-inertial frame of refer-


IRTBXT QUESTIONS 4.8,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. A a:Jua half fill.d with ....t.r i. kept, on a horisontal table in a train. Will the free ourf.... of _er remain hotUontal .. the train ltarto?

........................... ,............................. , ............. ,............................................. , .... ......



When """ i. driven too fut around a cu"'" it .kid. outward. How ....ould a pass.npt

aittin&: inaide expl. the car'. motion? 'How would an observer standing on a rood explain the .vent?

............... ...................................................................


.............................. , ........... .


3. A tiny.."irua.of particle m ... 6 x 10"'9 kg i. in a water auspenaion in a ......trifuge being rotated at an angular speed of 21< x lOS rad .-'. The particle is at a distance of 4 em from the axis of rotation. c..l.culate the net centrifugal force acting on the particle .


What must the annular speed of the earth be so that the centrifugal force makes objects By off ito surface? Take g - 10 mo-'

Let us now summarise the concepts presented in this lesson.



PIOjectl1a ...otiDa i. defined .... motion which has constant velocity in a certain direction and constant acceleration in a direction perpendicular to that of velocity.

a -

a, - -g.
",.- " o 8lO9-gt

v. -

x->;'+ (v.cos 9)t


y- Yo+ (v. sin 9 ) R_VoSln





Time of Flight

T= 2vosin6

2 .




y=(tan6 oIX-

g 2(VoCOS 6 0



CfrcalGr naotfon, i.e., motion in a circle or along II. circular-arc, i. uniform when the speed of the particle ia constant. A particle undergoing in a circle of radius r at constant speed v has a Wi,," pear _Lot all" given by

....v....... _'-' _


VO =--1' l'

where. r i. the unit vector directed from the centre of the circle to the particle. Tbe speed v of the particle is related to ito angular speed CD by ,,- .... The

pearI - acting on the

mv 2

particle i. given by

F=ma, =---.-r
T A particle executing non-uniform circular motion haa a centripetlll acceleration

well as a """, " I ........ given by ... - ar where a ia the engutu acceleration and n i. a unit vector, tangent to the circle.


a, aa

_ _ ." r e J -

moving with uniform velocity with respect to.each oth"" are _ I and the frames accelerating with reapect to each other are , . . ." . . . , .

A body of maas m observed from a non-inenial frame of reference undergoing acceleration a ia acted upon by an _ r l - given by -ma



Observed from a rotating frame of reference, a particle of ....... m ia acted upon by an inertial force called the cenlJrlfullaJI- 'ConI r where mi. the angular speed of the rotating frame and r the unit vector directed from the origin of the frame to the particle.

mar r


Motion in a Plane


TERMINAL QUESTIONS_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Why. does a cyclist bend inward while taking a turn

a circular path?

3. 4. 5.

Explain why the outer rail is raised with respect to the inner on the curved portion of a railway track? If a particle is having circular mOtion _with constant speed, will its-acceleration also be constant?
A stone is thrown from the window of a bus moving on horizontal road. What path

will the stone follow while reaching the ground?

A hunter aims exactly at a monk'ey sitting on a tree. As soon as the hunter fires the ahot, the monkey jumps from the tree. Will the monkey be shot? What would happen, if the moneky had not jumped? A string can sustain a maximum force of lOON without breaking. A mass of 1 kg is tied to one end of the piece of string of 1m long and it is rotated in a horizontal plane. Compute the maximum speed with which the I;!ody can be rotated without breaking


the string?
7. A motorcyclist passes a curve of radius 50 m'with a speed of 10 ms I , What vo;.U be the centrepetal acceleration when tunring the curve? .


A bullet i. fired with an initial velocity 300m.-' at an angle of 30" with the horizontal. At what distance from the gun will the . bullet strike the ground?


The length of the second'. hand of a clock i. 10 em. What i. the sp.ed of the tip of this hand?

10. You must have seen heroes in Hindi m.ms jumping huge gap ..:In horse backs and motor cycles. In this problem consider a daredevil motor cycle rider tIying to cross a gap at a velocity of 100 Ian h-'. (Fig 4.9) Let the angle of incline on either side be 45". calculate the widest gap he can cross.
11. A shell is fired at an angle of elevation of 30" with a velocity of 500 ms'. Calculate the vertical and horizontal component. of the velocity, the maximum height that the shell reaches, and its range.

Ftc 4.9

.. -.. - ......


,".... --....." ' ' , .,I ~.

-" .... l,.-.~ : ,.'

FIg 4.10

12. An aeroplane drops a food packet from a height of 2000 m above the ground while in' horiaontaillight at a constant speed of 200" Ian h-'. How long does the packet take to fsll to the ground? How far ahead (horizonts11y) of the point of release Joe. the packet

13. A mass m moving in a circle at speed v on a frictionless table is attached to a hanging mass M by a string through a hole in Ih,e table (Fig 4.10). Detennine the .p,ed of mus m for which the mass M would remain at rest. 14. A car i. rounding a curve of radius 220 m at a speed of 60 lan-h- 1 What is the centrifugal force on a p_nger of mass m - 85 kg?



(1) (2)


(a), (h), (d)
(ii), (v)

lIlteld: Qutio_ '4.1

The _ _ acceIIIl'Iltion ia 11- 0.1 rail . ..... Thu. the tangential acceIoration of the Child ia
... 11.0.1 0.3


(a) Yea (h) Yea (e) The ball with the DUIXIDlWD ........

!'lid"", 3m lIlteJIt QaeetJ.o_ 4.4




Ranae -

f)~ (9.5 -=


ms-? -2

= 9.23m

Thua, the difference i. 9.23 m - 8.90 m - 0.33m.

Tbia ia aimi1... to the cue of bllllkillc of roada. If the aircraft banka, there i. component of the force r. exerted by the air tdong the radius of the circle to provide the centripetal .cc.leration. f'is. 4.11 ahowa the free body ~ The radiUI of cumoture i.

lIlteat Que.tioD. 4.:1


(8) Yel (h) No (c) Yeo (d) No The velocity and acceleration lU"e not conetant becau8e their direction. are changing continuoualy. Since

- 17.3 m.




2(3"108_1)2 a

.. g)(,IlT l1li

. ...13


1.0"w m

IDteat QutIolia 4.3


acceI....uon but no taatlCtial .......... tion .. it. ..,.w... ap.,ad ito conet.ol.t.

(a) The point on the whMl baa alUilll

..... ...11
(2) The force of rriction proicIll the -.lripetlll acceIorUi.on I

(b) N..... it baa both radlilll and tIIrIpIn tilll acceIeratiou. (e) in _ (a) tIu mapltude of radiaI_e1orUi.on ito co.n IItcIt. In cue (b) the 1I~"'de of ,tao diIIl aeceIOI'Ui.an ito DDt 'Xlnlltclt but'the mapltude of tanpntid ~118 con_to

PI -/IoIN.r IIIinoe the 1'01.4 18 boNontal N

Tbue ~ IIIG'. - r



Thl...-tll IDOYU 211: ~.d ....,.. ill. sea dqe IU'OUnd thl aIUl.. Therefo.., It.

1II1&U1'" 'PI.d
.., .. :II' rw:l _ :I )( 10..17 ndl-I. 3e5" :14 "SHe t501 Linear aplad v - ... - :I lit' rad I'" 1.S 10" m
3.0 10' m ,.' Acoe1enIjan' with ..ap.ot to the eun

or"' ....... or 1/ (0.9. 10 m ," 100 m)"


30 ma-I

,; (300" 1(i4 a-I )2 0013 -. ...11 -6,,10.

l.S"lu- m

Refer to JrIc. 4.1:1 .JunrinIJ the '"' b~ cIi..-m for the bucket lit the top of the In order thIIt ___ in the bucket doe. not f.n but keepa moviq ill. the citcIe, the force me Ihould prooric\e the OII1lripeial~. At tho top. of the circle



IIIG' - - -


Motion in. a Plane


:. v -


Thi. i. the minimum value of the bucket'. opeed at the top of the wrtical circle. For R - 1.0 m and taking g- 10m."' .... get
11."10 m.8-1 .3.2 ma-1

where 1ft i. the maaa of the water and the glaaa. (Fig 4.13). The .urr.... of the water take. up a position normal to F as shown.

lat QuUoa4,&
(1) When the train .torta it h .. en 1I<X>81 ration, .e,y a. Thu. the total force octin&: on water in the from. of refer IIIIC8 attached to the train io J' - "'" - ilia

To the paooenger sitting inside, a centrifugal force (-rmi' /" acta on the car. The greater v io the larger r would 1>6. To an ob_r standing on the road, the car moving in a curve hu a centripetal acceleration p n by mtP / r. Once again, the greater V i., the larpr rwill be. The net centrifua:al force on the p ..... ticle i. F - mlli'r - (6 " 10-" Ira) " (2 K" 10' tad r')'" (0.04 m) - 9.6 " 10-laN.



10 mr'

7. 8.

2_'" 8.83" 10'm

or 0 (20 m'r')t + lit (-10 m04 " f

or t -4L Thul R V,t 20 ma-' "4 I 80m. Thul the wideat PI' il 80 m.

II. K/a _.-'. 10. Let u. IirIIt conwrt the wIoaity to unita ofm r' ,

11. The vertical component of Ibe shell'l

wlocity - (SOO mr') COl 30 2803 mr' The horiaontaJ component of the aheIl'. wloc'ity

1001az1h -I 100 x 1000 iDa-I I5Ox-l5O 27.8 mr'

HoriaontaJ componant of wIocIty

V. 28 COB 4S mr' 19.8 mr' 20 mr' Vortial compcm.ant of wIocIty V,. 19.8 mr' 20 mr' Por the wid.at PI' the ~.ctoIy ....u1d IlkII the on. abown in .... 4: 1. Th. -..,. _ down to ita oriainal helaht as it erou the fbi. _ana that in the time it trawIa the diatanca R, itretumoto the ...... luqht h O. N_, uailli the equation lor Y -,OlMnt of diatIIn... h V" t + lit ~

- 28


M..amum hoqht of the aheIl



mr') Bin 30"



.in~ 30

2 x 10_-:1


3128m. Ranp of the ahell

12800 3 m.

(5001118-1 )~ lin 150"


12. In this case the height is 2000 m. The packet is' dropped at a horizontal speed of 200 km h-' or (200 x 1000)/(60 x 60) m 8- 1 55.6 rns-1. To fmd the time of flight we use the equation y- y. - (u. sin 9.,)t- 'h g/' . Putting y - y. - - 2000 m (the minus sign occurs because the origin is taken at the aircraft) and 9 0 we get -2000 m - -'h ge or f - 400 s (g- 10 ms-,) t=20s. The horizontal distance covered by the packet is given by x- x" "" L. cos OJt - (55.6 ms') x 20 s. = 1112 m.
n '"

the tension in the string connecting m. This provides the centripetal force for m to move in a circle. Thus,
T- Mg

and T- mV'/r or Mg - mV'fr

:. u


or u -

mu 2

14. The centrifugai fQf"Ce on the car is

F _. - r -r

13. The mass M would remain at rest if the net external force on it is ze.,ro. There are two force on the mass M. Mg and T, the ten.ion in the string. If the string is considered massless, T is also

F . N
220 m

85 kg x (60,000)2

- 107 N.



You may recall from your earlier studies that planets move around the sun in concentric circles with sun at the centre. You have also learnt in lesson 4 that a centripetal force is required for circular motion. What kind of force keeps the planets in theiJ: orbit? Throw a ball up or let a book slip from your hands. Where do they go? These fall on the Earth. It is a common observation that bodies close to the earth fall on it if they are free . . Does the moon also fall towards the earth? Sir Issac Newton a, British Scientist, replied these questions through his law of gravitation.
In this lesson we shall study the law of gravitl!.tion, its universal nature and its consequences. This law has helped in the-development of satellites, space probes and geostationuy satellites. We shall also learn the difference between inertial and gravitational masses, satellite motion IIDd phenomenon of weightlessness, in this lesson.


state and explain the uniuersallaw of gravitation;

After studying this lesson, you should be able to,

distinguish between inertial mass and gmvitational mass and show their

equiualeru:e; analyse the variation in the value of'g' due to differentfactors; state Kepler's law$ ofplanetary motion; find relation between time of rotation and radius of orbit of a planet or
satellite: , .

identify the force responsible for planstary ~on; ool",late the ~ velocity and the escape velocity; recognise condition for a satellite to be geoSkdionary and recognise the applications of satellites; and ~ the height for a synchronous satellite.




You see that a mango falls from the tree on the Earth. Does the Moon also fall towards the Earth? Yes indeed! (Had there been no centripetal force acting on the Moon, it would move" away tangentially, see Fig. 5.1] .,

Is there any connection between these two falls? How motion of Moon about the Earth and motion of plaaets about the Sun are connected. Can you think of some relation between the stars and galaxy. Many more such questions about the position of heavenly bodies come to mind. Newton provided a colierent answer to these.





.... f--... ffi2


11.1 , Falling of(a) Masa m and (b) of Moon towczrda Earth

1'1, 11.:1, Gravltational_

b _ ma.sau m, and m, (rn,'m,J

Newton used the knowledge of Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his laws of motion to give the famous law of gravitation. The law is stated as ~hptJl'tfc" in the un_.... ClttrcIct. the other pcII'tU:" wfCh afore. whfch ,. dfr:tltl ,proportional to the product oJ the rn_a oJ the ptJl'tfc,.. and tnw,..eW ,proportional to the aquarw oJ the d~

between them.
The force is attractive only and acts along the line joining the masses (such a force is called centralfore.). Mathematically we ma,y write DC m l )( '"-l



Here G, the constant of proportionality, is known as the unw.r.al eon.tGnt oJ gn:wttaUon and is the force of gravitation. The law may also be written as follows (See Fig 5.3).



", II.' , _m,andm,.









Ora.it_naj -.zc,tion Ie ....luol

GraVitational Motion
m 1m 2 r '2


'21 .:

-G-2 - rI2


It i~ evident from Fig S.3 that '12 points in a direction opposite to r 2and it is the gravitational force exerted by m, on m 1 and F.,1 is the gravitational force on m, by mass m" The gravitationaljorce is always czttracttue. Its magnitude is given by

1'01 = Fo

= G m,m2


Though this law is universal in nature, it cannot be used for atomic and subatomic particles. "The force is mutual according to Newton's third law of motion that is m, attracts m, and in turn m, attracts m, so that The force of gravitation is very important for large masses. Let us see what happens at small distance in the following example.
Example 5.1 : TWo girls of masses 40 kg and 50 kg respectively are (a) standing at a distance of 0.50 m, (b) separated by a distance of 6.67 x 1 ()6 m. Neglecting otherforces, calculate the force ofgmvitational attraction between them. Given the value of gmvitational constant G = 6.67 x 1 (FII Nm2 kg-2.

'21 = -',2


Solution: The force of gravitation is given by (in magnitude)

F. = G m , m 2 G r2

In case (a) 11 2 F. _ 6.67 x 1O- Nm kg-2 x SO kg x 4<Jkg G(0.5)2 In case (h)


S.336 x 10-' N

= 6.67 X10-11 Nm' kg-2 x 50kg x 4<Jkg = 3 X10-21 N (6.67 X 10 6 )2 m 2

Rot.: All bodies are taken ... point .",....,s throughout this 1eon.

5.3.1 Universal CohstaDt of GravitatioD

The constant G appearing in eqs. (5.1) to (5.3) is known as the universal constartt of gravitation. Its value is . G = 6.67 X 10-11 Nm2 kg"2 and its dimensions are IciJ - 1M-I L3 1"2J We can deftne G by taking m, - m, = 1 kg and r = 1 m in eq. (5.3). Then Fo - G Thus, the gravitational constant G f.s numerlcally equal to the jorce oj CIttrcrctfon between two point masses 1 kg flGCh placed at a df.s. tcznce oj 1 m In afro The value of Gis same for any pair of masses be it stars and galaxies or two shotput spheres anywhere.
Example 5.2: A mass of 1 kg placed on the surface of the Earth is attracted by a force of 9" 8 N. Taking mass of the Earth ME = 6. a x UJ> kg and its radius R.=6.4 x 1()6 m, calculate the value o/G.


Solution: Using eq. (5.3) we can write

SubstitUting the values of given quantities, we get G = 9.8N x (6A x 10" m}2 . 6.0 X 1024 kgx lkg 6.7 x 1O-11Nm2 kg-2


5.3.2 Universal Nature of the Law of Gravitation

You may be thinking that Newtons law of gravitation is applicable only for the members of the solar family. It is infact universal in nature. We can use it between any two mass points on the Earth or bodies in intergalaciic space. It was stated in the previous section that falling of the Moon and an object on the Earth have some connection. This may be agitating your mind what connection? Let us explore it. The distance of the moon from the Earth is rm - 3.84 x lOS m and the _ radius of the Earth is R,,- 6.37 x 106 m., It takes the Moon 27.3 days to go round the Earth once in iUt circular orbit. (Fig. 5.4). The centripetal acceleration of the Moon (being it;J. circular orbit) is given by

.. -2.72X1o' m..

= rm


411"2 = T2 r m

as v -

2n r T

PIa 5.4 I Jfoon retJOIfling _

the -

Substit11ting the values of Tand rm' we have, (27.3 x 24 x 3600f But the value of acceleration due to gravity acting on a freely falling_body is 9 - 9.8 mil""".

= 411"2 x 3.84 X 10


Newton overcame the difficulty in the two values of acceleration by hypothesising that force of gravitation decreases with increase in distance from the Earth according to a defmite law. Let us assume .


=(~J, which gives R.


9.80 ms(3.84 x 108 m)m 2.72 X 10-3 ms-2 = 6.37xl0"m

or 3600 - (6C.Im

Which gives m - 2. so that


Gravitational Motion

(5.5) or
U c Ot



It shows that the acceleration (centripetal in case of Moon) produced by force of gravi1:Ji!.tion is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. It is directed towards the Earth. Similar conclusion may be drawn about the Sun-planet system. The force is directed towards the Sun. Thus grrDIitatfonalJoree f.s an inverse square law centralJoree. The law of gravitation applies not only to the Sun and planet system but also to any two point masses. It is universal in nature. The occurance of tides on sea, the formation of the universe, observation of moons of Jupiter and Saturn have been successfully explained with the help of the law of gravitation.
Let us take a pause and solve these questions.



_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

State the anumption, if any made in the. formulation of the -law of gr~tation.
............................................................................................................... j


A mass ~ is accelerated towards another mass acceleration of 7rI.;z not seen towards m" ?

m..r such that


Wny the


-The force of gravitation between two bodies of equal masses. each 111, placed at distance ris Fa' Find the magnitude of tho force if (i) each body has mass 3 mand (ii) the separation is changed to 4r.

........................................................................... .................................................... .


masSes 16 g each are IlUspended with a tor ..on lOCi oflength 2m. When two lead sphere_ of m ... 10-kg each are brought near the ""8pensl"d .pheres sa shown in the figure, the spheres are displaced through 2mm each. The toraional rod is deflected tIaroui!I> an OIlIIIe of 0.02 radian. Calculate the val..... of G if the torsional .couple' per unit twiat of the llUapension wire i. 1.66 x 10-< Nm. .

In a cavendish experiment two lead. spheres of


At a point between the Earth and the Moon, the gravitational pun. of the Moon and the Earth are balanced. Estimate the distlUlCO of this point from the Earth.



You may recall from Newton's second law we have and from Newton's law of Gravitation we have


Mm. - r ,.,G --ar2


Physics Does m stand for the same property in the two equations? It may be seen that the mass m characterises two different properties of an object, these are resistance to a change in its velocity and its gravitational interaction with other mass.

5.4.1 Inertiallllass
When we push a chair and a cot with the same forr:e we find that chair moves faster than the cot. It shows that greater mass offers greater resistance to motion. Thus, mass characterises resistance to motion. This mass of the body is called the inertial _ m,. Using Newton's second law of motion you have verified the law of conservation of linear momentum in lesson 3. According to this law
(m,), All, =

-(m...l, All,


The masses (m,), and (~I, in this equation are inertial masses. If m, is a prototype kilogram, ~ can boo found by measuring changes in velocities. However, it is not easy to determine A ", and A II,

5.4.2 Gravitational Mass

In Newton's Law of gravitation you hwe seenthat the gravitational force Fa is proportional to the mass. Thus, this mass characterises the gravitational force and is known as the gravttattolUd _ (m"I. To measure m" we use the definition of weight,

W; (mdG 9 Thus, W, - (m,)G 9




The weights W, and W, can be measured by a pan or spring balance. If :m,IG is a prototype kilogram, (~IG can be found.

5.4.3 Concept of Weight

TheJorce wftla which the krth attracUCI 60. III eaUad tt. IHfght w: Thus, weight is a force whose magnitude is proportional to the mass of the body and direction is downward towards the Earth. The unit of weight is. the same as the unit of force. So, the weight is measured in Newton. The Earth's gravitational force is callod ~e gravity. This force of gravity, according to the Newton's second law ofmntion, causes acceleration called the acceleration due to gravity '{/ in a freely falling body. Thus .F=mo a=mog=W The magnitude of the weight is given by

W= mg (5.10) We shall see in later section that 9 changes from place to place. Therefore,

the weight of a body also depends on the lOcation of the body..n.. __ is an fntrlnsfc proJMrl:ll oJ a bodg but -tJht III t:he &drlnafc prop., t,p.
Bxample 5.3 : A mass oj 15 9 is suspended With a vertical spring which is extended by 15 division on a scale placed by its side. Find ra) the weight oj the body a'ld (b) thB-spring constant oJthe spring. Each division on the scale is equal to 1 mm. Solutioa: (a)W= mg - 15 x l<r' kg x 9.8 ms-' = 0.147 N. The same result may be expressed in gravitatiorial units in which W-15 x 1O-3kgwt


Gravitational Motion 1 kgwt = 9.8 N. (b) The spring exert restoring force F = -/ex where k is the spring constant. In equilibrium

IFI =;,1 WI
:. /ex = mgor k= mg/x

k_15X10-3 kg x 9.8 ms'!hus O.Ol!lm

9.8 Nm-I

5.4.4 Properties of Inertial Mass

The inertial mass has,-following distinct properties, (i) These can be added algebraicaD.r-i;e. M = m l + m., + m, + ...... ; iii) It remains unaffected by the presence of other body's masses; (iii) It is conserved during physical or chemical combinations; (iv) It is independent of the shape, size and the state of the matter; (v) It depends on the total quantity of the matter in the body; (vi) Its value changes at speeds approaching the speed of light, then

mHmo , v'
of light.

where m" is the rest mass of the body and ~ is the speed

,Again, take a break and check you progress.

'tNTEXT QUESTIONS 5.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

l. , Distinguish between inertial mass and gravitational mass. ~alance to measure the two masses.

Do you use the same


If v c, will it make any difference if mass is measured by applying horizontal force or allowed it to fall freely?

.- .................... ..........................................................................................................


A body is suspended with a spring iba1ance attached to the ceiling of an elevator. The l- ,,janeie shows a reading of 5 division when the elevator is stationary. During downward acceleration of the elevator the balance shows aero reading. Do you think that the inertial and gnwitstion mass of the body are equal, justify your answer.


Why the weight of a body does not remain constant?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~


A bowler, imparts a velocity of 10 mao' in 0,5 to a ericket baIl of weight 3 N. Find the borizontal force acting on the ball. Taite g - 10 ms-'.



We know that the acceleratioq due to gravity is the acceleration of a body falling freely. Its vallie was determined first of all by Ga1ileo and t,~ found that it was-same for all bqdies., ,In the inertial frame of reference, the gravitational force on a'mass is given by equation (5.3) which is,


F '" GMEm" r

R~ According to the Newtons second law of motion

F= ma Comparing these two equations we find
1.1=- R~




The negative sign indicates that rand 1.1 are measured in opposite directiop.. We see that 1.1 is independent of m hence it has same value for all masses. This is known as the acceleration due to gravity g. With the precision available in the measurement oflength and time (-10-9), the value of gat 45 latitude is 9 - 9.80600 m~ = 9.81 ms-" We may now write

191= GMs = F


Bxample 15.4: 7Wo balls weighing 4.9 Nand 19.2 N respectively are dropped from the same height of 10m. Neglecting air friction, find how long each ball will fake to reach the ground. Take g = 10 ms-2 . Solution! The equation of motion of freely falling body is h=Y.[x=vt+Y.at" til- , 0 ' v0 =0] as the balls are dropped. This gives

t is. independent of mass, so both balls will take the same time to reach the ground. Putting the values of h and 9 we have


~2XlO w;-=1.4s

5.5.1 Variation in the value of 9

A look on equation (5.12) reveals that the value of 9 depends on M.. and ~. The value of 9 is not constant. It depends on some factors which are being discussed below. The Earth is not a perfect sphere, it is buldging at the equator. It is found that the value of 9 changes by about 0.6 per cent on the Earth. It also changes with altitude, depth and lattitude. Would you like to buy 1 p , more gold for the same money? ,


Vllriatio. of 9 with altitud.e : Let us

take a body of mass m at point P at'height h from the Earth's surface. (Fig 5.5). Its distance from the centre of Earth OP = (Ra + h). Let the value of acceleration: due to gravity at P be gO. Therefore,


ne 5.5: ~ point P at an _."."



Gravitational Motion

or g= (RB +h)'
On the Earth's surface
Il g=-.-



Dividing these equations we have,


(RB.+h)' 2

( 1+h =1+-+2h (h


Since R,. > h, we can neglect


so that




The .above equation shows that g' < g. We find. that with increase in altitude the value of 9 decreases, it is less than 9.8 ms-2, the value on the surface of the Earth.
Bxample 5.5: Calculate the percentage difference in the value of9 at altitudes fa) 200 km and (b) 40 km. The radius of the Earth is 6400 km.



= ~ =(

6400km 6400 + 200 km

)2 = (6400)2. = 0 94 6600'
Ilg xlOO=0.61% g


So, the percentage variation

g'= ( 6400 km 9 6400 +40 km


)2 = 0.9937

- /1g = 0.0063 So., the percentage variation = 0.064% . Note that the value of 9 remains same near the surface of the Earth.

BampJe 5.~ Taking ~ of the Earth equal to 6.37 >< 1~ m and 9 = 9.8 m,s-2 find the mass of the Earth. (G - 6.67 x 10-" Nm' kg-2) .. g R~ 9:8 ms~2 x (6.37 x 106m)' Solution: ME = - - = - 5.97 x 10" kg G 6.67 X 10- 11 AIa- 5.97 x 1024 kg Density of the Earth
P _ MB
V gRB'/G3 g 3 ~ 3 n RB . 4 tlGJl.B


Physics 3x9.8ms-2 4x3.14x6.67xlO- Nm"kg2 x6.37x106 km

= - - - - - - = - ll

(B) Variatiop. of g with latitude: Two factors, (al position of the body above the surface of the Earth and (bl the latitude at which the body is situated affect the value of g. The first part has already been discussed. It is the rotation of Earth about its wn axis which gives rise to the second type of variation. y

Consider a mass point P on the Earth's surface at a latitude A as shown in Fig 5.6. Due to the rotation of the Earth from West to East on its own axis running North-South, the mass at P experiences a centrifugal force. It describes a circle of radius r, the radius of the Earth being RE Had the Earth been stationary FG would act along PO. The mass point P describe a circle of radius r=R.eosle Fig. 5.6;Th. effect ofrotatWn of the Earth Where A. is the latitude of P. The centrifugal force on P is on the value of 'g'. I Fe I = mror From lession 1, you know that force can be resolved into two rectangular components namely Fe cos Ie alorig OP and Fe sin Ie tangential to the Earth at P. The tangential component has no effect along PO. The net force along PO is thus F=FG-FC cosle In lesson 4, you have learnt Fe = mror, therefore; on writing magnitudes mg = mg - mror cos Ie org=g-R.orcoS' A 15.14) We see that, (i) the rotation of Earth decreases the value of 9 (ii) the increase in the value of Ie increases the value of g. The value of 9 thus changes from place to place on the Earth, its mcvdmum value is at the pole fA. = 90"} and minimum at the equator fA.= OJ.
Example 5.7: Calculate the value of 9 at (a) the equator, (b) the poles, and

Ie} at a latitude of 45. Given

(R.}..= 6378.4 km, (RE ),.,.. = 6356. 9 km, ME

= 5.97

x 1 (11< kg.

Solution: At latitude Ie, the value of acceleration due to gravity is g = 9 - R.uP COS2 1e (a) At the equator Ie= 0, cosO = 1, w= 2ft/T Therefore,

_ GM E

- (R.)~-q

4ft2 [ . . , (R) E cq T' . 9 =9

-E W



Gravitaqonal Motion 6.67 X 10-11 Nm 2 kg-2 x 5.97 X 10 24 kg or

g.q =

.(6.3784 x 10 6 m)'

6.3784 x 10 0 m (86400)s

9.78038 ms~2 (b) At the poles A. = 90, cos A = 0, g- = g = GME /(R.)2pol. 6.67 x 10- 11 Nm 2kg-2 x 5.97 X 10 24 kg GM
:9pole =

(RE )pole =


10 6 )

= 9.854 ms-2

(c) At latitude 45, cos 45 =



6.67 X 10- 11 Nm 2kg-2 x 5.97 (6.371 x 10 6


1024 kg

4n 2 x 6.371 x 106 m

(86400 s)

= 9.80620 ms'.

C, Variation of 9 with Depth: If we measure the value of 9 inside a mine, will it be the same as on the surface of the Earth? Let us explore it. Consider a point P at a depth h below the surface of the Earth as shown in Fig. 5.7. The mass at P may be considered to be situated inside a spherical shell of thickness h and on the surface of the sphere of radius (RE-h), where RE is the radius of the Earth. The gravitational effect at P due to the shell is zero as the point P lies inside the shell. Therefore, the effective gravitational field at P is only due to the sphere of radius (RE - h). The earth is divided into a shell of thickness h and a symmetrical sphere of radius (R. - h). Fig 5.7, A moss pault Pat depthh. The mass of the sphere = 3 n (RE -h) P If the value of acceleratior..due to gravity at P is g, then

Also 9

= Ji2 =


G-R~p R2

Dividing these two equations we have

g' 1-nG(RE - hlp RE - h h -= - . =1-9

1- nGREP





, (1

--) RE



We find that acceleration due to gravity decreases with increasing depth (g < g). But it is important to note that variation of gwith depth is-not a simple affair At the centre of Earth h -

R. ' then


9(1- ::) =

The uneven variation in the value of 9 with depth is complex in nature and it depends on the density of the Earth at different depths. Now, it is time to check your. progress.

DlTEX1 QUESTIONS 5.3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The .......tational fon:e on an ollject depend_ linearly on ita man, wily i. then the acceleraIion of a free1y falling object independent of m ....?

2. you ...... free to bUll gold from a dealer at the equator or polea. To &et maximum gOld for your money wou1d you like it to be weighed by a spring acale at the pole or equator?
In the Britiah syatem the unit of length, mass and time are foot, slug respectively. What will be the .unit of G in this sytem?



Determine the fractional decrease in the value of 9 due to increase in the elevaIiQll by 8 Ian near the aurface of the Earth R. - MOO km. The m ..... of aateroid Cere. i. approximately 7 10'" kg end ita diameter i. 1100 km.. What ill the value of acceleration due to sravity at ita surface? What would be the' weight of an 80 kg astronaut on this asteroid? .





The planet and stars in the sky have always attracted scientists to find out about these heavenly bodies. Throughout the last few decades of the sixteenth century, a -nanish astronomer Tycho Brahe made precise measurements of the position of the planets and various others bodies of the solar system. Johannes Kepler made a detailed analysiSOiOf the measurements and announced three laws which describe planetary t.otion.. These laws are thereafter called Kepler's laWs of Planetary motion.
I. of orbits : The orbit of any planet around the SUn is an ellipse tiiIth the

SUn at one oJthe Jodi oJthe elipse.

L ,or are.. : The line joining the Sun and the pl.:met, called the mdius vector, sweeps equal areas in equal intervals oJtime.
I..... of perlo.. : For any two planets in the Solar system, the squares ofthe periods of revolution are proportional to the cube of their average diStance from the Sun, i.e.

-'---'T.,2 - r,'
2 2



or 'P' .. .,.


Gravitational Motion Almost all planets have elliptical orbits and circle is a special case, (See Fig. '5.8). For most practical purposes we take the orbit nearly circular. In calculational work, in general, we consider planets in isolation as if the interaction of planets is not there (though the actual situation is different). We fmd that the speed of comets increases when they come Closer to the Sun. So, is the case with the planets. They become slower when they move away from the Sun. It is explained by the law of areas.

PIa: 5.8, _

.,planets an>wtd the sun

in elliptWal ori>it.
Area ASB A .... CSD A .... ESP

Blatmple 5.8: The mass ofplanet Jupiter is 1,90 x 1 (P7 kg and its radius is 7.14 x 107 m. Calculate the acceleration offreefall on Jupiter. By w/wt factor would your weight be larger than your weight on Earth?


6.67xlO-11 Nm 2 kg-2 x 1.90 X 1 0 27 kg (7.14


x10 mf

= 22.9 ms-' Weight on Jupiter - mg = 22.9 mN Weight on Earth = mg = 9.8 mN

times 9.8m Blatmple 5.9: Calculate the mean distance from the Sun of hypothetical platlets fJaving periods fa) 50 year, (b) 100 year. Mean distance of the Earth from the Sun is equal to 149.6 x 10' m.

' F actor

= 22.9m = 2.33

Solution: From Kepler's third law of motion we have

;>=T! , ,
Consider the Earth as another body at a distance" from the Sun. Now for the first hypothetical planet we write '

r' ,

T.' ,

r,' = (T.lT,)' = (149.6 = (149.6 x 10' m)' 2500 So, r, = 2.03 x 10'2 m
(a) (b) For the second planet
, r'


x10' m)' (50 y/ly)'

Here T, is taken as the period of the Earth about the Sun which is 1 year.

ri =(7;J' 1; . or r,",(1;)2 = r, T,

Thus,': - (149.6 109 m)" (100 y/1y)2 _ (149.6 X 109 )3 10,000 m a or r. - 3.2 x 10'2 m.


------------------------~'PhySIcs Now, take a break and solve the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 5.4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~


Show that Kepler's second law is the law of conservation of momentum

............................................................................................................................... ;.


Does the Moan obey Kepler's laws of motion?

.... ,............................................................... -........................................ 1

3. Does a

move .faster at aphehelion or perihelion?


4 Astronomical Ob8etyations shows that Mercury moves. fastest and Pluto slowest, why is it BO?
The ratio of the radii of the two Earth satellites A and B i. of their Cal periods (h) acceleration and (e) speeds.


r./r. -

2 . What are thenio



Every one of you have seen the Moon. You also know th...t itrevoJiles around the Earth in circular orbit. Like Earth, Naptune has one m.o~, Uranus has four moons, Saturn ten and Jupiter has maximum nlU;lIber ..f moons 12. These moons revolve round the respective planet and an; !:'..ned the natural satellites. Thus, we can say that the satellite is a body~ moves .around a planet. There are. artifk:ial satellites also. Eveislfille Russia launched its ftrst man-made satellite Spu.'nik-I in October 1957, the sky has been flooded with the artificial satellites, we have our oWn satellites in the same crowed. Let us now find how satellite .can move around the Earth at a certain height.
An object thrown horizontally from some height hits .the ground like any

projectile. The motion of projectile has been discussed in lesson 4. What happens when the objected is thrown hard enough? It will escape leaving the Earth and go around in elliptical orbit (see Fig. 5.10). The orbit will be a circle for a certain velocity of projection. The object travels in the curved path due to gravity and forward momentum.
Clmdar 0IbIt




of object with different speeds at different heights

We see that a satellite may be put in an orbit provided(a) it is taken to a certain suitable height and (h) given a proper h~nta1 velocity so that it falls continuously without hitting the Earth. ..
"94 . ...



The condition (b) is a characteristic of circular motion as shown in Fig 5.11. In the absence of centripetal force provided by the gravity, the object wm fly off along a tangent in the direction ofve1ocity. Such a situation can be visualised by whirling a small stone tied at one end of the string. If the hand stops pulling at the string the stone will fly off tangentially. Now decrease the length of the string by pulling a part of it in, we see that the stone now moves faster. Similarly. satellites close to the Earth move faster.

-.. ,----........:'"' -- t/--.....





FIg s.u: The uolocity is at each point o/the orbit and object contlr.uously falls towards EcUth to remain in circular orbit


Fig 5.12: Satellite launch using a multistage rocket.

5.7.1 (a' Orbital Velocity

Th.. velocity with which a satellite or planet reuolves in its orbit is called its orbital velocity. Like the orbit of a planet, for simplicity the orbit of the satellite is also taken as circular. As pointed out in the preceding section we need a velocity (vo) to put the satellite in a desired orbit. Since gravity provides the centripetal force in the circular orbit of the satellite of radius r, we have

mv~ _ GM8m

or vo

so that

using eq. (5.12) we have G~ =

I Vo=~ =~J[J
R8 +h


From eq. (5.17) we see that the orbital velocity is (a) independent of the mass of the satellite (b) inversely proportional to the square root of the radius of the orbit. If the satellite is at a height h from the surface of the Earth then ./ r = R,. + h and

= R8


Physics When the satellite moves close to the Earth h

vo = ,JgRE

= 0 and r::. ~, so


Bzemple ~ 10: Find the orbital velocity a/the satellite around the Earth at heights (a) 70 kin (b) 230 km Take the radius a/the Earth 6.37 x 1(1' m.

801ation: (a) r - ~ + h - (6370 + 70) x 10' km


6.44 x 10" m

= Rg - = 6. 37 x 10 6 m

9.8ms6 6.44xlO m

783 -I =. 5kms

Thus v. .. 8 km S-I which is the orbital velodty for a satellite revolving close to the Earth.
(b) r Vo

Ra + h" (6.37 + 0.23) x 10' m =.6.6 x 10

=6.37x10 6 m 9.8ms: =7.385kms-1 6.6xlO m

We find that even at an altitude of230 lan, the orbital ve10dty of the satellite is nearly same as for a satellite close to the Earth.

lb) Time Period of the Satellite

It is defined as the tfiRe fn which the :rtrteRfte makes 0". completes Nf/iOfutton CV01I7Id the earth. The time of revolution is, thus, equal to the circumfrance of the circular path divided by the orbital speed v. T- 27fT/v. Substituting for Vo from eq. (5.17 1) we have

or This is the basic equation of motion of a satellite. When r::. Ra. i.e. fC?I" a satellite close to earth,
2 _


--""B 9

47r ..

5.7.2 Bllcape Velocity

You m~st have observed that when a body is thrown in the uprward direction, it reaches a certain height and CQIIles back to the earth. But when it is liVen greater initial velocity, it reacher greater height before coming back to the earth. If the body is given certain IIdnimum initial velocil3' from the ~ ofthe earth, so that it goes beyond the gravitational field of earth, then, the velocity is said to be the _ape ...1ocUy. In other words the - r ' ...loc:ftj, can ". d4fned _ the III!Jocfty whfeh wm


Gravitational t.otion
take the P,-oJectf.le (body) to the fr!(fn.ite distance away aboIte the tntrface oJ the earth when projected upwards.

Let us calculate its value. We know the work needed to take a mass m from the surface of the earth to infinity is equal to
aM m

R: '

where ~ is

the mass of the earth and R. is the radius,of the earth. Ifa body is to be able to do this amount of work (and so to escape), it needs
to have at least this amount of kinetic energy at the moment it is projected. Hence, the minimum velocity vea to be given to a body so as to escape

earth's pull is given by II. m v' = ea

V ..


= (2GME)" =~2GME
gRg2, we have


G~ =

v.. =



Veo -



using equation (5.18) we have





= 7.91 km S-I, we have 11.2 km S-I. The e~ape velocity is thus about 3/2 times the orbital velocity.


B .... mp~,5.11:

A body is launched from tM Earth (R~ = 1.5 X 10" m). Calculate tts..escape velocity so that it gets out of the puu of the Sun



=[2 X 6.67 X 10- Nm kg-2

. 1.5 X 1011m



2 X 1030kg]'

= 4.22 X 104 ms-l

or v.. - 42.2 km

Compare it with the escape velocity for Earth (v.. = 11.2 km S-I). Thus, it is much more difficult for a body to escape out of the solar system.

5.7.3 Geostationary Satellite

A .--lUte whfeh remalns./fxed dfret:t.ly over a point Oft the tntrfof the Zarth while rew'blfng in ita orfJtt is know _ ~1UII'Jf or aynchro_ sateRite. To an observer in the satellite, the Earth will appear

stationary hence the name geostationary. In other words the time period of the satellite is exactly equal to time of rotation of the Earth onits axis, that is, one day (86400 s). 97

:>hysics lie know from eq. '(5.19) that-the pe"iod of revolution and the ,dis~ce of he satellite from the Earth are related. lie can fmd the height over the sur'ace of the Earth of a satellite whose ime period is 1 day that is it becomes I synchronous satellite. Using ,q.(5.19) we may write,

-PIg S.13 , Two positions SandS' oj ;' J<ostatIonary satellite at height 36,000 km over the swface oftheEatth

T' g Ri ]1 =[41t"
R.. + h, therefore,

lince r =

h+Rg =. [ 41t" gRi


or h [ 41t" g Ri


]i -


'aking T = 1 day = 86400 s, R. = 6.38 h = 42250 - 6380 = 35870 knl or h -= 36,000 knl.

106 m and 9

= 9.81 ms-2

36,000 knl height over the suiface f the Earth and a booster engine helps in fixing it in the circular orbit. It ; worth noting that the geostationary satellite is to be installed in the quitorial plane, otherwise its orbit will not be geostationary. In other osition the orbital plane changes continuously. INSAT I-B is an Indian eostationary satellite. he advent of geostationary satellites have brought a sea change in the eld of communications. Three synchronous satellites can cover the whole lobal communication if they ate placed at 120 with each other at an ltitude of about 36,000 knl.
~. 7.4

~ multistage rocket places the satellite at

Application of SateWtea

he satellites are being used in various fields for diverse purposes. The pplications are based. on two things (i) infrared photography and (ii) relay. olar panels are used to supply energy to the satellite systems. Some of leir applications are given below. Communication satellite, such as INSATseries of satellites of 'India:, are used in 'lV, radio telegraphy and radio communication.

In guiding and tracking of missiles during war.

These are used in remote sensing including (a) detection of troops and veblcufar movement. (h) oil and mineral exploration (c) detection of military hardwares.

In weather forcasting.

Gravitational Motion 5. 6. 7. These are used to locate atmospheric and oceanic disturbances such as cyclones and low pressure regions. These are being used to detennine the exact shape, dimensions and atmosphere of other planets and their moons. These are b.eing used in the environmental studies, pollution and popUlation determination and crop pattern on the Earth. Satellites are helping in charting ecology, forest and jungle cover, desert and glacier movements. ~


Example 5.12: Ittakes 7 hour and 3~ minfor the satellite phobos to complete one round about the planet Mars. The orbital radius of Phobos is 9.4 x 1 Cf' m Find the mass ofMars.

Solution: The relation between orbital radius and time period is given as

r'=-'-GM 41C' Assuming Mars to be stationary and G'" 6.67

We have
M T= (7 x 3600 + 39 x 60)s.


10-11 Nm2


= 411"2
T 2G

4(3.14)2 x (9.4 X 106 m)3 (2.754 x 10 4 S)2 x 6.67 X 10-11 Nm 2 kg-2

= 0.6606 x 1021


Stop, and check your progress by solving the following


QUESTIONS 5.5._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Determine the mass of the Earth from the following data Radius of the orbit of Moon ~ - 3.84 x 10" m Period of the Moon - 27.3 days Gravitational constant (G) - 6.67 X 10-11 Nm' ~'


Assuming Jupiter to be. stationary, find ita mass. Ita sateJljte Suropa has a period of 3.55 days and its orbital radlus is 6.71 x loe m.


Due to some unforseen event the orbital plane of the 10 satellite of Jupiter does not paSs through the centre of Jupiter. Will the orbitaf 10 be stable?


How high a man can jump on moon where acceleration due to gravity is. 1/6 times acceleration due to gravity on the Earth,


Icarus is an asteroid behaving like a small planet. It can have a close approach to' the Earth. Its apbelion distance is 2.946 x lOS km and perihelion distance is 2.8 x 107 Ian. Calculate the period of revolution of Icarus. Take Earth's mean distance from the sun - 1.496 10" Ian and ita periud 365 days. IHint : rl = -(28.0 + 294.6) x 10 Ian,r2 = 149.6 x 10 Ian.
1 6 6

Use Kepler's law of




5.8 WHAT YOU HAVE LEARlIT_ _ _ _ _ _----.:-_ _

111e point mas.es attract each other anywhere in the universe. This force of attraction ia called gravitalional force. According to Newton's law of gravitation, the force of attraclion betwee., two point

r r 111. value of Gia 6.67_10'" Nm' kg" and it has djmenoion. of (M-' L" .T4). The gravitational force i. a central force, it act. along the line joining !;he two point maaaea.

maNe. at a diotance'r i. given




"'2 r

= -Gr;m2 r

The force of gravitation i. both ~ i.e.

that r.~.111e mass which cheracterioe. oppoaition (r.oiotancel to accaleration under a rorce given by Newton'. law r - rna ia \mown aa inertial maas ..... 111e lila. . which characterise. the graVitational force on the body i. called the gravitational in_ ...... Under ordinasy copditiono the inertia1ll1Uo of a body and it. gravitalional maaa are equal. However, if the speed of motion become. comparable to the speed of light the inertial mass will change. Weight iathe gravitalional force acting on a body due to the Earth (planet) - ..... 111e acceletal:ion couaed by gravity in a freely fa11ing body i. called accaleration due to gravity 'g. 111e 1IaiUf> of 'g at altitude h i. given by g' - 9 (1 - ~I RJ 111. value of g change. with latitude A. and i. given by g-g -Gi'R.coaA. The motion of pbineto around the Sun io governed by Kepler'. law. I'In1t Z- : Each planet move. around the Sun in elliptical orbito. s ....... Z-: 111e line joining the Sun and the plariet """"'P. equa1 areas in equal interva1. of time. ThInf 1.-: The aquare of the time ~od of revolution i. direc:tJ.y pn>portional to the cube of it. average distance from the SWl. 7" '" .. The... law. are equaJly applicable to the motion of satellites aa welL 111e orbital velocity of a satellite i. given by


attraota "" and .... attract.



=~GME r-

= 1?E



For satellite. clooe to the Earth orbital wlocity io

"0 '" .J9 RE

8 k:m 0"

Eacape velocity no the valoc:ity of P"'!iecfion on the Earth with ....hich a body can eacape out of the gravitational field of the planet or the SWl.

".. - .j2gR"

-.J2,,0 -1l.2k:m

.-1 for Earth.

The period of motion of satellite

no given by

Geoatationaly utellite ia a satellite which remains fixed over a certain point on the surface of, the Earth. It. period of rotation i. equal to the period of rotation of the Earth about ito own axia that i. 1 cJ-.y, The height at which a geootationaty satellite ,. placed ail""" the aurf""" of the Earth ia ailout 36,000 km. For a stabl. orbit, the geoatationaty satellite should remain in the equitorial plane.


Gravitational Motion


TERMINAL QUESTIORS,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

State and explain Newton's law of gravitation.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Can gravitationa1 force be repulsive? Two artificial satellite, one'loner to surface and the other away, are revolving round the e~. which one haa longer period of revolution? Which for~e keeps an artificial satellite revolving in its orbits? Does

orbital velocity of a satellite depend upon its rnaaa?

Is the escape velocity lOr two bodies of different masse. on the aurface of earth same ' or ditrerent?

7" S. 9.

State Kepler. laws of planetary motion. Derive Kepler'. law8 using Newton'. laws of gravitation and hi. laws of motion. If two muse. SOx 107 kg and 40 x 107 kg respectively are placed at a distance of 6.67 m, calculate the orc::e of a.ttraction between.

10. Aaauming Earth to be spherically symmetrical, detennine the value of g at a height 0.13. 10 m above ita surface. Take the maaa of the earth M. - 5.97 x 10" kg and it. radius R. - 6.37 10 m. 11. Would you be able to stand on Jupiter where the value of acceleration due to gravity i. about 3 time. that on the Earth? ' 12. There i. a planet called Egabbac in another solar system whose radius i. twice that of the Earth but maaa dewoity is same as that of the Earth. If the acceleration of a falling body on that planet is 19.6 ma-4, does it obey the law of gravitation? 13. Show that the m .... of a planet is given by m - r 2 giG, where g i. the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the planet ofradf'us ~p' p 14. Find the period of a satellite 40,000 Ian from the centre of Earth. Mas. of Earth 5.98 x 10" Irg. 15. Considering the m .... of the Moon as 7.4 x 10" kg and radius as 1740 10' m, calculate the value of 9 on the surface of the moon. 16. The acceleration of gravity at the surface of a planet is half that on the surface of the earth. If the radius of the planet is half the rarlills of the earth, how is its mass related to the mas. of the earth? 17. An astronaut weigh. 100 kg on the earth. What is hi. weight on a planet x which has

RE a radius .. - and am....





ME --? 8

18. Calculate the escape velocitr on the surface of the moon. Given, mass of the moon 1.35 x 1CJ22 kg and radius of moon - 1.60 x 10 m. 19. An artificial satellite i. revolving around the earth at height of 800 Ian above the surl'ace of the parth. Find ita orbital velocity and the time period of revolution. 20. Mars has a mean diameter of 6,720 Ian and earth of 12,800 km. The mass of Mars is 0.11 time. the m ...... of.earth. (a) What i. the ell<:llpe velocity on Mars? In) How does the mean dewoity of Mars compare with that of earth? (e) What is the ....uue of g on Mars?


iH'BXTQnaTIO.S 5.1 1. All bodiea'-we considered to be point muses 2. The acceleration of "\ will be negligible flection couple - tonional couple Torque - force x'moment ann, i.e.''C - Fa I also Torque ~ - 01, Equating we ha"" Fa 1- 011 5. 3.41 100m

(....... - ,,\.y

(iilE./16 4. 6.64 " 10"'" Nm2 lqr' [Hint: In equilibrium condition the de3. (i19P'a


1. The two mas... are measured by different techniques.


2. No difference.
3. The two masses will be equal as the speed of the elevator is small compared to the

speed of light.
4. Weight depends on the value of 9 which

varies with place, altitude depth etc.



1. a- F/m is constant as Foe m. 2. At the equator, aa the weight will be mea sured les8 there. 3. lb-ft' (alug)" 4. 2.5>10'" 5. 0.15 mr, 12 N

which proves Keplers third law of motion and also ,Newton's taw of gravitation i. proved. 2. Yes 3. At the perihelion that is when it is closest to the Sun. 4. Because planets obey Kept."s third law of mation. TI oc r-, mercury haa minitnum rand Pluto maximum II - 21<r1 T.
5. (a)

1.33 x 10"", 1.33 x 10"", 1.32 x 10", 1.34 > 10"', 1.32 > 10"", 1.33 x 10:10 m 3 .-a The result shows that a c R2 is constant

IBIIiXT QUBsTIOIiS 5.4 1. Areas of Triangle made by radius 'h " v,


(b) '14,




-IhT V2 2

(b) Yes ratio r"/T' i. almost constant.



mr2 v2

IBTBXT Q"OESTlOlliiJ 5.5 1. 6.04 > 10" kg.

2. 1.90 > 10" kg. 3. No. 4. 6 times higher compared to the Earth. 5. 409 days.

(c) Venus and Naptune

(d) Mercury and Pluto (e) 1.33 > 10"", 1.32 > 10"", 1.327 > 10>0,



Gravitational field is defined as some modification or a condition in the space around a point mass. This field acts on any other mass m placed anywhere in the field. The field
intensity is defined as the force acting on a unit mass in the field. So, the field

Fa i. 1=l'lm. On the Earth 1- - = g


GM. The g;avitationallield intensil or simply field ia thus, 9 = - R2 r

, It ia a vector field which acts towards mass M. The general form of the field intensil is

GM given by.- - - r

It has the dimensions of acceleration and is independent of the mass point m but depends on the mass M which ~ created the field. The force acting on a point mass m in the field



rill PateatW Br ...,

Tbe g;avitational potential energy of a point """'" ia due to ita locaIion in the gravitational field. The potential eneqy difference ia found by calndating the wmk done in taking a unit point mass &om one point in th.. field to anotIieI' point . . . .st the gravitationallield. It can be ahown either by numerical method or in~ that the potential energy of a mass m

in the field ofmass Jlat a di_ _ ,from ilia'given by

It must be noted that the P.E is taken zero at infinity.

rr- - 6,-


. . .1' "maI .........

If a body ia to be taken from any point near ita .wfao:e to a far 011 point, ..,.,rk has to be done on it against earth's g;avitational puU. However, if the _ process i. to be accomplished i.e. the, _ body , ia to be brought from a far 011 point to a point n ..... the surface of the earth, worl< ia done on it by the earth. The tota1 amount of worl< done OIl a unit maasbody to brine it from infinity to a point n ..... the surface of earth is called gn",;.tational potential at that point.

w.. know that the earth atI:racaI ......ybocI;y to...a:d. ita centre.


'_-l.ni?b!J~? -)"1J-> ~J-'N H<~r;


'1fq nT".!') ',I' I 3"'}~ll~:':-: 'nlSiTI rtf ':.i"trrlJ' ino'}! 'J;f1 'V.!J "V! :rru .rjJ'-~ir;~n -!o gl>r.! .~ grUfn!.,n -,;, 'Y},' [rId"/.' ,L(1 .:rho1: lr;-in-)(fI ~~f1wb T1t; '.'l! ~i ;d10'11 ':)riJ ,hf;,i nl :t\: f~';d;:'; \,'~:li'_:9.J~ -0-1 lij;i lJ~"d~ ,,~dq GL ~.!'Il qu 11 d,[ 1fr <".:i ,j,/;,
-qR 9~'I6) ')dr~n (.J':'[tTfqn ,.Hi! :rl,
. Hf~::')b ,!~ tl. 'nJiI .. < ~,..r t'~J

h<}fi')f'id~ ,;:'.~.(:_ rOn!!!n






')J:J f-;

) ire'.]..-: r:, V) 3d fHi > ') f!(J! ., :-j

r .II Jill,



;:m()~) .6
'(1 "



;hoW J f .. a
rU ;'.

-Gib ~ 2"-')'IOn:: 'WUO?] dtim f'g{aqr

j'f-;rj!W0RH{).A;RD.EDRGY ',<", ';','


'urff'rnl . s"

,gil' ",p rT' , ,'. - ,'-d











_ _._

l'~ - "'n i _ __ ._ .". ---1


-",,' _ "

Until now we have sbldied the motion of objects in ter!Iut of Newton's laws of motion. Force plays ~ k~_ ~.le in determining th,!t~J.tt state motion of these objects. But Sf ~ it is not easy to apply N~'s second law to find the change in, speed (lnagnitude-ofmstantaneous've1ocity).


~-'h i, j .t': ':;!:T-'l fl.';) '}VI (One Ilfthe facts about energy is that it has manyfQl'mlilil Weneec:\to lrnder-

In this lesson we will iLtrod~tbe conc~WDFk.and-el/..ergy and use them to study the changes oecuring in a . Energy and momentum are significant ~cah, qu_titjftS as they ankClltns~,Lawslof vonservation of energy and linear momentum are,wlecliil)umtcvatane\iDgrmany processes we observe around us.

stand a few fOnna.BkrJlltiWltitj .... gyandpotenli.Jlenergy;ofa1sys1J!iD..

~<f~~~cfm'Ce'i'eDi~'IJy .. ~\8l'e'~to

-W!\u~~&It~1 Ol"ldfteti~~8i\'d\lt@fi\~'1h some physical systems. ,h""vm




-Mei'iilu'a.jingthia'lCisoll.I'}mISbOUld' ):jtj,>able"'.to,' '" h,', :La "lq,","l<3 ikfine and calculate the work doTfi!"'by\'a'Y6~" - ,'."" ',','"" "';,\ define and calculmethe k:inetUtfllllliirgg'orandJ.Jec*;"',h ,)f"': uci;,,!c<o stateaJfd'~~.~'tIuioriml;" '., ,:. ,,,' '" .J") ""oj; definepowerofGsystempeifomringworkandrecognisells~ define consen.oo.tive force and relate the work doMliy'it 01\ a system with the change in its potelltioJ energy; \, ' \. < ' \ ',' ! i define potentio.l energy and obtain expressions fist' ~tfal potentioJ energy and elastic potentio.l energy; , i, () state and apply the prindple ofOllnsenircztionc1/~~oI'G

'Jttuh CIPPIlI~..ti~etlirv-.tmo~cmdc-WiPl!cfollisiim

ODns~~l'OW 'Srl:t rl:lirlV{.. no <:70::t:::lJ'll state ..,... aP'PlilfM l'ciW oJ OIInseT11CmOn OJ energy; and






We use the word 'work' in many senses. For example when we are studying we are doing mental work but when we are carrying a bag of cement upstairs or lift it up we do physical work against gravity. In fact, the work is done only when the object gets displaced in the direction of the force applied. The force can be 'constant or variable. Let us study it in detail.

6.3.1 Work Done by a Constant Force

Let us consider a constant force F acting ouan object that moves a distanced along a straight line; see Fig. 6.1. Fmakes an angle 6 with respect to displacement d. We derme the work W done by the constant force F on the object as it under goes the displacement d by the relation

I W= Fdcos 61





6.1 : The work done by' on. the object in a displacement d is Fd oos 9.

n... component ofF "kong d is F oos

We can write Eq (6.1) as W= (Fcos6) d=F11d (6.2) Where F'l is the component of Falong d (refer Fig .6.1). The worlle done by a constantforee on an object is the product of the component of the force along the direction of motion and the distance mo'/led. In Vector form the work done is given by W= Fdcos e = F.d

Example 6.1: Calculate the work done byaforee F placement of 2 m vertically upward.

(4i + 3J)N in a dis-

Solution :The displacement d = ,(2m)). We use Eq. (6.3) to calculate work done. Accordingly we have W = F. d = (4 f + 3 J) . (2 J) = 4 t. (2 J)+ 3 J . 2 J = (0 + 6) N.m ,.; 6 J. Work done by the given force is 6 J.

6.3.2 The factors on which the work depend

If an object does not move under the action of a force " then the work done by the force, W= 0 because d= 0 in Eq. (6.1). For example, you push very


Work and Energy . .

hard against a wilD, but the wall does not move, then you have done no work. ExertiIig force is not to be confused with work being donel ",.; _ _ claD

It is esseritialto understand that the work done by a force as given in Eq. (6.1) depends not onlY. on mqnitudes of ,and d but also on the angle It latbeworkdoaebyt between the two vectors , and d. Depending 011. tile value of the angle 8, ou:tJDc on ~161)""u the work done by a force on an object am be positive, negative or even to ......dote IV_I zero.


-- Valt of _rk: From the defining equation of work, Eq (6.1), the 81 unit of work is' the Newton.metre iN:.m) which is given a special name, the Joule (J). o-~ ill ~ _tIw _rlt _ _ . . .J - of- n.wton iii dt8p1ardng tIw '-'II ". one metre in tIw _ "" -tiM. 1 Joule - (1 Newton) (1 metre) 1 J - 1 N.m.
~,. 6.2: A person lifts a bag of mass 5 kg. raising it vertically, with . negligible acceleration to a height of I m above the ground. . a} What is the foree, eJrerled by the man on the bag? b) How1rtUch worIt is done by the man on the bag? c) How much worIt is clone by the gravitatit:mllljoroe on the bag?

Boilltloa: 'is the force exerted by the man on the bag. , - -mg(:..... 0). The resultant or net force on the bag , must,;pe zero.; seelig 6.2. i.e, .1'1 - I mgl- 5 kgx 9.8 ms-a F-49 N.


The force exerted by tile person on the , bag is 49 N (verticaIJ,yupward).


a" 0

From Eq (6.1), the work Wpdone by the person onthe bag. is IP-ven "'" by W;-Fdcoa8 (49 N) (1 m) (cos 0). lPI&a.a I AJhlo ..... dlagramof"'" bag, -.49J. The w'ork done by the pelSOll on the bag is 49 J.


The work WI done by the gravitationaHorce on the bag, ~ (6.1) is W -.Fdcosu - (mg) d.coa (180) -(49N) (1 m) (-1) - -49J. The work done by the gravitation8J. force on the bag is - 49 J.

6.3.3 Work Do. . by._ V.nab1e, ~l'Ce

Let llS consider a case in whiCh Jtxj v8Jyjllg with the Jlt)aitioI1 JC of the object(s} see Fig 6.3. We ,lrish to calcuhite, the ''irork, done by, Jtx) in the interval Xjand x,. The work done is calculated aver a number of intervals of displacement width A chosen small enough so thIlt It-"I can be cOnsidered ~t. (See fig 6;3 a). 105

on .,nob
(d .s-aob *,OW -t.n
~ntns f;~,tollo


It,,rl1 ,.,vum 10ft '" b ILsw "ill tud .Ils 's 1znisllS b"lBri I:>~o 8fbd >l"lOW b~eul . 0" .,d 0' jon 'no1 ;gni:h"x3



,(do I1R flO '{ji!ClJO~ltJrum " ~rl.1 '{d ~(]Ob 1I1ow ~fl' ~i !1, .:to Rfli1::>S .~"\.\. l ~u ~w U .(3) noltallp3 ! ,..,VI ~JJ.ILnis.:J 0.1

.p3 ni

F It'>'lrn


nob :;how cit

llB 'Il.




e ,,18m; ,,[11 ,e "lgllB ,,/it

'io e bu'

yJno ,t'~~~~l(1.i))

wt"d .,dt





done by the restoring f o r c e - ' : /l 7!oq 5lJB"l"VS) "I of the spring is equal to the area., . \ . bounded by , _ -1Oi!~!tficfdf.) II<> i,,,,:n.,'1 '" ''lOW ""mrbsm fIi ordinates X. and x,. . Xi fl : W



Tl1erfhet(l~1hyItbt; ~.qHnl. ,:)'lloq '10 n~1j!I:'jb

. ~~~
'II 10

acts ,agjimjfJtbei diilpJaccuoqlaJduo[. = !1!HWj "l"'Ho ,'." i'rrtrr

~";:1'1SllW' 'l1iiFJarHrt~J&03~OJ1bOL I ai'l"""ofr.io


R,,~WJ.JrP8:tLW-" " '. :l~i orlw tl"W e"msL 1 "luonod oi (W) 'II taChe to whlfe strererunglt m " . , 1 1 1 fl" m.s j to X. (extension in Fig 6.5) is negative ::I " "


wll-,a.fl .


from Eq (6.1), because 'and dare ~6.I11 G ... _ , .... iiik h ji~(I.j O~CM!Mlh.~1.,O" 10 lurlJ sJ lrlW,:{"if~.brtli"",tJlrbl ":liGJTl,,mmo:)

FtfJIi! Rqf6T.'IW~6'P"Wtlli~ di6>~i i",nirbGm s '~d b~silrJU ~l"n., 10 W- Area of the shaded region in Fig 6.5 .Hil'llO[i.;.! 1 10 .,hn !nBJ2nC:l
W- Sum of area of the rectangle and.~ ~!I'~

ii,t-5. rlW){ I


J"~(xrUX[J.!(Jcr"'IJ\'}l(bsf''.II4qf)l WI\ ,olu", h, -1>-.0 slqnmx3.

2 ]

~.. _iH tr \!ll 3non

....... , .... , .... "




Physics day. However, quite often time factor involved in work done is to be considered in many situations. In order to give a measure to a quantity that involves both work and time required to achieve it, we introduce the concept of po_. We define power as til. tfme rr;rte ojdofng _ric. If an amount of work Wis carried out in time t, then the average power P of the agent doing work is given as P(average power) -

W t


In machines where work is earned out at a constant rate WePt .

Acco~ tq the definition of power from Sq. (6.8), the unit of power is that ofwotkPj;;1.lnit time. Power (Watt) = Joules per second. i.e. W- J/s. , In SI.utiits, the 1UIlt of power is 1 Joule per second. This unit isclilled watt (W) in honour of James Watt who is 'credited with 'the development of


1 W = IJs- l Commercially kilowatt - hour (1 kWh) (a unit ,of energy taken from the rate of energy utilized by a machine) is the work done in one hour working at a c:mstant rate of 1 kilowatt
1 kWh 3.6 )( 10'J - 3.6 MJ.
J:ulm,pr. 6.4: A motor has its power rating as 1.5 Kw. How much UJOJ"k is done by it in 2 hours.
lIo1V.tloD: Work done W .. p)( t [from Sq. (6.8)1

W - 1.5 kW )( 2 h - L5)( 2 kWh

- 3 )( 10' W )( 60 )( 60 s - 10.8 MJ.

Now, it is the time to check how much you have understood. Try to answer the fonov8ing questions;

INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __




State, clearly with reaaon, if the fonoWing quantities of worle ere positive, zero or ne,ative. (II) work done ~ a perSon in 10wering a hac containing food pn.. (hI ~ it';';;; by the I!J"""itational force on the hac while it is being put down on the . sround . . . (el ....... dane by the force o-f' friction on a book Jyihg on the table.


II. box ia pwohed alcmg a hem-tal ourI'ace ~ a force of 5 N OWl' a diatance of 2 m. . ," " ..... much work ia done on the box, if the force _lied i. paralled to the lIlll'face?
.................................................................. h ........ .. ................ .


An object UJi.Ies .... a diIp'_t d- (3t+.4Jmwbi\e a force , - (4f- 2j N acta. How much work ia done by the force?
, . , " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u;, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Work and &ergy

4. A spring of apring ...",.uu,.t k - 100 Nm-I i. compre8lled by 2 em by .... block to it. How much work does tbe spring do on tbe block? .. .
~ ....................................... u





When we see an object (say a ball) at rest on a horizontal surface and some later see it moving with a certain speed, we conclude that a force must have acted on it from Newton's second law. Has work been performed on it? If so, how much? Can we calculate the amount of work that has been performed on an object in terms of the change in its state of motion? We attempt to relate work with change in state of a body in motion in this section.



Fig 6.6 : The work done by the force F_ oue,. the displacement d on the object W _ .. , _ d.
The velocity Dfthe object ~s from v. to P, in the displacement.

Consider the situation in which a constant net force I'.e' acting along the displacement d of a body of mass m. See figure 6.6. The work done W. e, by the net force ' .... ' from Eq. (6.1) we have W.e, = Ed cos e = Fnet d cos (0) i.e. W.et = Friel d = mad (F net = mal

= m (ad)
Wnet ="~ I 2 ; ' .. .1'


v 2)

(v 2 = v2 + 2 ad) f

(6.9) The left hand side of Eq (6.9) is the work done by the net force F Get or the net work W..,. The right hand side of Eq. (6.9) is the difference of the quantity

~ mri' associated with the object at initial and fmal points.

We defme


mri' as the kfnetk: energy(K) of an object of mass m mov-

ing with speed v.

a -








Tht:"Work 40ne

by"~'feft!t':m *I!;p~

W, jsftiom Wmk...Eil.ergy

given ,by Eq (6.9).", ;,~,,,,W ...;,~,":w.t:' J:!"v!,',~,\W,q, ~,l"tt~;"f"So,


,; ,; ,


Note that work done IS negative. "I,,"' 0'' '0,;,,[; Distance tnoved while the force acts iIiI;~~~~}l~ ~1,(6,.!), W-Fdcos 6

We have found that the wor~.d~e,by,th,e~,f~~ is42~, ,give:q, ~t the force opposing the motion, &;"180" Subs'tittiting the vaIues ofF, kna 6, 42J -4 N;d.cos (180) - 4N.d

23:)S! O~!,


i.e, d = ~ = 105 m


The work done by woman, W- Fd COli 8

f1:om Eq.

(6,1) is,

_. , " -".

~~';;:k'~~~;:'f~~!~~,~.~!~lO:~'2:~' W-16-Q'J.\'-' , ,q" " .. , "_

llCr~I~()cl-(~I .. ,. ,,'~i, .


t l ..


From enerv theolem ofEq. (6.11)

we have


III tbe~[irilla1i~fkti.*'~ ill'W.~8'e1i~i~:y'Ails~aII tMh"the{\fotlt dooe by woman. So we cOnclude that lIODI.e other force is ~volved in the net work. '1'II.e net force ia Ie.. than the force dertedby"~e 'IIrOIDiIft; the ,other Coree actini.pinst the Corce oC woman. Frictions! force is involvedl
Stop, lind try to 1IO~~!t6~q\ie~b. 'lr'yi,i.!'.:n;'i1hableto'u* theae questions correctly, read the previous aection.,m. , H






"")1:' Ii l".'J






. ~L)" II,~i.uu ,;';'"(~".io')')' ~ ......... ~'1..,.-.j) HhC';' ., ..'O)_i.;o .iH (~.. _ 0' ~ .;. ~.~ It"''-'' ........ !. ":!' I , .:,:,,,~tI "",,:* ~ !' ~_ iI ,.lIo ~I.I.




rma z .,,-,


2. How much work is done on a body if the increaae in kinetic energy is 4.50 J .

3. A block moving With a kinetic energy of 100 J comes to rest while moving on rough horizontal surface
(a) Which froce does work on it?

(b) How much is the work done by it on the block?

...................................................................... ......................... ................................




In this section we will examine three forces - elastic force (spring force), gravitational force and the kinetic frictional force with regard, to the work I?erformed by them in a round trip. i.e, let us calculate the work done by each one of them on object,

(a) in taking it from an initial position to a final position, in a path:

(b) bringing it back to the same initial position in the same path, as a

simple situation to deal with.

Aforee is said to be conservative if it does no net work on an object in a round trip for any conservative foree.
W.." =

W; ...2 + W2 ...1

= 0


We have discussed the work done by the spring force in section 6.3 and from Eq (6.7), the work done is given, W = -"2k(x,- x, ) where Xl and x, refer to the final and initial position coordinates. The work done by the spring in taking it from position 1 to 2 ~
2 2

1. Elastic (Spring) Force:

1 ""' 2-\. W; ...2 = "2"\X}



and while it is brOUght back from position 2 to 1 (initial position).

The net work done by the spring in the round trip

W.., = Hi"'2 +~"'1 =0.

Therefore, the elastic force is a conservative force. We could have obtained, the same result, by substituting, Xi for the entire trip, in Eq. (6.7) directly. .


Consider the motion of a ball, ihrown ver~ tically up; during both upward and downward motion till it comes ba:ck to initial position. In this case also the net work done by the gravitational force on the ball in the round trip is zero, henQC it is a conservative force.

2. Gravitational force :


Work and EneI'gy So, when a ball moves up and comes down to its initial position, the net work done by the gravitational force acting on it is zero.. Try to verify it yourself.

3. lI'rictlonal force : If we consider the frictional force acting on a

body, then we find that the frictional force does negative work while moving from postiltn one to second

Jr..... =FdcosfJ=F,dcos(I800)
- -F,d. For the return trip

w, ..., =FdcosfJ=F, (d)cas(180")

as frictional force acting on a body always opposes the movement (and therefore against).
The net work done by frictional force on the round trip is non zero. Therefore, the frictional force is a non-conservative force.

foreean4. ~_lforee ",.. conaeruatfue forces u.frlctfo-lforee fa CI ftOftoCOIUNtl'llatflleJ_.


Thus from the above examples we notice that the work done by a conservative force is ~.. (or recapturable) in the sense that if the work is.. done "" an object on something else in one part of its path, an equivaI.Cnt amount of work will be done on the object in its return path.. For example, in the case 01" a spring force, the work done on the spring ill deforming it is recovered when the spring comes back to its original configuration (shape and size). Simjlarly, in the caSe of a ball moving up, the work done on the ball in raising it to a certain height is equal to the ~ork done by" the gravitational force on the ball (recovered) in its downward journey. The work done against conservative forces are recapturable where as it is not so in the case of non-conservative forces. That is why non-conservative forces also known as ....fpat .... foiea.


We will find it useful to relate work done by conservative force and potenttal .,..,., of a system where it operates. This is dealt in the next section.

kamp" 6. .,: The spring oonstant of a spring is 16001'lm-1 CalCulate the work done by the spring.
ii) iii)'

0 (equilibrium pOsition) to x, - 0.1 xi -Otox,-0.2m

Xi -

x. - 0.2 em to x,- 0.1 m-

ill) FUu:l the sum ofwork done by the spring in (ii) and (iii),

Comparv it with your CUI8WI!r in (i).

iii) What do you inter from it?

~~hI1H ;hoW ""'uMP~0i1i20q lsillJli 211. oj I1'Nob 2"mOJ btrn qa a!lVom Ilsd B n"dw .08 \1 '(1WRt'~~ I?Yrtkt;,~IIPR8 !fRJB~?1fn7r},n()dBlivBTS "dt '{d "nob >how

. i> f1Us'tf~lJJ?;)1U1thsn~~pil1 k,riJ l:Jbl.flO:J ?wl1 : s~)'Iollsnoi:t:;,h'll .S

W; = --t(xf


2 .


_ -Y. x 1600 Nm- I x 0.01 m'
WI - - BJ.

"ill l.mH bail ?W a?ri1 ,~bod bII0""2 01 "no no1iaoq mO"I18ItrJom

("08 OGO~ \) ;.\ = Saw \;';\. = ,... ill

.h (l- = qh:l mu:t~,., "ill '10"1


Similarly for Ai - 0 to X. - 0.2 m W; - -Yo x 1600 Nm- I [(0.2 m)' - 0') - - Yo x 1600 x 0.04 J.

W; - - 32 J. . iii) Likewise, for ~ - 0.2 m to

bf!tll\Vi"'~l~'f{o!!{.y... (Wog'~ 8 ni1 ,)B ",:nollsnoi1::lh1 a8

x.- O.lm.

(008J)wo(\;) {.\ = S200 \l.\ =


- - 800 Nm- I (0.01 m' - 0.04 m O)

.(:tanis).l8 "'Iol",.,,,ill

. ,''''''''-1 ""fjSV'l52n<J?-nofl Ii ai ,,::nollsnoi1oh1 "ill ."'101 Net work, done by the spring in stretching from equilibirum poaition "., .nltirllf8IJ't\ ~Bi'1Md'~ra"l:ft'\d~BtA1!FpIlraf.M.)?:no\ :)lUDl:l. - W, + W. - - 32 J .p~'lJ;w13n,"9&!~o:).non n 21s::no\!nnolbh\_

.:n"J);JjQ9 ~J~r~rqR\'~~91~ "ill no ,,:nollsnoihhl '{d "nob )['10W hn "ciT


5'lDOn 5W e"lqlI1Bx5 5vodE "ill mO'I12wfT ....J"''I'tW~~ t!ie {I_~tI""":addlil~ljltrn -"'JII}iolc1siHOdl(6'l:Itm'PtiliSoiti'filtM. . .DttMP.!IUiW~111W<two ........,.e byit~~~iPo ~l>,g9n~dtftDfjft~to~

-'~?f!'l)"i ~ 5nob )how '}cH


'>JlJ ,~.ndmdtlDt)Ftlie!JlllllYl ~.ibt:IltiD~llq8rla) noi1s11l8a

-vi.,'! Net~igI:th.:apri".~QIIQt~"w'laiwl_""

grHf,~ ttW"flG :mob )/'10W .. nt


~nhq2 S

to 928::1 "ill ni ."Iqm.sx" 'IO"!

)NO N "fl ti!tigrta ~~m~MM,Qi"l$.tfiea! lIe~a1iIirW'aiiiFa~ ~d~"~!j "'1 n< (')""~'/O-li;-i)" rfcro;illno 5::>'Yol isnoDB1ivE'Il! "ill '{d "no,

mAtlQ~Qll'" e)3 Idl .Judsv 1321105 J21iiBgH 5itub >1 tbW 511 [
"1l,rtllOltillllN . . . . lIfho ri 't"d.1)...,1fiIIcfltlaii&lilL:4uw:J-non 10 :;.,ll::> "ilia! 02 ion by the 1I'I"'itati...w force on '-':'-'0\ 9IfliDq,t&iUb 2 nworul oew ,,'IS 2"'l'l01
,fIOl r'-ji ?

wJult i8 the ,I)~, .1JlII'k clone, by F"1(itatiozW force , "Ill! ''\In,,iIil''wi in ltl1~fd~P9' Qlmq2 n \0 lrm1",,0') \1fmq<,- "In: : ~.i' 9! ....................................................,............................ .\!f~nqe ~r\1 \!d 9

in m ilon.ontally .!~ AS &om A to B. ~B Y). ,ft~~~V1ciIIIA is'IQi1t:?ill{''1 oJ luhell


:Ii bna lliw 5 W '




n 51"rlw


8 10 \!'Q~_91



............................. .. ....... ............................... ,......... ..............................................

~ ~




1.r.Drahrp1lrl6.r~ A?l.Oriqf'Jul-isfplbeed<mD~.a.iicrtkaboUe,meftoorii6/

room which is 10 m above the ground.


IBiJn:>roq 1""00'
< . .


Find the potential energy associated with load. . . T T with re~rM:t fQ the ahM ~ . ~ t>.o aMOIT83U9 rX3:TVI.
bJ,,~m~,tg ~lflt~,fPfm)+e,.,;<!".", c) with respect to the sutjace a/the earth.
............ " ... , ...... .,. . . . .

<> M""'!" ';.":


.c",,, .. ,,

"' .... -...

eSblH B

.. ....... U';;"mgy where";;f is' 'the 'inass, .'II' is the liertical' poSitiotf c60tditiate of t!re~tl'Pte.i!t'''I:b; ~I:!e'~t lleirig"ltll kt'1'llmd"levc!l,

"i'1I1~Bifnqa ae_sm 10) '.:a"l~1}~ !FOt1n~JOQ eli 11iw b!:l'n::,h,-u'::" ",i ::iniy.f}~ a) Potential energy as gIven by Eq.

!!,.:_ ' ...


i.e., Uz 0 (qr.:y=!!=rS"'lQ
.cit .. ,



"<:0. '1n:~b


1c _,:::, __ [~ "')['11 ~;[



U= 10 kg x 9.8 ms-:;J x 12.5 m ':;1j :~n ~fl'oh 141~"J; ......... 9.'.::'..2.45 J ........ ... ......... . .. c) ... U .... !.O.kg.x. 9 .S.m.:..x.12.S..m..... . ...... = 12~SbI!('lq b.~x.shn e"~ moit m':.J Of ~~d b9rf:~1~'12 ~j jrT.~.V; b)
lI'6lifj>:t Pateii:tJIdtBaW*,,"o)

1~'1J ~dt ....~
f.6t' ...,



';,~ _~j,nqe



cilu;i. ;'til 'cd

0<:01, ", ,b,w "',",,, 'N,,'\


.. Wlumall

. erll.tion}........

it. say;!!. cpn:;;ider a mass m on the surface.;Q(~F ~NtM Bt;V!~~Jl.Wc f} p,~t siH~~~ (Vfiithout any acclerationl), Then"'the applied force J:, = ' . '/because there IS no accel-


....... ....

..... ..


...... .. .

~ee~l::)OJq ~dt iIi

~1'9H') :J,lln"~Q'~ ~H ':1~atirl.: ~rit



The work done by the external agent from Eq (6.1).


- my h cos (0) - myh

Physics The external agent does mgh amount of work on the mass m. But the mass m hasn't gained any speed. What happened to the work done by the agent on the mass in lifting it? The answer is the work done mgh has been 'stored'. in the earth-mass system. It is potentially available. All we need to do is to extract it to let.go of the mass. The mass will drop down a distance h. The kinetic energy acquired in the fall is,
K= Y. mrf' K= mgh.

= Y.

m (2 gl1)

Thus, the work done by the agent in changing the configuration (relative position of mass - earth system) is recovered during the faIl of mass m (original configuration). The energy potentially _flab,. by the ufrtIa! oj posftfon oj mass m with respect to the earth fa known (IS graDItational potential energy oj mass - earth system. Likewise, a .wound-up watch spring, for example, has potential energy. For as it unwinds, it does work to move the hands of the watch. The watch spring acquired its potential energy because work was done on it by the person in winding up (chaning the configuration of spring watch system). Potential energy is associated with a system, and not with a single particle. When conselVative forces perform work in a system, potential energy of a system changes. Only changes in potential energy do count in calculating work done (see Eq 6.13). Now, solve the following questions and check how much you have learnt about potential energy.

IN'rEXT QUESTIONS 6. 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

When a maaa spring is compressed will its potential energy increase or decrease?

...................................................................... .........................................................


When a mass spring is stretched will it. potential energy (of m ..... spring) decrease?

.......................................................................................................................... ......


A body of mass 4 kg is lifted vertically by 2 m at con_tant 8peed, by a penoon.

(a) what i. the amount of work done by the person on the body? (hI how much work is done by the gravitational force on the body? (cl what i. the change in the gravitational potential energy of the system body-earth. (dl what i.r. the net work done on it?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~o' . \

....................................................................................................................... .........,


A .pring (k - 1400 Nm'1 ill stretched by 10 an from ita relaxed position. (al how much work is done by the elastic farce of the spring on the asent atretching it?

(hI how much wark i. done by the asent on the spring?

(el what is the change in potential energy in tho PJ:OCe..?


Work and




Consider a system in which only conseIVRtive forces perform work (such as mass - spring or ball- earth system). We have then, from work-energy theorem ofEq. (6.11).
Wcon =IlK

Where Wro.. refers to the work done by a conservative force. We have from the defining relationship ofEq (6.13).
Wron =-Ilu

where Wcon refers to the work by conservative force. Combining the above two equation we have

In other words, for-a system in which- a conservative force does work, we can write ilK + IlU= 0 (6.14) What does the above equation (6.14) mean?
In any process, if the kinetic ensrgy of the sysWin inc:reases, the potential ensrgy decreases by an equal amount and vice wrsa.

We define a quantity E, called the mechanical ensrgy of a sYstem as the sum of kinetic energy K and potential energy U. E=K+U (6.15) We then write Eq. (6.14) in the modified form as IlE = 0 (Conservative forces only) (6.16) The mechanical energy of a system remains a constant. This is called the principle of consenratfon of mechanical ensrgy for conservative forces. In other words, the mechanical energy of a system is comieroed, meaning it neither increases nor decreases. Now we see the reason for the name 'conservative force" : for such forces ~orking on a system the mechanical energy is conserved or remains a constant. Let us now consider an example for the use of conservation of mechanical energy.

Example 6.8 : A toy car comes down a slide (see Fig. 6.7) a/height 1 mfrom point A. Calculate (a) the speed a/the car al the point Band (b) the height at which it will have half the speed a/the bottom Solution: (a) Applying law of conservation of mechanical energy, from Eq (6.17)
i.e. I;' mvA' + mgy, ~ Y. mvs' + mgyB. Substituting VA = 0; YA = 1 m and Ys = 0,
E, =



6': t:li9.8 ms-') (1 m)

= Y. mvs' Cancelling the mass 'Tri, we find Vs' = 1!}.6 m 2 s-' :. Ii =4.43ms- 1 B Speed of the car at the point B is 4.43 ms- I

~_~_~__ -="._

down a slide.



..... ".[j., . .}.,."


1."., "-)



- .

Notice that the ..n"Ah~. I / f , - A~I, . Jm""".....d I.. 2 .. the bookj could not-b;-;;;;:r to'';;l~r\ti.;'~'Il'''J}.t(m;-'~w~:H:bn .~n6rrl'J constant . . lllide i. irregular in 1ili~ ~d[lIdi.lI~Hnu,Wrl.'~'.lojlw_n()' illustrate. the ulOefuln_ of the principle of conservation of mech...u..l~,

! -~-



;; .iwritllOi/&li ihto' 'oibMiikiitiiiff Ht'.h~~ itt'et&'fIiI' ~!f..&l.rlJiliNrtlSW.i D


_ d law (work energy theorem, in particularl "'" can apply this princ:iPl'rw fT.S' i I . """oervation of mechanical energy to solve problema without havit)&tQ JlI>~ fOrce and aa:eleuotion which ""'" ill A compt;~d way. 1


'-\nr<J~rr I,+"


nur1BCj-'"') 'j'!OOb


B'JOb H;d


'" IH''IiIWittl ri6r~"tb%!&JA~lBI>lR ~

". For exampie. the b?Y.. car p!<>plem could not ,be ~d u~ Newton'. second

_ _ _ _ ~WIa1M>IIIIAiO.Up9 nn ;;:0

",,,"n~,,,!),,,~. '<':>t!'\an~

~lit ~~ n ID;3n930

dj <~j~'!n \!_"4J!Ii~~iJ!"~~i"'r:ql'l'b'i.~j technique c:annot e uaed.~~ ,!~,RfPt~'Jtf~')9{)~~ -!~""'l;r} :Jhlli)I '1.; HHJ~ .: i (JIO principle of conservation of eners:r can be used in ~ a wid" ..;ipti ", problem in mechanica ~ ,~'''i~!!f:~ ~o~1be:u.e4f~rl ','
"Note that We have used Eq. (6.191
" .
..J , . , iF; Fl'"

i (j ~


AIt:~ O{~~~,OIJlloI:ilM!llvin8;t!:atqy r. '!W ~bl-m",),,,,d~'hrr ",iT


fl~;"!~~l"~' i'~~~9rc:u~ ~~-.l~<:";!l)r''-:)I) ';1; ;: ~\?h'.!T)r!i ',-)(ii!-Jn ,;r 'If;iIoB~,(Qrooar~frioIimud """",,,<PIe> t/)o!~:on,tAe< ~!~I(;')'o

.. ;~'rIOm\st:_WIW'IltNt""'~ ""_~1t0t6oal(!i"I\''1<\ ,;n"""'!an~ ........ So RM!~~a..~",{"!I~'"",*,~o;l1

oonoervation of mechanical """"IIIfR~~ ,16, t?I-Tl'!lffifl'l' ~,fflI"Jffll4 ~" ' j in Here, in the toy-car problem we have ignored frictional forcel "'

. iD8 problema.




Work and Energy

Vertical motioD : Let a body is thrown vertically upward with an. initial speed vO' What is the maximum height attained?

Applying the Eq. (6.15) to the points 1 and 2 (lowest and highest positions in the trajectory). 2

We have. Y, mv,' + mgy, = y. mv/ + 1TI!/Y.z or mg (y, - g,) = mg " - = Y. m (v,' - v,'). or h
= -'----'-

(v; - v~)

Substituting the values VI - va and v, = 0 (no vertical velocity). we get h




'Ibis is in confirmity with the result discussed in lesson 2 earlier.

Now. let us check how much you have learnt about potential energy.

Jl'fl'EX't QUESTIONS 6.5,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

An obj_ of ....... 2 kg ia ttawoIIiJlB with a speed of 10....-' an a horizontal surface Wbat ...... ita (8) What ita Kinetic """'1IY'l (hI What ia ita Potential --v?




I. m"dllmical ener&Y always ~

(bJ I. it .......,. a poailifto quantity?


(8) When a ball ia tilling vm1icaIIy.

doea ita potentia1 _



AU - AK; Doe. thia ecp.etion


ld the principle of CODIIOl'IatiOD of


you would have noticed that bouncing ball looses height after every bounce and finsIIy comes toresL A swiIlg comes to stop after a number of oscillations. /I. oicketbaD moves on e:horizontaI ground lnosing its speed. Haven't we ohsetved these? What do we eonclude? MeChanical energy of a system is not conserved whe.tc9eI non~ (dissipative) forces operate or perfonn work; What happeos to tbe 'miSsing' energy 4E/ We find a clue in the fact that bo1h the block and swface (1see the figure) aver Which it slides become"slightly W!U'JheI'. (thermometer does. find out) A part of the. mechanical =ergy being transfo~ed into kinetic energy of

Physics the disordered motion of the particles (atoms and molecules) that make up the block and the surface over which it slides. We call such energy internal energy (thermal energy) and represent it by Urn" W,ri<liUH = -At'.n, (6.17) Now we can rewrite or modify the work - energy theorem of Eq. (6.11).
W=AK not

as W



+ I,w_


where ~ ~ W and ~ ....t WI'JM refer to the work done by all the conservative forces and non-conservative forces on the system. Substituting from Eq (6.13) and Eq (6.17). we write the work - energy theorem as
-(UU) + (-.t1U .. ) = I!J{

(6.18) or (!.1U)+(-Wint )+I!J{=O This is the statement of the law of the conseroation of energy. This law is more comprehensive than the law of conservation of mechanical energy of Eq. (6.17) which is valid only for conservative forces. In new situations. say involving chemical, electrical, magnetic and I;ludear phenomena, we can always identify new quantities like U;n' (of Eq. 6.18) to expand the scope of definition of energy (Le., to include other forms of energy like chemical, electrical. magnetic and nuclear etc.). So we can always write UU + I!J{ + .t1UinI. + (Changes in other forms of energy) = 0 for an isolated system. This is known as the law of conservation of energy. It can be stated that the energy can be transfonned from one fonn to another fti an fso.. . lated system but it cannot be created or des1:royed; the total enM"fI1J

Of the system always remains constant.

Take a pause and solve the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 6.6,_ _ _ _ _ _1.

_ _ __

Energy is transformed from one {ann to another. Name the transformations of energy in the following in the Conn from . ,_ ............... to ...................... .
(a) lifting of a book by a boy ................................................................................... .
(h) burning of candle ...................................................................................
(e) a moving truck on a road ..................................................................
(d) emiSBion of light by sun ........................................................................ ,..


A foot-ball kicked by a player leaves the ground and after travelling in air reaches the ground and comes to a stop at some other position on the ground. Identify the energy transfonnation in this process. Is energy of the ball conserved?



In daily experience, when two objects hit each other we speak of collision as an event. The objects that collide might be, a cricket ball and a bat, a

Work and Energy hammer and a nail or at times two or more.vdIicles.pn the roadl

A comet approaching the sun, swings around it and continues its course
with an increased speed is also .an example of collision. Here the particles (comet and sun) do not actually 'touch'. However there is an interactive force, gravitational force, that is not a contact force. Our knowledge of the atomic and subatomic world - electrons, protons, neutrons - have come from experiments involving collisions, There are two iInportant laws to be followed in all collisions, namely, laws of conservation of energy and momentum. Here we apply these laws to look at the transfer of kinetic energy from one particle to another.

6.9.1 Inelastic Collisions In One Dimension

In inelastic colli:!lions the kinetic energy of the system is not conserved, although the total energy of the system remains constant. The lost kin~tic energy is transformed into internal energy. A bullet fired into a target getting embedded is-an example pf an inelastic collision - sometimes knmvn . as a perfect inelastic collision. We will fiIld answers to questions :" Hpwmuch of kinetic energy transfer takes place? How much of it ~ains in the system? Applying law of conservation of momentum, we get 1n,V" = (m, + ~)vr

vf =

m1 m1 +rn,



(a) Before colliSSlon

(b) After collisipn



The final velocity of the combined particle will always be less than that of the incoming particle. The final kinetic energy K; of the system is K; = Y. (m, + m.,) V(

-(m, +.m,) . I

("'i m, +m,


(~I m, ).

K = 1 TIltV~; I 2{TIlt +rn,) rn,


I -

1 +. ~


. K; is leSser than~.

It depends upon

CUe .) A maaive pIjojectUe: When


1I!..i' Eq (6.20) reduces to K; =- ~

The loss.in kinetic energy is minimum. In fact the kinetic energy is con121

Physics selVed! This is what would be expected if a large mass hit a dust particle at rest.
Ca_ b) Equal ma._.: When m, = m." Eq. (6.20) becomes

Ki Kf = 2
Half of the kinetic energy of the system is dissipated. Case c) A ma..ive target: When




so that -

m2 -+ IX m,

Eq (6.20) reduces to Ky ~ O!

The kinetic energy of the system is completely ~issipated. This case is like that of a lump of putty hitting the ground and not bouncing back at all! .

6.9.2 Elastic Collisions In One Dimension

Kinetic energy of the system is conselVed in an elastic collision. Consider the collision of two particles one of them at rest before the collision.

at rest







(a) Before Collission

(b) After Collision

ng 6.8 : Change of velocities due to oollisiJn

Applying the law of conselVation of momentum to the system, we get m, v" = m, v" + m., v'r (6.23) ConselVation of kinetic energy of the system results in Y. m 1 v Ii.2 a Y.m 1 v If2 + Y, .. m (6 24) ""'2 v' 2f We have to solve the Eq (6.23) and Eq (6.24) to fmd the values of v, rand v2 f" Rewriting Eq (6.23), we have (6.25) m. (v.; - VI r ) = m., v, r . Eq (6.24) is rewritten as (6.26) m l (v" - Vlf) (v" + v n) = m.,v.r ' Dividing Eq (6.26) by Eq (6.~5), we get

+ v'r = v.r


Substituting the value of v2 r from Eq (6.25) in Eq. (6.23) and simplitYing, we find +m 2 v2 r is evaluated from (6.25) as . 2m.


m. =m




V 2f

= ;n~-+-~




Work anijEnergy .The target will always. be positive value,( i.e., ",. will be parallel to VIf) it moves forward. From Eq (6.28), we fmd that v, ,maybe positive value or negative value. If m. > m" the projectile moves forward after collision, otherwise it rebounds, ifm,<m,. What about the energy transfer from m, to m, ? Eq (6.28) and Eq (6.~~) are rewritten as

1- ("':! = [ 1+ m

/ m,




and v 2,

= 1 + (m2

/ ml) Vii


Three situations are considered

C... a) A ma.uve ,rojectUe :When m l m, , we have VI'':' vn and V2f .:. 2v,; (6.32) After the collision with a lighter target, the velocity of the projectile is little ch......::.ged, and the target moves with a velocity twice that Qf the projectile.
Ca.. b}BcJ.d.I m ..... : When m l = m, we obtain, v,, = 0 and v2(= ",; (6.33) Particles of equal mass exchange their velocities. Particle m, stops. Particle m, (target) moves away with the velocity of the projectile! Case c) A massive target: When m, m,

v - - v II. and v 2r = 2-v H m li




When a ping-pong ball moving with a certail1 speed hits a stationary cricket ball, the ping-pong reb ounces with the same speed. Cricket ball doesn't gain any noticeable speed. The maximum kinetic energy transfer takes place between two identical masses in an elastic collision. J:xample 6.9: A 1.5 /qJ body is at rest. Itis 'hit' hedd-on bya body of 0.5 kg moving with a spef:d of 0.2 ms-'. aj What is the final velocity of each bo.dy? bj In what direction does each move after the interaction.

SoiutioJl :

Vii _ 0.2 ms-'

m, - 0.5 kg


V 2;


Before m, - 1.5 kg

Mter m, In drawing the diagram 'after' we assume directions to be similar.




. ~--,


.... ,-'


We might be proved wrong! Considering velocities 01" motions to the right side as +Ye, let us apply the rules: 1From law of conservation of momentum,

where Pt total 'momentum of the system 'before' and P, total momentum 'after' the event i.e. collision. Substituting, we have 0.5 kg )( 0.2 ms-' - 0.5 kg " v" + 1-5 Kg )( v", Simplify we get 0.2 ms-' - v" + 3 v.. (1). 2. From law of conservation of Kinetic energy, (collision is assumed to be elastic if not specified otherwise.


i.e. Y. V~i - Y. m, V~I + Y. m., Substituting the values, '10 )( 0.5 kg )( (0.2 ms-')' - '10



x 0.5 kg (V~I) + Y. )( 1-5 kg vi

0.04m s-' - II~I + 3'10 I I i (2) From equations (1) and (2) have two unknowns v" and 11...
On eliminating one of them (v" or v..) from these, -we get an equation containing only one variable (Simple equation))

:lnrmy _ _

"'" pouIbIc as [tbccqUa_laa_ c one! (i.e. containa 'C of an uok:ooIm quaDBut In !II\J*'" ._oo\J .... Ia ...,.,...""" cdutklo me""''' d above

We have one of the solution as v" = -0.10 ms-' and 11.. - +0.10 ms-' What about the other solution? Find the other combination of v" and v... The incident ball m., (0.5 kg mass) bourwes back so that its final velocity is in the opposite direction to its direction of movement before the collision.
So signs do matter as we are dealing with a vector ph,ysical quantiW the momentum)


Now, solve the following questions and check your progress. -

DtTBXT QUESTIONS 6.7_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _'-1.


15....- 1
eSkg B Coneider motion of ollied to the risbt as positiw.

(aj Wl-.at iII_ the momentum of A7 ..........................................................................: ..

(bl What i.-the momentum of B? ............................................................................ .

(4 What ill the total momentum of A end B? ......................................................... ..


Wb.t will the momentum of the -.ystom later on? (after collision).......................... .

(e) If aft.... collision. A and B atick together and move. what will be the common velocity? ....................................................... _................................................ :.... ..
(I) I. kinetic energy of the -.ystom conaerved? .........................................................

(g) I. it an elastic collision? ..................................................................................... ..


Work and Energy

6.11 WBATYOUHAVELEARNT_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Wark. done by a constant force F is W = Fd cos 6 = r.d. where e is the angle between , and d . Unit of work is 1 Joule a...."d Work is a scalae. The .ark done by a force is equal to the area bounded by the F versus x (position) graph between two positions. Work done by the elastic force of the spring. obeying Hook's law W - -% k {xr:l- Xi.~ where k is the spring constant, as it is stretched or compressed from Xi to .l} cooftlinates of the initial and fmal position. Power is time rate of wOrk and its SI Unit is Watt (W) (a IJs-'). When an object with mass m moves with speed v. its kUletic energy K is given by K - % mY'. Kinetic energy is a scalar and positive physical quantity. 'nle worl:c:-energy theorem; Wnet "" Kr - 1\ = AK. 11lc change in the kinetic energy of an object is eqUal to the work done by all the forces that act on' it. A force is said to be conse1'V8.tive if it does no net work on an object that moves through a round trip. Whereas a non-conservative force (dissipative forcej does non zero net work over a round trip of an obj eet. Work done by a conservative force on a system is equal to the negative of change in potential energy associated at two positions "" and X, (initial ~ and final UJ. W_ --(U,- U) The reference level - zero level of potential energy is conveninently chosen. Energy 'storedl in a spring is known as Elastic potential energy and it is U;;" 1h kr, where x is the amount of stretching or compression from equilibrium position. 111e energy 'stored' in a mass m. near the earth's surface is known as Gravitational potential energy and it is U "" mgy, where y is the vertical position coordinate of the location of the maas m with respect to the surface of the earth. Whenever only conservative forces act on a system; the total mechanical energy E = U + K remains constant. 'When non-conservative forces work on a system, W "" l1E, the change in mechani.:-al energy of a closed system is equal to the work don';'by non-conservative forces. Energy may be transfonned from one kind to another in an. isolated system, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Total energy of a system remains Constant. Collisions are events in which the interaction between two particles or objects lasts for a very short interval of time. Luvs .of conservation of linear momentum and conservation of energy are the ruleF the game in any collision. Pi - P,i In an elastic collision kinetic energy is conser an inelastic collision the kinetic energy is partly dissipated or transfonned in t .... kinds (forms) of energy.

6.12 TERMINAL QUESTIONS,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Why is the work done by kinetic friction force always negative?
Can the normal reaction force on an obje:ct ever do work on it? Explain.

When A doe. work on B, does B also do any work on A? Explain.(Use: Newton's laws of motion) 4. A pebble thrown with a certain speed enters into the water of a pohd below. Will the angle of throw have any relationahip with the speed of the pebl:lle at the instant of enay into the horizontal 1erd of water? Explain. S. Which doe. WOrk : hamm.... or the nail, a cricket bat or a ball? Explain. 6. Identify the forces acting on the book when it is lifted upwards. State whether each of them i. conservat:ive or non-conservative. 7. The earth is eIoRat to the lAm in winter. When is the gravitational potential of the oystem the maximum in the elliptical path of the earth about the sun. S. Can the mechanical anergy of a system be n_tive. Explain. 9. A.te1li.te 1QOWI:8 in an elliptical orbit about the earth. Does the kinetic energy of the satellite change? Explain. 10. An automobile is travelling at conatant speed. What energy transformations are taking place?





U{M - mgy for an object near the surface. U(rl =

-GM m

for au object above the

earth's surface. Does it mean that potential energy of the system can be positive and negative at the same time? Explain. 12. Show that

UfrJ :::: - - - has dimension of e ....ergy.



13. Work is done by a force on a body if on~y it changes the speed of motion of an object already in motion. Justify it. 14. A person lifts a 2 kg book from the table to a shelf 2 m above it. (a) Find the force exerted by the person if it is carried out very slowly. (negligible ~erationl (b) How much work is carried out by the person on the book? {el Find the net work done on the book? 15. A constant f _ 0110 N do.... 20 J 01 work on a box in moviDg it by 4 m. What;' the angle involved between the two vector quantities? 16. A bo<\y moves along a straight path by {2i + 3jlmwl!ilc a force , . (41 + 2jJN_ CIIlit. Find (a) the work done by the force ,. in the process, and (bl the angle between the force and displacement of the bo<\y. 17. A force of ION acts on a bag of mass 2 kg at rest on a frictionless surface. Th!! force is applied horizontally while it moves 3 m. (a) How much work is done on the bag? (bl What is the kinetic energy 01 the bag at the end of 3 m? (el What is the speed acquired by it (bag) in the process?
If the friction is not negligible J.l. - 0.21 fmd the quantities of {al. (bl and(cl considering the frictional force. 18. A 50 kg person runs up a long flight of stair. in 4 s. The height of the stairs is 4.5 m. Calculate his power output. 19. A block of mass 0.5 kg is attached to the free end of a spring on a horizontal frictionless surface. The spring is compressed by 0.10 m and released. "nle spring conatant k 50 Nm-l. (al What is the maximum velocity acquired by the block? (bl What is its speed when it i8 0.06 m from tho relaxed position? 20. Find the speed of 4 kg block {after it is releasedl when it traveIa 2 m? Uoe energy considerations. See Fig 6.9.


T 1
I'tg 6.9



I'tg 6.11

I'tg 6.10

21.(aI Find the work done on the bob of mass 100 g in the swing from A to B. (Fig 6.101 (bl What i. its speed at B. if the spoed at A is zero? 22. A 0.2 kg ball attached to a string is given an initial. wIocity 01 S .....,. ~ 6.11). If it swings in a vettica1 plane with a radiua r 0.5 Ill. NegIectiaa: frictioDal ...... cr.t.mine the speed at position (a) B (bl C and (e) D (if at all it reacIuoaq 23. In CODBervative force acting on the air increaoee its ki:netic """'BY by 200 J. ARuming it to be W... force. Find the change in potantial """'BY' (b) the ...ecbmri"'" ...........,. of 51 system. 24. Estimate the l"I1DIling speed 01 a pole. VIIIIlter who c\ears a bar 01 II m. 25. A4kg block startsmoviDgwith 128Joliuitialkioetic-vona 3O"t>J-. H _ _ will it go up the plaDe. lI"egligibJe friction;. iavoJ.wd bet,,_ the """'-. 26. What height would. one kg 01 - . . . have ... fall tIutrqb to cbange its ~ po~ """'BY by 4.2 kJ? .


Work and Energy

27. Show that the magnitude of the velocity of a projectile, at any point in its trcYectory, is independent of th~ angle of projection. but varies only with the speed of projection. :lB. A 5 g bullet is fired horizontally into a 3 kg wooden block resting on a horizontal aurface. The block. with bullet embedded in it, comes to rest after travelling a dis tance of 25 em. The coefficient of friction involved is 0.2. What was the speed of the bullet. 29. An explosion break.can 'lbject into two unequal pieces, of mass ratios 1: 1.5. The energy re\eaaed in the process is 4500 J. Find their individual kinetic energy.



(h) -78.4J

2. 3. 4.

(a) -ve; F acting against displacement (h) .....; F in the direction of displacement (e) 0; No displacement 10J. 4J -2 x 10-" N. (a) 100 J
(h) 100 J 450 J



3. Friction; -100 J. I a _ ~'J_ (6.8) 1. (a) Zero

(h) -mgh

(e) 78.4J Zero 4. -700 J 700 J 700 J I a _ Qaest:IoDs (6.S, 1. (a) 100 J (h) Zero (e) 100 J 2. (a) No (only when conservative forces work on the system). (b) No (depends on sign of potential
(d) (a) (h) (e)


(c) +mgh (d) Zero 2. (a) -0.5 J (h) +0.5 J (c) Zero (d) -0.5 J (e) .+0.5 J (I) Zero I a _ Qwwttuow 1. (a) -mgh
(h) +mgh (e) -mgh


energy and amount). (a) Yes (b) No (remains constant). No (4U+AK-O(repreaentationofconservation of mechanical energy). Chemical to griMtational Chemical to light and heat


Ca) (b)

(e) . Sunlight


Id) Chemical to kinetic mainly Ie) Nuclear to electromagnetic light. -~.... (6.7)


(d) +mgh (e) No (a) Incre....e. (h) Inero....e. (a) 78.4 J

12 kgms-' + 12 Icgms-' Ie) Zero (d) Zero (e) Zero



(f) (g)

No No


So far you have studied'the motion of particles under gravitational and other forces. DId u.. equation o/motfon o/the part.fcle Involve its mass? The reason that the size of the particle does not appear in its equation of motion is that we ide8llzed the particles as point part.fcfeshaving only mass and no size. Such particles are also called mass points. In real life there are no such particles. The bodies that we have to deal with, have large number of particles. Even a tiny marble consists of millions of particles. However, in the previous lessons we have seen that the size of a body has not been taken in to account. For example the size of a planet revolving around the sun has not been considered and it was taken just a point particle. However, when we have to study the rotation of a body, the finite size of the body cannot be ignored. For example,when we consider phenomena connected with the rotation of the body on its own axis, we do take note of its finite size.
In this lesson we will study the rotational motion of bodies, so their finite

sizes become important for us.



After studying this lesson, you should be able to,

define a rigid body and realize that it is an idealization; define the centre of mass ofa rigid body and recognize its importmu:e; recognize that the general motion of a rigid body consists ofboth translational motion and rotational motion; define moment of inertia and realize its physical significance; state theorems ofparallel and perpendiC/llar axes and apply them; define torque and compute the direction of rotation produced by a torque define angular momenium and write down the equation of motion of a
rigid body; state the principle of conservation of angu/a.r momentum and cite a few exnmp/es in support of this principle; and caIcu./ate the velocity acquired by a rigid body at the end ofits motion on an inclined plane.

Rotational Motion



We have noted above that point particles or point masses are idealizations. In real life we meet systems or bodies which consist of a large number of particles. We have also noted that when these systems interact with other systems which are at distances very much larger compared to their sizes. then their sizes can be ignored. Can you give two examples of such cases where the sizes ofthe bodies are not important? But when we have to consider the rotation of a body about an axis. then the ltody has to be considered as a whole and the size of the body becomes important. When we consider the rotation of a system. we generally assume that during rotation the distances between its constituent particles remain fixed. Such a system of particles is called a rlgi.d body. We tlefUw a rlgi.d body as one In which the dlstt:uu:es between the particles do not change as the body mows about. The above definition implies that the shape of a rigid body is preserved d~ ing its motion. However. like a point particle a rigid body is also an idealization, because ifwe apply large pressures the distances between the particles do change, may be by vel)' small amounts. Therefore, in nature there is nothing like a really rigid body. For most purposes, a solid body is a good enough approximation to a rigid body. A cricket ball. a wooden block. a steel disc, even the earth and the moon would all be considered as rigid bodies in this lesson. Could a bob ofplasticine be considered a rigid body? Now, let us check what you have understood about rigid body.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 7.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


A frame is made of six wooden rods. The rods are attached to each other in such a:WJq that they cannot move. Can this system be considered a rigid body?

If the distances between the particles of a body do not remain fixed as it moves about, what would be the 'nature of path. described by the particles?






Before we deal with rigid bodies consisting of several particles. let us consider a much simpler case. Suppose we have a system of two particles of equal masses joined by a rod which has no mass and whose length remains fixed. Can we consider this system of two particles a rigid body? Suppose that the two particles are at heigl;l.ts z, and :z;. from a horizontal surface (Fig 7.1).




Suppose, further that the gravitational force is uniform in the smaIl region in which the two particles move about. The force on particle 1 is mg, and the force on the other particle is also mg. The total force acting on the system is therefore 2 mg. The problem now is to frod a point somewhere in the system so that if a force 2 mg acts at that point, the motion of the system would be the same as with two forces, mg each, acting on the two particles. The potential energy of particle 1 is mgz, and that of particle 2 is mgz., Suppose the force 2 mg acts at the point C at a height z from the horizontal surface. Since this must be equal to the combined potential energy of the" two particles. we have 2 mgz - mgz, + mgz., (7.1)

In this case the point 0 lies midway between the two particles. If the two masses are unequal then this point will not be in the middle. If the mass of particle 1 is m, and that of particle 2 is rn.,. then instead of (7.1) we have

(m, + rn.,)gz- m, gz, + rn,gz.,

so that



The point C is ca1Jed the centre oflD'" (CM).

SUppose that the mass of the particle is twice that of the other, find theloca tion ofthe eM.
When a body consists of several par ticles, then we generalize (7.4) to de fme its CM. If the particle with mass m, has coordinates (x" Yl' z,) with respect to some coordinate frame, mass rn, has coordinates (X2, y." z,), and so on (Fig 7.2), then the coordinates of CM are given by

.. =-.. (:~~; z,.)


C"(~"'lk ~

" '"


" ""





Rotational Motion


z =--'-'-M



where , denotes the sum over all particles and, therefore, =M the total mass of the body. Why did we go to such length to define CM? Recall that the rate of change of displacement is velocity, and the rate of change of velocity is ac~eleration. If a denotes the acceleration of particle 1 along the x-axis, then from (7.5) we could write


L , m,

where ax is the acceleration of the centre of mass along the x-axis. Similar equation can be written for accelerations along y - and z-axis. These equations can, however, be combined into a single equation using vector notation. Instead of (7.8) we have

m, a, +

Tn.,., + ............ Tn.,.,


But the product of mass and acceleration is force. Ill, a, is therefore the sum of all forces acting on particle 1. Similarly, gives the net force acting on particle 2. The right hand side is, thus, the total force acting on the body. The forces acting on a body can be of two kinds. Some forces can be due to sources outside the-body. These forces are called the _uIILIII forces. A familiar example is the force of gravity. Some other forces arise due to the interaction among the particles of the body. -These are called internal forces. Normally in the case of a rigid body, the sum of theinternal forces is zero. Therefore, the accelerations of the individual particles of the body are due to the or resultant, of the external forces. In the light of this, we may write (7.9) in the form





This shows that the CJI of a body _ _ as though all the _ _ of the body _ cotu:erd:rat8d at that pofnf; and it was crc:t.d upon IIg the .sum oJ all the -a.nual,lorca aCey fng on the body. The fact that the motion of the CM is detenninedby the external forces and that the internal ExplOSion forces have no role in this at all leads to very interesting consequences. You are already familiar with the motion (Jf a body thrown at an angle to the-vertical, the motion of the projectile. Do you recaU what this motion is like?' JI





puppose the projectile is a bomb which explodes in midair and breaks up mto several fragments. The explosion is caused by the-ffiternal forces. There is no change in the external force, which is the force of gravity. The centre of mass of the projectile, therefore, continues on the parabolic path (Fig 7.3) which the bomb would have described if it had not exploded. Have you noticed how important is the centre of mass of a rigid body? More of this importance you are going to see very soon. Let us, therefore, see how the centre of mass of a system can be found by taking a simple example.
Example 7.1: Supposefour masses, 1.0 kg, 2.0 kg, 3.0 kg and 4.0 kg are located at the comers of a square whose each side is 1.0 m. Where would be ibi'centre ofrrwSs?

801utioa: We can always make the square lie in a plane. Let this plane be the (x, y) plane. Further, let one of the corners fall at the origin and the sides are the x -y axes, Then the coordinates of the foUr masses are: m, (0,0), m, (1.0, 0), m" (1.0, 1.0) and m. (0,1.0) where all distances are in metres (Fig 7.4). Form (7.5) and (7.6), we get,


t I.D.l )




x = LO x 0+2.0x1.0+3.0x LO+4.0 xO m
1.0 + 2.0 + 3.0 + 4.0

=. 0.5 m
y = 1.0 x 0+2.0 x 0+3.0x 1.0+4.0 x LO m LO + 2.0+3.0 + 4.0
=0.7m The CM has coordinates (0.5 m, 0.7 m) and is marked C in Fig 7.4. We notice. that the CM is not at the centre of the square although the square is a symmetrical figure. What oould be the reason for the eM not being at the
centre?- .

C.M. of Some Bodies

Was it not simple to calculate the position of the eM? But unfortunately it is true only for very simple systems. The bodies that we have to deal with have very large number of particles and this simple method does notwork. The computation of the CM of such bodies isa.complicated affair. The fact that the masses of all the particles of a rigid body are equal, makes things somewhat simpler. If the body is regular in shape and possesses some symmetry, say it is cylindrical or spherical, then the calculation is a little bit more simplified. But even then these Chlculations are beyond the scope of this unit. But keeping in mind the importance of CM, we give in Table 7.1 the position of the CM of some regular and symmetric bodies. 132

Rotational Motion

Table 7.1 : C8Jdres ofJfa.u of-me l'BfIU'lararuJ. ~ IJodWs

Position of Centre of. . . .

Point of intersection of the three



Regular polygon anti cirrular plate


At the geomtotrical center of the figure

Cylinder anti sphere At the geometrical center of the figure

.'+ &~
I ; I



Pyramid anti cone

On line joining vert'ix with center

of base and at ~ of the length meB!J\lnd from the base.

~ ~

FIgure with axial symmetry

Some point on the axis of symmetry


FIgure with oen.ter of symrnetr:y

At the center of symmetry

Now, it is time to cpeck yOUI' progress.



1. The. grid shown here ..... particlea A, B, C, 0 ....d E of .......... 1.0 q, 2.0q, 3.0 q,.4.0 q....d 5.0 q. FiruI the centre of maaa of the ..,.atem. 8("",.,




If three particJea of _ . m, - 1 kg, m. - 2 kg, and .... - 3 kg are situ_ at the ' comers of an equilateral triansle of side 1.0 metre, find the centre of ........ of the

3. Show that the diatancea of the two particles from their centre of proportional to their 1DUR8,

i. inveneJy



You must have played a game in which you toss a ball to a friend and the friend tosses it back to you IFig 7.5). Ftay this game once again, but this time mark some points on the surface of the ball. Notice the pam traced out by each point. Haw are the paths traced by different points related to one an~ other?

.,.7.11: _

t!1f" _

.,. 7.60 _

"If" .... """".

Paths IFig 7.6), thenits motion is called tnmaIation1 motion. The motion of
all the particles beingidentical, the centre of mass must also be tracing out an identical path. Therefore, th,~jraDslA,tiona1 motion of the body may be Iepresented by the motion of its centre of ~ We have seen that this motion is given by (7.10),

If a rigid body moves in such a way that all its particles move along parallel


Do you now see the advantage of defining a centre of masS of a body? With its help the translational motion of a body can be described by an equation simjlar to that of single particle. The particle here has mass equal to the mass of the whole body. It is located at the centre of mass and iaacted upon by the sum of all the external forces which are acting on t1)e rigid body.

Have you ever seen in motion the ball delivered by a spin bowler in the pme of cricket? Ifyou have, ther. you must have seen that the ball rotates while moving forward. lfyou have not seen this, yon can peifucm a little experiment of your own. With your friend play the pme of ton 'ng the ball, .uyou did-earlier. But this time give t1J.e ball a twist or spin before tossing to your friend. Notice the movements of the points on the ball carefully. This time the points on .the balf would undergo .looping motiOn, something like shown in Fig 7.7. This shows that the general motion of a rigid body is a comb~tion oftrail.:!dation and rotation. The earth also performs these two


Rotational Motion motions at the same time. It rotate!' on its axis while advancing it its orbit round the sun.

,-;-, 0 ' " ". 0 ...

... - _ 4 ....


.... ".- ...




, ... "


/.('- ...
\ 1





While the general motion of a rigid body consists of both translation and rotation: if one point in the body is fixed, it cannot have translational motion. It can then only rotate. The most convenient point for this purpose is the CM of the body. You must have seen a grinding stone (the chakki). The handle of the stone moves in a circular path. All the points on the stone also movein circular paths round an axis passing through the centre of the stone (Fig 7.8).
The motion 0/ G rlg#d bod:g In whkh Gll the parttc_ o/"the bod:g describe cfrcular pczth5 ,. known the rotCltfollGl motion.

We have noted above that the translational motion of a rigid body can be described by an equation similar to that of a single particle. You are already familiar with such equations. Therefore, in this lesson we concentrate only on the rotational motion of a rigid body. The rotational motion can be obtained by fixing a point of the body. For the sake of convenience this point can be the CM. The rotation is then about an axis passing through the CM.
In the linear motion of a body that you studied in earlier lessons, the mass of the hody plays a very important role. It determines the acceleration acqUI 1 by the body for a given force. Is there a similar quantity for the rota,;onaImotion too? Let us find out?

7.5.1 lIoment

or Inertia

Let C be the centre of mass of the rigid body and let the body rotate about an axis through

this point (Fig 7.9). Imagine a particle of mass m, at a distanCe of r, from the axis of rotation. Let v denote the magnitude of its velocity. Then its kinetic energy is. Y. m, v~. Similarly the kinetic energy of another
particle of mass m., is Yo m., v~. If we add the kinetic energies of all the particles, then we get the total energy of the body. If T denotes the total kinetic energy of the body then
AxiS of r01lltion.L

to the plane oftlla paper PIa T.9 ; A


rigid bGcIy

'*'11 abou'






+ V.


+ .....

=~ '!m.v 2 ~2



indicates, as before, the sum over all the particles of the body.
~' '"

You have leri in earlier lessons the relation between the lineaiveloc1ty and the ang\Ilar velooity. The angular velocity is usually denoted by 0). What is the relation between v arwf (J) ? Using this relation in (7.11 we get


L~m; (T; W)2



Since all the particles have the same angular velocity, .therefore 00 is same for all of them. This equation may be rewritten as,


1 2


The quantity (7.14) is called the momem oJ inerlfa of the body.

It is important to remember that the moment oJ fnerlfa is defined with

reference to the axis of rotation. Therefore, wherever we mention moment of inertia, the. axis of rotation must be specified. In the present case I is the moment of inertia about an axis passing through the point C (Fig 7.9). The unit of moment of inertia is obvious from its it~on. lUis kg m'. The moment of inertia of a rigid body is often written as
/= MK:'


where Mis the total mass of the body and K is called the~... Or~D of the body. The radius oJgyratlon Is that cUstancefrom the axis oJ rotation where the whole mass oJ the body c:art be p'l4t!ed to get the SCUIle moment oJ fnertIa which the body aetually Iuu. .There is certain advantage in writing moment of inertia in this form. If the body isreguJar andhas the same properties every where (such a body is Caned homogeneous), then K Can be computed from its geometry andthe moment of inertia can be easily calculated. Table 7.2 shows the moments of inertia of a few regular bodies. . .f

Rotational Mollotl
Tab.. 7.2 : .Moment of IIwrtft& of _ _ regular bod,..
Hoop about cylinder axis Annular cylinder (or ring) about CJlinder axis


'-1 (R.

+ Ril }

Solid cylihder about cylinder axis

Solid cylinder (or disk) about a central diameter

,- "..2


+ III' I.

~ .

Thin rod about

axis through centre.l to length


Thin rod about axis through one end .l to leneth

Solid sphere about any -diameter

Thin spherical sheD about aoy diameter


,-1!!f!Hoop about any diameter


-1 (:)
". \




tangent line

Compare this with thekinetict-nergyofa body in linear motion. What do you find? In the rotational motion the role of mass has been taken over by the moment of inertia and the angular velocity has replaced the linear ve.locity.

~carefully at equation (7.13).

Phyaical sign'Seance of J.
The physical Rinni~ o/the momento/inertia is that itperforms the same role in t/1e ~"';;;;'n that the mass ~in linetu motiorL

Jqst as the mass of a body resists cltange in its sta~ ofiinear n on, the moment 0/ inertia resists a Change in its rotational motion. This pI' 'erIy of

the moment of inertia has been put to a great practical use. Most machines which produce rotational motion have as one of their components a disc which has a very large moment of inertia. Exam pIes of such machines are the steom engine and the automobile engine. The disc with a large moment of inertia is called.aflywheel To understand how a flywheel works, imagine that the driver of the engine wants to increase suddenly the speed. Because of its large moment of inertia, the flywheel rcsi"ts this attempt. It allows only a gradual increase in speed. Similarly, it works against the at. tempts to suddenly reduce the speed, and allows only a slow !Iecrease in the speed. Thus, the flywheel, with its large moment of inertia, prevents jerky motions and ensures a smooth ride for the passangers. We have noted that in rotational motion the angular velocity corresponds to tIle linear velocity in linear motion. Since angular acceleration (denoted usually by <X) is the rate of change of angular velocity, it must corresponds to the linear acceleration in the linear motion. Use similar argument to show that the angle e through which a body rotates corresponds to the distance cauered in linear motion. We can now writ!' down relations for the rotatIonal motion similar to the ones you have derived for the linear motion.

e., Olot + Yo <X t'


We have mentioned above that for the rotational motion of a rigid body its eM is kept ftxed. It is not necessary tha.t CM be kept fIXed, it is convenient to do so. Any other point can be fIXed and the body can still have rotational motion. But now the axis of rotation will pass through this ftxed point. The moment of inertia about this axis would be different from the moment of iJlertia about an axis passing through the CM. What is the relation between these two? Let us ftnd out.

7.5.2 Theorems of'lnonlent of inertia

There are two theorems which connect moments of inertia about various axes. These are (i) (ii)

the theorem ofparaUel axes, and the theorem ofperpendicular axes.

We explain below th~se theorems and their applications. Suppose the given rigid body rotates about an axis passing through any point P other than the centre of mass. The moment of inertia about this axis can be found from a knowledge of the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the centre of mass. If 1 denotes the required moment of inertia and {, dc;not.es the moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the eM, then l={,+MtP


where Mis the mass of the body and dis the distance between the two axes (Fig 7.10). This is known as the theorem of parallel *Be .. The other useful theorem concerning the moment of inertial is known the theorem ofperpendicular axes. It is applicable only to plane bodies. Let us choose three mutually perpendicular axes, two of which, say x and y are in the plane of the body, and the thir<l, the z axis. .s perpend.. lIar to the 138

--------------_.- ------

Rotational MOtion plane (Fig 7.11), The theorem states that the sum of the moments of inertia about axes x and y is equid to the moment of inertia abqut the z axis.

c 4--='--1

FIg 1.10: Theorem a/parallel axes.

Fie7.11:.Theorema/_ _ axes.


Ix + -y T


We illustrate the use of these theorems by the following example. For example let us take a hoop shown in Fig 7.12. Table 7.2 shows that its moment of inertia about the cylinder axis is MR', where M is its mass and R its radius. The theorem axes tells us that this must be equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about two diameters which are perpendicular to each other. Now the symmetry of the hoop tells us that the moment of inertia about any diameter i~ the same as about any, other diameter. This means that all the diameters are equivalent and any two perpendicular diameters may be chosen. Since the moment of inertia about each is the same, say rd , (7.18) gives
MR' = 2Id

and therefore

I. = 'hMR' .
Let us now take a point P on (he rim. Consider a tangent to the hoop at this point which.is parallel to the axis of the hoop. The distance between the two axes is obviously equal to R. The moment of inertia about the tangent is found by the application of the theorem of parallel axes. It is given by

= MR'

+ MR'

= 2MR'.

It rilUst be noted that many of the entries in Table 7.2 have been computed

using the theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes.

7.5.3 Torque and Couple

Have YOll ever noticed that we always open the door by applying force at a pointJ'ar fi'om the hinges? What happens if you try to open a door by apply139

ing force near the hinges? Carry out this little activity. You would realize that much more effort is needed to open the door if you apply force near the hinges. Whyis it so? .

You would also have noticed that for turning a screw we use a spanner with a long handle. What is the advantage of a long handle?

Let us seek IIDSWe:t'S to these questions.

Suppose 0 isa point fixed in the body so that bodyQU1 rotate about an.axis through 1hi.s poiJit (Fig 7.13). Let a force of ma,.,itude F be applied at the point.B along the line AD. If AD passes through the point 0, the forCe F will not be able to rotate the body. The farther is the line AD from 0, the greater is the abilil of the force to tum the body about the axis through O. The CUnIIfn,tr -tfecC td -fore- .. _n.r ....... Ita magnitude is given by or -.Fa- Fraine


The units of torque are Newton-metre, or Nm. The torque is actua1ly a vector quantil. TheVectorfonn of (7.19) is

which gives both the magnitude and the

direction of the torque. What is the direction in which the bodY wolWl tum? .'I'o find 1hi.s we notice that by the rulea of~ product (refer tolel1aon I), or illperpendicuIar to the plane containing vectors rand'
(Fig "'.14). If we extend the thumb of the

r;i&ht band in the direction of T. th~ the direction of~ of the body is given by the IIOIUIe in which the fin&ers are curled. Apply 0.. aboue n(Ie and shoW tMto.. tuming .JlfICt 0/0.. force in Fig 7.13 is in 0.. GI'IticIoc::kwi dnc:Cion.

the body is the

11 there. are ..vend torques acting on. body then the net torque acting on II\UI1 of all the torques. po you _ anycorreapondence between the role of torque in the rotational motion and the role of force in the 1Inear motion? We will_the coueapondei1c:e better a little later. For the moment suppose that there are two forces of equal niagnitude acting on the body in opposite directions (Fig 7.15). The two torques on the body have magnitudes
T, -


'C" - aF.



turDiag effects of the two torques are in the oppOsite directions.


Rotational Motion Therefore, the net turning effect on the body is

T-T I -T



in the direction of the larger torque, which in this case is 1: I

PIc 7.111 : 7Iuo oppositeforoes ocIIng on a body.

nil: 7.16 : A

rigid body rotDmlg about on axis

Two equal and opposttefo~ are IJafd fIof- a eouple whose torque is equal to the prodw:t of one of the forces and the perpendiculGr distanc:. between them.

There is another useful expression for torq~e which makes the correspon~ dence between it and force in the linear motio,n quite cjear. Consider a ngllj body rotating about an axis through a point 0 (Fig 7.16). Obviously a par- , ticle like P is rotating about the axis in a circle of radius T. If the circular motion is nonuniform; then the particle experiences forces in the radial direction as wellas in the tangential direction. The radial.force is the familiar centripetal force m(l)"rwhich keeps the particle in the circular path. The tangential force is required to change the magnitude of v, which at every instant is in the direction of. the tangent to the circular path. Its magnitude is ma, where a is the tangent:i.al acceleration.. Th. radfalforce do not prodw:e tIIIIII flo",,.. Can you say why? The tangential force produces a torque ofmagnituds mar. Since a - rOt, whereOt is the angular acceleration, the magnitude of the .torque is nu"1X. If we consider all tf1e particles of the body then .



The similarity between this equation and F = ma shows that 't'performs the same role in rotational motion as F doe!! in linear motion. A list of corresponding quantities in rotational motion and linear motion is giVen in Table 7.3. With the help of this table; we can write down any equation for rotationalmotj.onif we know its correspondi.Dg equation in linear motion.

Physics .

" .... 7'.3: CotI .,a....". . . . .lel~... fnIDIIII

.1 ............. ....tian..



Rotatioa aIIoat

n.4 AIda

. Disp1acement


An&u1ar disp1acement



d8 tit



An&u1ar accele!:iltion
RotationAl ina1ia





I 'f-h

Wadi: Kinetic energy Power
Angular momentum



Kinetic energy

I.inear momentum Jill


With the help of{7.22) we can cAlculate the angu1ar acceleration produced. body hy a given. torque.

7.2: A uniform disc of IIIGSS 1.0 kg andnxlius 0.1 m am rotate about an axle without friditm. A massless string gOes round the rim (Fig 7.17). 1/a pull of 1.0 kg is applied to the string, find the tJngUlar atr.eletommaofthe disc, the angle through Which

tlMtdiscllJtutesinOne~ and~angu lar ueIocity ofthe disc qfter one _ad.

....tlea: If Rand Jldenote the radiua and Jl1lIlII!i Of the disc, then accordin :to Table 7.2.1- itoJIRI. If Pdenotes the pun then l' - PR. Eq. (7.22) DOW


IX -

LOx 0.1 . For the angle Uhrough which the diac rotates, we use Eq7.17. Since the initiAl angular veloci~ is zero, we have

1//- PR/I- 2P/ AIR ~x 1.0 = 20rlid lsec2

e- y,,)( 20)( 1.0-10 rad

Fortheve1~aftei one second,

we use Eq 7~16. Wehave

0) - Olf- 20)( 1.0 - 20 rad/sec.

Now, let ua check your progreas.


Rotational Motion

Uil'BXT QUEStiON. 7.3,_ _..,---_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Four particle., each of _ m, ...... fixed at the COI'...... of a oquare who"" eadl aide ill of Iongth r. Find the _ t of inertia about an axis P""sing tbroua't one of the camera and perpenc!icul.l!lr to the plane of the aqu.....,. calculate aJ.o the moment of inertia about an axis which ill aloog one of the IIidea. Verify your'reauJt by using the theorem of perpeadicu1ar




/ r



Find the l'IIdiua of JIII1IIion of a aolid

wil1 bimt to uae TlIb1e 7.2.,


...a- if the axis iIIat.apDt ta the 1Opbere. (You

Qudticma 7.2 if the axis of rotation _
Calculate the m _ t of Iaertia of the .,.tam IIbown in queation number 1 of Intut thtouah 0 and ill perpencli,cular to the plane of the paper. JI'rom thi1I rmd the mam.ent of inertia about a p .....net llXia throuah the centre of _



Ten particlea, each of maaa m, are placed at eli......... r each &om the axis of robU:ion,

.. ""own.


Calculate the moment of inmtia of the .,.tom.

o o o



cIJao&ed to

Suppoa the~.... of plll1iclea 4 end 9 are 3r each. Find the m _ of in'IJ1ia now and """""'"' it with that fGUlld in (a!.



Particle. 2 and 7 we . . .-.1 ta cIiootoGcea 2r each, and pilrtidea 1 and 6 _ eliopl-.l to diatanc:ea 31' each. calCulate once ..... the moment of Iaertia -4 CIIDIpa'8 with thoae fouad in Ia! and (1)1. .

.................................................................................................. ........................ .
Have you ever seen a toy umbrella. 80ating in air with its direction fixed and wondered how it is able to maintain a fixed direction?
Ifyou'am get hold ofa atoolwbich can rot&te without much mction, you can perform an interestins a.xperiment. Ask a friend ofyoursto sit on the stool

with herarm.s folded. Make the stool rotate fut and then let it go. AskyOur friend to atretcll her anna and notice if there is any change in the speed of rotation of the stooL Ask berto fold her anna 0J1C?I' &pin and observe change in the speed of the stooL
Let Wi trY to understand wby we expected a change in the speed of rotation . ofthe stool in the Jut experiment. For this consider once again a rigid body

rotating about an 88the axis zthrougb a fixed point 0 in the body. All ~he points of the body de8cri1Je CircuJar paths about the axis with the centres of the paths on the u:is. Consider a particle like P at a distance 'i from the axis (FiI7.18). Its linear vel~ is 'im and its momentum is therefore mr.m; 27wJIIG+JCt..t'f6 ...,..... , .-: .... tIte eau_.rn-tlteC1d8



fa ealled angular momentum, denoted by L. lfwe sum thisproduct"for an the particles of the body, we get

_. .

. -_ . "; .,.w'

" L~(~mir,2}
= [OJ

Remember that the angular velocity is the same for all the particles and the product - the Iulu votoc:ity within brackets is the moment of inertia. ec:&or. Howwtr. ita rigid Ody wo caD fiad fllJee Like the linear momentum,' the angular -.py~.... momentum is also a vector quantity. Eq. ...... AIoJta ay of (7.23) gives only the component of the vec. . . . . ....... tho eompoMDfI r upIor __ tor LaIong the axis ofrotation*. It is important to remember that [ must refer to the jIU!uwlocily ... ,...n.I (7.23) ... _ _ same axis. The units of angular momendo ... in milId. tum are kg-m2 /sec.

a ~ L io 1IOI,...n.1

-.. ...........0_

Recall-now that the rate of change of OJ is IX and lot - 'to Therefore, the rate of cIuuIge oJ angular momentum fa equal to the to,..ue. Or, using the full vector notation,
-='C=I- =1(% dt cit

PII: T.18 A rl/lId body roIaIbIg

about an r:a:is.




which is the equation of motion of a rotating body.

7.6.1 eoaservatlou of angalar momeutum Eq (7.24) shows that VtheN fa no nritorque acdng on the bo4tIutn the
angular momentum.tap cor..1ant. fa the prlnt:ipr. oJ COnNI'IICItfon oJ angular momentum. Along with the conservation of energy and linear momentum, this is one of the most important principles of physics.
The principle of conservation of angular mo'1'e'\Qun allows us to ~ the questions raised in the beginning of Section 5. In the case of the toy umbrella the trick is to make it rotate and thereby impart it some angular momentum. Once it is let go in air, there is-no torque acting onlt. Its angular momentum is then co,nstant. Since angular momentum is a vec~ quantity, its constancy implies fixed direction an~ magnitude.. Thus, the direction of the toy umbrella remains fixed while it is in air.
In the case oCyour friend on the rotating stool, when there is no torque acting on the stool the angular momentum of the stool and the person on it must be conserved. When the person stretches her arms, she causes the momentofinertia of the system toin<=ase. Eq (7.23) implies then thattlle angular Vt'locity must decrease. Similarly, when she folds her arms, the moment ot inertia of the system is decreased. This causes the angular velocity to increase. (It might help you to look at queStion number 4 of Intext Questions 7.4). When your friend ~ hBr,at"1I'I8 why does the moment o/inertia o/the system (the person Ond the.stool) inereasi,i' '. ,
Let us look at a few more examples of the COftI!IC1'Vllti ofmolflditum: SUppose we have a spherical ball of mass M and radius R. The ball-is set rotating



Rotational Motion by applying a teqw:. to it The torque is then removed. Since there is no external torque" now, whatever angular momentum the ball has acquired must be conserved. The moment of inertia of the ball is 2/5 MR' (faole 7.2). Therefore, it has angular momentum given by . 2 L=-MR'(J} (7.25) 5 where III is its angular velocity. Imagine now that the radius of the ball somehow decreaSes. To conserve its angular momentum, the ball must rotate faster. This is what really happens to some stars, such as those which becomes pulsars (see Box on page 147). W1UJt would happen if the radius a/the ball were to increase suddenly? Acrobats, skaters, divers and other sports persons make excellent use of the principle of conservation of angular momenm to show off their feats. You must have seen on the TV divers jumping off the diving boards during swimming ew:ntsin national orintemational t0urnaments. At the time of jumping the diver gives herself as1ight rotation, by which she acquires some angular momentum. When she is in air, there is no torque acting on her and therefore her angular momentum must be con SCl'VCd. If she folds her body to decrease_moment of inertia (Fig 7.19) her rotation must become faster. If she unfolds herbody then her moment of iaertia increases and she must rotate slower. In this way. by controlq the shape of her body. the diver is able to show off her feat before fall.,. '1.1111 ~jwrJ1Ing."o. dIuIIIg ingmto water. __



__,,---,--_ _ __

A IIIOlewle couaiata of two idonac.l atom. of ...... '" soda IODd cliatance II aput. Tbia cIiatance 1'IIIDIIin. IixecL The malecule r o _ about an .,.;. which i. halftra,y between . the two-. with III1jp.I1c apeed .. Calculate the ..,.w.r _entum Of the malecule.

.....................................................,........................................................................ .
.....H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


A uni!onn cireuIer di8c of _ 2.0 Iq: IODd radiUI 20 em ill rotated abaut one of ito ~ at mlll1jp.l1c apeed of 10 red/_e. Find ito 0J>&UIer momentum about the .,.;. of rotItion.


II. whaeI ia rotatiDs at ... quIlor apeed II about ito uia which ia kept wrtiCal. Another . whaeI of the ....... radius but hiolr the man, initially at real, il oIipped an the ...... ale pntIy. The two wIlee1e than _ with the ..mil speed. Find the oamman II\1&Ubor epeed

.............................................................................................................................. ..


It ;. IIIIIdthat the ....th .... formed &om contntctincsu claud. . Suppa... 10m. time in the put the radius of the ....th .... 2.5 time. ito pr8801lt radius. .What .... then ito period of rotation an ito awn .,.;.?

....................................... ..................................................................................... .





We have already noted that if a point in a rigid body is not fixed, then itcan possess rotational motion as well translational motion (Remember the slow motion picture of a spinning ball?). The general motion of a rigid body consists of both these motions. As an interesting examlJIe of the combined motion, let us consider the motion of cylindrical and spherical bodies on an inclined plane or a slope. Suppose the rigid body has mass M, radiusRand moment of inertia L It is moving down an inclined plane of height h (Fig 7.20). At the end of the journey it has acquired a linear velocity II.and an angular velocity /I). We assume that the loss of energy due to friction is small and can be neglected. The principle of conservation of energy then implies that the sum of the kinetic energies d.ue to translation and rotation must be equal to the potential energy that the body had at the top of the inclined plane. Therefore,
Yo MtP + YoJail = Mgh
If there is no slipping, then II ~ RIll.
PIa T~. _

":fa rigidl>c>dy .......

Then we get _MII2 +-1- = Mgh , 2 2 R2



To take a simple example, let the body be a hoop. Table 7 A~ shows that ita moment of inertia about its own axis is MR'. Eq; (7.27) then giVes that
"f ..


. (7.28)

Do you notice any thing interesting in this equation? The linear Iuu tunurd out to be tnapentlent oJ the _ and til. radtu. . oJ the hoop. So. a hDop oJ any ".at.rlal and any radtu$ ron. 1Dfth the
1Ipd 01& the

velocftil sam. .'



Dn'EXT QUBSTIONS._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

A. aolid ophere ron. down a slope without. a1ippina, Wh!Oi will be ita velocity in term. of the heicht of the oIope?

2. A aolid cylinder ron. down an inclined pbme witnout a1ippina, What fraetion of it. kinetic energy i" trano1etiona1? Whet is the maanitude of ita velocity after falliD& throuI!h heia:ht HI

......................................................................................................................... ..


A uniform oph"e of ........ 2 kg end radius 10 em i. rele"""d from reat on en inclined plane which _ _ 30" q e with the horizontal. Deduce ita (aj ansular accleration. (billnew a<:cleration aoloQg the plane. and (e) kinetic!'D"'ll3' as it travele 2 m a!on8 the phme .


Rotational Motion


An interesting example of the conservatiDn of angular momentum is provided by

1Itars. You must have heard of pulsars. These are stars which &end tow...-d. us pulses of r~ation 0{ great intensity. The pulses are periodic and the periodicity is extremely precise. The time periods range between a few mill.iaeconda to a few seconds. It is believed that" ",ch short time periods show that the stars are rotating very fast. Most of the matter of these stars is in the Conn of neutrons. The'neutron.; as' you miglit be knowing, along with the protons are the building blocks o(the 'atoirtie nuclei. These stars are called 'neutron stars. These stars represent the last 'st*te in the life of some stars. The secret of their fast rotation is their tiny size. The radius of a typical neutron star is only 10 Ian. Compare this with the P8.diUB of the sun, which is about 7 x lOS Ian. The Bun rotates. on its axis with a period of about 25 da;ys. Imagine that the sun suddenly shrinks to the size of a neutron star without any change in its masa. You can show that in order to conse:rve its angular momentum the sun has to rotate with a period as short as the fraction of a millisecond.



A rigid body has rotational as well as translational motion The equation of translational motion may be written in the same form as for a single particle If a point in the rigid body i. fixed then it can only rotate The moment of inertia about an axis of rotation is defined as 1: m; r;2
The moment of inertia plays the same role in rotational motion as the m.asa doe. in linear motion That the turning effect of a force r on a rigid body is given by the torque T ~ K ,. 1'wo equal and opposite forces constitute a couple, the magnitude of whoat tl1rIUt1g" effect is equal to the product of one of the forces and trp- ...... t~" _d bet.een the


The application of an external torque changes the angular momentum of the body If the sum of aU external torquea is zero then the angular momentum of the body remains constant When a cylindrics! or a apherics! body rou. down an inclined plane without slipping, its speed is independent of its mass and radius.

2. 3. 4, 5.

I. it possible

The weight Mg of a body is shown generally as acting at the centre of mass of the body. Does this me"" that the earth does not attract other particles?

'?r the centre of


of a body to lie outside the body? Give two

exanlPtes ..u JUstify your answer?

Manuals for car.engine requites alwa;ys apecify the torqu!, to be when tightening the cylinder head bolta. I. it the right 'thing to do? Justify your an""",r. In a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO} the nuclei of the two atoms"", 1.13 10"' m apart. Find the location of the centre of mass of the molecule, A grincung wheel" of mass 5.0 kg and diameter 0.20 m is rotating .oith an angular velocity of 490 rad/sec. Find its kinetic enezgy. Through what "distance would it have to drop in free faU" to acquire this kinetic energy?
Two identical spheres, each of mass 1.0 kg and nu:liU8 0.10 m, are attached. at the end of a massle rod. Th" distance between the two baUs i. 0.50 m .. Calculate the moment of i'~ertia of the system about an axis passing through the midpoint of the rod and perr "-!icUlar to it.



A wheel of ru, ".eter 1.0 mi. rotalUlg about a fixed axis with an initial angular velocity of 2 rev! sec. The angular accelecation is 3 revI sec2 .




c) d)

Compute the angular velocity after 2 second.. Through what Bngle has the wheel turned in this time? What is the tangential velocity of a point on the rim of the wheel at r - 2 sec? What is the resultant acceleration of a point on the rim of the wheel at r - 2 sse? A wheel rotating at an angular speed' of 20 rad/ sec is brought to reat by a constant torque in 4.0 seconds. If the moment of inertia of the wheel about the axUo of rotaIion is 0.20 kg-m', find the-work done by the torque in the lirat two seeonda. Two wheels are mounted on the same axle. Wheel A has in_ent of inertia 5 x 10-" kg-m' and wheel B has moment of inertia 0.2' kg-w'. Wheel A i. set spinning at 600 rev/min, while wheel B is stationary. A clutch now act. to join A and B 80 that they must spin together. At what speed will they rotate? Suppose the clutch act. gradually. Will the end result be the same as though they were joined suddenly? (Neglect any friction at the bearingll). How does the rotational kinetic energy- before joining compare with the kinetic en ergy after joining? What torque doe~ the clutch deliver if A makes 10 revolutions during the operation of the clutch?






10. A solid sphere of mass m rolls down a slope without slipping. Show that the foroe of friction acting on it is (2/7) 1119 sin 9, where 9 is the inclination of the slope.
11. You are gMm two identically looking spheres and told that one of them is Suggest a method to detect the hollow one.


12. The moment of inertia of a wheel is 1000 kg-m'. Its rotation is uniformly accelerated. At some instant of time its angular velocity is 10 rad! sec. After the wheel has rotated through an angle of 100 radians, the angular velocity of the wheel becomes 100 rad/sec. Calculate the torque applied to the wheel and the change in its kinetic energy.
13. A disc of radius 10 em and mass 1 kg is rotating about its own axis. It is acce1enUed uniformly from rest. During the first second it rotatee through 2.5 radianII. Find the angle rotated during the nest second. What is the magnitude.of the torque acting on the disc?


IateJd: QDI.t....... 7 .. 1
1. Yes.
_QWiti.ou7.2 1. The coordinates of given five masses are A (-2, -2), B (-5, -I), C (7, 3), D (2,6) and E (0, 3) and their masses are 1 kg,2 kg, 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg respectiveJ;y. Hence, ~s of centre of mass of the system are


Hence, Cen.tre ,of 1III)lU.



lxO+2x1+3x .5 1+2+3



- --2.47and 15

_ lXO+2XO+3X(Ji/2)


-2 x 1 + (-1) )( 2 + 3 x 3 + 6 x 4 + 3 x 5 1+2+3+4+5


44 - -2.97 15 2. Let the three particle system is as shown in Fig.

3.5 Ji) Centre of )tau is ( -;-'



Rotational Motion
1. Moment of inertia of the system about an axis perpendicular to the plane passing point P, - mf' + m12f') + ".,.. - 4 ".,..

:. Common NlgUlar speed "'1 = "~2/3 4. Let the present period of revolution of earth i. To According to the conservation of angular momentum,

M:I. about the axis along the side mf' + mr' - 2 ".,.. 2. M.I. of a solid sphere about an axis tangential to the sphere

~M(2.5R)2 X(21r)2


= -


Which should be equal to MK'

- SMR x ( T
It gives, To2


7 :. K-' - -5 1<'.

or Radius of gyration K - R

Thus. period of revolution of earth in the . past is 'To "'" 2.5 times the present tUne

7.5 1. Using equation 7.27, for a solid sphere


6.25 7" :. To - 2.5 T

3. M.1. of the system about an axis perpendicular to. the plane and passing through 0 is = 1 xOA2+2xOB2+3xOC2+4xOD:I +5 x0E2
- lx8+2x26+3x58+4x40+5 x9 - 439 kg m'. 4. (a) M.I. of the system - 10 mf'

-mv+ 2 2

x -

rnr. ,2


It gives v -

~ fi"gh
= ~

(bJ M.I. - 26 mf' (oj M.!. - 30 mf' Intezt Qu_1On 7.4 1. Angular momentum
d2 d - ) ., _ m -+m ( 4 4 2

2. For a solid cylinder, I :. Total KE


- -mv+ ---.-=-mv 2 2 2 R2 4
Hence, fraction of translational K.E.
.!.mv 2

1 m",2



md2 d)

2 2. Angular'momentum about an axis of rotation (<!iameteIj.



---7- ...

3. Linear acceleration along the p]ane

L-/{J)= nt-x'" 4
- 2 x - - X 10 - 0.2kgm 4 3. Accord: ~ to conservation of angular momentuDl



3.5 ms-2 ,


:. for sphere K


Angular acceleration - - = R 0.1 = 35 rad S4


3 # __ 2

Gain in K.E .... loss in P.E. in vertical descent h (-I sin 9)


=MgI sin 9 - 2 x 9.8 x 2 x 'h

19.6 J.



In the previous lessons we have studied about force and energy. The effect of force applied to a body Is observed either by displacement produced in the body or by change in Its shape or size or both. It Is our common experience that when a force Is applied on a rubber cord or metal spring along its length, the change in length takes place. When we remove the force, the cord regains its ortglnallength. When a weight Is put on thick

foam sheet it Is depressed but after removing the weight It regains Its orlglnal shape. Further' you can easily see that in case of a ball of wet model clay. or molten wax it changes its shape or size or both even on application of a very small force and does not regain its orl.glnal condition after removing the force. Do you know why some bodies regain the1r.orlgln shape and size whereas others do not? In thls lesson we will be studying about the elasti propoerty of the material. ThIs PIoperty of the materials is of vital importanCe in our lives. In thls lesson we will also study that elastic property of material is for calculating the strength of cables (or strings) \lsed to suspend a body such as a cable car. crane. lift. etc. We will also learn its uses for finding the strength of beams for construction of buildings and bridges.

After studying thls lesson, you should be able to :
explain molecular theory of matter and distingtdsh between three states oj matter on its basIS; distinguish between elastic and plastic bodies; . dtdfne the terms. dejormtng force. s~s, strain and their types; distfngulslt between stress and presswe; draw and tnterprete stress-strain cwvefor an elastic solid; dejine Young's modulus. bulk modulus. mod'i1u s oJrigidJty and Poisson's

. explain cllaracteristics oj a cantileVer. state the dependence qfthe depression oj a loaded cantIIeuer and girder on various parameters; and explain the peculiar shaRe oj girder having Cross-section in the jonn oj

letter I.



You are famlliar that every matter is made up of molecules. The molecules attract each other with a certain force. nus force is called intermolecular force. As the separation between molecules decreases. the net attraction force between them increases. But when the molecules come very close to each other. the' attraction force between them begins to decrease; and when the distance, becomes too small. the molecules begin to repel each 9ther. If molecules come still closer. the repulsive force increases more rapidly compared to attractive force.



Ftg. 8.1 : Graph between intermolecular force and tntemwlecular separation

The variation of intermolecular force with the variation of intermolecular distance is shown in Fig. 8.1. At separation ro net force between molecules is zero. This separation ro is called equilibrium separation. The magnitude of ro is of the order of 10-10 m. Thus. when the distance between two molecules is greater than ro' then they attract each other but when the distance between them is less than ro they repel each other.
In solids molecules are close to each other very nearly at the equilibrium separation. Due to high intermolecular forces they are almost fixed at their positions. You may understand why a solid has a fixed shape if no

external forces act to defQnn It. In Uquids the average separation between the molecules is somewhat larger. The attractive force is week and the molecules are more free to move inside the whole mass of the liquids. You may guess why liquids do not have fixed shape. It takes the shape of vessel tn willch It Is filled. In gases. the separation Is much larger and the moleCular force Is very
weak. Molecules of a gas are much more free to move tnside as well as

outside (if possible) the mass of the gas. not have fixed shape and size?

Now can you think why gases do


As you know that a rubber cord or metalic spring is tied at one end and a force is applied at the other end. by hanging weight there ;<; a change in
154 .

, Properties of Solids
. Bow Its length and a removing the weight U-comes in Its original condition. On pressing a rubb~ ball. its shape is changed. and on releasing it becomes in its original shape. Similarly when you apply a force on the string of a bow Fig 8.2. 'It Is stretched and produce deformation in the bow. On l'ig. 8.2: Force applied on string oj bow releasing the bow it comes back to Its original shape. From these examples we infer that :

(tJ Whenever an external joret;! is applied on a body its shape or size or both change. In other words the bOdy is defonned. The extent oj . deformation depends upon the material and shape oj the body and the manner in which the foret;! is applied.
(to on releasing external defonnlng foret;!. the body tries to regain its orfgfnal


The property of matter to restore the natural shape and size or to oppcue the deformation is called elastfclty.

8.4.1 Elastic and Plastlc.Bodles

If you pull a spring. It is extended but on releasing It comes.back exa!=tly to its original state .Oength. etc.). The body which recovers completely its original state on the removal of the deforming force is called perfectly elastic. On the other hand If It completely retaIns its modified fonn even on removl,ng the deforming force. i.e . it shows no teiuiency to recover. it :is Sllid to be perfectly pJastlc. However. it is important to note that all .Qodies behave in between these two l1in1ts. Below a. certain limit of deforming forces quartz may be considered perfectly elastic and above this limit pJaaticlD is taken as perfectly plastic. Do not confuse the plastic used in da1l.Y Iffe with the plastic body. No. doubt elastic deformations are very important in science and technology but plastic deformations are also important in mechanical processes. You may see the processes such as stamping. bending and hammering metal work pieces. These are only possible due to presence of plastic deformations.

We arefamilfar:with the structure of matter. The phenomenon of elasticity can be explalD.ed in terms of intermolecular forces. .

8.4.2 Molecular Theory of Elasticity

As you are aware that a solid body is composed of a great many molecules or atoms arranged in a definite order. F;aCh mole.cule is acted upon by the

forces due to ne1ghbour1iJg molecules. pue to inter-molecular forces solid takes such a shape that eaCh molecule remainS iIl,a stable equilibrium; WJIen the body is deformed. the molecules are displaced from their 0rigjDaf. positions. The inter-molecular distances change. If in deformation. intermolecular I!'eparatlon increases from their equilibrium separation


(r > rol attraction forces are developed. Whereas if Intermoleculear separation decreases (r < r01. repulsion forces are developed. These forces called as resto~ folCeS drive molecules to their original positions so that body" takes its original shape and size.
Now you study the manners in which forces are applied to deform the


When an external force or system of forces is applied to a body. it undergoes change in shape or size according to nature offorces. We have explained that In the process of deformation. internal restoring force is developed due to molecular .displacements from their positions of equilibrium which opposes the defOrming force.'l7te internal ,a_fog .iorce acting per unit area oft i l 5S sectiOn of dAiforrnsd IJodu Is CGiJed

In equilibrium the restoring force is equal in magnitude and opposite in

direction to the external deforming force. Hence stress is measured by the external force per unit area of cross-section when equilibrium is ajiained.

sue.... _restodngforee _ deformlng fareel1'l

area areaW


L -_ _--L-_ _---II---+.F.


Longitudinal stress ; If the deforming forces are along. the length PIt. S.8: l.ontJftudInaIof the" body (fig.. 8.3) then we call the stress produced as longitudinal stress.


The unit of stress is N/m2. The stress may be longitudinal, normal or shearing.

(ill Normal stress ; If the deforming forces are applied uniformly over entire surface of the body normally so that change in volume of the body;ocmrs.wtthout change in shape (fig. 8.4).11len we the stress produced as nomial stress. You may produce nonna! stress by applying hydrostatic pressure untformally over the entire surface of body.




J- - -

- -


- - - - ... ,

F' F 4-4--i







~-..:----------!. F /bl

..Il10..... ,')eO..,," .......


VQ/wQe UJII/lQut cIuInge oj shape)

PtopeI1ies.of Soli"
Here you can distinguish pressure and stress. Deforming force acting per Unit area normal to the surface is called pressure while Internal restoring force developed per unit area normal to the surface is known as sit<:ss.
(iii) Shearing Stress : If the deforming forces act tangentially or parallel to the surface (fig. 8.5) so tllat shape of the

, ,

body changes without change in ",-u~thoutchtmgeqfvolwne} volume, the stress is called sheaIing stress.



stress chtmge In

8.4.4 Strain
Deforming forces produce changes in the dimensions of the body. Corresponding to three types of stresses, these changes are also of three

In general the strain is dt:fined as the cIumge Ua.dimension per unit dimension

of the body. It is the ratio of two similar quantities hence is dimensionless.

As indicated above strains are of three types : (i) linear strain. (ii)volume (bulk) strain, and (iii) shearing strain.


--t-- -----.,.<lt~-n,.8.&: LInear strain


Linear strain :

If on application of longitudinal deforming force length lof the body changes by 41 (Fig. 8.6) then
linear straln = change Inlength original length






VOlume strain : If on application of

uniform pressure, the volume V of the body changes by 4 V (fig. 8.7) Without change of shape of the body, then
volume straln = change In volume = II V original volume V


- ---,

V ....._-::-_...:i1:::"....


Volume s/rain

(iii) Shearing

strain : "Wn!!D the deforming


forces are tangential (fig. 8.8) then the shearing strain is gWen by the angle


a line per:pmclicldar to the fixed plane is tuM18d qtler defonnation.



, , ,

I'-or small angle, () = -




1IIC.8.8: Shearing slroin



8.4.5 Stre....strain curve for a metalBc wire

Fig. 8.9 shows a graph shQwing Variation of stress with the variation of strain when a metallic Wire of uniform cross-section is subjected to an increasedlolid.
Several regions imd points on this cwve are of great importa,nce.
(i) ....". of ProportbuaIU., CON : Portion OA of is a straight line which indicates that in. this region stress is proportional to strain and bOOy behaves like a'peneetty elastic body.

U'""*'t'I~-:" ~ ~PIaIIc-'" . a-. i ,t; "





Pfopcio1IaowtJu JIOinI .19aUc _ _


. I I I

........... ....

'"-tic Umu lB1 : If We increase the strain a little bit beyond A. the stress is not exactly proportional to strain. However. the Wire still rem8ins elastic i.e.. after I'elt\OVing the deforming force Uoad}. it regains its original state.27Ie madmwn value of .trafn for U1hfch CI body (U1IreJ . . . - . elude propel tal .. called elude ifmit. Body' beyond the elastic llmii behaves like a p1listic 'body.

(Uil 1"fe1d point Ie} : When the Wire is si:retched beyond the limit B, strain increaseS rapidly and body becomes plastic, thaf is, if the deforming load is removed. wire will contract but all the extension is not recoverable. The material follows. dotted line CD on the ~I>h. during contraction and the remaining strain OD is known as a peftaen_t Nt.


After point E on the curve none of the extension is IecoVerable.

(iv) .8reaJdng point IF} : Beyond point E strain increases much more rapidly and near point F the length of Wire increases contliluously even without increase of force or even reduCing the force little. The Wire breaks at point F . This is called as breaking ~t or fracture point. .

The stress corresponding to breaking pointF is called or tens strength.



If large deformation takes place between the elasticlimit.and the brealring point, the material is called ductile. If it breaks soon after the elastic limit .is crossed. it IS called brittle. .

8.4.8. Stress-.traIn curve for rubber

If you stretch a rubber cord to over several times its original length. even then after removing stretcl:Ung forces. it will come back to its original length. The stress-strain curve for rubber is distinctly different from that of a metallic Wire. There are two important things to note from fig. 8.10; r'lr.!tly you can observe that no ,part of this large deformation stress is ~:-;;ortional to strain. There is no region of proportionaUty. Secondly when
_ m_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Properties of Solids

. the. deformtng force Is removed. the original curve is not retraced although the sample ftnally acq~ Its natural length. The work done by the material in returning to Its orlg1nal shape is less than the work done by the defonning force when It was deformed. Thus. a certain amount of energy is abSOIbed by the. material in cycle ~h1ch appe~ as heat. 1lds phenomenon is called elastic



Elastic hysteresis has an Important application in shock absorbers: A part of energy transferred by deforming force is observed in: a shock absorber. only a Iimall part is transmitted to the body.




.".S.I&' stressslraln curuefor rubber

Blmmple 8.l : A load of 4.0 kg is suspendedJrom a ceUIng through a steel wire of radius 2.0 mm. Find the tensU s~ss developed iii. the wire when equiUbrIum. is achleued. Given 9 = 3.1 7tm/S' SolUtIon : Tension in the wire

F = Mg = 4.0 x 3.1
A ..
It'" - It


Area of cross-aect1on of the wire

(2.0 x 1()-3J' m'

.. 4.0 x 1(t31t m' The Ums1l stress developed A . .

= 4. 0 xl 0-6 It


N m2

=3.lxIO-6N /m2
Blmmple 8.2 : For steel the breaking s~ss is 7.9x lOS N/m' and density is 7.9 x 1(Jl kg/~. FInd the maxfmum length of a steel wire which can be suspended without breaking under Its oWn welg/1t{g = 9.B m/s"J.

SOlution .:. Let L.be tPe maximum, length ~f wire suspended without breaktng If p be ~d~lty and A the. area of crossseetlon of the wire. then weight of the wire is .

Due to this weight the stress developed is This is the breaking stres. Thus
Lpg .. 7.9 x 10" N/m'

W A = Lpg



7.9 X 10 3 x9.8


_10 2 m

Now it is the time to take a.break and check your progress, For this by to solve dfe following questions.



INTEXT QUES'l10NS 8 . 1 - - - - - - - - - 1.

if a

rod is clamped rigidly at one end. a force is applied normally to the cross-section at the other end so that there is an increase in length of the rod. what is the type of strain in this case?
.~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


When a rope is used to puR a car it wUl be under oompression. or tensioo.


The ratio stress/strain i-ematns constant for snu:zll deformation qf a metal wire. When the deformatiDn is made larger. will this iutto increase or decrease ?
............................................u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. .


On applying a deforming force the inter-atomic separation in a body becomes lesser than that of inter-atomic seperatiDn in the normal state.

What must be the nature qf!he

inter-atoniJc forces in this case ?


What type of change occurs in the body when shearing st:il?ss is developed in it ?
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u ..


A wire is elongated by 8 mm by applying a force of 5 kg.Wt. if its radius is doubled (other things rernain.inD the same) the increase in its length will be
(a) 8 mm (b) 2mm (c) 32 mm (d) 1 mm
t .. ... .. ................................................................ ..

In 1678 Robert Hooke obtaJned the stress-strain curve experimentiilly for a number of solid substances and establlshed a .law of elasticity known

as Hooke's law after his name. According to this law: Under proportionality limit the st, IS is pruportfonal to the.COi I eapmr4fng strain. i.e.. or

Istress/strain = constant IE)




... (8.2)

This constant E of proportionality i$ Ii measure of elastlcityof the substance and is called modu11111 of e1utlclty. As stram Is dlmensionless quantity. modulus of clasticlty has the same dlmenslons (or units) as that of the stress. Its value Is independent of the stress and strain but depends on the nature of the material.

8.5.1 Modulil of Elasticity

In previous sections you have learnt that there are three kinds of stram.

Properties of Soltds
It is therefore clear that there should. be ~ee modulli ~f elasUcity co eaponding to these strams. These are Young's - - " '..... JJuIk .,...",..... and mpch,Ws of rfgldity corresponding to linear stmin, vPlume stram and shearing stmin .especttveJy. Let us study them one' by one.

(I) Yoaag'S Iiodm-: The ratio of the lDngitudbwl sIress tD the longitud:inal stmln is called Young's modu'usjor the material of the body.

Let a ~ of length L and area of CI'OI;I8-sectlon A be stretched by a longitudinal force F. As a result Change in length of the wire is lit Then
Longltudinal stress


LongItudinal strain = AI/I

Y""~"'s_modulus y= FIA =22... ~'"'"'6 AlII A Al

If the wire of radius r is suspended vertically With a dgid support and-a _

hangs at its lower end, then A = 1tr2-and F = Mg

[Af;ll ~


til) Balk lIodabis:The ratio of normal stress to the ooIwne stmln is called bulk modulus qfthe mat.erla1 of the body.

If due to increase In pressure Ap.volume -v of the 00dy decreases by AV without cbange.in shape, thennormal stress = Ap

volume strain = AVIV

s B tp - .. V.6p Bulk mod.... ..... AVIV AV
(84) ....

The rec1procal of bulk modulus of a substance is ca1ledits _PI! nnlbD't7. Thus, compressibility, K


11 B =

~~ I


(UQ lIoduhw of Rlgtdlty or Shear lIodul1lll:The ratio of the shearing stress tD shearing strain Is called moduhrs ofrlBfdlty of the mat.erla1 of "the body.

If a tangential force F acts on an area A and 8 is the shesI1ng strain, then, "

". shearing stress F I A F modulus of l1gJdity IJ = sh~..ng strain - 6 = A6

~ample 8.4 : A

... (8.6)

load of 4.0 kg Is suspended.from a ceiling through a steel wfre of lengh 20 m and radius 2.0 mm. It Is found that the length of the wire Increased by 0,031 mm as equfifbtium is achIeued. Ffnd Young's

mOOuhrsfor ~ :rake 9

=3.11r mls"


SOlution : Longitudinal streSs = F I A =Mg Iltr2

4.0X3.11t N 1m2 2 1t(2XlO-3) =3.1xl0 6 N/m2 Longitudinal strain T41 0.031 X10-3 2.0

0.0155 x 10-3


vou~"'.s modulus

3.1X10 . IN/m2 =2.0xlO 11 N/m"'0.0155xl0-3 .

Ja:ample 8.5 : A..o1.0 meter long copper wire ofaoss-sectional area 1.2 r!m? is stretched bij:d.jorce of 4.8 x 10' N, UYoung's modulI'S of copper is Y = 1.2 X 10'J Nlm'; calculate (0 stress (II) strain and (iii) tncniase tit length. of the wire.

Solution :

Stress .. A


4.8xlO I 40 10'NI 1.2 x 10"' N m '" '. x m

_ Stress _ 4.0xl0 =3.3xlO"" (U) !itl"ain Y 1.2xl011 Strain .. 4l/1 increase in length "'l" strain. x I . 3.3 x 10" x 4 m .. 1.32 xl()-3...,


Ja:ample 8.6: When a solid rubber ball is takenfrom the swface Il;> botlDm of a lake the ~ucttoil in its volwne is 0.001296. The depth of the lake is 360 In, density of lake water is 10' kglrril and acce/emtlon due to gravity is 10 mls'. Caculate bulk modulus of rubber:


Increase of press~ on the ball


hp 9 - 360 x 10" x 10 N/rrr '" 3.6 x 1()8 N/m2

Volume Ittrain "': =O.OO12/l00=1.2xlO-5 . pV Bulk Modulus B = AV

3.6xlO = 1.2 x 10"

0 10" NI = 3. x. m

8.5.2 Steel is M~re Elastic tban Rubber

A bodrla SIdd to be more elastic If on applying a Isrge defountog force on It, the strain produced to the body Is Small. Ifwe take two Identical rubber and sieeI wJres and apply equal deformtng forceS On each of them. you


Properties of SoHds

will see that the extension produced in the steel wire is s&aner than the ~ion produced in the rubber wire. Also for producing same strain in the two wires the stress is much higher in steel wire than in ruhber wire.
In defIning linear strain or YOWl!fs modulus we have considered so Iar only increase in length of the wire on applying a stretching force and have CQmpletely Ignored the resulting decrease in the diameter (th1clmess) of the Wire. It was firSt of all pointed out by Poisson.

8.5.3 Poisson's Ratio

You may see that when a wire is stretched along its length, it is elongeted along with a contraction in its diameter. Thus, the length of the wire increases in the direction of forces, whereas a contraction occurs in the perpendicular dlrection. This f<let is not oIlly true for wire but for all other bodies under strain. The" strain perpendlcuIai to the appIled force is Caned lateral strain. Poisson pointed out that within elastic llmlt lateral strain is directly proportional to longitudinal strain i.e. the ratio oj lateral strain to Iongftudinal strain is a constant far a riulterial body an4 is known as Poisson's ratio. It is denoted by a Greek letter (1 (sigma)
If ~ and a be the lateral and longitudinal strains respective1y, then the Poisson's ratio.

O'"=.!!. a
If a wire (rod or tube) of length 1 and diameter d is plongaled on applyjng a stretching force by an amount ~1 and its dJameter is decreased by amount lod, then longitudinal strain

lateral strain

=lod I d
~l /l ". d lol


... Poisson's ratio(J

... (8.7)

Since, Poisson's ratio IS a ratio of two strains, it is dlmensionless quantity and is purely 'a number.
-The V"" lue of Poisson's ratio depends only upon the nature of the material and 'for most of the su~tances it Iles between 0.2 ~d 0.4."When a body unde!," tension suffers no change in volume, i.e., -the body is perffctlY inc:OmpI smble. the value of Poisson's ratio is greatest. i.e.. 0.5'(or 2)'
J!:IrQmpIe 8.7: A 10 kg mass is attached to one end of a copper w(re 3 m long and 10-3 m in QIamet.er. Ffnd the emmsion !fYOUllg's modubls of the wile ~ 12.5. x 10'0 ~/m2. Clanllate the lateral ~ produced If .AJisson's n:Ufo is 0,25 .

'SoIIItfMt : Here L .. 3 m. r 9.8 N. 0' = 0.25

=0.5 x

lo-"m. Y:= 12.5 x 10.0 IN/m". F:= 10 x


Extension produced in the wire

'Al- F.l

IOx9.8x3 ,m 1O 3.14X(0.5XI0-3t x12.5xl0


Longitudinal strain a=Al/l= 0.2993xl0~ Poisson's ratio Lateral strain a lateral strain (~) longitudinal strain(a) = 0.25 x 0.2993 x 10-2 = 2.4978 x 10-4 But. lateral strain


d ' Ad=2.4979xl0-4d


='>..4987><10-4 xl0-3 Lateral compression = 2.49879 x 10-7 m

Now take another ,break and by to solve the following questions.

'INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.2 - - - - - - - - - 1. Is the unit oJYoung's modulus same as that oJlongitudlnal stress or

d!tferent? ................~ ..............................................................................

2. Water is I'J1OIIe elastic than air. why? ...................................................

3. The length oj a wire is cut to half. What will be the effect on the
increase In its length I.IIIder a gipen load? ................

4. 1\00 wires are madeoJthe same meta1. The lengthoJtheftrstwire Is half that oj the second wire and its diameter Is double that oj the second wW; if equaL loads are applied on both wtres.flnd the ratio oj increase In' their lengths .,.................................; ... :.......................

5. if the mension oj a string Is equal to its ortgtnal length. then the younq's ITUlOO"hIS oJthe materlaLoJstrlrig wUl be
'(a) =

2 x stress; (b) = stress; (c)

x stress; (d) = 3 x stress.

6 .. On applying a pressure oj 5 XlfY;N/rri' the oolume oj ajb.dd qf1ntlJol uolwne 1.5 x1~rri' cha1lges by 3 x10-'. Bulk modulus qfjfuid Is
(a) 7.5 xlCP N/rri'; (b) 2.5 x10'0 N/rri'; (c) (d)' 1.5 xl0'3 N/rri'. '

1.0 xlCP N/rri';


ProperUes of J;olids

Beams are important in architecture. industries and also in our daily life. Elastic properties of matter provide load bearing strength to the beams (girders). A uniform beam clamped at one end and 1000000d at the other end is clalled cantilever. You would have seen Laxman Jhula in Rishikesh. Haridwar and Howara Bridge at Calcutta. These are examples of cantilever. You will observe that when a long beam (rod or bar) is clamped horizontally at one end to a rigid support and a load is placed at the other end. it gets depressed. You may easily observe experimentally the variation of depression of cantilever with the variation of load and length of cantilever. For this a long beam of length 1 and of uniform rectangular cross-section having breadth D and depth (thickness) d is taken. One end of it is clamped at the edge of big table and a pOinter Is fixed to the free end which moves on a vertical scale (fig. 8.13) when it is loaded. At the free end weights may be suspended with the help of thread and han,ger.

In order to study the variation of depression with load keeping length of contilever constant. position of pointer on the scale for zero load is noted. Then a weight of 50 g is suspended at free end. Due to weigh( the beam bends and pointer moves downwards. Its position on scale is noted. The difference between two readings gives the depression. Then load is increased in steps of 50 g and several sets. of observations are taken. With the help of these observations depression-load graph is plotted (fig. 8.14). A straight

~~------.t ~-----.


1I'ig. 8.13 : CWltile"er




8.14 : Depressiowload gruphJQr" a ('Wltile,:rer_

line graph shows that the depression produced is directly proportional to load prot/idee! the length qf the cantUeuer is kept constant. In order to study the variation of depression with length of cantilever i!:eeping the load constant. the length of the cantilever is


changed in steps of 5 cm. and the corresponding depressions are noted keeping ltte loadl,constant. In this case when the length of cantilever is altered the . ibitia1. reading for the zero load is taken each time separately. Graphy of depression-length becomes a straight line ; (fig. 8.131. .
The variation, of depression of cantilever may also be studied by drawing depression-breadth and depressiondepth graphs.

. ,

Cube of IengIh

..... "l.S: DepressIon - LerIf1Ih gmphfora _

Expn.lIlon for nep....on of C8DtJleyer

For a beam of length I, breadthb and depth d the depression of the free end when it is loaded by weight of.mass M is given by the expr<ssion.
4Mgl 3 y . Ybd 3

. (8.8)

where Y is the Young's modqlus for the material of beam.

It is clear from the expression for. depression of loaded end of a beam of rectangular crOsS-Section that:

for a given beam the devression is directly proporttonalllJ load


(iI) .for a given load the depression of the beam is

a) , directly proportional tD the cube of its length.

bJ inversely proporttonal tD its bn!odth. cJ Irwersel!i proportional tD the cube of its depth (thidmessJ and
d) irWerselyproportionnl tD YoUng's morbdlls of the rJUJter1Ql of


Thus, if you want smaIl depression in a given cantilever it should not be load~ heavily. On the other hand if you want that for a given load the depression should be smaIl, then the length of the cantilever should be !IIDa11, its breadth, depth and Young's modulus (of the material) should be large. .

8.6.1 .Beam Supported at the EDds amd. Loaded In the

Let us consider a beam of rectangular cross-section having length I, ~ b and depth d {flg.8.14). It is. horlzonta1ly supported at knife edges k. and Ie,. and load by wf~ght W at the middle point. Reaction of eaCh of knife edges be W/2. It may be considered as double cantilever

. PropeItles of Solids each .of length l/2 and having load W/2; Thus. the depression of middle point below each of the k:njfe epges is given by

--'------ 1. .
Wl 3
4Ybd 3



FIg. 8.14: Beam In"der! in the middle as double cantUelier

Where M Is the mass suspended at the middle

8.6.2 Explanation of Bending of Beams

Let. us take a beam of rectangular cross-section. You may consider the beam as made up of a nilinber of thin plane layers parallel to each other (fig.. B.IS-a). Also each layer may be considered as made up of a number of parallellongitud1nal filaments or fibres (fig. 8.15 b)

1'". 8.1 5 ;la} Lay"rs In a





Fill. 8.15 :(b) FfIamerttS In a la!ier

Let the beam be clamped horizontally at end A 'and loaded by wetghtW at the other. end B. It undergoes bending. The filaments of outward side of beam are elongated .and becorri~ in tension while filameI).ts.of.innerside are compressed (fig. 8 .16). In between these two portions there Is. a layer .lit !!urface in which the filaments are neither elongated nor compressed . . Sti(!b Q'surface is called neutTul surface and is shown dotted m the figures;


FI&. 8.16 :Belldin!J 167

(~f CWltileuer

'Physics Consider the equilibrium of portion BC of the beam; weight Wat B and reaction force w at'section C of beam form external couple which rotates the beam clockwise. Filaments above neutral surface tncrease tn length and those below it deerease tn length. The increase or decrease ,tn length of a filament is directly proportional to its distance from the neutral' surface. Due to elastic reaetion intern.. 1 forces are developed. These are shown with increasing magnitudes tn fig. 8.16. A system of restoring couples is thus formed. Th,,' sum of moments of these couples about the neutral axis is called bending moment. In equilibriUl;n bending moment is equal and Opposlte t.o the external couple.

8.6.3 Peculiar shape of Girders

Girders are used in the construction of bUildings. bridges and factOries. You might have noticed that the upper and lower faces of the girders are made of much greater breadth than its middle part which is of smaller breadth. Have you ever tried to know the reason of this? \Vhen a girder is supported at its ends and is loaded. it is depressed tn the middle due to bending. The filaments above neutral surface (middle layer is Which there is neither contraction nor elongation of filaments on bending) are compressed and filaments below the neutral surface are elongated. Amount of compression of elongation tncreases as the distance from neutral surface increases.The compression and elongation are maximum for the upper most and lower most ftIaments respectively. Therefore outer layers suffer more strain and stress than inner layers. That is why. to make outer layers' stronger than inner layers. the girders are manufactured with their cross-section tn the form of letter I (fig. 8. 17). This cOllsiderably saves the material without sacrificing the strength of the girder. l'1li, 8.17: Shape of
eros.seetlt!!' of girder

Girders of Rectangular cross-Section: You must be' knOWing that in a girder of rectangular cross section the. longer side is kept as depth. The depression y of middle point of a girder of length 1 breadth b'and depth d with a certain load W distributed uniformly along the length of the girder is give~ by
5Wl 3 y-."..:::..:.:.:.""." - 32bd 3 y
... (8.10)

Where Y is the Young's modulus of material of the girder. It is clear that for the same load and length of the girder the depression y of middle point is inversely proportional to one power of breadth b and three powers of depth d.. 1hereJore. to' reduce the depression increase in depth d Is more effective than the increase in breadth b. That is why tn the girder of rectangular cross-section. the longer side is taken as depth. Now let us check how much you have understood. Solve the following' questions.

Properties of Solids

INTEXT QUESTIONS 8.3 - - - - - - - - - - 1. Are there certain.filaments in a beam wnich remain unstralned during bending? Where do they lie? ......................................... _ ........................ .

2. How dJ:Jes tfte extension or contraction of.fUament change with different layer? ............................................................................................... ; ...... .

n.vo identical caitt1leuers are loaded by weights in the ratio 1:2. What is
the ratio of depressions? ..........................:..............................................

4. The length of a canttlever is halved. What will be the depression when 'Dad l-ernatninB'tbe SQme?, ...................................................................... 5. A 5 m long 10 em x 15 em is to be used as a cantileuer. Which side qf the beams crosssection .nust be kept horizontal in order to have lesser depression? ............................. .

~ ofrectonguku crosssection


A force whiCh causes deformalfon In a body Is called deforming foree.

On defonnalfon Internal restoring forces are produced In the .:xIy so that after removal of deforming forces body regatns Its original shape and size; ,

The property of matter to restore the natural shape and size after defonrialfon or to oppose the deformalfon Is ca1led elaslfclty. The body which recow:rs completely Its orlgtnal state on the removal of the deforming forces Is calledperfedly elasttc. If a body completely retains Its modified form. it is said to be perfectly plaslfc. The._ equals the Internal restoring force per unit area. Its units is N/m'. . The strain equals the

In dimension per unit dimension. Strain has no unit.

In the normal state the net Inter atomic force on an atom 15 zero. If the separalfQn betwo:en the atmns.becomes more than the separalfon In. normal state. the Intc:r atomic forces be\:ome attracIfve. However, for smaller separalfon these forces become reJ>ulsive.

' . The maximum value of stress upto which a body shows elasttc property Is called Its elaslfc Ilmit. A body beyond the elaslfc limit behaves like a plastic body.

Hooke's' law states that within proporlfonallty limit the stress developed In a body Is proporlfonai to the strain. The breSIImg stress Is the stress for which a body breaks.
Young'S modulus Is the ralfo of longttudlnal stress to longttudln:u strain.

. Bulk modulus Is the ratio of norma! stress to volume strain.

Modulus of rigidity Is the milo of the shearing stress to shearing strain.

. P\)Isson's rallo Is the ratto of lateral btnlin to longttudlnal strain.

Steel Is moreeiast1c' than' rubber.

A canUleoer Is the beam supported at one end and loaded at the other end. A beam supported at ends and loaded In the middle may be regarded as double canUleoer, .

For a gIVen canUleverdepresston produced Is directly proporttonal to Ibe load.

For constant load depression of cantilever Is directly proportional to cube of Its length. Fm: less depreeslonln a canUlever of rectangular crosssectlon by a load the longer side of Its cross-section Is kept vertical.

To save material without sacrificing the strength of girder they are manufactured with their cross-scctlon In the form of letter I.



Define the term elasticity. When Is a body called elasUc and when Is It called pIasUc? What Is the unit of modulus of elasticity? Explain the terms stress. strain. elastic limit and Hooke's law. What Is the value of young's nlodulus for a perfectly elastic body? ExPlain the elastic properties of matter on the basis of Inter atomic forces. What is the value 9f bulk modulus for Incomplresslble liquid? Draw a stress-strain graph for a metallic wire under increasing load. Mark the elasUc limit on the graph. WhIch part of the graph Is related to the Young's Modulus of the material of the wire?
Which is more elastic iron or rubber?

2 3.
4. 5.



Define Young's modulus of elasticity. In order to produce a longltudlnal strain of 2><10-', a stress of 2.4 x 107 N/m' Is produced In a wire. Calculate the Young's modulus of the material of the wire.

10. Why polsson's ratio has no unit? 1L Define bulk modulus of elasticity. A solid cube of side 30 em Is subjected to a uniform pressure of5 xlO N/m'. Cl\leulate the change In lis volume. Given that B = 16.98 xl0 10 N/m'.
12. What are shearlng straIn. shearlng stress and modulus of rigidity? What Is the unit

of modulus of rigidity? 13. What are lateral strain, longltudlnal strain and Potsson's ratio? A cyllndrtcal wire of length I and radius r Is stretched by a longltudlnal force. lis length Is Increased by Al and radius Is decreased by Ar. FInd out expression for Poisson's ratio forthe-material of wire.
14. A metallic wIr.. 4 m In length and

1 mm In dlameter.!s stretched by a weight of 4 kg, Determine the elongation produced. Given that the Y for the material of the wire ,Is 13.78 x 10' N/m'.

15. A steel wire 2.8 m long and diameter 4xlo-'m stretched by a Weight of 1.6 kg. If the extension produced Is L66 x, 1O"m, calculate Y for steel. 16. ' The upp"face of the cube of side I Oem IS displaced 2mm parallel to Itself when a tengenttal force of 5 x lOS N Is applied on ,It keeping lowerface lIxed. FInd out straIn.

17. What Is a cantilever? lf the free end of the beam Is loaded, on what factors does the depression of the free end depend? 18. Girder. are manufactured with their cross-section In the form ofletter I. Give reason. What Is the harm If the cross-section Is made rectangular? 19. You ha"e two bars of same length and same material but one of cross-section 6<:m x 6cm and the other of cross-section 4 em x 9 em, Out of the two which one will you ' use as a cantilever? If you want to have mlntmum depression for it given load, what will you do? 20. A wire of length L and radius r Is clamped rigidly at one end, When the 'other end of wire Is pulled by a force F Its length Increases by x. Another wire of the same material of length 21 and radius 2r, when pulled by a force 2}O', what will be the Increase In Its length.


ProPt"1 Ul.-S of Su::d~


IIltezt g-.tt_ 8.1

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Unear stram
Tension. Decrease.
Repulsive. Cbange of shape. (b)



latezt. gu...u_ 8.2

1. 2.

4. 5.

Both have. same. unit. Bulk modulus Is reciprocal of compressibility. Air Is more compressible thao water. Therefore water Is more elastlc than air.. Half. 1:8

4. 5. 6.

They lie In the central layer of the cantilever. Extension or contraction of filaments Increased as their distance from the neutral- surface Increases. For a loaded cantllever extension Is II\IDdmum at upper most surface. Contraction Is maximum at lower most surface. '1:2 1/8 10 cm.

TermIIW gaeoU.....


latezt QaenIou 8.3


9. 11. 14. 15. 16. 19. 20

FIlaments In the neutral layer

remain unstramed during bending,

1.2 x 10" N/m' 7.95 X IO"'m' 14.49 x 1O"'m 2.105 x 10" N/m' 2 x 0" Bar of 4 em " 9 em cross-section. 9 em side vertical. Change In. length I. "



In the previous lesson. you have learnt that the combination of intermolecular forces and thermal motion gives lise to three different states of matter. namely solid. liquid and gas. You would have seen that liquids can flow on the inclined surfaces (under the effect of earths gravity) and hence are also called fluids. They are_ incapable qf withstanding any shearing forces for any length of time if they deform easily and hence are said to have negligible elaSticity. To support a solid you require only a floor; while f('~ supporting a liquid you have to use a -container haVing side-walls. The Q,-eper the container. the stronger have to be the side-waIls of the container. Do you lmow why? Can you believe that you can lift an elephant by your own body ~eight by standing on one platform (like a pan of a ba1ance) of a hydraulic lift. the elephant standing on the ott ~r platform of the same lift? Can you walk on water? But the mosqUitoes can stand and walk on still water. Similarly. When mercuzy falls on the flat ground. it spreads in the form of sphertcal globules. Do you lmow. why? Will it not be surprtztng to see a steel needle floating on water surface? All these amazing observations can be explained if YOll learn the chractelistic propertles of the liqUids. like hydrostatic pressure. PascaI's law and surface tension. These topiCS form the subject matter of present study in this lesson. In the next lesson. you will learn about the flaw of liquids.

After studying this lesson. you should be able to: calculate the hydrostatic-pressure at Q certain depth _ inside the liquid containers. describe PascqL's law to explain the .furu;tWning of hydraulic press; hydraulic l!ft and hydraulic brakes etc. explain the property of swface tension of liquids. explain the spherical shape of liquid c:lrqps. j/Dating of mosqu.t1Des on water swface. derive an expression and explain the rise-qf~ in the capilIruy tube. define swface tension and apply it to (;!Xplain the various daUy Ufe
- phenomenorL

Hydrostatics and


face Tension


Have you ever got a chance to see the construction of a dam? Figure (9.1) shows the walls of a high dam. They are made thicker at the base. and not like an ordinary wall of uniform thickness. Do you know why? The liquids do exert pressure at the base of the container due to their weight like solids. However, they do exert same pressure also on the side 'walls of the container. The greater is the
d~th below the free surface (level) of water. the greater Is the pressure.

Dams have to store water to great heights and hence tbepressure on the side walls of the dam at the bottom is very large. It is for this reason that to withstand such a large pressure. the'side walls of the dam are made very thtek. At low depths. the press~ being saH, lesser thickness of wall will be suflltient to withstand the side pressure. The pressure exerted by the .stationary liqIiid (filled In a container) at any point inside the liqUid is called 'lyJdrostatic pressure'. and the study oj liquids at rest is called 'hydrostatics'.

- FIg. 9.1! The strllt:ture oj slde-wu/[s oj a dam {length al ./1(> (lrtUws at d~(ferenl depths' are tndicatllJe oj the magnilude Qf the water-pressure on the side wall

Since presS1tre [P) is defined as. the force per unit area

= Force =. NewtCJ" Area metre'

... (9.1)

the pressure is measured In Nm-2 which is also called Pascal in honour of the French Scientist Blaise Pascal (l623 c1662) who did a lot of ~'!"rk on fluid pressure. In short. Pascal is .represented as Pa . . Let us now obtain an expression for the hydrostatic pressure.

9.3.1 Hydrostatic Pressure at a point within a liquid

Let us consider smallcbject (A) at a depth 'h' below the free surface (level) of the liqUid In the container. Thc liquid exerts compression of pressure on all of its sides as shown in the figure (9.2). The pressure P at the point A. which acts vertically downwards can be calculated as being due to the weight p ..r unit area of the liquid above the point A.
I _ _ _ __
-----~----------C-_7_-:1_ F rae surface of the IIqUl(l .. _ .. __ .. LIQuid cylinder of base area 'a' and height 'h

:. . .:. . -';:-. =:-- -.--

:.-:. _.. '-- :--..-':' -------~---

--.---------_.. --- .---------~-------~


I ----

---------... ----


i ----

Liqutd of

densny 'd'

----_!P- - - ---

.. -----... - .. -------" .. .. .--";.

--------------_ ... Fig. 9.3:

Circular base area "a .-ound the polm A

at a dePth 'h'

PIC- 2:

Compressional Pressure due to liquid acting on aU sides oj rut iMmerSed body.


pnysics S,uppose the point A.18 at a depth 'It below the free surface of the liquid contained in the vessel. See F1gure (9.3) Imagine a liquid in a cylinder of circular base area are 'ct and height '11: (i.e. extending upto th" free surface) above the point 'i'1. The weight of the liquid cylinder
= mass x acceleralion due to gravity


(volume of the cylinder) x (density of the liquid) x (acc. due to gravity)

h) x (d)

= (a x

This weight acts vertically downwards on area ct at A.

:. Hydrostatic pressure

at A weight
... (9.2)

=> p= axhxdxg_hdg a => P = depth x density x acc. to gravity

It Is important to note that area 'd does not appear in the final expression for the hydrostatic pressure.
Example 9,1: A cemented wall ofth1ckness 1 metre can withstand aside pressure of 10" Nm4. Wha{ should be the thickness of the side wall at jJe bottom qf a water dam of depth' 1 00 metres? Take density of water = 1()' kgm'" and 9 9.5 ms-2

Solution: The pressure on the side wall of the dam at its bottom at a
depth 100 metres is given by P=hdg P = 100xl0' x9.B Nm-' '" 9.8xlO' Nm-' :. Thickness of the wall required =
9.8xl0' 10' m


9.3.2 Calculation of Atmospheric Pressure

'Torlsili made use of the formula for hytrostatic pressure to determine the vhlue of atmopherlc pressure as follow: He took a long narrow (not a capillary) tube of about 1 m long; filled it with mercury of density 13,600 kgm-3 and then after closing Its open mouth with the thumb, inverted It and placedverticalJy in a mercury trough as shown in the figure. Some mercury fell I..,tf\ the trough while a column of about 76 cm of mercury above the freesurlace of mercury in the mercury trough remained filled in the tube.

Hydrostatics and Surface Tension

Since the pressure at the point A = Atmospheric pressure P, the pressure at the point B In hOrizontal liDe With A is also = P


But hydrostatic pressure at B = Ii d g :. Atmospheric pressure = P = h d 9 = 0.76 x 13,600 x 9.8 Nm-2



= 1.013 X

10 Nm5

--, - -----W. - -"'--_._---



-- - --

9.S.S Pascal's Law

FIg. 9.4

Have you ever seen a hydraulic jack? Visit any motor-workshop where they clean the dirt of the car, trucks etc. There, the vehicle is lifted up to a height of about 5 feet or more With the help of a hydraulic jack and then a man cleans the lower side of the vehicle by pouring a strong stream of water With the help of a water pipe. You must have also seen the packing of cotton bales. That is also done With the help of hydraulic press. The hydraulic jack and hydraulic press both work on a principle known as Pascal's principle or law. Pascal's law, also-known as the law oftrtmsmissUmqfliquid pressure can be stated as follows:

When a pressure ~ applied anywhere on the surface of given mass of an enclosed liquid at rest, an equal un(for~ pressure is transmitted over the whole liquid. It gets transmitted through out the liquid and acts in a direction at right angles to the surface qf fhe liquid every where.
. On any surface imagined inside the fluid or on the boundary, the liqUid

molecules are constantly impinging and rebounctng. The momentum transferred per unit area per second is the Pressure due to the liquid on the boundary.

Pascal's law, in terms of the molecules means that the momentum transferred by them per unit time to a unit area is the same throughout the fluid.
Theliquid pressure depends only on its density and temperature provided there are no external forces such as gravity.

9.S.4 AppHcations of Pascal's law

A recent application ofPascal's law in medical treatment is the water mattress (bed) used to cut down be-sores by distributing the weight of the body uniformly. Some of the important applications of Pasacal's law are, (1) Hydraulic Press (or Hydraulic Lift), (Ii) Hydraulic Brakes: and (Iii) Hydraulic Jack.



(I) Hydraulic Press

This is a simple device IIi which a small force is magnified fnany t1IDes. Since pressure is transmitted equally. throughout the llquid, a small pressure can be made to act on a larger area and so pi"odUceE a Iarger (magnl.fi.ed) force on that area. Fig. (9.5) shoWs a principle diagram of such a devtce.
,1 Kg
100 Kg

,,, I




T T.

- Iquid

PrIncIple diagram showing the I-*/ng of Hydrau/Ic ItJl;

FII B.5:

, J'IC. B.B: Hydmu/Ic_.

Suppose the cylinder A has a small cross-sectitmal area of O.Olm and cylinder B has larger area 1m". The two cylinders are connected by a narrow tube C. The whole apparatus is ft11ed With some liquid or oil. If a force FI 9.8 N(equal to the weight of I kg) is applied on the P!Btonof cylinder A. the corresponding pressure

= .Force

= 9.8 Nm" 0.01 = 9.8xIO' Nm"

This pressure is transmitted to the cylinder B.and the force acting on the . piston of cylinder B is

= PB KArea ofB = 9.8 x

102 xl

=9.8 x 102 N:


a force of 9.8

N magnifies to 9.8 x 102 N

i.e (= 100 kg wt) Is 100 times which is equal to the ratio of area of B to the area of A In short since

F. =p. xA. and F. =p. xA.


F'. F.


p. A. [Q p. =p.l

A A.

This Is called the mechanical adIICIntage of the hydraulic press.

This prlnctple is applied in the working I of the hydraulic press with which . bags of cotton or wood. oil seeds. newly printed books etc. are pressed very firmly together by applying a little force. FIg. (9.5)

Hydrostatics and Surface Tension

(U) Hyu.uUc Bnakes

Another important use of the Pascal's law Is in the design of hydraulic brakes in motor cars, Here al!?O, when a little force is applied by the foot 1m the brake-plate, the pressure so applied gets transmitted through the brake on to act on longer area where pistons are made to mO'.'e the brake shoes aginnst the brake drums. Fig. (9.7)

un Brake


pipofm'~ 1ino~'&J

_ ..... --

PIg. 9.7: Hydraulic Bmloes

.12. 9.8: Hydroul/c Jack .

(m) HyclrauUc Jack

Have.you ever visited a service station for mo~or cars? You must have seen cars and large heavy trucks being raIsed to convenient heights so that the mechanic can work under them Fig. (9.8). Here also a slight pressure is transmitted through a liqUid to act on a large surface, thus producing sufficient force to lift up the vehicle. Such a machine is known as hydraulic jack, Now, stop and try to solve the follOWing questions to check your progress,

INTEXT QUESTIONS 9 . 1 - - - - - ' - - - - - - 1.

n.vo cyliru:lrical containers A

and B of base area O.2m2 and 0.3m" are

.fiUed with liquids ofdensities 1500 kg m-3 'and 2000 kg Ill"" respectively. if the container A is filled to a heigh 0.4 m and the container B to the height 0.31 m, which container is subjected to more pressure at its
bottom? What are these pressures? Given 9

= 9.8 ms-2


A coffee cup of base area 12 x 1Q-4 m' and height 0.07 m can bear a weight of 0.25 kg of any liquid filled in it. if it is contain a liqutd. of density 3000 kgrrr", to what height it can be filled without being



................................................................................................................ .

. 3.

What is the mechaittcal advantage of a hyraulic press?


A weight of 50 kg wt is put on .the smaller cylinder of area 0.1 m" of a big hydraulic lift. How much maximum u..-eight can be balanced. on the


bigger cylinder oj area 10m" oj this hydraulic lif/:?

...... , .. , .......................................................................................................
5. An elephant oj weight 5000 kg wt. Is standing on the bigger piston of area 10m2 of a hydraulic lift. Can a .boy oj weight 25 kg wt standing on the smaller piston oj area 0.05 m" balance or lift the elephant?

............................ .......................................................................,., ..


Take small amount of mer~ury. Drop it from about a foot on to a flat plate. You would fmd that the mercury gets sprayed into small spherical globules.Why? Have you seen dew drops (water-drops). on the leaves of some plant in the early morning during winter days? Here also small water drops appear spherical. Why do the liqUids in small amoUnts gather together into a spherical drop? Also in the rainy season. when rain drops fall in a pool of water. air bubbles are formed on the water surface.. You must have enjoyed soap-bubble-making game in your childhood.

AettuftJI (9.1):
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1. Prepare a soap solution.

Add small amount of glycerine to It. Take a narrow hand plastic tube or glass tube or wooden tube. Dip'lts one end
In the soap-solution so that SOlile solution flIls In It.

Take It out and blow air Into the other end with your mouth.
Large' size soap bubble Will be formed.

GIVe a Jerk to the tube to detach the bubble which then floats In the air.

Do you know. why it is easier to form soap bubbles and not pure waterbubbles by the above technique? All the above life experiences i.e. spherical shapes of the liquid-drops and soap bubbles etc_ are due to the property of surface tension of the liquids, Before_. stUdying about this characteristic property of liquids. let us first 'revise our. knowledge of molecular forces.

Every substance Is made up of small particles called atoms. TIle .compounds are made up of molecules which are a chemically combined group of atoms.
When liquids are contained IIi any open vessel. they always have a horizontal surface. According to molecular theory. all molecules do attract each other. The fofYNl of attraction betJwen two afrnBar .molecuZe. i.e. qf the same substance (in a given sample} ,. called foree qf cohession.. the liqUid Is In contact with the molecules of the container at the boundary of the vessel. The force of attraction between two dissfmiiar molecules (i.e. a molecule qf the liquid and a molecule qf
178 .

Hydrostatics and Surface TeIlsiOJl

the solid vessell is calledforce of adhession. The di~tance upto which these forces of cohersion or adhession are effective to are called-range of molecular attraction. It is of the order of 10-" m i.e. of the order of the size of the molecules.

9.4.1 Surface Energy

A thin layer of the surface of the liquid of thickness equal to the molecular

range of attraction is called surJace layer. or surJace film. See. fig. (9.9). The molecule P lying well within the liquId is attracted in all directions by molecules lying within its sphare of influence (which is the imaginary sphere of radius equal to the range of moleculer attraction drawn with. molecule P at its centre;' Hence the resultant cohessive force acting on P's zero. However for the molecuies Q, R etc. which lie inside the surface-layer, the sphere of influence is partially outside the liquid surface where there are no liquid SpfJeres of mOlecular attracbon molecules. The molecules Q,R. therefore; experience ,~-,.. a resultant downward force of cohession, because A / " - - BJ - the number of molecules in the upper half of sphere c . . . ... 0 of influence attracting the molecule Q or R is less ~ li9~ ~<Q::' R than the number of molecules attracting Q or R in . s _ . . . the lower half of sphere of influences. ThuEo:; all molecules lying within the surface layer Fig. 9.9 : Tile molecule ABCD experience a resultant downward cohessive P&S do no! e.>cpenence any resultant force. but the force which increases in magnitude as the position molecules Q & R experience aresultant of the molecule shifts from the layer CD towards the uerticaUy downward force top surface AB. Therefore, if any liquid molecule is of cohessiDn. brought from within the liquid (below CD) to this surface ABCD, some work Is done against the downward cohessive force, which increases the potential energy of these molecules in the surface layer. Now, since any systeni in equilibrium always tries to have the lowest possible potential em:rgy, the number of molecules in the surface should .be as small as p0ssible i.e. The area of the surface must be the minimum or l~t. Thus liquid contained in a vessel has planer surf=e because a planer surface having a definite boundary depending upon the shape and size of the vessel has the minimum surface area. The sum oj the energy oj aU the liquid molecules present in the swface is called the Swface Energy. Obviously a surface with lower area will have lower surface energy. Surface energy is a sort of potential energy.

Surface film


9.4.3 Surface Tension and Surface Energy

To keep the surface area minimum, the surface of the liquid becomes like a stretched membrane giving rise to surface tension which acts normally at all pOints in all directions, tangential to the surface.


The tangential fon:e per unit length acting perpendicular to GRII fmagimuy line supposed to be dnmm. on the Ifquidsurface is ~ as the Surface Tension of that liquid. Fig. (9.JOJ. It is measunxlin Nnrl and is denoted by T. Its dimensional formuls is [MT"2J.
At the boundaries, i.e. at the line where the liquid touches the vesse1walls, the direction of T is normal to the walI~ and tangential to the liquid surface.

nco 9.10: At !hi. boundary the' suQi:lre Tensfoo. Is rwrmallD the wall q/"the-.

'The value of surface tension for a certain liquid is a function ofihe resultant cohesstve force on the uquid molecules in the surface whose magnitude depends upon the intermolecular separation which is a function of temperature. Hence surface tension also varies with the temperature' of the liquid. It decreases with increase in temperature (due to increase 1n inter-molecular separation).

Force of surface tension tend to reduce the surface area .of the liquid. TIierefore, if the surface area of tht liqUid is to be increased, it can be done by doing work againSt the force of swface tension, whJch then gets steered in the form of extra or increased surface energy. When many tiny drops coalepse together to form a bigger drop. there Is no decrease in the surface area. The surface energy. therefore. reduces. The balance of energy appears in the form of heat and .the drop gets heated up. Similarly. if a bigger drop is sprayed into many tiny drops, there IS a net increase in the surface area. The surface energy, therefore. increases. . ThIs extra energy-Is derived from the thermal energy ofliqilid drops which. therefore cool-dawn. . Have you seen cooling of circulating water by spraYing it 10. the airconditioning plants of big buildings. Can you now explain why thl81s done?

", Epimple 9.2 : A water drop oj radius 2 mm is sprayed into 1000 tiny drops oj equal vOlume. Calculate the rise or fail in the temperature of each drop. Gtveri density oJ water JOOO 1cgrrr3. Swface tension 0.72 Nrrc': sjlecfJIc flea! oJ water S 4.2 x 10"J kg" "C"

SOlutloa : Volume of .the big drop of radius R is V = 3 lCR

Volume of one tiny drop of radius r is = 3 ttr = l()(\ ,3 I .....


1 (4_0



Hydrostatics and Surface Tension

... radius oftlny drop Is given by

R' r'=--:)r=


R' .. galnlnarea M = 41t (1000 r' - R') = 41t ( 1000 - 100

M ;. 41t9R'

... Extra surface energy gained =T LlA=T1 (41r .9R 2 )

1bis 1f! dertved from the thermal energy of the 1000 drops which therefore. cool down by temp AS. given by l000msA9=T41t9R'

or lOOO(! 1rr )SP..:18=T 41r9 xlOOr

11l8=2.7T prs

On substitution of the gJven values A9 = 2 3.1 X 10-6 C

If the boundary line of length 'I' is displaced by a distance 'b' against the forces of surface tension of magnitude T l, the work done for this ipcrease In the surface area 9f magnitude (bcb) is = Force x distance

or or

Increase In surface energy

E = Tx (I x b)

= (T x Q x b

= Surface Tension of the fiquid x Increase in area

... T=~= Increase In surface-energy (lxb) Increase In area ,

workdone increaselnarea

Hence. Surface tension may also be defined as the work done per unit increase in area qf the liquid surface. This is then measured in Joules per metre square i.e Jnr'. Ho~. the dimensional formula is still the same i.e.
If S= Total Surface Area of the liquid T .. Surface Tension Then. total surface energy = 7." xS Joules. Small drops of liquids acquire spherical shape because the surface area of a spherical surface for a given volume is minimum and hence gives minimum potential energy (surface energy) to the. drop.


=[MT-.2 I

Example of Surface TeDsioD

The liquid surface is hOri20ntal. Dip your finger In the liquid. The Uquid gwes it the way; the surface gets cuxved near the line of contact of the


Physics finger. If now. you take out your .finger. the surface again becomes horizontal. This shows that the liquid surface is under tension like a stretched membrane. which gets changed to concave at the point of touch of the finger and becomes straight or planes. the moment the deforming force Is removed. The spherical shape of small liquid drops is due to the forces of surface tension.

Take a circular thin wire with a handle; Dip It in a soap solution and 'lake Il out. A thin film of soap solution is enclosed inside the circular-wire. Now make a small circular loop of thin cotton thread; put It gently on the hOI1zontal soap film. It will rest on it without breaking the film. Now take an alpin. heat it in a fiame and touch the film in side the thread loop by this hot pin. What do you observe? Fig. (9.11).

The film part which was within the thread gets burst and the thread is pulled into a circular loop as if pulled by some radially outward forces acting all along its circumference. It. shows the presence of tangential force of surface tension. Initially. there was soap film on both sides i.e. the inside of closed thread loop and outside of closed thread loop. the forces of tension cancelling each others effect. On bursting the inner soap film. the. outside film pulled the length of the thread (closed loop) normal to the length of the thread and tengentiaIly to. the film surface. wWch sets the closed loop into a circular shape. [1henormal to the circumference of a circle is the radial direction).



FIa.S.ll: fa) A soapfllm with a closed loop oJtIuead on it. fbJ The shape oj the thread. qftH the fnner soap jllm Is brokm.

9.4.3 Application of Surface Tension

The water level in a glass capillary tube (fine bore tube) appears concave rather than planner-horizontal. Also the surface ofmercUIY in a fine glass capillary tube appears to have a convex meniscus. These are due the surface tension effects. The rise of water in capillary tube above the level of water in the container Is also due to surface tension forces~ Fig. (9.12)

Fla. 9.12:

fa) Plane MenisCUS (No rise or JalI) bJ Fall oJ/eoei in cap/Uary convex Meruscus (t') ConcaLIt:' Mentscus rice In. capilla1!


Hydrost,aUcs and Sunace TenSiIll1

In addition to It, the surface tension has wide application in our dal.1y life. If few of them are described below:
(a) lIo8qultoes Slttlll. on watel"

Have you seen ~osqultoes sitting on water surfaces. 'fjley do not sink in water. Why? This Is due to the force of surface tension, which suPP9rts the weight of the mosqultoe. At the point where the::legs of the mosqultoe towards the liquid surface, the surface becomes concave due to the dip. The force of surface tension acting tengenuaIly to the surface, therefore acts at certain angie to the horizontal. Its vertical component acts upwards. The total force acttng vertically Upw8roS all along the line of contact of certain length Is able to balance the vertically downward acttng weight of the small mosquloes Which, therefore, tloats on water. FIg. (9.13).
T lin 0


~ of the inHc:t

~T _

lor oIlject)


T lin 0

-;..------------ ------:..,,-----------==- --"':..-::-:.=.-:.= .-: ~=_=-_ =_=-_""-:'. "!i"".:::-... : -=_.:::



, ,..

~Ieg of mosquito

-:::--....:--=-=-"\.., - - - - ""-




----------- --S.18:The weight qfthe fnst Is IJaIaru:ed by thefarre of surface tension = 2 .... Tcos 9
(oJ DIp In the level to form = u e surface (bJ Magnlfled ImDge

(b) Ezc_ of Pressure Inslde a Spherical Suri"ace

Consider a small surface clement with a line PQ of unit length on it. Fig. (9.14). If the surface Is plant: i.e. 9 = 90, the. forces of PQ and due to surface tension acting on the two sides tangential to the surface are equal and opposite in magnitude and hence the resultant tangential force Is zero. FIg. 9.14.{a). If, however, the surface Is convex, tlg. 9.14 (b)., or concave FIg. 9.14 (c), the forces due to surface tension acttng across the sides of the line PQ will have a resultant force It towards the centre of cuvature of the surface.

T!. ".u_.~ T
: ..-_-.. -_:. :,.-_....t'

...... ----... ------_

-.: : ..---..:-=-:.::.."

------... --_ ...

--_ . _----:::?:~ R-:::;-:-~ T -_.'----_.--. _ .... - . -- -- .P. __ __ Q


R (Resultant forc~)

P:: -


_._----.. ... _--- .. --------


III. S.14:

(oJ Plane 1IUIjba. 0: (bJ Con_ surft>ce R CICio towcmls the ooncave side: (e) Concave IIUIjba a acts Wwan:Is the oonawe side.

Thus, whenever the surface Is curved (this happens near the boundary In contact with the walls of the container) the surface tension gives rise to a pressure directed towards the centre of curvature of the surface and this pressure IsbaIanced by an equal and opposite pressuJ;e acttng on the surface. Therefore (As the figure {9.14} shows), there Is always an era: q/JIi UN on the _ side of the curved liquid surf-,

,(1) .Spherlcal drop

A liquid drop has only one surface I.e. the outer surface ('The liqUid area III contact with air Is called the surface fo the liq1.lied)


Let r ... radius of Ute small sphericall1quid drop and p '"' excess of pres8'ilre I.ns1de ihe drop (Which Is concave on the inner side. but convex on the outerside)
.. (P, -

pJ (say)

Where P, and Po are the inside and outside pressures of the drop respectively Fig 9. 15(a).
If we assume a small Increase In the radius of the drop by M due to this constant excess pressure p in the spherical drop of radIus r. then

. Increase in .surface area of the sphencal drop ...

41l'(r+..1r)2 -4nr 2

dA = BKr..1r+{.dr)2 ",B1tT .dr

.. Work done by per unit increase in area (by defintuon)

Let T'"' surface tensian of the liquid of the drop

then work done to Increase this area8Kr.dr Is given by

But the work done due to the excess pressure p


4 (r+.dr)3 --1tT 4 3 .4V .. Increalle In volume '"' -1l'

. .. But ..

1l'[3r2 .dr+3r(.dr)2 +(.dr)3]

Since .4r is small. its higher powers are of still smaller value and hence can be neglected. therefore
.dV=: 1l'[3r ..1rl=4nr .dr W'=px41tT 2 .dr W'=W p41r r2 .dr = T 8nr.dr p=r
2 2


Le. excess of pressure I.ns1de a spherical drop of radius .,. of Ilqu1d of surface tension T is given by

I;:2[ I
(Ii...-Alrl,!allble ill


This also has aslngle surface. which is the ~r surfilce. Fig.9.11) (h), -.

Hydrostatics and Surface TerusIOn Hence the excess of press.ure 'p' inside an air bubble of radius r In water of surface tension T is also given by


(In) Soap Bubble JI'Ioatmc In AIr The soap bubble has two surfaces of eqUal surface areas
- I.e. the outer and the Inner Fig. (9.15) (c).

PII. 9.1111b1;

- -' G tGJ
. -.




Therefore. its Increase In surface area when the radius Is increased by i!Jr will also be double

dA = 2[ 41t'(r+ ..1r)2)_ 2 [41t'r2 J

=2, .81t'r . Ll.r =I6n r .Llr

Work done = W=T (61t'r Llr)
9.15 Ie): Soap bubble

.ff p = Excess Inside pressure then; chang" In voluqte

remaining the same i.e. LI V = 41tr2 . Llr. we get work done

W' = pLi.V = p41t'r Llr

Therefore. equating W'to W. we get

p41t'r2 Ll.r= TI6nrLlr. where T

=Surface Tension of soap solution

. 4T which &".~ ....-s p=. r

hence the excess of pressure inside a soap bubble floating In air =

'-4fi; Which is twice that Inside a spherical drop of same raatus ~

or an air bubble In water ElauDple .9.3: What is the cIyference oJpressure between Inside and outside oj a (0 spherical soap bubble In (U) air bubble In water. and (IU) spherical drop oJ water; eadtoJradlus lmm? Given swface tension oJ water = 7.2 X 10.2 Nm-' and !;Ulfat:e tension oj soap solutton = 2.5 x 1(}-'l Nrrr'. 8ol1ltlon: W Excess of pressure inside a soap bubble of radius r is


==4x2.5XlO- Nm-2 =100Nm4

(11) Excess of pressure inside an air bubble In water

4T r



=2 x 7.2 X 10-2 Nm C2 = I44Nm4

l~lO 3



(1l1) Excess of pressure inside spherical drop of water

2T' =--

r = 2 x7.2 x 1O~ Nm-2 =-144 Nm-2

Ix 10-3

Ezample 9.4: A rectangular thin disc ojedge length 20 em Is reslm vertically . Ort the swjace oj a liquid oj sw:face tension 2.5 x 10-' Nrrrl and then raised up. What Is the puU required. to llfl: the disc from the liquid swjace. Given weight oj the disc 1000 N.

Solution: Here a liquid film is fonned when the plate is raised and hence a downward force F due to surface tension acts on it :t==11 besides its weight Wacting downwards. r'"

lI'tg. 9.111 (d):

(c) Detergents and Surface Tension

Detergents can remove the stains of oil on clothes. Water is used as cleanlng agent. Soap and detergents have the effect of lowenng the surface tension of water. This is desirable for washing and cleaning since the high surface tension of pure water protects it from penetrating easily between the fibres of materials where dirt" particles or oil molecules are held up. You know the surface tens' n of soap solution is smaller than that of pure water. but the surface tension of detergent-solutions is st1ll smaller and hence the detergents are more effective than soap. Using Ii detergent dissolved in water makes the catch of dirt particles to the clothe fibres weak. which. therefore. get easily detached on squeezing the clothe .

.~ t.,

ri" ::~~~:~~:~~f.:';'7.:.:;. ~;.:.;:.:l:j ~~.~).';:(:.:'1.:',:').:',':'i;:~ f

moIecuIee with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

lnett .... .....,. . . .,., ......... . .

-can now be . . . . . . . ..., bf momg .....


Hydrostatics and Sutrace~ .

. 1

oU (say) on .the other. reduce drastically the surface tensfon of wateroiL It may even become (avourable to form such Interfaces i.e.. globes of dirt surrounded by detergent and then by water. Thuddndof proceSs using surface active detergents or .ur:raetants Is Important not only for cleaning the' clothes but also in recovering of 011. mfneral ores etc.
(d) WU-cluck Floatlq in Water
It C. fm.portant thclt the


.ur.!ace tension qf IfcJufU decreaaes due to dissoluecl impurities If you stick a

~: =p::r:=::~o:a::: Thus the surface tension '~~~~:;~~~j

of water "just below the duck becomes smhller . than the surrounding. The water. thus causes motion of the duck towards the pure water due to the net difference of force of surfaee tension.causing the duck to move.
",. 11.17: Motion qftWdr.

tablet of camphor to the bottom of a wax-duck and float It on still water surface. it starts moving this way




Now. It Is time to work how much you have learnt. Solve the following questions then go ahead.

1N1'EXT QUESTIONS 9.2 - - - - - - - - - 1.

Whqt tS the differei1cebetweenjorce of coheSion andjorce qf adhesion?

. . . . . ' . " . , . . . . . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

, 2. Wh4t 18 the thickness of a sUTjace /ayer?On what jadDrs does, the value of swjaJ:e energy depend?
..... .j. ................................................................................................
I ...... .

3. Do /he solids also show the property of swjaJ:e tension? Why?

..... ........................................................................................................ .


Whll dDes the mercury collect Into globules when poured on plane

.... ......................................................................................................... .


Which has more


pressure iilstde It -

(0 An air bubble In water qfradfus 2 ern. Swface tension ofwatsr 18 ! 727 )( 1()'J Nm-'; or

IA soap bubble In air qfradfus 4 em. Swface tension qfsoap solution

18 25 x 1()'J Nm-'

.............................................. ,.............................................................. .
i ,


It has',been observed that though the Uquld surfaces of all the Uqulds contaiiled In the wide mouth vessels appear to be plane and horizontal.

Physics their surfaces at the point of contact of the liquid and the contatner are mostly curved i.e.. concavecspherical or convex-spherical. For example. when water is filled in the gJass jar. the surface is concave spherical at the boundary. and when mercwy is filled In glass jar. the surface at the ooundary is convex spherical. If. however. the water is filled In a container of parrafflne wax. the surface of water appears convex spherical at the boundary. it is thus clear that the shape oftlve liquid sru:face at the boundary depends both; upon tIve material of tIve container, and tIve nature of the liquid, .
The angle which the tangent to the liquid sw:iace at the boundary makes with. the waH of the container into the liquid is called angle of contact O. RE;.(er Fig. 9.12(a}.

r ,

Obviously, for concave spherical meniscuses (surfaces of small area as In a capillary tube) the angle of contact is acute (i.e .. less than 90') and for convex spherical meniscuses, the angle of contact is obtuse (i.e., greater than 90'). For example for water In contact with glass angle of contact .. 8'. and for mercury In contact with glass 9 = 130' .
Fig. 9.12 shows the various forces acting on a molecule In the surface of a liquid near the boundary contatned In a vessel. Due to the liquid being present only In the lower quadrant. the resultant cohesive foree FQ acting on the molecule at P acts in a symmetrical direction as shown tn the fig.

9.18. Similarly due to symmetry. the resultant adhesive farce .Fa acts outwards at right angles to the walls of the contatner vessel. The foree F. can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular components Fe cos 9 acting vertically downwards and F. sin e and F. acting at right angled to the boundary depends upon the relative values of F. and Fa'
Case~ 1: If F. > Fe sin 9. the net horizontal force is acting outward and then the resultant of (Fa - F. sin 9) and F. cos e lies outside the wall. Since liquids cannot sustain constant shear. the liqUid surface and hence .' all the molecules in it near the boundary adjusts Itself at right angles to .~ . )1'. so that no component of Fit acts tangential to the liqUid surface. "Obviously such a surface at the boundary Is concave spherical [since radius of a circle is perpendicular to the circumference at every potnt.) 'Ibis Is true in the case of water filled In a glass tube.

case 2: If Fa < F. sin e, the resultant Fit of (F. sin e - 1'.1 acting horizOntally and F. cos e acting vertically downwards is In the lower quadrant acting Into the liqUid. The liquid surface at the boundary. therefore. adjusts itself at. right angles to this F. and hence becomes convex spherical. 1\1:rls is true for the case of mercury filled in the glass tube. \
Case 3: If. however Fa = F. sin 9. the resultant F. is .. Fe cos e $ctlng vertically downards and hence the liquid surface near the bouJPdary .. comes hOrizontal or plane. i


Hydrostatics and Surface Tension

F:, --+-_.-;.


nco 11.18: ~t.Rhapeo of the /ij1dd menlo"".".

You waul noticed that the walls of some old houses develnp moIsture to some height above the ground duling ralny season. The water from the' ground seeps in and rlses. up along the narrow lanes (CIlpUlaries) of air In the wall. Similarly you must be using blotting paper to absorb extra Ink which your Ink pen sometimes spns over your noteoook. The Ink rises Into the narrow alrgaps In the blotting paper and thus gets absorbed COIripletely.
Cnfu the capfIIarv tidies i.e., ~ tidies .. called ca,piUcuv action. A tube with line bore of diameter .. 1 mm is called a capUiary tube.

TIt,. 'phenomenon qf ,.,.,.". up qf liquid a,gainst gravt", "., i_If

Such an Important phenomenon of the elevatiOn of a Uquld in an open .tube of small cross-section i.e., capillary tube Is basically due to surface. tension, This happens In the case of concave liquid {Ileniscus only. However, in case of liquids having convex meniscus, the depression of liquid in capillary tube is observed. Thus the actiOn of rise or fall of liquid level In a capUlary tube above or . below the lcwel in t. .tqui1 container when .:he capillary is dipped in the can.taIner is called capWcuv aetion or phenomenon of capUlarity. Fig. 9.19.
Let us take a capillary tube dipped In.-any liquid and the meniscus of liquid InBlde It to be concave. Further suppose that the' level of liquid inside the c;apillary tube remains at the same level as1n the outer vessel. as is observed in case of wide bore tubes. We have to check whether. it Is the situation of stable eqUilibrium.


.:'11::-.::v. -""- .:G:---

0 '-.,.

:: -:,:..: '.-.r : -_--_


-_. - - - ':-----. ': ':: = ":. = =


- -. =~I-"'--_-_
G _ _ '_'


f:-= =:."; 1 h-RI..

__ _

- - - --- -- -----(b)


----- -( c)

------ -- - - --


9.19: Rise and 1a1lln capfila1y tube due '" concave and meniscus respectively fnolde u... caplUaty

Consider the points A. B. C & D just near the liquid surface. TI1,~ pofnt D and A being exposed to air. The pressure at A and D .. atmospheric pressure =P


PA + PD .. P (say)

Since the preS!lure at the concave side of the liquid meniscus hal to be 2T greater than that on the other side by we can write. preS!lure at C


2T 2T .p =p - .. p -: C r r


where r radius of the concave surface. But preS!lure at A PA Preuure at B .. PB .. P. Thus, there exists a preS!lure difference between the points B, outside the capillary tube and the point C, Inside the capillary tube at the same horizontal level. Therefore. the liquid would rush from the region point B to the region of point C causing a rise of liquid in the caplilaly tube till the preS!lure at C becomes equal to the pressure at the point B. Fig. 9.20 (b). On the same arguments It can be proved that If the liquid meniscus In the capillary tube Is convex, there will be a fa11in the liquid level in the capillary Fig. 9.20 (c).

9.6.1 EzpreilioD for rile In capillary tube

Let h. the height to which the liquid rises In the capillary tube to achieve Pc p., O'he condition necessary to achieve stable equilibrium.) Now, let us consider two more points E &: F as shown in the figure (9.20) (b). The polntF Is exposed to atmoephere and Is on the concave side of the liquid sureace: therefore

and PI" .. P =atmospheric preS8ure

Pg =PI"--=P--

2T PI' -PE =r




Hydrostatics and Surface Tension

Also, PD = PE + hdg; where d density of the liquid


. PD. Pc (very close together)

- p. (In the same horizontal plane) PA (very close together

... (1)


PD = P the atmosphertc pressure

... (Ii)

Therefore, comparing expression (1) and (Ii)

p=p_ 2T +hdg

wh1ch gtves,

hdg= 2T


h= 2T

... (IIi)

Now from the geomoetry of the figure (9.21),

If R radius of the capillary tube and

9- Angle of contact of the liquid In contact with the matertal of the

capillary tube and r - radius of the concave sphertcai meniscus, T


... lUse In cap1l1aiy t\,he

=h= 2TcosB R . d. 9

... (lv)


However, since the liquid surface in the capillary tube is curved t.e., not plane and h. height to the lowest point of the curved surface, a connection ahould be applied for the excess of water pres.ent In the tube fonnl.ng the surface concave. 'lbe rigorous mathematical treatment suggests that h

should be replaced by

(h + ~): hence from (M

R 2TcosB h +"3-= Rdg



which gives T



Same expression can be obtained for fall of liquid in case of convex meniscus in the capillary. For water. slnce 9 is very very small ..s', which

cos a =* cos 8'--+ 1 and R being very very small in comparison to h. the p.(}uatlons (iv). and (v) can be approximated to

-lfg Wld

9 d = Rh 2



Ezample 9.3: Water rises to a height of B em in a certain capfllary tube. In the same tube, the level ofmercury is seen tofall by 3.45 em. Compare the swface tenslonof water and mercury. Give specffiJ: gravity qfmercury 13.6, and angles of contact of water and mercury as O' and 135' respectfuely.
Solution: The rise or fall in a capillary is given by

. 2TcosB h = R d 9 : where R = radius of cap1llary tube

For water rise

=(h ) =2Tl COsBI

1 Rd1g

For mercury, fall =(h 2 ) =.::..::.!.,.;.":";-:.4..


which gives


We are given. !2=_8_: cosq, = 008135 ",,~ .. _..L h. -3.45 cosq. cosO 1 1.41

d dens1tyofmercw:y) d~ = 13.6; speciftcgravttyofmercwy=. dens1tyofwater .



Tl = (-3.45) 8 (1)(1.) x -1.41 x 13.6

Hydrostatlcs and Surface Tension

8 =0.12 66.15

or IT.=0.12T.1 Table (9.1) given at the end of thls lesson gives surface tensions of some common liquids at 20C. and also angles of contact of some liquids. The value of surface tension decreases with increase in tempearture and due to dissolved impurities.

INTEXT QUESTION 9.3,--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Does the uaIue of angle of contact depend on the uaIue of swface tension of a liquid?
Water has concave meniscus in a glass capillary. because of which water rises to certain height in the capillary. Why then the water is not transferred from the ground. floor to the first floor by using a capt1la1'y of appropriate radius without using any water pump?
Why is It dif1icu1t to enter mercury in a capillary tube by simply dippL'1g it in a trough containing mercury while designing a thennometer?
We canform soap bubblesjloattng in air by blowing soap solution til the help of a glass tube. but not water bubbles. Why?




air, with

5. Ctulate the rqdius of a capillary to have a rise of 3 m when dipped in a vessel containing water of swface tension 7.2 x llr' Nm-1 Given den...tty of water = 1000 Jrgrrr; Angle of contact = zero; 9 = 10 ms-'.

.............................................. ...... .................. ........ .............................. .


Uqulda are Incapable of withstanding any shearing forces for any length of lime.
Uqulds do exert pre8!IUl"<' on
lnI!Ide It la given by P - hdg

the !!Ide wal1a of the conlalner.

Hydrostatic pressure 'P at a depth 'h' below the free surface of a liquid of denl!lty d

Aeeordtng to Pascal's law of transmiSSion of liquid pressun:.

'when a pressure 18 applied anywhere on the surface of a given mass of an enclosed liquid at rest. an equal uniform pressure Is transmitted over the whole liquid. It gets tnmIImltted througllOut the whole liquid of the contalnlng.....set and acts In a dtn:ctton at right ang1es to the surface of liqUid there:

Hydraulic press. hydrauliC brakes and hydraulic .lack .work on the principle of the
Pascal's law.

A thin layer of the surface of the liquid of thickness equal to the molecular range of attraction 18 called surface layer or surface film. The liqUid molecules In the liquid surface have extra potential energy called surface



11Ie liquid cpntalned In a >essel has planer surface because a planer surface having a definite boundary has th. mlnlmum surface area. Surface tension of any Uquld Is a property by virtue of which the Ilquld-surtacea behave like a stretched membrane. The surface tenSion T of a Ilquld may be deflned as force per unlt length acting em an Imaglnary line supposed to be drawn In the surface. It II measured In Nm-'. Angle of contact Is defined as the angle between the tangent to and the wall of the container Into the liquid.

the liquid aurface


Surface tension (T) may also be defined as the work done per unlt Increase In area of the Uquld surface and Is measured In Jm.... The liquid surfaces In capillary tube are observed to be conc,,", spheriCIU or convm< spherical. lhIs curvature Is due to surface tension effect. fIbe rIae In capillary h=rpg


There exjsts an excess pressure 'p' on the concave 'Side of radius r of the liquid surface given by :

for sphertcal water drop p = ~ ;whereT=swjacetenstonqf t h e _


for air bubble in water p = 2T


jorsoapbubbleinalr p = E

T' surface tension qf soap solution.

The surface tension finds Ita Important application In clearing of woven clothes. Detergents are considered better cleaner of ony clothes becauee they reduce the surface tenalon of water-oil.


I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What II peculiar about liqUid preeeure? Derive an expression for hydrostatic presaure due to a column of Ilquld. State Pascal's law. Explain the working of hydraulic

Define surface tenllon. Find Its dlmenslonal formula. Deacrlbe an experiment to show that liquid surfaces behave like a atretched membrance. The hYdrostatic paressure due to a Ilquld filled In a _ I at a depth 0.8m Ie 3Nm". What WIll be the hydrostatic pressure at a hole In the side wall of the same _ I at a depth of 0.6 m? In a hydraulic press how much weight II needed to 11ft a heavy atone of _ _ 1000 kg? Given the ratio of the areas of crosa-aect:lona of the two platona Ia - 5. la the WIIriI: output greater than work Input? Explain. A liquid Rlled In caplUaJy tube hall ClOrIWK mcnIacua. If 1",- Foree of adhesion; 1",Force of cohesion and 8 - angle of contact. then which one of the f'olIowIJIjI relatlona should hold good?
(aJ 1", > 1", aln





1", < 1", lin e; (c) 1", cose - 1",; (aJ 1", aID 8 > 1",


1.00 dr'Opl of water of aome radlus coaIlIe to form a larger drop of water. What happena to the temperature ,of the water drop? Why?

10: What happens to the temperature of liqUid when a bigger drop Ia sprayed Into many drope? ,What Is Its Importance In dally uee?


HydrostatiCS and Surface Tension II ~ What Is capillary action? What are the factors upon which the value of rise or fall of a liquid In a capillary tube depends? 12. Calculate the approximate rise of liqUid level In the cap!l\ary tube of length 0.05 m and radius 0.2 x 1()-3 m. when dipped slightly In a liquid of density 1000 kg m-a. Given surface tension of that liquid for the m ..terlal of that capillary as 7.27 x 10-' Nm-'.
I 3. What Is the angle of contact for a plane liqUid surface at the boundanes 01 tne container Is

14. Why Is It dlfllcult to blow water bubbles In air whUe It Is easier to blow soap bubble In air? 15. Why the detergents have replaced soaps to clean otly clothes? 16. Show that the rise In temp (All) of a liqUid drop formed by the coaltslng of 1000 drops each of radius r. density P. spectflc heat s In Joules per kg per C and sur face tenSion T Is gtven by All = 2.7(..2:....) rps 17. 1\vo spherical balloons have been Inflated with air to different sizes. They are now connected together with a hollow leakproof tube. What do VOll exuect out of the following observations: (I) The air from smaller balloon will rush Into the bigger balloon till whole of Its air tlows Into the later. The air from the bigger balloon will rush into the smaller balloon till the sizes of the two become equal.


18. WhIch process Involves more pressure to blow a soap bubble of radius 3 em inside the sopa solution. or outside the soap solution In air? Why?


Intext Questions 9.1

PA = 0.4xI5OOx9.8 = 5880 Nm-' Container B ; p. =0.3Ix2000x9.8=6076Nm"

2. 3.

5 -m 72
Consult the text.

. a1 d Output Force _P_x_A......",2 A2 MechaIllC a vantage = = P x Al = -Al Input Force

= Ratio of the area of the large cylinder to the area of small cyI1nder


50 = W =>W=5000kgwt.



Pascal or Nm-" In 51. INm-' .. IPa


Pressure applied by the weight of the boy =~=500Nm" 0.05 Pressure due to the weight of the elephant = 10 =
. 5000 500N -,

. 195


Hence the boy can balance the weight of elephant.

Intext QUestions 9.2


Force between molecules of the same substance Is called force of cohesion and the force between molecules of different substances Is called fQrce of adheaton. For definition consult the text. Force MLT' [ Dimensional formula of surface tension = Length ~ - L - = Mr-



A layer of thickness equal to the range of molecular of attraction Is calJed surface layer.

The value of surface energy depends upon the area





No. they have lightly bound molecules.

Due to surface tenSion forces.
p for air bubble In water

=-;- =

2x727xlO" 2x10" 4x25x10" 4 x \0-'

p for soap bubble In air

=-;- =

Obviously air bubble In water has more excess pressure inside It.


Outside the solution In air. Because two surface are to be produced for which excess 4T pressure Is ~ r (whl1e excess inside pressure for blowing a bubble In 8Olutton _


Intext Questions 9.3


(II) The radius of tile caplllaIy requlrcd for such a high rise Is ve.y ve.y

Ii1IIIIll slso the radius of the menlscus Increases after reaching the other end "" that water does not come out of the caplllaIy tube of Insuffident 1ength (Le., smaller length than the

(W)Mercwy has a convex meniscus and there Is a which makes It dlllIcult to enter.

ran In letrel of mercury In a


(Iv) The excess pressure inside air bubble being more due

to large surface tension - the

water 81m breaks down.


r=E.= 2x7.2xllf'





Hydrostaucs and ::mrlace 1enslO!I


UAJaids ID coatact
with air

Surface _ _

wail af

AIqIle of contact

Nm'" 7.27 x let'

1) gIass II) silver Ul) paraffin

8' O' lOT



2. 3. 4.

Meremy"' Soap solution

43.5 x let' 2.5 x let' 3.2 x let' 2.89 x let' 6.4 x let' 2.73 x let' 2.68 x let' 2.27 x let'

soda Ume glass

Ollve 011




';'wpentlne carbon teln! chIOIide

Melhyle Iodide


1) Soda lime

29' 29' 30' 33'

II) Pyrex glass IU) Lead glass tv) Fused Quartz

Decreases with age.





In the previous lesson you have studied about the hydrostatic pressure and surface tension of liquids, which deals with the stationaxy liqulds. Now you shall study about some of the chracterlstic properties of liquids in motion i.e hydrodynamics.

You would have noticed that when you tilt a bucket filled with any liquid on to a horizontal ground, the liquid spreads on the ground. It does not flow contim,lously, but comes to rest after spreading to small distance. In this lesson you willieam abOut such peculiar property of liqulds. You have also learned that the liquids are incompressible or they nearly zero compressibility. That is why, they do not show elastic behaviour. They can not be sqUee7..ed Into a smaller volume like elastic solids. However, you know that water flows through cylindrical tubes of different crosssections. The velocity of flow changes when it has to flow from a wider tube to a narrower tube. Many of you must have experienced that when you press. the mouth of a soft-plastic 01' rubber water-pIpe, while watering the dawn or phints, the stream of water falls at a larger distance away from the pipe held in your hand at a certain height above the ground. Do you know why? This can be expjatned on Bernoulli's principle. There are some other 1ri.teresting activities which You must have seen or' performed yourselves whOJ!e explanation can be undestood by the study of this lesson.


After studying iliis lesson, you should be able to:
d!fferentiate between streamline and turbulant rrwtton:
dejlne critical velocity oJjIow oJliquid and Reynol.d's number;

explain d!fferent daily life phenomena. based on viscosity t4fects oJUquids;

state Bernoulli's principle and explain d!fferent dat1y

life phenomena

based on Bemou!U's principles.

ViljcOSity and Bernoulli's nieorem




All matter, when In liquid state develops one more characteristic property, (besides surface tension about whicll you have studied In the earlier lesson) called uiscosfty of liquids. If you drop a stone from the top of a high building, its velocity continuously increases till it reaches the ground due to the action of acceleratidn due to gravity; but if you drop the same stone. In deep water, the velocity of'the falling stone Initially Increases but after certain time, before reaching the ground or bottom of the container. attains a constant velocity showing that the effect of acceleration due to gravity has been made Ineffective. How it happnes? The liquid when in slow motion moves In layers but when In fast motion, ' flows turbulantIy. Why? Why does the glycerine flow slowly whlle water flows quickly down the same Inclined plane? All these are due to the viscous nature of liquids.

10.3.1 Stream-line motion

The path followed by an element of a moving liqUid is called a line of flow. If every element passing through agivenpointofthe pathfoUows the same line of flow as that of preceedmg elements. the flow ts said to be strwamline. A stream line is defined as the curve whose ~ B-':' tangent at any point gives the direction of the AO ~ =t)c liquid velocity at that point. In steady flow, the streamlines coincide with the line of flow. U--::"'-The two streamlines do not Intersect each other (In a stream line flow), because two tangents. can be drawn at the point of Intersection giving two directions of velocities which is not rItI. 10.1: StTeam-UnejlDw possible. When the velocity of flow II is less than the critical velocity lie for a given liquid flowing through tube of given diameter, the motIon Is streamlined. In such a case we can imagine the entire thickness of the stream of the liqUid made up of Iargenumber of plane layers (laminas) one sliding past the other i.e. one flowing over the other. Such a flow Is called laminar flow. Ifthe velocity of flow exceeds the critical velocity ve ' the mlxlng of streamlines /takes place and the--flow path becomes zig-zag, the streamlines cutting each other and the motion is said to be tur1ndant.


10.3.2 VisFosity as Uquid friction

The stream line motion resUltS tn a,lfIminar flow when the liquid is flowing over a horizontal surface. The top most layer is moving (sliding over the lower layers of the liquid) with maximum velocity; the layer just below the top most layer,is touching the upper layer as well as pressed by the weight of the upper layer. Hence moves with a slightly lower steady velocity. ThiS,is said to be due to the liquid friction between the two successive layers being operative all along the surfaces of contact.




Since the layers are in contact with!. other, the upper 1Ii.yer moving with higher velocity tends to accelerate the motion of theioweF- layer and thf' tower layer moving with smaller velocity tends to retard' the mn'.J<>I!'/1 '.he upper layer i.e, 111" layds, III lammar tlow. tend to de>;troy the r!'lative motion
bl.'i.wcen thti"ln.

This tendency of the liquid by virtue of which it tends to destroy the relative motion between its adjascent laminar layers is called viscosity. Due

Ground Fl,. 10.2 : Laminar }low QJ"a Liqurd

to this nature. a liquid friction force or tangential backward force acts between the two layers and is called the.viscousforce.
It IS thus clear that due to this viscous force the velocity of the upper layer gets decreased to the value of the lower layer in contact with it. Similarly. tho' velodt y oft he successive layers goes on decreasing due to this taQgential h ..:kwanl "''';{'''llS lim'c till all the layers keep moving with the velocity of the lowest layer, Hut the lowest layer is touching the ground and can be assumed to be "taionary due to large friction between solid ground and liqUid, It, therefore, results that the liqUid in larninarflow should stop flowing after covering some distance. '
T() maintain the "laminar flow. therefore. some exteqlal force should be applied to counter the effect of viscous force. nus is-usually done by creating

a pressure difference between the two points between which the Jarninar fow ie to be maintained. FIg (1 O.2) shows the lanIinar flow of a liquid ~n;a .horizontal surface. . j" Suppose. the velocIty of a layer of a height x. from the ground is u and. that orlhe next upper layer at a distance (x+.ix)is(U+AU). thenitls kn()wnas velOCity gradient and It is given as follows . . TIle rate qf increase of ueloctty with the height

(or distllnce from the growul.J

(u+<1\')-{u) Au =(x+<1x)-(x) <1x

If the limit <1x-. O. i\u will also be small and <1u du we can write <1x = dx = differential of'u' W.r.t. 'x'.
= velocity gradient.

AC{;Qrding to Poiseville. in a streamlined or lanIinar flow of viscous flUids. the magnitude of the tangential backward (opposing the flow) viscous fo~e 1; ,proportional to iiJ ifl(: (lre(l of contact (A) of the liquid swfaces; and

(III :I' "1 l'clocir y gradient

(~~ )of the region in which the layers are moving

VlacClOlity and Bemoulll'sTheorem




FaA adu dx FaA!i2. dx du F=I1A-dx

... (10.1)

where 11 = constant of proportionality and is called the ~t qf viscosiqr, which is measure of the viscous nature of the flulds. It is measured in Poise in C.G.S. system where 1 Poise z 1 g em-' s". However in SI system, its practical unit is Nm-"s. Its dimensional formula is

1MI. T1

and hence its theroretical unit is


Also INm-'s .. 1 kg m 1 Sl =




IfA=lm2; dU=lsI, thenh=F <Ix

Hence, coe.flicWnt of I1Iscosfty of any jIuid is defined 'as equaJ. to tile tangential backward viscous force acti1lg on a Wlit area of a laminar layer moving in a region of W1it velocity gradient.

10.3.2 Critical Velocity and ReynoDd'. N........

As you haVe seen earlier; when the veloci1 of low is small i.e. less than a certain value, called critical velocity, the flow remaiM streamlined; when

the velocity of flow exceeds the critical velocity. the floW becOJaes turbulent i.e they do not remain well defmed streamlined paths. TIle value of critical velocity of any liqUid depends upon the

11 viscous nature of the liqUid (Tl)

ill the diameter of the tube (tl) through which the liquid is flowing and
iiiJ also on the density of the liquid (p)
If Tl = coefficient of viscosity of the liqUid, which Is measure of the viscous nature (or liquid friction) of the liquid, then it is found experimentally that

critical velocity (lI)


1 v a -' v a -1 a ...~.. p' d



u,a pd


R...!!.. pd

... (10.2)




Where, R =constant of propertionality and is called BeynoId'sNumber. It lias no dimensions. It has been obselVed that for alI liquids, the value of Reynold's number corresponding to Vc is nearly the same i.e. R = 2000.

Thus.fi water , , or






[using, p=lgm/em, d=lem,

= .0Ipoise}

Thus for water, the flow of velocity greater than 0.2ms- ' w1Il beCome turbulent while flowing through a tube of diameter O.Olm. i.e. if the water flows at a, s~ei:l of 0.25 ems-I. its motion through this tube w1Il be turbulant. If; however, another liqUid of density 1.2 gmt cc 'and coef1lcient of viscosity 0.02 poise flows through the same tube of diameter I em, the critical velocity


2000xO.02 33 3 -1 1.2xl . ems

Therefore, if this liquids also floWs with a speed of 25cms~'; its mOjion w1Il remain streamlined (because v = 25 ems-I < Uc = 33.3 ems-I). If u =average speed of flow of a liquid on any surface then Reynold number R. can be expresed as. from equatio~
R= udp

.. ,


Experiments show that flow Is la'minar if R has a value less than 2000 but is turbulant when Rexceeds this value. Ezample 10.1 :The average speed of blood in the artery, (d = 2.0 em) dnring the resting pari; of.j!earl;'s cycle i.s aixJui 30 cms-'. Is the.flow laminar or turbu1ant? Density of blood 1.05 gm i:rrr"; Tf= 4.0 X 10-2 poise. .

SoltittuJI; Let us caicU.Iate the Reynold's number to decide about this.

Since R

udp TJ R = 30x 2x 1.05 1575 .. 4.0x 10-2

Stnce.1575 2000; the flow is laminar, however, it IS'c1ose to turbulant flow.

10.3.3 Stoke's .. law

Sir George Stokes gave an expirlcal law for the magnitude of the tangential backward viscous force (F) acting on a freely falling smooth spherical body of radius (n In a highly viscous liquid of coefficient of viscosity (Tf) moving with velocity (v) which Is known as Stoke's law. According to Stoke's law
FaT]; Fa r; Fa I.e.

, id 1 viSCOUS IIqu I

1.-_ _ _ _ 1


FaT] ru F K' 'lrv; Where 1('


= contstant


ne 10.8

ViscoSity and Bernoulll's theorem

proportionality. Experimentally. it has been round that k'=61t. hence Stoke's law is given by F = 6;;-ro]

... (10.4)

Let us cons1d~r a smaIl spherical heavy ball of radius r to fall in the highly viscous liquid like glycerine. contained in a long jar as shown in fig. (10.3) to fall freely. The moment the sphere enters the liqUid. it starts experiencing a buoyant force

FB =(~ 1tr 3

)d 9

Where d, is the viscosity of the liqUid. where

= density of the viscous liquid

If u = velocity of the liquid at any instant of time. then it also experiences a tangential backward viscous force 1\.. given by

The weight = W

=( ~

It r3 .ds

)g acts downwards

mg.: where d. = de~sity

of solid ball-material.
Initially W> Fv + FB

and the spherical ball keeps on falling with acceleration

and hence continuously gain in velocity will result continuous increase tn the value of Fv also.
A situation may arise.' when Fv becomes so large that


and then a =0; and the spherical ball then attains a constant velocity v,. called. the tenninal velocity. Thereafter. the ball falls with constant velocity v, due to tnertia of motion. In such a case.

4 3 .d.g= 6 1tTjr1)t +-ltr 4 3d19 -1tr

Thus. gives

... (10.5)

Table 10.1 gives the values of coefficient of viscosities of some common viscGus liquids:

TABU!: 10.1 :"

.for __ . . . .
Temperature "C



Coefficient ofvtscosity kgm-Is'

1. 792 x 1.005 x 0.636 x 0.469 x 0.357 x 0.284 x 2x 1.5 x 149 x 1.49 x 6.5 x 1.13 x 4.0 x 84 x 1.7l x

2. 3.

Honey Blood
Turpentine on Benzene Light machine 011 TIn 011 Olive oil .

4. 5.

0 20 40 60 80 100 20 37 20

l<t" 1<t" 1<t" 1<t" l<t" 1<t" 10-' 10-<


20 16 20 20 0

10--' 10-<

9: i



1<t" 1<t" lO-S

&amp" 10.2: Determtne the radius ofths dropq{ram waterjailing tl1roug~ air. with terminal ueIoctty 0.12 ms-'. Given "for air. 1.8 x 1<t" kgrrr'tr i and density qf air. 1.21 1c:grrr3.





_ =2_r2..::9:.:,{d~'L-_d;;;;!I.!.) -91) '91)'\), _


29(d, -dl )

9x 1.8 X 10-11 xO.12 m 2x9.8x(lOOO-1.21)

I.e.. radlu8 of the drop r. lO-S m. 0.01 mm Now. let us check how much you have learnt. Try to solve the following quetltione.

1N1'DT Q1JB8TION 10.1



~ between s,treamUnejlow and turbulentjfows .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


On what physical quantities does crfttcal ueIocity depend for a viscous




Choose the COl led answers The value qf" qf any liqUid depends upon (a) r\Qture qfthe liquid: (bJ radius qfthe ball:

----------------------------~--(c) density of the liquid; (d) on all the above physical quantities (iI) Glycerine and water are pushed on the horizontal ground with I.he same inltfaljerk by tlIting their containers (a) 1lIe water will move through larger distance before coming to rest (b) Glycerine.wlll move through longer distance before coming to rest (c) Both wi1l move through the same distance before coming to rest. however; glycerine will take longer than water. 4. Which ofthefollowtng will be the better lubricant to be used ill the rotating .pen.ts of a machine. (a) water; (b) terpentine oil; (c) air 5. The terminal velocity ofcopper sphere of mdius 4.00 mm inJalling through a tank ofoU at 5O'C is 0.26 ms-'.Compule the lJiscosity oJ the oil at 50 C. Density qf oil = 1.5 x 10' kg m~'; density Q[ copper =B.9 xl ()' kg m " (111r1

Viscosity and Bernoulli's Th<,or<'m


g= 9.B

................. .......,.....................................................................................


Pre..",e en ...,.
Earlier you have studied about the kinetic r.ner~ ancl pnh'nhnl r.nrr~v t,f'1 hlllh', but In case of liquids there t. a pressure enrrgy also. If Jiqlltrt clon,,"nt ot mau m. density. d Is mavinll under a pressure difference. p. t hen It ha. pr~ "n enCI'IIY preaaure difference )( volume

=p X ( ~ )
or preuure enertY per unit mass


p =d



Have you ever thought. how air circulates In a dogs burrow: why smoke comes out quickly out .of a chimney: or why car's convertible top bullles upw8rtl at high speed? You must have definitely expertenced the bull!1n~ upwards ofyour umbrella on a stonny-ratny day. All these can be undt"rstond . ~n a principle worked out by Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782). Bernoulli's principle states that 'wh'nt the uelocfty ofJluid whigh. the prwauN _low and wherw the.,.' city qfJluid glow. the preaure hwh '.

10.4.1 BerDOuW'. Equatlc D

Bernoulli developed an equation that expresses this principle quantitatively, p-.... ,~_ Three Important assumptions are to be . made to deVelop this equation, J. The fluid til Incompressible I,e_. ItsA,


.from Q wfde bore-tube to Q natTOw-bore


density does not change when It passes

tube or vice versa.' The jlu.fd is non-lJisCOUS or the tdfect oj


_....i..-------.. . .
Pli. 10.4

... __



viscosity is not to be taken into accoWll: in this derivation. The motion ~fthej/JJ1d isstretun-lined. We consider a tube of flow. Let AB be a stream1ln~. Suppose at point A The pressure =Pl' area of cross-section = A" velocity of flow = v,, height above the ground = h., and at B The pressure =P2' area of cross-section =.4", velocIty of (low = va' height above the ground = ~. When the liquid at A moves through a distance it forces the liquid at B to move through a distance At,. (which is dl(ferent from A~ due to different cross-sectional areas at A & BI. The fluid to the left of point A exerts a pressure P, on the fluid pushing it in the right d1rectlon. The amount of work done in displacing through a small distance A~ is = W, = (P, x A.) x (AI'). At point B, the liquid does work on the liqUid to the right of it by moving through a dista.nce At,. given by = W 2 = (p2 X A2 ) X ( Al2 ).


:. NetWQIkdone on the liquid

= W,-W2 = (P,A,Al,-P2 A 2 AI2 J

Since the liquid is not moVing horizontally, work is <;lone against gravity also which is stored as the extra potential energy of the liqUid at B NowGaiIi in extra potentlal. energy = (p,E. at B - P.E. at A) = my(~ - 11.1: where m = mass of the liquid transferred froJD.A to B. The total work done on the liquid = (W,-W2 J+mg(h. -h,)
According to the law of conservation of energy, the net work done on the liquid is equal to change in its total energy Le., sum of kinetic energy and

potential energy. Therefore,

(!mv~- ~mv;) +mg(h.,-h,J= W,-W2

= p,AIAl, P2 A 2 t1 1,

but A,Al,

m = A,Al2 = 'd= Volume of the liquid flown


1 2.1 m m 2 mv. + 2 mv, +mgh, -mgh, =P'"d- P. d

mp,. 1 2 +mgh ,= -+-mv mp. 1 2 +mgh 2 --+-mv, d 2 ,d 2 2

17Iis is Bemou/lt's equation. Since points A and B can be any two points along a tube of flow, Bernoull1's equation can be written as

mp +! mv' + mgh = constant d 2 . .

... (10.61 .

wb1ch can now be states as The sum of". _ _ enertIJI, kinetic enerw and Potential cmergy of a fluid remains ccmstGnt in a stream lfne.motCon. .

10.4.2 AppUcations of,BemoulU's Theorem

Bernoulli's theorem finds many applicatiOns in our day to day lifes. Some

Viscosity and Bernoulli's Theorem


COIi1monly observed phenomena can also be explained on the Bernoulli's Theorem,

Flow Meter or Vellturimeter

It is a device used to measure the rate of flow of liquids through pipes. The device is inserted in the flow pipe. Fig.


It essentiaIly consists of manometer, with its two limbs connected to a tube having two different cross-sectional FIg. 10.5 Venturlmeter having three uertical manometric tubes is inserted in are'lS say A, and A, at its ends A and the main pipe line. B respectively. Suppose the main pipe of flow is kept horizontal at a height H above the ground. Then applying Bernoulli's theorem for the steady flow of liquid through the venturimeter at its two points A and B, we can write Total Energy at A =Total Energy at B (KE + PE + PrE)" = (KE + PE + PrE)B
2 + mgH + mpl !mv 2 I d

=!mv~ + mgH + mp2


which gives

(PI - P2) = !d( u~




Thus pOints of higher velocities are the points of lower pressure (because of th.,e sum of P,E and KE remain constant). This is called Venturi's Principle, For steady flow through the venturimeter liquid volulne entering per second at A = liqUid volume leaving per second at B ..
Le. A,v, =A,v. ...(10.8)

fThe liquid is assumed


i.e., Velocity is more at narrow ends and vice versa.

Using this relation (10.8) in relation (10.7), we conclude that pressure is lesser at the narrow ends, and get

Pi. -,P2

1 Al 2J 2 VI 2 =~ d [ --.--v i

=.!. du'I 2

[A; -IJ Ai
... (10.9)




2(PI - P2)

.If h = level difference between the two limbs of the venturtmeter then P, - p. = hdg


This gives or u, venturlmeter


..Jh ; since all other parameters are constant for a given K..Jh ~ where K = constant

'\), =

:. Volume of liquid flowing per second

V = A,v, = A, x K..Jh V = K',fh; when K' '" KA,

The appmtus can be directly caliberated to give A. The venturi pJ;nciple lells that since A,l" = Al'z - thc velocity increases <.'t narrower throat of the pipe and at the narrower throat the pressure is lesser le.. the pressure L<; lower near a nCUTOW throat when the lfIluidJloWi; steadily. This prinCiple has many applications in the design of many useful appliances lil~e atomizer. spray B gun. Bunsen-buTner. "HrimreUor, ,kro\oll. etc. (1) Atomizer: Vvl1en the nl1Jber bulb A is squeezed. air blows through the tube B and comes ou.t of the narrow orifice with larger velocity creating a region of low pressure In its neighbourhood. The liqUid (scent or paint) from the vessel Is. therefore. sucked into the tube) to come out of the nozzle N. As the liqUid reaches FIC 10.'71 AtDmIUr the nozzle N. the air stream from the tube B blows it r into a fine-spray. Fig. 10.7. r ~ II "'0 t;->.: (U) Spray When the piston is moved In. it blows L1~ the air out of the narrow hole '0' with large velocity creating a region oflow pressure In Its neighbourhood. FfC.10: Sprawun TIle liquid (insecticide) Is sucked through the narrow tube attached to the vessel end having Its opening just below '0'. The liquid on reaching the end gets spraved by out blown air from the piston. FIg. 10.S. (W) BunIOn burner ; When the gas emerges out of the nozzle N. its velocity being high. the pressure becomes low In Its vlsclnlty. The air. therefore. TUshr-A In through the side hole A and gets mIXed with the gas. The mIxtUre then burns at the mouth when Ignited. to give a hot blue name FIg. 10.9. (tv) Carburettor: The carburettor shown In figure III1 10.10 II a device used In motorcars forsuppl:ylng a It proper mixture of air and petrol to the cyltnder of I the engine. The energy Is lIupplled by the explosion II I of this mixture Inside the cyllndem of the engine. 1I~+lIF=dJ Petrol is contained In the float chamber. There Is a IW IIICI peIIaIJ1lP.a"~lIiclin decrease In the pressure on the Iisie A due to motion Iml of the piston. This causes the air from outside to be L;I4-1k1.".""'" ( - I sucked In with large velOCity. This causes a low ... Tube I_In; 10 cyHndtr pressure near the nozzle B (due to constriction. J'lC.10.1G:CcIrburdDr


aun :




Viscosity an(' Bernoullfs Theorem

velocity of air sucked is more near B) and. therefore. the petrol comes out of the nozzle B which gets miXed with the incoming air. The mixture of vapour!zed petrol and air fOrming the fuel then enters the cylinder through the tube A [Sometimes when the nozzle B gets choked due to deposition of carbon or some impurities. it checks the flow of petrol and the engine not getting fuel stops working. The nozzle has. therefore. tn be opened and cleaned.] (vI AerofoU : When a solid moves in air. streamlines are formed. The shape of the body of the aeroplane is designed specially as shown in the fig. 10.11. When the aeroplane runs on its runway. hig!'. velocity streamlines of air are formed. by the passil;lg air. Due to crowding of more streamlines cn the upper side that becomes a region of more velocity and hence of comparatively low pressure region then below it. This pr('ssure diefferent'e gives the lift to the aeroplane. Based on this very principle Le . the regions of high velocities due to crowding of steamlines. are the regions of low pressure. following ar~ interesting demonstrations. ne. 10.11: C",,,,ding Qr st~tne.s OI'J OW upper 5tde (- AUractecl cIllC paradoz: when air Is blown through a narrow tube handle into the space two cardboard sheets [FIg. 10.12 (a)] placed one above the other and the upper disc is lifted with the handle. the lo~r disc Is attracted to stick to the upper disc and Is Ufted with It. This Is called attracted disc paradox. Low_In (b) DIIlc1n. ot a pID, pon. bill Oft aJet otwater: IMIwHn lie If a llght hollow spherical ball (ping-pong ball or table tennis ball) is gently put on a vert1calstream of water coming out of a vertically upward directed .let end of a tube. it keeps on dancing this way and that way without falltng to the ground. Fig. 10.13. When the ball shifts to the left. then mos~ of the ne.IO.II: Arrracted Jet streams pass by its rI~t side thereby creating dIM ""md",. a region of high velocity and hence low pressllrl' on Its right side in comparison to that on the left side and the baIl Is again pushed back to the centre of the jet.stream. (0) Water vacuum pamp or AlpJrator or I'Ilter pamp:' FIg. 10.14 shows the fllter pump used for produdng moderately low pressures. The water from the tap Is allowed to come out of the narrow Jet end of the tube A Due to small aperture oethe nozzle, the velocity becomes high and hence a low pressure region is created around the nozzle N. The air Is. therefore. sucked from the vessel to be evacuated through the tube B: gets mixed with the steam of water and goes out through the outlet. After a few minutes. the pressure of air in the vessel l'!C.lo.la:DancinR
I'fnI/ ""'" baJI


PhysiCS sl decreased to about 1 cm of mercmy by such a pump. Example 10.3: waterJIows out oj a small lwle in the wall oj a large tank near its bottom What is the speed oj ejJlwc oj water when the height oj water leuel in the tank is 2.5 m? solution: Let B be the hole near the bottom. Imagine a tube of flow A to B for the water to flow from the surface point A to the hole B we can apply Bernoulli's theorem to the points A and B for the streamline flow of smaIl mass m Total energy at B = Total energy at A \)A = 0 - (nearly zero) PA = P = atmospheric pressure hA = height above the ground

- ~tdJ
PIt.IO.I"': FfIIl!r Pump

f" ..

P = atmospheric pressure ho = height of the hole above the ground Let hA-hy,~H =helght of the liquid level in the vessel d = density of the liquid water Applying Bernoulli's PrincIple PB




(1+ 2 mx (O
This gives




mp 1 2 h =(1+ 2nID +mg B

~mv2 =mg(hA -hBI

u = ~2g(hA - hB I [This formula Is the same as for a solid falling from a height ho to hAl


=..J2 x 9.8 x2.5

= 7ms1 Ans. Take a pause and solve the foUowing questions.

INTEXT QUESTIONS lO.2 _ _~_--_ _ _~_


If the

velocity at each point in space in steady state jluidJlow is constant, how can a fluid parttcle accelerate without using any force i.e., gravitational or pressure dJlference? .

~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-~



When a car on a highway is passed by a lmyer tfuck. the COT is sometimes pulled towards the truck. What does Bemo!.Illt's theorem say about this?
ot:. .............................................,............................................ .


What are the conditions necessaryJor the apPlimtian ofBernoulli.'s the0rem to the problems oJJIowing liuqids?

...................................................... ................................ .....,......................



ViscOSity and Bemoulll's Theorem


When you press the mouth of a water pipe usedfor waterlng the plants in the kiJ.chen garden, thejet of water goes to longer distances. Why?

Calculate the velocity of wate of density 1000 kgm3 coming out of a pin 1wle made at a height of 0.5 m above the bottom of a container, which is .filled to a height of 0.9 m?
u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .


The property by virtue of which the different layers of a liquid In its laminar flow tend to destroy the relative motion between them is called viSCOSity. The flow of liquids becomes turbulant when the velocity is greater than a certain value called critical velocity (ve) which depends upon the nature of the liquid and the diameter of the tube Le. ('1. p and dl. The critical velocity



where R = Reynold's number. which Is nearly the

same for all liquids and Is ~2000. Coefficient of viscosity of any liquid may be defined as the magnitude of tangential backward viscous force actlng between two successive layers of unit area in contact With each other moving In a region of unit velocity gradient. Stoke's law states that tangential backward viscous force acting on a spherical mass of radius r falling with velocity" In a liqUid of coefficient of viscosity T] Is given by Fy = 6 ""m The terminal velocity Is achieved when weight Is counterbalanced by the tangontial backward viscous force and buoyant forces together i.e . W = F,. < 1-'" The terinInaI velocity is then given by
2r'g(d. -d,)
", =

The energy due to pressure (pi In a flowing liquid element of mass (m) and density (p) is given by.

BernoullI's theorem stat:" that the total energy of an element of mass (m) of an incompressible Hqul" .novlng steadfly remains constant thoughout the motion. Mathematlcally. Berr ,u1I1's theorem as applied to any two points A & B of a tube of flow Is

1 mu~ +mghs + mps =-2 2 P P Bernoulli's principle find many applications In our dally life like design of venturlmeier, to I!leasure the rate of flow of liquids In pipes, atomizer, spray gun. carburettor. ffiter pump. aerofll, etc.

.!.mu! +mghA + mpA



Differentiate between Laminar flow and turbulant flow and hence define critical veloelty. Deline viscosity and coefficient of viscosity. Derive the units and dimensional formula of coefficient of visCOSity. WhIch Is more viscous - water or glycerine. Why? What is Reynold's number? What Is Its slgnlflcance? Define critical velocity on the basis of Reynold's number. State Bernoulli's prlnelple. Explain Its application In the design of the body' of an aeroplane.

2. 3. 4.


. 5. 6. What Is ')ress~ energy? DerIve Bcn1oulU's equation for flow of fluids. Expl:lln why :
(I) A

sp!I1nlng tennis ball curves during the fligh t7

. -

Iii) A ping pong ball keeps un dancing on a jet of waler without fall!I1g on to either

\iii) The velocity of flow Increases when the aperture of water pipe Is decreased by squeeztng. its open mouth? liv) A small spherical 0011 fall!I1g !I1 a vismus fluid attalns a conSlant velocity after some time? . (v) If mercury i. poured on a Ilat glass plate. It breaks Into small sphertcal dropleL~?

Find out the terminal velocity of an air bubble with 0.8 mm in diameter which rises in a liquid of viscosity of 0.15 kgro"s" and density 0.9 grocm'. What will be the term!I1al velocity of the same bubble while rls!I1g in water? Forwatern = 10"' kgro's-'. IAns.0.0209
ems-I; 34.8 ems-I]


A pipe-line 0.2 m in diameter, flov.rtng full ot~water has a cunstrktion of diameter 0.1 If the velocity In the 0.2 m pipel!I1e is 2 m. '. find: .


the velocity !I1 the constriction. and

(ii) (he discharg(' rate in <'ubic meters per ,St'cond.


Ii) With what \reludty in a steel baH I nlm is radius (~uJing in a tank of glY('erine t!t an insnmt whl"n its acceleration i~ one-half ihat ('.t a tre-ely falling body?
Iii) What is the terminal velocity of tlle ball? The density of steel and of glycerine ar-t. 8.5 gm cm-3 and 1.32 gm cm-3 respectively; viscosity of glycerine is 8.~ Poise.

10. Water at


nows with

speed of 50 em s


through a pipe of diameter of:'1 mm.

II) What is the Reynold's NumbeI?

(11) What Is the nature of flow?

Given. viscosity ofwate at 20'C as

=1.005 x

10-2 Poise; and

Density of water at 20'C as = I gm em -3. 11. Modern aeroplane design calls for a lift of about 1000 Nm"" of wIIlg area. Assume that air flows past the wing of an aircraft with streamline flow. Ifth~ velocity of flow past the lower wing surface 1~ 100 ms- I what. is the required velocity ovt"r the upper surface to )\Ive a desired lift of 1000 Nm"? The density of air Is 1.3 kg m'.
i;t. Water flows horizontally through a pipe ofvarylIlg cross-section. If the pressure of water equals 5 em of mcrrury at a point where the velOcity of now Is 28 ems-I, tllen what is the pressure at another point, where the velocity of flow Is 70 ems-'? [Tube density of water 1 gut emJ ).



0.0209 cms'. 34.&m.' III 8 ms'. Iii) 0.0628m's-'

(I) 0.769


ems" (iiI 1.89 ems"

10. Ul 1500. (III Streamline flow



12. 4.845 em-' of Hg





As you have studIed in the previoll lessons, all the matters art' f(ml1d in three states - solid, liquid and gas, TI,ey are composed or molecules. 111e molecules have certain inter-molecular for~t's and therm"l "Tlf'rt;,v. \\l1en the lnean lhernia! ener.!.:."Y is int'n".-!s~~d. a Si..'H...(~ l"tll1H'~. wh . . . n. nw nH)k-\ ilks i.Jecollw completely free irum each other Le. (he inle!llluit-nilar rorce bet1.'.'een them vanishes. However. they have enough chances to collide against each other. This state of matter is said to be gaseous stale. In the gaseous state the matters (substances) don't have definite shape and size. The ga8!!s occupy the shape and size of the container in which they are Iilled,

Under different conditions of temperature, pressure and volume, gases exhibit different properties, For example when the temperature of gas is increased at constant volume, its pressure insreases. Can you explain why? Though you may have feeling of such concepts. After studying tlur. lesso'1 you will find the exact explanation of such concepts. In this lesson yllu will study about the kinetic theory of gases which explain propel ties at' gases You will also study about the kinetic interpretation of temperature and the relationship between the kinetic energy of thc molecules and the temperature, Why the gases have two types of specific heats will also be answered tn this lesson.

After studying this lesson, you should be able to:

state the assumptions ofldnetic theory of gases; and


the expressionfor pressure P =

'3 pc 2

dlstinguis/.l between the RMS velocity and the average velocity of molecules and establish their relationship with temperature: derive gas laws such as (a) Boyle's law, (b) Charle's law. (e) Pressuretemperature law, (d) Avogadro's law, and Ie) Dalton's law, of partial pressure, on the basis of kinetic theory oj gases. give kinetic inerpretaiion of temperature and compute the mean kinetic energy of a gas; explian law of equipartition of energy; give reasonsfor the existan.ce of two specijic heats ofgas, define them; and -'-'_.uer UIC" the relation C(l - Cv = R/J.



We arealreaily aware that matter is composed of very large number of atoms and molecules. Each of these molecules show the characteristic properties of the substance of which it is a part. John Dalton in 1803 wade use of this concept of matter that is. matter is composed of large number of molecules. Later it was found that the molecules of substance ~ in constant motion. This led to the development of kinetic theory of matter. Now let us see how a gas fills a container. In a gas the molecules are so far apart from each other that there is little intermolecular attraction. The coheSive force (which binds molecules together) between the particles of matter which constitutes a gas is thus extremdy small. It is due to this -reason that a gas fills a container completely in which it is kept. The kinetic theory has been developed in the case of gases. The mathematical basis of the kinetic theory of gases was established by Maxwell and Clausius. The kinetic theory'of gases attempts to relate the macroscopic properties such as pressure,solume and temperature of an ideal gas with its iDtcroscopic properties such as speed and mass of its molecules. At this potnt the terms macroscopic and microscopic need a little elaboration. Macroscopic simply means, pertaining to a whole assembly of a large number of molecules. Microscopic on the other hand is confined to quantItI~ concerning with individual molecule. According to the kinetic theory of gases, the molecules of velocities making collisions for a short ttme with each other and with the Wa1I.s of the container and rebounding from them. This motion of molecules is random. The klnetIc theory makes assumptions.


11.3.1 Assumption of Kinetic Theory of Gases

Clark Maxwell in 1860 showed that the well known properties of a gas can be explained on the basis of certain assumptions which are called as the assumptions of kinetic theory of gases.
(1) a

gas consists of a very large number of small molecules which are

considered to be rigid, and identical in all respects and moving with all possible veloc1tIes in all possible directIons the intermolecular forces are negligible.
(Ii) the collisions between the molecules

and against the walls of con-

tainer are perfectly elastic

(tIi) the volume of the molecules themselves is negl1gl.ble as compared

to the volume occupied by the gas.

tv) 'between collisions the molecules move in a straight line with uni-

form velocity. v) the time taken in a colission is negligible as compared to the time interval by a molecule between two successive collisions.

Properties of Gases
vi) distribution of molecules is uniform throughout the container.

Let us first consider motion along the axis. ox. (Ftg. 11.11. Since the mass of the molecules Is m and it Is moving with a speed U. therefore, its momentum will be mu towards the wall X On striking the wall X. the molecules rebounds in reverse direction with the same speed u since the collision has been ll$Sumed to be perfectly elastic. The momentum of the molecule after it rebounds Is (-mu). Hence, the change in momentum of the molecules Is mu - (-mu) = 2rnu If the molecule travels with the veloclt3T u to the wall opposite ABeD and rebounds back to X agaln without strildng any other molecule on the

way, it covers a distance 2 lin time 21. u

:. The time interval between successive collisions of the molecules with the wallis 21.

By Newton's second law of motion the rate of change of momentum Is equal to the impressed force.


of change

of momentum


ABeD= Change in momentum TIme 2mu rnu 2 =2Vu=-I-

rIC- 11.1: - . qf a moIecut..


This Is the rate of change of momentum due to one molecule. Since there are N molecules of the gas, therefore, ,e total rate of change of momentum or therefore the total force exerted on the wall ABeD due to impact of all the N molecules Is

ForceonABCD=!!!(U~ +L4i +u~ + - - - +u~)

I -'

Where, u" u,.. u,. - - - u,. are the veloclt3Tof first. second, third and ... : N" molecule respectlVely along the OX d1recl1on. We know that pressure

= Area


:. the pressure P on the wall X of areas 12 is given by

P= P=



~(U2 +u~+u~+----+u~)

... (ll.ll


If u2 represents-the mean value of the squares of all the speed components In the OX dlreetibn then

Substituting the value of (uf+~+u;+ ___ +u~)1n equation (11.1) we get

mNii2 13
. (11.2)

It can be shown by geomeby that C'= Ii'- + Ii" + uP Since U. v and w are the components of c.

lbis relation also holds for the mean square values i.e.
C2 =U2 +V2 +W 2

Since the molecules show no preference for moving parallel to anyone edge of the cube; it follows that the mean value of Ii'-, ri', ufl are equal. i.e.
U 2 =V2 =W 2

c2 =3u2
-2 C U =-


Substitutlng this In eqn. (11.2) we get

But P= volume of the container = volume

"r .the gas,

.. (11.3)

:. PV=.!.Nmc2 3

1bis important relationship relates the macroscopic properties i.e. pressure and volume with the microscopic properties i.e. mass and mean square speed of the molecules.

Equation (11.3) can be re-written as,

p=.!.Nm c2 3 V If P Is the density 01 the gas, we can write


(Q p=~)
.. 111.4)


c2 =3p

\lote: The following points about the above derivation should be noted:

Properties of Gases
(I) From equation (11.4) it is

dear that In thJs expression the shape oj the container does not play any role in kinetic theory. It is only the volume which is oj sign!Jlcance. So Instead oj a cube we could have taken any other container. A cube only simpljfies our calculations.

have qffected the result, because the average momentum oj the molecules on striking the waUs is WlChanged by their coUisiDn with each other: (flI,/ The mean square speed c2 is not the same as tile square oj the mean speed. This is Ulustrated by the JoUowlng e.mmples.

(Ii) We ignored the inermoIecular coUision but these would not

Suppose we have live mo~es and their speeds are I, 2. 3,4. 5 units respectively. Then their mean speed Is 1+2+3+4+5. -3untts 5 Its square Is 9. On the other hand the mean square speed Is +32 +42 +52 55 5 -5 11 Thus we see that mean square speed which Is II units In the above example Is not the same mean as speed which Is 3 .
12 +22

.II:qmpIe 11.1: Co/Ciliate the pressW'ee.mrted by 1Cf'2 molecules oJoxygen each oj mass 5 x 10-110 kg In a hoUow cube oj side 10 em where the average translattonal sveed oj molecule is 500 ms-', 8oIudon: Change In momentum = 2 mu =2 x 5 xIO-26 X 500 =5xlO-22 kgms- 1 Time taken to make successiVe impacts on same side - time to travel 2 xl0 em or 2 x 10'"2 m. i.e. Time _2xl0-2 4 X 10-4 s 500 5xl0-:13 -19 X 10-4 = 1..25xIO N

... Rate of change of momentum 4

The force on the side due to one third molecules =lx 1.25x 10-19 xI022 N =400N 3 Force 400N 4xl04N-2m and pressure =Area looxlO=<iII'2

-INTEXT QUESTIONS 11.1---------1. I) A gas flUs a container completely but not a llquJd. Why is thJs?
...... 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



Solids have nwre ordered structure than gases. Why?

2. What is an ideal gas ?

3. How is pressw-e related to density of rrwlecules ?
0 .................... _ ..............................................................


I) Boyle's Law
We know that the pressure P exerted by a gas is given by


But mN = total mas M of gas ... (11.5)


PV=.!.MC 2 3

When the temperature of a given mass of the is constant, the mean square speed Is constant. Thus both M and c on the r1ght hand side of eqn. (11.5) are constant. Thus we can write,
PV =Constant


ThIs is Boyle's Law, which statros that At COJUItant t8mperatunr. the pressure of

a gas is frwersely proportional


to the

volume qf the gas.

Charle's Law From eqn. (11.5) we know that

PV=.!.MC2 3
MC 2 varies as T varies. Therefore PV should also vary as T vary. This Is Charle's Law
PVaT (U.6)

Charle's Law may be stated in two ways: The volume of a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature OR The Pressure of a gas at constant volume is

directly proportional to the temperatunl!.

iii) Avogadro's Law


''J!\Sl(i<-r (WO



1 and 2. Then from kinetic lheory


Prnpprtie" of GaSf'''


~ mlNlcl' ~ m. N.c~


"f their pressure, volume and temperature are the same, then

., .(11. 7)

Since the temperature is constant therefore their kim'lic f'nl'!f/.!it's Will 11" the same i..e, 1

-m1c l=-m c 2

1. 2-2

... (11.8)

DivldL.1g equations (11.'7) and by (11.8) we get NI = N. Hence. Equal I/Olume qf tdea.l grua &Wtfng unde .. the aame condi tIone qf temparaturw a.nd ,preaure contain equal numbe.. qf mol ecule.. Thfa atatement fa AWJgadro'a Law Iv)
DaltOD. Law of paztlill preure

Suppose we have a number oC gases or vapours havlng no chemical reactton With each other. Let their densities be PI' p., p" ...... and mean squal? speeds ~~,~:, c~ ......... respectively, We mix same volumes of these ltalll'lI. Then the resultant pressure P Is clearly gtven by l : z I 2 1 ,,2 P .. 3 Pl~ I + 3 P2~ 2 -I- 3 Ps" 3 -I- L
2 1 PI C1 '3 2 PgC g


1 ~g3 '3 P3 3............. are

the indlvlUual (or Impartial)

pressure of the dlffc:rent gases or vapours. If we cenote these by p" 1' p~,we get P.P1+p.+P,,+ ......... In other words: '.I'M total,pfWIUN enrtecI "" the fIaMIoUI mllrture fa the 8Wft qf the Cnc!fllfdual,pNall.... that would be exerted if eevera.l 11_ IICICIIIpW CJur . . . . in tum. alone. Thfa fa DaltOn 'a law qf part(c&lp........ v) Qnbam'. law of dlffultOD of ..... Graham lnve.tlgated the dlfCualon of gases throuJ(h poroll" "ubl'llanc!': and

found that; The rate qf d(t1Usfon qf a . . tIarough a porous partidon Is ~IJI propordonal to tile ....,.,. nJOf tV ie. "--'tu. Tfds .. known as Graham'. law of ~ On the basis of kinetic theory of gases. the rate of diffuSion through a fine hole will be proportional to the average or root mean square velocity c. From equation (I 1.48) we know that

Rateofd1ffullionof onegaa .. EL= ~.!i Rate of cWrua1onof other . . ca PI

c =p or



:. the root mean square ~loctty c1 and ~ of the molecules of two gus of densities PI and P. respectively at a pressure are

Rate of diffuMon of one,.. c Rateof d1ffuslonother. . It thus foUawa that kinetic theory of gases provldes a theoretical buia for Qrabam'1f Jaw of dlft'ualon of gases.

Bample 11.2: What Is the root mean.square speed qfhydrogen mokcule


Mas ofhydrogen molecule 3.347 )( Solution: . We know


kg k. 1.38)( 1~ ..iX-I

=rkT . """ m

I 7 3X(1.38X 10.. JK- )(300K) 3.347 X 10"41 Kt1


Now. It Is time to check Your understanding

IN'I'aT QUESTIONS 11.2 - - - - - - - - 1. Flue gas riIolecules chosen at random t.nfound fD haw speed qf 500, 660, 700. 800 and 900 mr'. FInd the RMS speed. Is It the same as die

auerage speed?


Properties of Gases
2. lftile same volwnes of two gases 1 aru:!. 2 are I7IiA!!d wft1wut any chemical reaction. then what wou1d be tile resultant pressure of the miXture?


We know that the pressure of a gas is given by the relation

Multiplying by V, the volue of 1 gram molecule of the gas, we

Also'for n mole of a gas. we have

pv. n RT where R gas constant. 8.3 J mol-' K-'

nR7'= .!mNC~

Multiplying both sides by


3 "2 we have

3 ImNC 1 2 -RT==-mN"c 2 2 n 2
N where -=N" Auogadro'. nWllbtrr


2N" 2

11;4.1 Mea KInetic Energy


! me2 is the mean kinetic energy of molecule. Therefore, mean kinetic


energy of a ulOlecule is

!me2 =31!...T
2 2 N"

1!... Is a constant Ie. called Boltzman constant.


R k=NA AIIIJIIGI'ro'. Number: The number of atoms or molecules In a mole of tl substance is called Avogadro number: its value is 6.023 x l()l' moI;-'. The value of k . 38 xlO-J molecuJe-1 k-I :. mean ldnet1c energy of a molecule of the gas kT Is giVen as

... (II . 1 0 ~ Obviously. therefore. the ldnet1c energy of a gram-molecule of the gas
=3 kNAT =3 fBlx NAT 3 KI' 2 2NA 2

!2 mc-2 = 3 2 kT

Kinetic energy of a gnun molecule of a gas

"3 = 2 KI'

Thls relationship tella us that the kinetic energy of a molecule depenoa upon the absolute temperature Tof the gas and It Is quite Independent of its mass. This fact'ls known as the Jd_cto Inc.rpNCcadon td

Clearly, at T. 0 indicating that at the ablolute zero of temperature. the kinetic energy of the gas Ie reduced to zero. In other words, aD molecular motion ceaaea at thla temperature. the mo.\ecuIe beJng aD at rat.

From (1l.IO) we have he expreu.Ion tor the Iquare root oL e1cdedroot mean aquare velocity.

11.15.2. Preuure Temperature Re.at.ouhIp

From eqn. (l1.5) we know that

pV.!~2 3
From expertmental evidence we krIDW tllat tor one . . . .11IGIecuJe or au the relation between preuure. volume aDd temperature i8 atven by
where R

Combininl equation (11.5) and (11.8)


au conatant






,.. (11.12)

aut 1dnetlc entrRY

.! AmI .

Properties of Gases

So eqn (I 1.12) can be written as

2X!./I4C2 =RT 3 2

.!../I4C2=3 RT

... (11.13)

From this relation we see that dIe kinetic energy of one gram-molecule of the gas la equal to NT. From eqn. (11.12) we see that the mean-square velocity la directly proportional to the Kelvin Scale of temperature T. At T=O.c 2 ,.oorc=O. hence we can define KeMn zero as 'J'he &IM . . " , Oft the IIaIlDfn 8CaJe qfe.mperature fit that tInraperat1U'W at which the molecular trarlalatfonal wlodtfa qf tl (IG/J cue .....uced to ..",.
In actual system the molecule may have the same energy for one molecule the Kinetic energy from eqn (11.13) can be wrttten as

!./I4C2.3.1!..T 2 2NA where NA Avogadro'. Number


1hul. In a given mue of gas the mean kinetic energy per molecule la proport1Onal to the temperature of the gu .
. . . . . . U.S: At What ternperaturewUl the root mean square uelocUy qf ~ be ~ qf Its ualue at B.T.P.. preure betng constant (S7P Standard temprrature and pre.sure).
80111don: We know that.

!Ml!2. S RT
2 2
or or


Let the veloclty at N.T.P. t.e atT. Kbe lio If To I[ Ia the requtred temperature. the veloc1ty c at the temperature. 2 li, u 8lVen In the problem


Physics orT=4T. Since T. = 273K T=4x273= 1092K

T = 1092 - 273 = 8190


11.4: Find the average kinetic energy qf a gas at tempea.ture oj 300 K Given k = 1.38 X 10"23JK:l.

Solution: We know that

.! MC2 =::J k:T

2 2
Since k = 1.38 x 10.... JK'"
T= 300 K

Average KE= ~ (1.38XIO-~ JK- 1 K3OOK) =6.2Ix1O-21 J

11.15.3. The law of equlparaUtlon of energy

There are 3dtrections of motion IX. Y and Z &Xes) which are equally probable for the gas molecules. This implies that average value of the components of velocity c (I.e. u, v and w) along the three directions should be equal or for a molecule all the three directlons are equivalent. I.e. u=ii=iIi or
-2 -2 -2 1-2 U =0 =W =-c

Since c2 =u 2 +V2 + w 2 c 2 =u2 +ii2 +iIi2 Multiplying throughout by 2 m. where m Is the mass of a molecule we' have
I .

1_21_21_2 -mu =-nw =-mw 2 2 2 1 2 ' But 2 mu =Ex =total mean kinetic energy of a molecule along X axis
Therefore E,. l\. E. But, the total mean kinetic energy of a molecule 18

3 E--kT 2
Where, k. Boltzmann conatant. and T. Absolute temperature and since. E. E. + Ey + E. .. E. l\. '" E.. 2 kT Since three velocity components u, vand w correspond to the three degree of freedom of the molecule, we can conclude that,
224 1

Properties of Gases

Totalldnet1c energy of a dynamical system is equally divided among all its degrees of freedom and it is equal or -KTper . 2 degree of freedom.
This is the law qf equfpartitfon of energy and was deduced by James Clark Maxwell. Let us apply this law for dlfferent types of gases. So far we have been considering only translational motion. Let us now consider rotation too. Of course. for a monoatomic molecule. we have only translational motion because they are not capable of rotation (although they can spin about anyone of the three mutually perpendicular axes If it Is llke a finite sphere). Hence for one molecule of a monoallomic gas total


3 E=-kT. 2


For a diatomic molecule we can suppose it to be two spheres Joined by a rigid rod. Such a molecule can rotate about any one of the three mutu!illy perpendicular axes. However. the rotational Inertia about an exIa along the rigid rod is negUglble compared to that about an axis perpendicular to the rod. 80 that rotational energy consists of two terms such as 1._1 _ .. 1 .':"1

i .... u a ..."i ....

Now the spedal deacrtption of the .centre of IlWIII of a diatomic gas modules will require three coordinates. Thus. for a diatomic gus molecule havUig both rotational and tranalational motion.


Far ~ each molecule contains there spheres Joined together by rods (we can suppose) 80 that the molecule is capable of rotating ~ about each of three mutually perpendicular &Xes. Hence for .tnatomic gas molecule having both translational motion. energy E will be



E=3(! kT)+~! KT )

E- 3 kT


(Here three de~ of freedom for the translation of the centre of mass of the molecule and three far rotation along three mutually perpendicular axes).


We know that the temperature of 1l gas can be raised under dl1ferent



conditions of volume and pressure. For example. the volume may be kept constant or the .pressure may be kept constant or both may be allowed to vary in some arbitrary manner. In each of these cases the amount of heat required to cause unit rise of temperature in unit mass IS different. Hence. a gas has different heat capacities. It we supply an amount of heat Q to a gas to raise Its temperature through T then heat capacity Is defined as (11.17) T The heat capacity of a body per unit mass of the body Is called as specific heat of the substance of which the body Is made and Is usually denoted by C ( or 5). Thus

Heat capacity

heat capacity Speccea ill h t C =



Equations (11.17) & (11.18) give!'

C=--'L mLlT
It may be defined as follows.


Spec(ftc heat of a material ta the heat required to ratae the temperature of unit maa of that material for unit t!tmperaturw

The unit of specific heat in MKS system Is kilo calories per kilogram per Kelvin (kcal kg"1 K1) It may also be expressed In joules per kg per K. For example specific heat of water Is 1 kilo cal kg"1 K"I 4.2 x loa Joule kg"1 K"I. The above definition of specific heat holds good for solids and liquids and not for gases because according to relation (11.19) sp8c1ftc heat of!l gas may vary from zero to Infinity. To e1aborate.ifwe compress a certain gas. there Is a rise In temperature without suplying any heat to the gas from out.lde. Thus. we see that for mass m of a gas we have.

c ..JL...

mAT mxAT

Again. if we supply heat to a gas and the gas Is allowed to expand such that there Is no rise In temperature. I.e. AT. 0 then.



m )CAT mxAT

We observe that In order to Itudy the lpec1ftC heat of a guo either the prenure or the volume of the gu has to be kept constant. Consequently. gasel have two apeclftc beatll.e. 1) Specific heat at C'~mstant volume denoted as c"

Propertlt's of Gases
Ii) SpecJfic heat at constant pressure denoted as Cp

The two specJfic heats are defined as follows: '

(a) The speciflc

heat of a gas at constant volume (C,) is defrned as the amount oj heat required to raise the temperature oj unit mass Q[ a gas through 1 K when its vo!/H1Ie is kept constant.
i.e. ...(11.20)

(b)The speciftc heat at constant pressure (C.) is defined as the amount of heat required raise the temperature of unit mass of a gas through 1 K when its pr~ssure is kept cosntant.

Note :When.l mole of a gas is considered then the amount of heat required to raise the temperature by one degree is called molar specific heat.

We know that when pressure is kept constant. the volume of the gas increases. Hence in the second case note that the heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass through 1 degree at constant pressure is made up of two parts: i) heat required to do external work to produce a change in volume of the gas and
11) heat required

to raise the temperature of the gas through one degree (C).

This means the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure Is greater than Its specific heat at constant volume by an amount which Is the thermal equivalent of the work done in ~ding the gas against external pressure. That Is ... (11.22) W+ p

IC =




between Cp and C"

Let us consider one mole of an ideal gas enclosed in cylinder fitted With a frictionless movable piston (see Fig. 11.2) Since the gas has been assumed to be ideal (perfect). there Is no intermolecular force between Its molecules and when such a gas expands an internal work Is done in separathlg the gas molecules apart. This whole work is only external I.e .. against the internal pressure

rL....--~t======p [\...---V.---"",,--1====
V ,
FIg. 11.2: Gas heated at constant pressure;

Let P be the external pressure and A be the cross sectional area of the piston.

The force acting on the piston = P. x A Now. suppose the gas is heated at constant pressure through 1 K and as a result the piston moves outward through a distance X as shown in the figure 11.2. Let VI be the inttJal volume of the gas and V. be the volume after heating. Therefore. the work W done by the gas in, pushing the piston through the . distance x. against external pressure P is given by
W =PxAxx

= P x (Increase in volume) = P (v;. - VI)

We know from (11.22) that Cp + Cy = Work done (W) against the external pressure in raising the temperature of 1 mole of a gas through 1 K i.e .

C. = P IV;' - VI)

.. (11.23)

Now applying perfect gas equatlonto these two stages of the gas i.e before and after heating we have

.. (11.24)

pv. = R (T+ 1)
Substntcting (11.24) from (11.25) we get
P(V. - VI) = R

... (11.25) ...(11.26)

.. (11.27)

... From (11.20) and (11.23) we get

Cp -C .. R

where R is in Joules mole-I


Converting Joules into CalOries. we get

Cp-c,,= J

. (11.28

where. J - 4.18 J cal is the mecbanical equI.Valent of heat.

D:am,ple 11.5: FInd out the ualue qf C,. and CuJOr a rnonoatrmUc. diammfc and trIatOmiC gas molecules.
SoIatfDn: We knowthat the average KE for I mole
E= 3 Rl' 1

to a gas is glftn as

Now CD is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of I mole of a gas at constant volume by one degree i.e. if

E,. - Total energy of gas at 1K

E ;r. I = Total energy of gas at (T + 1)" K

Then C. = E,..I - E,. (at constant volume)


Properties of Gases


We kilow. for monoatomic gas. total

ene~ = 3 RT

for monoatomic gas Cv =

~ R( T + 1) - ~ RT
3 =-R. 2


For diatomic gases. total energy = ~ RT

5 5 Cv = 2 R (T+l)-R= 2RT 5 7 C =C +R= -R+R=-R. p v 2 2


You may now find out Cv and Cp for triatomic gas.

INTEXT QUESTION 11.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. What is the total energy of nilrogen nwlecu1e?

2. Calculate the value of Cp and Cv for nitrogen given. R = 8.3 J mol-' K-' .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

3. Why the gases have two types of specific heats?

Some Important collltaDu

Universal gas cosntant. R

=8.3 J

mol-I K-I

1 atomic mass unit (a.m.u.) = 1.66 x lO'''kg

Avogadro's number N

=6.02 x 1()-23 molecules per mole


Boltzmann constant K = 1.38

10'" molecule-' K-'

1 standard' atmosphere = 0.76 m of Hg

= 1.01 x 10" Nm-' 1.01 xlO" pa


KInet1c theory llII8umes the existence of atom. and molecules of a gas and applies the law of mechanlcs to large number of them usIng averaging technIque. KInetic theory relat.es the macroscopic properUes.


KineUc theory makes cert.alJ;l .....umptlana about the nature of moJecules, their colllsions and dliItrlbuUon In a gas. The pressure of gas Is the average Impacts per second of the molecules per units _ or the walls of the contain<!%' KInetic energy of a molecule depends upon the absolute temperature T and fa Indep<:Sldent of Its mass. At absolute zero of temperature, the ktnet1c energy of a gas Is teducal to zero. The molecular motion thus ceaaes at aheolute zero of temperature.
Gas laws can be dertvcd on the basis of kinetic theory.

The keMn zero In the kelvin scalc fa that temperature at wblch the molecular translatlonal veIocIUes of a gas ...., reduced to zero.
DependIng on the volume and pressure, the amount of heat requited to ratse the unit temperature of unit mass of a gas Is different. Hence there are two speclllc heats of

I) Spectftc heat at constant volume IC,)
II) SpecIflc, heat at constant

pressure IC~

When pressure remains constant for unlt clJan&IO In ~ the...au- ~ Hence the heal required to raIae the unit temperature of unit inas8 of a gas at comtant

pieasure conststs of two p6rtS:

I) heat required to do external work. to produce a change In volume of the II) heat required to ratse the temperature of the gas through one degree


I.c. Cp



C, -C.'! J
The law of equSpart1tlon of energy stats that

the total klneUc etUIrII' of a dynamtcal 1 ayatem Is equally divided among aD Its deaz- of hedom lUI(! It Ia oqua1 to 2 ~per

degree of Ii'eedom.

Totaleneray tor a molecule of

(I) _tIIAmOatopUc


3 --leT 9

It!) a diatomic 1MB . (UtI

* triatomic gas 3 leT.

wm be the l'dOdty and Idndic _ _ of ~ DIIliecWea of a II"bRance at abeoIute ...



1. Can we use Boyle'. Ia.... to compare two dIlIerent tdeaI gases?

2. What

zero temperature?

3. If the absolute temperature of a gas be made tOur u-. what will happen to Its kIneUc eneray. root-mean square .veIocII and pmeaurel
4. What Is the ratio of averagc: veIocIUes of hydrogen molecules (molecular maSs 2) aDd oxygen rnoIecuIes (molecular maas 32) In a mtxture of two gasea to ha"" the same idnetIc energy .per molecule?

Properties of Gaaes
5. If three molecules have velocltles 0.5, I and 2 Ion/s respectively, calculate the ratio of th~ root mean sqUlll"e and avt:tage speeds. . 6. Explain what Is meant by the root-mean square velocity of the molecules of gas. Use the concepts of kinetic theory of gases to ~ an expression for the root-mean square velocity of the molecules In terms of pressure and density of the gas.
7. I)
CalClllate the averrge translational kinetic energy of a neon atom at 25 C.
(II) At what temperature does the avt:tage

energy ha"., half this Yaiue?

8. A oontalner of volume of 50 em' CCIIltaln8 hydrogen at ,pressure of t.O Pa and at a temperature of 27" C. Ca!eu/ate

aJ the number of molecules of the gas In the container and

b) their root-mean square speed.
(R - 8.3 J mot' K-', N= 6.0 x 10'" mol-' , mass of I mole of hydrogerunolecu/e = 20 x l(}"kg moI-').

9. A cloeed container cobtalns hydrogen which exerts a pressure of 20.0 mm Hg at a teInpI!rature of 50 OK.

aJ At what temperature will It exert pressun: of 180 mm Hg?

b) If the root mean square velOCIty of the bydrogen molccu/es at 10. OK Is 800 IJIS", what will be their root-mean square ".,locIty at this new temperature?

10. State the assumptions of ldnetlc theory of gases. 11. FInd an expression for pressure of a gas.
12. Deduce Boyle's Law and Charie's Law from KInetic theory of gases.

13. What Is the interpretation of temperature on the basis of ldnetlc theory of gasea?

14. What Is Avagadro's Law? How can It be deduced from kinetic theory of gases? 15. caIcualte the root-mean square of the molecules of hydrogen at O C at 100' C. (DensIty of hydrogen at 0' C and 760' mm of mer cmy pressure 0.09 kg m"'J.


caIculate the Pressure In mm of mercury exerted by hydrogen gas tf the number of molecu/es per .... Is 6.80 x 10'" and the root mean square speed of the molecules Is 1.90 x 10 ms-'. Avogadro's no. 6.02 x 10'" and molecular weIght of hydrogen 2.02.

17. DelIne specillc heat of gases at constant pressure. Dertve the relationship betwen C, an Cy 18. DelIne specilIc heat of gases at constant volume. ProYe that for a tlratomlc gas C, 3R.
19. Calculate C and C, for argon, given R

=8.3 Jmol-'K-'


JHi&X'l guu!1Ol11' 11.1 1. (0 Because In a gas the c:ohesM: force between the molecules are extremely small .. . compared to the molecules In a liquid.

Bo:cuaae the molecules In a solld are closely packed. The bond. between the moIec:uIea are stronger giving a ordered structure.,

2. 3.

"nle gaa which foil.,... the ldnectic theory of molecules Is called as an Idea! gas.


iHlliJtt Q1JB811Ol11' 11.2


A""""e speed

c,= 5OO+600+7~+800+900


Average value of C'

SOO' +600' +700' +800' +OO' S =SlO.OOOm's" c_ =.ft' =,JSlO.OOO-1l4ms-1

c_ and

c are not sam.e

The resultant pressure of the mtxture will be the sum of the pressure of gases 1 and 2 ,espectl\ I.e. P PI + P,.


0) For each degrees of freedom. energy


:. for 5 degrees of freedom for a molecule of nitrogen total energy = (2) C. for a

li kT.


5 = '2 R

5 or C.= gx8.3J mol-'K- ' = 20.75J mOl-I K-'

Cp = C. + R = 29.05 J moI-lC- l.





1.9 x 103 ms-I

(al 1.2 x 1016 (9) (al 450 K


(bi (bi

2.40 x 103 ms-I


840 m""1. 2150 ms-I



You are famillar with the sensation of hot and cold tn your daily life. When you rub your hands together you get the feeling of warmth. Have you ever thought about the cause of heating in such cases? tn fact it occurs as a result of mechanical work done tn both the above mentioned examples. Here, it is obvious that there is a relationship between mechanical work and thermal effect. The subject of thermal effects deals with pehnomena involving energy transfer between bodies at different temperature. A quantitative description of thermal phenomena requires a definition of temperature, heat and tnternal energy. The laws of thermodynamics provide a relationship between heat flow, work and the Internal energy of a system. In this lesson you will study about the prtnctples of thermodynamics which provide a relationship between heat flow. work and the Internal energy of a system. In this lesson you will also study the prtnciples of thermodynamics In the form of three laws. These are the zeroth. first and second laws of thermodynamics. In this lesson you will also study about the Camot's engine and its efficiency, concept of entropy and Its physical significance.

Afler studying this lesson. you should be able to:

dgferenttate between heat and temperature and describe c4fferent types of thermome'...mJs stating the three COIl11JlOll f:emperattue scales; explain the meaning of the thermodynamic terms and the indicator diagram and show thatarea WIder the indIca1Drdtagram represents work;
state t:hennodynamfp equl11brtum and&rothlav oftherrnodyru;unl and

discuss the prtncfpIe of caIorfmetry; explain the concept of fntemal eneJY!J of a system and statejlrst taW of
thermodynamics and its limttatfDns:

explain pressure-temperature phase diagram and evolue the concept of triple point; state second law oft:herrn0dynam4: In differentjorms: describe CamDt cycle for a per:fect gas and derive expresstonJor work done and f@cIency; and discuss the concept of entropy.



You are familiar With the sensation of hot and cold. Some bodies are foune! hotter and other colder as compared to a given body. Forexample. a piece "fhl Irning charcoal is very hot. while a chip of ice is very cold. This sensation of hOl dnd cold can be understood in terms of heat of the body. Now you may ask: What is heat? Heat is aform of energy which produces in us the sensation of warmth. Heat is a form of energy. It is due to the kinetic energy ofothe molecules constituting the body. Heat energy can change into mechanical energy. electrical energy etc. Flow of heat : You can understand this concept from the following example:. Take two containers having water up to different levels. Join these containers through a rubber tube. Water Will flow from the container having water up to the higher level to the container in which level of water is low. Stmllarly. when two bodies at different temperatures are placed in contact. heat also flows from a body.at higher temperature to the body at lower temperature. The energy which flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. because of temperature difference is called heat-energy. The unit of heat is calorie. one calorie is defined as; The quantity of heat energy required to heat 1 gram of water from 14.5 "C to I5.5"C is called one calorie. It is denoted as: I Cal. Calorie is the smallest unit of heat energy. Kilocalorie (k Cal) Is the larger unit of heat energy. and 1 kCai = 10-3 Cal Also
11 Cal = 4.18J

12.3.2. Concept of temperature

When we talk of the temperature of a body we often think the degree of hotness or coldeness of the body. Thus. the degree ofhotness of a body is its temperature. When we touch a body our senses provide us With a qualitative idea of temperature. Our senses are usually un-reliable and misleading. For example: If We remove an ice tray and a package of frozen vegetables from the freezer. the Ice tray feels colder to the hand even though both are at the same temperature. Thus we need a reliable method to observe the relative hotness or coldness i.e. temperature of bodies. Scientists have developed various types of thermometers. A device used to measure temperature is a thermometer. You know that the property of substance d:anges with temperature. This property can be used for the measurement of temperature by various thermometers. On the basis of '"':"":the physical properties of a substance used . : - ; ' - ,::-in thermometers. we can divide them in the following ways: '" (i) Mercury Thermometer In such thermometers we use the volume of a fixed mass of mercury to indicate the temperature. A fine glass tube is attached JI'lg.12.1: Mercury TIlermometer to a larger tube. The bulb and a prlrt of the


tube are filled with mercury. The tube Is evacuated and sealed (Fig.I2.l). As the bulb is heated. the mercury expands and rises in the tube. Hence the height of the mercury in the tube can be used as, a measure of the temperature of the bulb. To fix up a temperature scale. we choose two reference temperature and divide the interval between them into some equal numbers. parts. The scale Is calibrated in termS of celsius or Kelvin. Considering the temperatures of melting ice and boiling water at normal atmospheric pressure as the lowest and highest points for a mercury thermometer. Celsius and Kelvin Scale temperatures were defmed. (a) Centigrade or Celsius Scale: In this thermometer zero is the lower fixed point and 100 Is the upper fixed point. The Interval between the two fixed points Is divided Into 100 equal paris. Each part Is equal to I C or IOCelsius. (b) Fahrenheit Scale: In this thermometer the lowest fixed point is marked as 32 and the upper fixed point is marked as 212. The interval is divided Into 180 equal parts. Each part is equal to 1F. (c) Kelvin Temperature Scale: In this scale the lowest fIXed point is marked as 273 K and the upper point is marked as 373 K. The Intprval is divided Into 100 equal parts. Each part Is equal to 1 K.

Relation between Kelvin and Celsius Scale: Following Is the relation between Kelvin and Celsius scale. T = fr. + 273) K ...... (12.1) where T. is the temperature In CelsIus and T In Kelvin. For scientific measurement the stand,ard temperature scale adopted is the Kelvin Scale. The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. Following Is the general relation between Celsius (C). Kelvin (K) and Fahranheit (F) Scales.
--= = 180 100 100 We will also mention about two more types of thermometers.
(iI) The Constant Volume Gu Thermometer:




..... (12.2)

It Is based on the principle that. when volume of a given mass of a gas Is kept constant. Its pressue increases or decreases by a constant amount for every C rise or fall in temperature.

The Electrical Realstance Thermometer:


with Increase In temperature. The resistance of a conductor at ec Is given by R = R., (I + ae) ...... (12.3) Where R.,1s resistance of conductor at OCC and a Is a temperature coefficient of resistance for the material of given conductor. Before we discuss about thermodynamics. let us first define a few baSic terms.

is based on the principle that the resistance of a conductor increases

12.3.3 Thermodynamic Terms

(1) ThermodJDamic system: A thermodynamic system refers to a defmite quantity of matter bounded by some closed surface. This closed surface is
235 .


'cIescribed, are called tlIemwcfrInamlc variables or thermocIunamfc c:oorclfnates. (W) IDcUcator dbpuD: You have studied about clliJerent types of graphs in your mechanics lessons. Generally we use graphs to studytbe variation

called the boundaxy of the system. The boundaIY may enclose a solid. liquid orgas. Here we will discuss three types of systems as: (a) Open System: It Is a system which can exchange mass. heat and work With the surroundings. (b) Closed sJlftem: It Is a system which can exchange heat and work but not mass With the surroundings. (e) Isolated system: It is a system which has no eXchange With the surrounding; not even heat exchange. (U) ThermodynllDl1e Variables or Coordlilatu: In the first book. we ha,ve studied the metion of a body (or a system) in tenns of its mass, position and veloci~. To describe a thermodynamic system. we need its temperature pressure (P). volume (V). density (P) etc.These are called thermod.ynam1c variables or coordinates of a tltennodynamic system. '.I'hoBe IlCUiables in tenru qf which a thennoclynamlc SfI8teJn. can be


of a physical quantity With respect to the another one. To study a thermodynamic system we use a pressure-volume graph. Th1a graph indicates how the pressure (P) of a system varies With Its volume M. during a process. This graph which indicates how the pressure (PJ of a system varies .with,its volume during a thermodynaml.c process. 18 knoWn as an indicator diagram. We can get the work done in any particular case using the indicator d1agram. Now we will show that the &,rea under the P - V diagram, 18 equal to the worlt done by the system. Fig. (12.2) shows an Indicator diagram ora thermodynamic system. Suppose the pressure P at the start of a verY smaU expansion AV hence work done by the system (AWl
AW. PAV ...... (12.4)

AW. Area of shaded strip ABeD No,w total work done by the system from VI to Va Area p:p. V, VIP1 The depends upon the shape of ' value of the the indicator diagram. The indicator diagram Is widely useful, In calculating the work' done In the process of


expansion or compression. Really. It 18 found mure useful in the procesa where relationship between P and V 18 not known. Indicator d1agram plays very Important role to explain the theory of heat engine


To understand the phenomenon of thermal V, :, c Yo ' equilibrium. let us consider two metal blocks .'1.. lUt htd1ctllO, DI.,,.,,,. ~.,r~e same material) A and B. Suppose A Is warmerihan B. Bring Aand B .hLO r.ontact and surround them by a thick layer glass wool, After sometime



you will find both the blocks equally warm. This Is called as the thermal equilibrium of this system. It isa state of thermodynamic system in which temperature of the system Is uniform. And also there Is no temperature difference between the system and its surrounding.

12.4.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

In order to state Zeroth law of Thermodynamics. let us consider three metal blocks A,B and C. Suppose block A Is in thermal eqUilibrium with block B. It means the temperature of block A Is equal to the temperature of block B. Further, suppose that block A is also in thermal equilibrium with block C. It means that the temperature of block A is equal to the temperature of block C. It follows that the temperatures of blocks B and C are equal. We can summarize these results in a statements known as Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: qtwo bodies or systems A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third body C, then A and B are f1I thermal equUfbrium with

each other. This statement is known as the Zeroth law of thermodynamics.

12:4.2 Prlnclple of Calorimetery

You take some cold water In a glass and some hot water In another glass. Now mlx water of both the glasses. You wlll see now, the temperature of hot water Is less than.the hot water and more than the cold water. You may say that the temperature of the mixture of hot and cold water l1es between the teml!Ct:&tureofhot and cold water. Have you ever thought about the cause 'bf such..&.probtem'? You willleam this change of temperature with the help -of'caiorlmetery. To study the prindple of caIorlmetery let us first dlscU88 a few terms given as; caIodmeter. It Is a cyllndrlcal vessel made of copper and provided with a . stirrer and a l1d. lpeoUlc beat: The specific heat of a matertal (solid or liquid) 18 the amount ofheat. requlredto ratse the temperature of unIt mass of the matertaL through 1 K. It 18 denoted by C. Ifheat AQ Is required to raIse the temperature ofmass M of the sol1d through A'r, then.
C. M


..... (12.5)

51 umt of C Is J/kg K. In SI. the specjflc heat of a solid mass 18 equal to the amDUnt ofheat requ!A?d to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the solid through lK. Beat ('.apllolty: The heat c:apac!ty of a body 18 equal to the amount of heat. requIn!d. lD raise Its temperature through one' degree. 'It Is also called as thermal capacity of the body.

MathemaUcally we can expresa It as, AQ-MC Where AQ - heat capacity of the body. M - mass of the body. andC specl1lc heat of the body 'nle unit of AQ Is J /K In 5.1. system.


Water ....., ....t: The water equI.valent oj a body is de.Jfnesasthe mass oj water, w.hlchabsorbs or emits the same amount oJheat tiS Is '. dOne.by thegivenbodyforthe same rtseorJalltn temperature. , . .I\IatJ'Iemat(a U1eQ:Uleq:wess ttas: ......_:.:, .. "~,'c' A"'~""
W=MC .

where W = Water equivalent of the body. M = Mass of the body .<!lld C = Spectftc heat of the body Its SI unit is kg. Now you Will study about the PrIndpIe oj CaIorImetery. When bodies at dttJe,ellt temperatures are mixed together in the Ccdorlrneter, tIuIg exeluUlge heat with each other. Bodies at higher temperature lose heat. whlle those at lower temperature galn heat. The contenis of the calorimeter are stirred constantly so as to keep the temperature of the contents unlform. U no heat is ro.t to surroundinQs the heat lost by hot bodJl must IJe e1UJal to the JaeQt gained by cold bodJl. It in caHed the principle oj calrometery or principle of mixture. We can express this statement as:

IHeat lost Beat gain I

This principle can be used to ftne the speciflc heat of one content If specifiC heat of another is given. In case of mixture. Suppose a calorimeter whose water equivalent is W containing mass MI of water at ~perature T. A hot solid at temperature Ta and having mass ~ Is dropped Into the calorimeter. The contents are stfired constantly and the mixture acquires a final temperatureT. Suppose C Is the spec1ftc heat of solid to be determined and C' Is the specl1lc heat of water then
C= (M1+W)C(T-T1) M 2 (T2 -T)

.... (12.6)

Spectftc heat of solids can be calculated using above relation. Now it Is time to check you understanding. ~Ive the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTION 12.1-----"'"l .. - - - - 1. At ,what temperature do the Kelvtn and Fahreinhett scale coincide?

................................ _......................................
2. FlU in the blanks
P -_, ___ ......... _ ..'"

. bastsJortheconcept oj............................. v. ~.. v (ft) ifa sl/sternA is in thennaI equIlIbrfum with .....2.11: i1 system B whUe B is in thennal,equtUbrium with another system C then. system A wtU CJIso be in thermal. equIUbrtum with system

Zeroth law oj thermodynamics provides

I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

(UI) The W11t qfl1ea:t fs' ,.


State the prI1lcfpIe oJmlxture.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4. In thejlgure12.3 is shown. how much work is done by the.system in the process (a) along the path ABCjrom A to C (b) lfthe system is returnedjrom C to A along the same path. how much work is done by the system.

~ 'lo

........................................................................... .


Have you ever thought about the energy which is released when water freezes into ice? Don't you think that there is some kind of energy stored in the water. This energy is released when water changes to ice. This stored energy is called the internal energy. We can discuss the concept of internal energy on the basis of kinetic theory of maUer. First we will discuss about the internal kinetic energy then internal potential energy. (8) Internal Kbaetic energy: As you have studied earlier according to kinetic theory of matter. matter is made up of large number of molecules. These . molecules are In a state of constant rapid motion and hence possess kinetic energy. The total kinetic .energy of the molecules is called the internal kinetic enBTflIJ. (b) Internal Potential eneqy: The energy arising due to the inter-molecular attraction is called the internal potential energy. The energy of the system may be Increased by causing its molecules to move faster (a gain in kinetic energy). It can also be increased by causing the molecules to move against inter-molecular force or both. The sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the molecules of a body Is called Its Internal energy. Generally It Is denoted by the letter U Internal energy of a system = Kinetic energy ofrrwlecules + Potential energy of molecules of the system Let us consider an Isolated thermodynamic system subjected to external force. Suppose W amount of work Is done on the system In gOing from initial state ito final state J, adiabatically. Let U, and U, be internal energies of the system in its Initial ana final state respectively. Since work is done on the system. internal energy of final state will be higher than that of Initial state. According to the law of consesrvation of energy

Negative sign indicates that work Is done on the system.



12.5.1 I"ir8t law of thermodynamics

We have discussed Zenoth law of thermodynamics. which tells us about the equilibrium among different systems in contact. It also introduces concept of temperature. However. Zeroth law does not tell us anything about the non-equilibriuin state. Let us consider two examples: (I) two systems at different temperature In contact with each other and (Ii) mechanical rubbing )letween two systems causing change in their temperatures. These facts cannot be explained merely with the help'of Zeroth law. However. physicists have been working for the explanation of these facts since very early ages. long before the evolution of Zeroth law. These facts were explained by the first law of thermodynamics.


Theflrst law ojthermodynamics is . injact. the law ojconservation ojenergy. and it states that the amount ojheat given to a system is equal to the sum oj change in internal energy oj the system and the external work done. Suppose IJ.Q = amount of heat given to the system. IJ.U = increase in internal energy of the system. and IJ.W = external work done by the system . then according to the statement of first law of thermodynamics. we can write:
IJ.Q = IJ.U + IJ. W .. (12.7)

This is the mathematical form of the first h.w of thermodynamics. Here IJ.Q. IJ.U and IJ. Wall are in the same units. The signs of IJ.Q. IJ.U and IJ. Ware known from the following sign conventions:
Sign conventions:
(i) (Ii)


Work done (.1WJ by a system is taken as positive whereas work done on a system is taken as negative. Heat gained (added) by a system is taken as positive whereas heat lost (extracted) by a system is taken as negative. The increase in Internal energy (ilU) is taken as positive and the .decreas.e In internal energy is taken as negntive.

12.5.2 Limitations of Pinlt Law of Thermpdynamic8

First law of thermodynamics also asserts the equivalence between heat and work. This law tells us that how much work is obtained by transferring a certain amount of heat. However. it fails to explain the following points. (1) You know that heat always flows from a hot body to a cold body. But first law of thermodynamics fails to explain why heat cannot flow from a cold body to a hot body. It means that this law does not indicate the direction of heat flow. (11) This law does nof indicate as to what extent heat ca~ lJe converted into work. (111) You know that when a bUllet strikes on a target. the kinetic energy of the bullet is converted into heat. This law does not indicate as to why heat developed 1n the target cannot be changed into the kinetic energy of bullet to make 1t fly. It means that this law fails to provide the condition under wh1ch heat can be changed into work. Now take a pause and tIy to solve the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTION 12.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. FtU In the blanks

Work done

The total ,ktnettc, energy oj the

molecule ts called

(tl) 2.

=-w, tt indicates that work is done'

...................................... the system.


......................................... ........................, ..................................................

law ojthermodynami:s .


If the thermodynam1c variables of a system change wh1le going from one


ThermodynamIcs equilibrium state to another. the system is said to execute a thermodynamic process. For example the expansion of a gas in a cylinder at lIonstant pressure due to heating in a thermodynamic process. Now we will define number of thermodynamic processes. (I) Revenlble process: A process which .:an be returned in the oppoSite diretion from its fmal state to its initial state Is called reversible process. For example (a) Take a piece of ice in a beaker and heat it. You will see that it changes to water. If you remove the same quantity of heat of.water by keeping it inside a refrigerator. it again changes to ice. It means you have returned back to the initial state (ice). (b) Consider a spring supported at one end. Put some mass at its free end. Spring will elongate (increase in length). Now remove the mass. you will see tbat spring retraces to its initial position. Hence it Is a rever3ible process. (Ii) Irreveralble process: A process which cannot be retraced along the same equilibrtum state from final to the initial state is called irreversible process. For example. !O Heat produced during friction. (11) Sugar dissolved in water. and (i!1) Rusting of iron in the environment. (i!1) Ilothermal procell: Any thermodynamic process that occurs at constant temperature is an isothermal process. For example. the expansion and compression of a perfect gas in a cylinder made of perfectly conducting walls. (Iv) AdJ.lbatic procell: Any thermodynamiC process tbatoccurs at constant heat is an adiabatic process. For, example the expansion and compression of a perfect lias in a cylinder made of perfectly insulating walls. (v) Isobaric procell: A thermodynamic process that occurs at constant pressure is an isobaric process. For example. heating of water under atmosphertc pressure Is an Isobaric process. (vi) 'lIochoric procell: A thermodynamic process that occurs at constant volume of the system is an Isochortc process. For example heating of a gas in a vessel of constant volume is an Isochortc process.

12.8.1 Phue Dlaaram

You have learnt that solid. liquid and gas are three states of matter. The dUJilrwnt .tata qf matter are called it. ph..... For example. ict! (soUd). water (liquid) and steam (gas) are three states of ~ water. We can discuss that three phases \ ." I.lsing a three d1mens1onai dlagraIr. drawn \ ~" in pressure (Pl. temperature ('l) and volume c\\ ' (V). To draw and discuss three dimensional , A ,~ and dlagriun may be dlfftcult for you. Thus. I we shall discuss the three phases of matter by drawing a pressure-temperature dlsgram. This Is called ph. . dfatlram.. l'reIIare-temperature phue dI. . . .: , FIg. 12.4 shows phase dlagram of water. In e T, FIg. 12. I you can see three curves: CD. PB p!c.lI.4 I'hasetflatlmmqfwatrr andEF.




j# '"




Physics Curve CD shows the vartation of melting point of ice with pres"ure. It is known as afusion CUnlt!. Curve PB. shows variation of boiling point of water with pressure. It is known as vaporization curve. Curve EF. shows change of ice directly to steam. It is known as a sublimation curve. This curve is also known as Hoarfrost Line. If you extend the curve AB. CD and EF (as shown In the Figure with dotted lines) they meet at point P. nus point is called triple point. Triple point: It is a point on the phase diagram which represents a particular temperature and pressure of matter. At this point solid. liquid and vapour states of matter can CO-exist.. Stop and try to solve the following questions.

INTEXT QUESTION 12.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1 . Fill in the blanks. (i) A reversible process is that which can be ................ in the opposite directionfrom its final state to its initial state. (Ii) A .................. is that which cannot retrace along the same equUlbriwn state fromftnal state to the initial state.

2. Distinguish between isothermal and adiabatic processes.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0

n o o.o


State one characteristic ofmple point

0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0


According to the first law of thermodynamics you have learnt that heat can be converted Into work. Here one question may arise In your mind whether heat can be wholly converted Into work or not. Also you would be keen to know the conditions under which this conversion occurs. You will get the answers of these questions by a new principle known as Second law qf thermodynamics. There are number of ways to state second law of thermodynamics. However. you will study Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements of second 1IlW of thermodynamics.

Kelvin-Planck's statement is based upon his experience about the

performance of a heat engine (heat engine is discussed In next section). In a heat engine. the working susbstance extracts heat from the source (hot body). converts a part of It Into work then it rejects the rest of heat to the sink (cold body). There Is no c;nglne which converts whole heat Into work. without rejecting to the sink. These observations .led Kelvin-Planck state second law of thermodynamics as : It is not ~le to obtain a

continuous supply of work from a single 6OW'Ce of heat,

Infact Idea of second body (cold body or sink) Is the basis of Kevin-Planck's statement of second law of thermodynamics.
(if) Clausfsus

statement of second law of thermodynamics Is !lased upon the performance of a refrigerator. A refrigerator is a heat engine working In the opposite direction. It transfers heat from a colder body to a hotter body when external work Is done on it. Here concept of external work done on the system is Important. To do this external wor~ supply of energy from some external source is a must. These observations led Clausius. to state 242

Thermodynamics second hw of thermodynamics in the following form. Heat cannot./fow from a colder body to a hotter body without doing

_ternal work on the working substance.

Thus, second law of thermodynamics plays an unique role for practical deVices like, heat engine and refrigerator.

12.7.1 CUDl)t's Engine and carnot's Cycle

You must have hOtiCed that when water is boiled in vessel closed by a lid, the steam generated inside throws off the lid. This shows that high pressure steam can be made to do work. It shows that transfer of heat results in a situation where work can be done. A device which can continuously convert he!J.t into work is called heat engine. Modern engines which we use in our daily life are based on the principle of heat engine. These may be categorised in three types namely, steam engine, internal combunstion engine and gas turbines. Sadi Carnot in 1824 conceived a theoretical engine which is free from all the defects of practical engine. There are essential components of a heat engine as given below:' (i) Source: A hot body at very high temperature T, which supplies heat to the engine. After supplying any amount of heat its temperature remains constant. (ii) Sink: A cold body at very low temperature T2 to which any amount of heat can be rejected.After Working Substance receiVing any amount of heat its temperature remains constant. Fig. 12.5: (iii) Working substance: Perfect gas filled in a cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston (Fig. 12.5) The sides of the cylindei" are perfecting insulating.



. " . 1".8: Carnot Engine

(tv) NOD-conducting stand: A perfectly non-

conducting platform used as a stand for the cylinder. The working substance is subjected to a cycle of four operations: (a) isothermal expansion (b) adiabat~c expansion (c) isothermal . compression and (d) adiabatic compression. Such a cycle is known as Carnot's cycle and is represented on the P-V diagram (Fig. 12 7). To describe four operations of Carnot's cycle. let us fill one gIn. mol of the working substance In the cylinder (Fig. 12.5 ). Original conditions of the substance is represented by point A on th~ indicator diagram. At point A.. substance



Fig. 12.7: IndicatQr Diagrwn


Physics has temperaturp. T I pressure PI and volume VI' (a) IsotheJ'lll81 expan-slon: Place the cylinder on the source. Decrease load slowly on the piston to P2 The volume of the working substance increase to V2 Thus working substance expands and does external work in raising the piston. In this way the temperature of the working substance tends to fall. As it is kept in thernial contact with the source. it will absorb a quantity of heat. HI from the soUrce at temperature T I 1his way we get point B. At B the values of pressure and VOlllme are P2 and v;. respectively. On the indicator diagram (Flg.12. 7). you see that going from A to B temperature of the system remains constant and working substance expands. We call it iBOthermal expansion process. HI is the amount of heat absorbed in the isothermal expanSion process. Then. in accordance with the first law of thermodynamics HI will be equal to the external work done by the gas during isothermal expansion from A to B at temperature T , . Suppose WI is the external work done by the gas during isothermal expansion AB. then it will be equal to the area ABGEA. Hence

= Area ABGEA

(h) Adiabatic expansion: Now remove the cylinder from the source and

place it on the perfectly non-conducting stand. Further decrease the load on the piston to p . The expansion is completely adiabatic because no heat can enter or leave the working- substance. Therefore working substance performs external work In raising the piston at the expense of its internal energy. Hence its temperature falls. This gas is thus allowed to expand adiabatically until its temperature falls to T2 the temperature of the sink. It has been represented by the adiabatic curve BC on .the indicator diagram. We call it adiabatic expansion. If p V3 be the pressure arid volume of the substance at C. and W. be the work done by the substance from B to C then W2 =Area BCHGB. (c) IsotheJ'lll81 compression: Remove the cylinder from the non-conducting stand and place it on the sink at temperature T. In order to compress the gas slowly. increase the load (pressure) on the piston until its pressure and volume become p. and V. respectively. It is represented by the PQint D on the indicator diagram (Flg.12. 7). The heat developed (H"J due to co~pression will pass to the sink. Thus. there is no change in the temperture of the system. Therefore. it is called as an isothermal COJTqJression process. It is shown by the curve CD (Fig. 12.7). The quantity of heat rejected (H.Jto the sink during this process is equal to the work done (say W.l on the working substance. Hence W. = Area CHFDC (d) AdIabatic compression: Once again place the system on the nonconducting stand. Increase the load on the piston slowly. The substance will go under an adlabatlc compresstoTL This compression continues until the temperature rises to T, and the substance comes back to its original pressure PI and volume V" This is an adiabatic compression process and represented by the curve DA on the indicator diagram (Ftg.12.7). Suppose w. is the work done during this adiabatic compression from D to A then W. = Area DFEAD During the above cycle of operation. the working substance takes HI amount of heat from the source and rejects H" amount of heat to the sink.lfence the net amoulit of heat absorbed by the working substance.




Ali!lb the net work done (say WI by the engine in one complete cycle

= Area ABGEA + Area BCHGB- Area CHFDC -


(As you have studied earUer in this lesson that work done by the system is positive and on the system Is negative) W =Area ABCHEA - Area CHEADC (see Fig. 12. 7) =AreaABCD Thus. the work done in one cycle Is represented on a P-V indicator dia!:lram by the area oj the cycle. -

You have studied that the Initial and the final states of the substancp are the same. It means its internal energy remains unchanged and I.ence according to the first law of thermodynamics. we know
W=H, - H2

Therefore. heat has been converted into work done by the system. And any amount of work can be obtained by merely repeating the cycle.

12.7.2 Efficiency of Carnot's Engine

It is defined as ratJp of heat converted into work in a cycle to heat taken from the source by working substance. It is denoted 11 as : tJ= Heat converted in . to worl< Heat taken from source


11 = H j -H2



... (l2.P'

It can be shown that fm

arnot's engine.

H2 Hj

= T2



... (12.9)

If H2 = 0 (i.e . no heat is rejected to the sink) then 11 = 1 or 11 = 100% It means total heat is converted into work. But in practice there is no such engine. Hence efficiency of an engine is always below 100%. In practice the efficiency of a heat engine is about 12% to 16%.

12.7.3 Limitation of Carnot's Engine

You have studied about the Carnot's cycle in terms of isothermal and adiabatic processes. Here it is important to note that the Isothermal process will only take place when piston moves very slowly. It means there should be sufficient time for the heat transfer from working substance to source. On the other hand. during the adiabatic process the piston moves extremely fast to avoid heat transfer. In practice It Is not possible to fulfill these vital .conditions. Due to these very reasons all practical engines have an efficiency less than the Carnot's engine.

12.7.4 Entropy
Till now you have studied about the various thermodynamic variables namely. pressure (~. temperature In. volume (V] and internal energy (V). vou h<tve also seen that all these variables depend upon each other. Now. 245

, Physics

you will study about a new variable known as entropy. It is denoted by the letter 8 and defined as: entropy is a lIlBaSIU"e of the unavaUabiUt;v qf a system's energy to do work. Mathematically. we can express the change in entropy (AS) during a reversible process. as to or

= Energy absorbed by the system (Dg) at temperature T


= IlQ

..... (12.10)

Thus, we can say that when heat is absorbed during a process entropy Increases. And when heat is rejected during a process, entropy decreases. Entropy increases during a reversible process and decreases during a irreversible process. Physical slgDiflcance of entropy - IIolecular dt.nler appi oadl: Till now we have studied entropy In terms of mathematical relation. But we have not analysed whm it physicalIy mean. In a wider sense entropy can be discussed as a measw-e of a system's disorder. If disorder is greater. entropy of the system will be higher. To understand this, let us discuss the fullowing example: Take some quantity of ice in a beaker. Convert it Into water by heating. Here you find that going from ice to water, disorder of the molecules Increases. It means entropy of water is more than the ice. Convert water Into steam by further heating. You will see that disorder of the molecules further Increases. It shows that the entropy of steam is more than water. Hence we can conclude that entropy is a measure of the disorder of the molecules of the system. After studing the earnot's engine and its effiCiency and the entropy take a break.

INTEXT QUESTION 12.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


State whether the folloWing statements are true or Jalse. (I) In a Carnot engine. when heat is taken by a perfect gas, from a hot SOW"Ce. the temperature oj the sowre decreases .
(it) In a Carnat engine. if the temperture ojsink is decreased the ejJiclency oj engine also decreases .


u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .": . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



A Carnat engine has the same effic/el1c!l between lOOOK and 500K and beteween T K and lOOOK caln"ate T. .

(it) A Carnat engine working between an wtknown temperature T and ice point given an e.tflciency oJO.68. Deduce the ualue oJT.



Draw ci typical P-V diDgramJor a Canwt cycle and show on it the ann which would represent (i) heat taJcenjrom the sowre (it) heat ~ected to the sink (iii) heat converted into work.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u


Compute the change iTt entropy when 5 kg oj water at 100'C is converted into steam at the same t,emperture.

.......................... .......... ............ ...............................................................



Heat Is a form of energy which produces In US the sensation of warmth.

The energy which flows &am a body at higher temperature to a body at Iowa' tanpmdure. betause of temPf'[ature dlfference Is caned heat energt'.

The most commonly known urilt ofheat energy Is calorie. lCal a4.1&J and 1 kCal=IO'

The degree of hotness of a body Is Its temperature and the device used to l<:mperature Is a thermometer.


The thn:e scales of tempeniture wIddy used are the Celsius. Kdvtn and Fahrenheit. A graph which indicates how the pressure !PI of a system varies with Its W>lume during a thermodynamic process,. Is known as an tnd1cator diagram. Work done during expansion or compression of a gas Is ~ P.IIV

l'I\S-- V)

Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that If two systems are In thermal equlIIbrtum with a third system. then they must he In tberma1 equtltbrlum with .each ~.
Heat lost a heat gain. In the prln,,!-ple of nlIxture. The total kinetic energy of the molecules of a body Is caned the Internal energy and the relation between Internal energy and work U, - u,.-w. The first law of thermodynamlcs states that the amount of heat given to a system .. equa1 to the sum of change In Internal energy of the system and the external work done. FIrst Law of thermodynamics teUs nothing about the dlrectIon of the ptouss A process which can he retraced In the opposite direction from Its Ilnal state to initial state Is caned reversstb1e process. . A process which can not he retraced along the same equtltbrtum state from ftnal to the initial state Is caned trreversslble process but the process that occuis at constant temperature Is an Isothermal process Any thermodynamlc process that occurs constant heat Is an adlabetlc process. The different states of matt... are called Its phase and the pressure and temperature dIagrsm showing thn:e phases of matt... Is caned a phase diagram.
TrIple PoInt on the phase dtagi'am which I epi esellts a particu1ar temperature and pressure

of matt.... At this point soUd. Uquld and vapour state of matter can co-extst.

According to Kdvtn-Pianck's statement of second law It Is not poastble to obtain .. .conttnuous supply of work from a single source of heat.
According to Clausius statement of second law: Heat can not from a colder body to a hotter body without doing external work on the working substance.


The thn:e essenUal requtrements ofimy heat engtne are:


source from which heat can he drawn

a sink Into which heat can he rejected


(III) working substance which performs mecban!ca1 work after being suppbed with heat.

Carnot's engine Is an Ideal engine In which the working substljnce Is subjected to four operauons 1Ilisothermal expansion (II) adlabattc expansion (W) Isothermal compression and 1M adiabaUc compresaton. Such a cycle Is caned Caroot-cycle.

Net worl<-done by the Camot's engine In a cycle = area of the curve Indlcattng the cycle In J>.Vdtagram.
Ellldency of a carnot engine Is

H 1- ~.

H," Amount of heat ahoorbed andH"

Amount of heat rejected

= 1-';:'.


EIBcIency does not depend upon the nature 01 the working substance


T" Temperature of the soun:e. 8J;Id T. m Temperature of the sink


Entropy Is a m~asure of the unavallablUty of systems energy to do work and "mathematically AS =

AS = change In entropy and AQ = energy absorbed by the system at

temperature T.


1. 2.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.





Distinguish between the terms Internal energy and heat energy. At what temperature do the Celsius and the Fahrenheit scales coincide? What do you mean by an indicator diagram. Derive an expression for the work done during expansion of an Ideal gas. Define temperature using the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. State the principle of mixture. State the IIrst law of thermodynamics and Its Ilmltations. What Is the difference between Isothermal, adlabettc. isobaric and Isochoric processes? State the Second law of thermodynamlcs. Discuss "reversible and Irreversible process with examples. ExplaIn Carnot's cycle Use the indicator diagram to lind out the efficiency o(Carnot Engtne. FInd the change In Intemal energy of the system when (a) a system absorbs 2000J of heat and produces 500J of work (hI a system absorbs 1100J of heat and 400J of work is done on It. A Carnot's engtne whose temperature of the source Is 400K takes 200 calories of heat at this temperature and r~ects 150 calories of heat to the sink. (II what Is the temperature of the smk. (111 Calculate the efficiency of the engtne. A Carn<>t's engtneworking as refrigerator between 260 Kand 300KreceIves 500 calories of heat from the reservoir at the lower temperature. Calculate (II the amount of heat r~ected to the reservoir at the higher temperature and (111 the amount of work done In eaeh cycle to operate the refrigerator. What do you meaIj by entropy of a system. Discuss Its physical Significance. Calculate the change In entropy when 10 grams of Ice at O'C Is converted tnto water at the same temperature.


1. 2. 3. 4. 574.25 (I) Temperature (tt) C (11t) Calorie

See section 12.4.2 (a) P (V,- VII; (h) -PI IV.- VI)

Intext Questions 12.2

1. 2.

(I) Internal energy (tt) on It states that the amount of heat gI\>en to a system Is equaI to the sum of change In Intemal energy of the system and the extemal energy. \.

Intext Questions 12.3

(I) retrace (tt}lrreversIble

2. 3.

An Isothermal process occurs at constant temDCmture whereas an adiobatic process occurs at constant heat. At triple point aD three states of matter I.e. solld. Uqutd and ""pour co-cx\st.

Intext Questions 12.4

(I) False (II) True

3. 4.

(I) 2(lOOK (U) 853.1K See ~ 12.6.2 7240 cal/K.

11. 12. 13.
(a) 1500 Joules, IbI 700 Joules (I) 300

K. (U) 25'16

(I) 576.92 cal. Iu) 323.08 Joules

As = 2.93 cal/K.



, In the previous lesson, we have studied thennodynamics. From the first law of thennodynamics, we lmow that the heat energy flows from warmer bodies to cooler bodies. In the present lesson we will go on to learn about the processes or ways by which bodies heat or cool. We already have some idea regarding these processes of heat transfer. The radiant energy from the sun comes to us after passing through the vacuum space between the earth and sun. This energy is essential for life to survive on our planet earth. Do you lmow that each.one of us radiates energy at the rate of nearly 70 watts? Here we will study the radiation in details. We will also learn about the method of finding the temperatures of stars which you lmow, are very far away from us. The other processes of heat transfer require the presence of a material medium. When one end of a metal is heated, the other end also becomes hot. Heat energy falling on the walls of our homes enters the room through this process called conduction. Similarly when you heat water in a pot the water mlecules near the bottom get theheat first. They move from the bottom of the pot to the water surface by a process called convection. After turning off the heat you find that the hotter water is near the surface. The water near the base of the pot might be cooler. We will learn more about all the processes of heat transfer in this unit. We will also learn what role heat transfer plays in our liVes. In the unit we will learn about the measurement of quantity of heat.

After studying this lesson, you should be able to : distinguish between the three modes of heat transfer I1Ll.Il1ely conductton, convection and radiation. define the coeffident of thermal conductivity and solve problems based on conduction. describe the principle and construction ofa perfectly black body and draw graph between intenSity and wavelength of radiant energy at different
state Wlen's Law andStefan - Boltzmann Law, and solve problems based

on these laws. explain phenomena based on heat transfer.

Transfer of Heat


We have learnt the laws of thermodynamics in the previous lesson. According to the second law. heat by itself can flow only from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. The transfer of heat continues until the temperatures equalize. We also know that temperature of a gas is related to its a'O'erage kinetic energy. In the kinetic theory' of gases. the average kinetic energy of g'dS molecules is related dtrectly to its temperature. Masses of the same gas at different temperatures have different average kinetic energy. When the two masses are mixed the gas molecules collide with each other many times. This results in a new average kinetic energy and a new final temperature. The transfer of heat. equivalently. takes place from a mass of the gas having higher average }<inetic energy to the mass having lesser average kinetic energy. There are three PJ;"ocesses by which heat transfers. They are conduction. convection and radiation. In conduction and convection -heat transfers through A..-=_____--::,..,B molecular motion. Let us understand how this I-=-' --I happens.
(aj The process of conduction is more common in

metals. The moelcules in such material are tightly bound. When heated they do not flyaway. They are constraint to vibrate about thetrequilibrium positions. Let us heat a metal rod at the end A (Fig.13.1). The .... 13.1:HeatCond<.ctfon molecules near the end A become hot first. Their kinetic in the melal radjrom A 10 B energy increases. They collide with their nearest neighbouring molecules and pass on to them some of thetr kinetic energy (K.E.). These molecules further collide with their own neighboures and transfer some K.E. to them. This process continues until the kinetic energy is transferred to molecules at the other end B of the rod. As average kinetic eneI"gy is proportional to the temperature; the end B gets hot. Thus. heat is transferred from molecule to molecule by conduction. In this process the molecules do not .... 13.2: Convection bodily move but simply uwrate. currents in water when (h) In convection the process is little different. The heated. molecules of fluids when heated move up bodily. Let us take some water in a flask. and put some grains of potassium pennangnate (KMnO.) at its bottom and heat. As the flq.id. near the bottom gets heated it expands. The buoyant force causes its upward movement (Fig.13.2) to the surface. Jts space is taken by the cooler and denser fluid which moves down. Thus a convection current of hotter fluid goirlg up and cooler fluid going down are set. The flUid gradually beats up. These conVl'.Ction currepts can be seen as KMnO4 colours them red. (c) In radiation heat energy moves in the form of waves. We will learn about the character of these waves later (Book 4). These waves can pass through vacuum and do not require the presence of any material medium for their propagation. The heal from the sun comes to us mostly by radiation. Let us study. these processl's in details .

IS.S.1 Conduction
Consider a rectangular slab area A and thickness d. Its two faces are mamtaJned at temperatures '1;, and T. by two reservoirs ITh > d T) (Fig. 13.3). Let us consider all the factors on which the quantity of heat transferred, Q from one face to another depends. We can intuitively fed that the larger the area. A the A greater will be the heat transfer IQ a AI. Also T...... thegmlter the thiclmess, d the lesser will be L _____ the heat transfer IQ a II d). Heat transfer will be greater if the temperature difference between the face, (T - T) is greater. FlnaIIy h the longer the time, t allowed for heat transfer . the Q. .... 18.3: Heat - - """"'" a the gmlter _<!fll_ ..... d_auo:ji:oa< .."""'.


Thus. or


A(T. -T)t


Q =KA(Th -Te)t .. 113.1} d Where K is a constant which depends on the nature of the material of

or simply, the thermal conduct1v1ty of the material. 'The value ofK for some matertals is gtven in Table 13.1. JI:anpIe 13.1 : A cublcal therrnacole box. .fUll qf ice, has side 80 em and thickness qf 5.0 an. if outside temperature is 45"C, estimate the amount qf ice meUal in 6 II. (KjOrthermacole is 0.01 J s-' ,n-'6"c-', latent heatqfjusfon oftce is 335 J fT'). SoIatIGa: The quantity of heat transferred into the box can be obtsinrd using Eq. 13.1.


d '" 0.01 J s-J m-1 "C-' x 900 x Io-'ni' x 45C x 6 x 60 x 60s I 5 xlD-" m. = 104976J The mass of ice melted, m can be obtained by d1vIdIng Q by 1..


MateI1al Copper AIumintum.

= 313g

2'aWe J3.1 : ~ CondueCfDfeu q f _ .........


240 .1.2

Glass Water Body Fat Air


0.60 0.20 0.025 0.01 252

Transfer of Heat We can see from the Table 13.1 that metals such as copper have high thennal conductivity. This Implies that heat flows with more ease through copper. This is the reason why cooking vessels .and heating pots are made of copper. On the other hand air has very low thermal conductivity. Substances having low value of K are sometlmes called thermal Insulators. We wear woolen clothes during winter because wool prevents heat loss from our body. Wool Is a good thermal insulator because alr is trapped between its fibres. it reduces heat loss from our body. The trapped heat gives us a feeling of warmth. In the summer days when we have a slab of ice. we want to protect it from melting. We therefore put the ice in a ice box which is made of low thermal conductivity material such as thermacol. Sometimes we wrap the ice slab with jute bag which also has low thermal conductivity.

13.3.2 Convection
The process of convection is more common in fluids. When part of a fluid Is heated it expands. Its density lowers and It rises due to buoyance. nus results In a convection current which flows from hot region to cold region. As hot fluid leaves a region. pressure decreases. This causes colder fluid to move from surrounding to the low pressure region. This again results in convection current in the opposite direction. Suppose we are walking by the sIde of aIake or ocean On a hot day. We feel a cool breeze. why? Due to con!iDuous evaporation of water from its surface. tpe temperature of water falls. Warm air from the shore rises and . moves towards the ocean/lake (Fig. 13.4). This creates a low pressure area on the shore. This causes cooler air from water surface to move to the shore. We feel this breeze wbilewalking on the shore. The net effect of these convection ~ ;:\ currents is the transfer of heat from the shore. . which is hotter. to water. which is cooler. The c.,. .," ~.' rate of heat transfer. depends on many factors. ~~ ""There is no simple equation for convection as shore =- -:. -= ----~:::-:::;J there is for conduction. However. the rate of ;: ~ ~ ~~ heat traruifer by convection depends on the temperature difference between the .sc. 13.4 : Olrwedion cwnmts. Hot air .from the shore rises and surf- and also on their areas. moves towards cooler water. The Nowlet as cheek how much you ba_leanlt conuenctfon CIIJ"ref1t.from water ID the shores is eJtperienced as roo! about the methods of heat transfer. breeze.

INTEXT QUESTION 13.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1) Distinguish the dUference between conduction and convection.
u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2) VerifY that the Wlits of K are J s-' m-' "C"' .

........................ ........................ ...................................................................


3) EKpIain. why do humans wrap themselves with woolens In winter season?

4) A rectangular slab of swjace area 1 m' and thickness 1 m is made up of a material ofco-efficient ofth.ermt:d conductivity K Jm-' s-' "C"'. The opposite


faces of the slab are maintained at I"C ternperatz.Ire clgference. C'.ornpr.Ik the energy transferred across the swface in one second. and henre gfrJe a verbal dejinitfan ofK. .
............................................................. u ............................................................ .

5} During the summer the land mass of India gets very hot. But the air over the Indian oceondoes rwtget as hot. This results in the onset ofmansoons.

EKplain this phenomenon ofmonsoort scfent:!Ik:al1y.

The term radiationrefem to the continual emission ofeneJgV from the surfaces of an bpdies. 1bis energy is called the radlant energy and is in the fontl of' electxiMiagnetlc wavm. These waves travel with the velo!:1ty of light ( = 3 xlO" BUiI) and are transmitted through vacuum as well as through air. They can easily be retlected from poHshed surfaces and focussed using a lens. An bodies emit radiation with wavelengths that are chracteriStlc of the body's temJ:wature. The sun, at 6OOOK. emits eneJgV mainly in the visible spec... urn. The earth at an ideal radiation temperature of255K. radiates energymainly in thefar infrared (heat) .-eglon of electromagnetic spectunn. The human body radl"tes energy in the infrared region. Let us now.perform a sbnple experiment. Take a piece of blackened platinum wire in a dark room. Pass through it electrical CtII"Ient whi~ serves to heat the wire. Gradually inc.-ease the magnitude of the CtII"Ient. After sometime the wire becomes warm and emitS radiant energy. When you J.lIlS8 a sllghtfy stronger CU1Te11t the wire wlll begin to glow with duD .-ed Ught. 1bis shows that the wire is just emitting .-ed radia~n of sufficient intensity to affect the human eye. kcurate observation has shown that thia takes place at nearJy 525"C. With Increase in temperature. the colour of the emitted radiation will change from duD red to chenyred (at nearly 9OOO"C). to orange (at nearly .ll~ to yellow (at nearly 125O"C). Until at about 16OO"C. it becomes wbJte. What do you infer from this? FIrstly." the temperature "of a luminous body can be estimated from its Colour. Secondly. with the :Increase in tClDJelature. more waves of shorter wavelengths (!lince red light 18 oflonger ~ than orange. yellow etc.) are emitted by a heated body in sufflcle!!t \ntensity.Vlce-veraa. you may argue that when the tempetature of the wire is below 52S"C.ltemits waves longer than red. but these waves.can be detected oriIy by tl1eIr heafinl! effect

13.4.1 Spec;hum of the Radfant Enm:gy

At any t .....perature.the radiant energy emitted by Ii. body is a mixture of WIlVf:8. of different wavelengths. ." The most intense of these waves will have a particular . wavelength (~1J. At 4OO"C the 1..; will be about 5 x ..J, 10"' em or 5pIn{l mk:roIi 11 = 10'lm) for a copper block.1r . The intensity decreases for wavelengths either greater . L"..,fC,--'-.,L"'7'"~...,.-J or less than this value (FIg. 13.5). ,t , '-4,) 1 . . . . Evidently area between each curve and the horizontal ".. 1lI~ and -_"'tis represents the total rate of radiation at that



Transfer of Heat

verItY the following two facts.


temperature (How?). You may study the curves shown in FIg. 13.5 and

1) The rate of radiation at a particular temperature (Iepresented by the area between each curve ~d the horizontal axis) increases rapidly with

2) Each curve has a definite energy maximum and corresponding to that a wavelength i.., (i.e. wavelength of the most intense wave). The A,. shifts towards 1eft. or towards shorter wavelengths with increasing temperature. ThIs second fact can be expressed quantitatlvely bywhat Is known as Wien's displacement law.

13.4.2 Wien's Law

ThIs Iawwas actually deduced from thermodynamic considerations. It simply stcUes that 1. shifts towanIs shorter wavelenths as the temperature of a body is fncreasecl. This law is. strictly.vaid only for black bodies (about which we are gOing to discuss shortIV). Mathematically

.... (13.2) The constant in Eq. 13.2 is found to have a vlaue of 2884 micron-kelvin. ThIs furnishes us with a simple method of detenntntg the temper ..ture of an ra~ting bodies including those in the heavens. The radiation spectrum of the moon has a peak at A,. = 14 microns. Using Wien's Law (Eq. IS.2) we get
T= constant

A IX.l m T or. A.. T =constantl


= 2884micronK = 206K
14 microns

Thus we deduce the temperature of the lunar surface to be 206K.

13.4.3 EmfMhe Powea 1IIUl.Ab8orpttve Powea

The curves in F1g.1S.5 clearly show that at a particular temperature and fOr a particularwavelength range 1 to dA. the rate of f'IIlis$ion (I.e. - . a t of ftIdiant -erw emitted per square metre area qf a $UTfru:e. per seeoruIJ. per unit wavelength range. is constant. Hence at a given temperat;ure and wavelength. the energ,Y. emitted by a surface can be best expressed in terms of We will. hereafter. refer to as tbe:~fssfDe power of the surface at a given temperature and wavelefutth. For convenience. let us put in the form of a derivative. . I' 'TLet, dE~ = Amount of energy emitted by A,a" area of a surface in one second Within the wavelerigth range 1 and 1 + dl (of course. at a given temperature). and. dl = Wavelength interval.


e... e..



e.. = dEl. dl.


When -radiation Is ii>cldent overa surface. a part of it gets reflected. a part oftt gets transmitted and rest are absorbed. Of course. for diffOOlt surfaces. degreesofIdlect1on. tnmsmisaionand absorption will be dlfIerent. We know from our experiences in everyday life that a bright polished surface reflects most of the radiation incident upon it, whereas a rough black surface ~ most of the radiation falling on it. We define absOIptwe power a" of



a surface, as a,. (at a given temperature and wavelength) Total amount of radiation absorbed betweenl and l + d.t = Total amount of radiation Incident between land l+ d.t



As we have already pointed out, when radiation falls on matter, It may be partly reflected, partly absorbed and partly transmitted. If for a particular wavelength ;t, and for a given surface r. = fraction of total Incident energy reflected. a,. = fraction of total Incident energy absorbed (absorptive power of the surface). t" = fraction of total Incident energy transmitted then obviously.

= r. + a,. + t"


For perfectly black body, r. = t" =0, and a,. = 1. Thus, radiations inCident over black bodies will be totally absorved. LalnP black is the nearest approach to such a body. Apparently, it neither reflects nor transmits the light which falls on it, absorbs all, and hence appears black. But the perfectly black body does not exist In nature, for even the lamp black is found to transmit light of long wavelength. It absorbs about 96% of visible light, p1atinumpblack absorbs about 98%. A perfectly white body. in contrast, is defined as a body with a,. = 0, t,. 0 and r. = 1. A piece of whIte chalk approximates to a perfectly white body.


13.5.1 Kirchoff's Law

We now want to discuss about what is known as Kirchoff. law wbich Is true only for temperature radiation. The term temperature radiation needs a little elaboration. Material substances at all temperatures are found to radiate, at low temperatures radiation of long wavelengths and if raised to hIgher temperature radiation of smaller wavelengths. Such kind of radiation is temperature radiation. Other methods of making matter-to emft radiation such as by passing electric discharge through tts gilseous state, or by chemical actions as In flames, do not come under this categOlY. In order to deduce Kirchoffs law, we take an enclosed space and let its waIls be opaque to radiation of all wavelengths. The waIls are first Imparted a uniform temperature and then thermally InsuIated from the surrou,ndiDgs. Imagine the enclosure to be filled with radiation being emitted by the waIls haVing wavelength lying between l and l + dt Let a body A be placed inside it. It Is not difficult to prove that whatever the initial temperature of a body might have been, it will ultimately acquire the temperature of the waIls, i.e., A will come In thermal equilibrium with its Immediate surroundings. Now, since the temperature is constant, the rate of emission of A must be , equal to its rat~ of absorption of energy. For the given temperatu."e of the body if e,. is the! emisstve power of the surface then the energy emitted per square metre, per second, between A and l +d.t will be e,. "'- (Ref. Eq. 13.3). Let the energy falling on unit area per second within the same wavelength range and teinperature be dQ. If for the given temperature and wavelength, absorptive power is a,., then the total energy absorbed per uDlt area per second will be a dQ (Ref. Eq. (13.4)).

Transfer of Heat

SInce. the body Is in thermal equllibrtwn. energy emitted by the body can be equated. to the energy 8bsorbed and we have.
e~dl = a~dQ

. a.. ..

dQ .... (13.6) a~ eLl. We know that for any given temperature. dQ is a constant. So for a fixed range ofwa.velength dl. dQwill be constant. This Implies that e../a..1s a cosntant for any surface. in case of a perfectly black body. let. E,. be the emlssM: power and be the absorptive power, where of course, 1. Using Eq. (13.6) for such a perfectly black bexly. E,.dl=ldQ ...(13.7)





Eq. (13.6) and Eq. (13.7) give

... (13.8)



... (13.9)

Eq. (13.8) is known as Kircht.!trs law which can be stated as follows: At an:g temperature the ratio ofemfSsir1e power to the ahsorptille poiWtIr qf a substance is constant aruf equal to the enaissme power qf a peifectly black bodg. We have proved the law here for bodies Inside the enclosure. A Uttle oons!de:ratlonwill showthat, since the emtsslve and absorptive power depend only upon the physical nature of the body and not upon its surroundings. ~ law will hold for aD bodIes under aD conditions for pure temperature radiation. This law cleapy Implies that bodies with high e;mtss1ve powers /good emitters) will also have very high absorptive powers (good absorbers) since the ratio of these Is constant for a given temperature and wavalength range. But since each body must either absorb or reflect the radJant energy reaching it, a good absorber must be a poor reflector (or good emttter).

13.5.2 DesIgning A Black Body

Kkchoffs law also enables us to design a perfectly black bodyfQr experimental purposes. We go back to an en<;1osure at"constant tmperature containing radiations betweQJ. wavelength range 1 and 1 + cU. Now let us makI: a sman hole in the enclosure and examine the radiatlon escaping out of It.This radiation Is made up of single, double, triple. etc. refIectton from the waDs. Thus. If the reflecting power of the surface of the wallis r. while the emtestve powea ~ the total radiation escaping out Is


'" el+e.1.r+e1r2 +el r3 + ...

} = el n+r+r 2 +r3+ ...



.. .. (13.10)

But from Ktrchoft's Law -

e1 al



e,. = Ea,. or. Where E is the emission from a black: body. opaque (i.e. t = 0) from Eq. (13.5.)
a1 = 1 - r
Substituting from in Eq. (13.11), we get

It now walls

are assumed to be

... (13.12)


i=E I-r


Comparing Eq. (13.10) and Eq.(l3.15) It is clear that the radiation emerging out of the hole will be nearly identical with radiation from a perfectly black emissive surface. Smaller the hole, the more completely black the emitted radiation is. So we see that the uniformly heated enclosure With a small cavity behaves as a black body towards emission. Again such an enclosure behaves as a perfectly black: body towards incident radiation also. For any ray passing into the hole will be reIlected internally within the enclosure and will be unable to escape outside. TIlis may be further improved by blackening the inside. Hence the enclosre is a perfect absorber and behaves as a perfectly black body. In Fig. 13.5. such a black: body due to Fery has been shown. There is a cavity in the fonn of a hollow sphere With its Inside coated with black o material and has a small conical opening O. Note the conical projection P opposite the hole O. This is to avoid direct radiation from the surface opposite the hole which would otherwise make the body not perfectly black.

13.5.3 Stefan-Boltzmann Law

..... 18.6: Fery's bIocIc bod!J

On the basis of experimental measurement Stefan and Boltzmann concluded that the radiclnt energy emitted per second..fronl a surf- of ana A could be expressed by the relation

IE = Ae




where (J is a constant. called Suuan-Boltzmann constant and has the value 5.672 x 10-" J/m"sK". Tis the Kelvin temJ>erature of the surface and e is a quantity, sometimes called the emfsstrity or relative emittance. it depends upon the nature of the surface and temperature. The value of e lies between 0 and I being small for polished metals and I for perfectly black materials. One may tend to think from Eq. (13.14) that If the surfaces of all bodies are continually emitting radiant energy, wby don't they eventually radiate away all their internal energy and cool down to a temperature of absolute zero [where E = 0 from Eq. (13.1411. The answer is that they would do so if energy were not supplied to them in some way. In fact. all the objects are both radiattng and absorbing radiant energy Simultaneously. If a body is at the same temperature as its surroundings, the rate of emission is same as the rate of absorption. there is not net gain or loss of energy. and no change in temperature. However, if a body is at lower temperature than its surroundings, the rate of absorption will be greater than the rate of emission. Its temperature Will rise till Is equal to the room temperature. Similarly if a

Transfer of Heat body is at higher temperature, the rate of emission will be greater than rate of absorption. There will be a net energy loss. Hence for such a body at a temR!rature T, with surroundings at a temperature T2 , the amount of net energy loss (T,>T,.l per second is E"",= Aeu (T,'-T24), forT, > T2 ... (13.10)
Example 13.2 : Determine the swface area of the .fi1mnent of a 100 W incandescant lamp at 3000 K. Given 0' = 5.7 x 10"" Wnr' K-4, and emissivity

e ofthe.filament = 0.3.

Solution: According to Stefan-Boltzmann law E= eAO'T'

= Rate of energy emltted = 100 W A = Surface area T = Tempeature of the s11rface = 3000 K

E Hence, A = OOT4

0.3x5. 7x10 -i! =7.25xlO-5 m 2
X (3000)4

Now it Is time to check your understanding. Solve the following questior. 3.

INTEXT QUESTION/ 13.2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1) At what wavelength does a cavity radiator at 300K emit most radiatiDn?

2) Why do we wear light colour clothinp during swnmer?


3) State the importantfacts, which one can obtainftom the experimental study of the spectrwn of black body radiation.

.... ............................................................................................................


A person of skin temperature 28C is present in a room of tempeature 22C.Asswning the emissivity of skin to be unity, and swjace area of the person 1.9 m 2 , compute the radiant power of this person.

.............. ..................................................................................................


Laws of radiation have many applications in daIly life situations. let us discuss three of them.

13.6.1 Solar Constant

Stefan-Boltzmann law can be used to determine the solar constant at different planets of the solar system. Let the radius of the sun be r. then"


total amount of energy em1tted by the sun in one second (assuming sun to be a black body) using Eq. 13.14 is = (4 It rA) x (0"1") (13.16) Where. T =Temperature of the sun 0" z Stefan-Boltzmann constant ....... , Then the amount of energy Ereceived per unit surface , ... of the earth in one second is (using Eq. 13. 16)

= 41tR2 =(I-)2 R a T4

... (13. 17)



1- \
. \


Where, R =Distance between the sun and the earth. Eq. (13.17) gives the solar constant at the earth. If solart:onstant of any other plane is a, distant R'from the sun is E', then



--- "



Hence E'

(~r aT4


= (.B..)2


From Eq. (13.19) it is clear that tf E and are knawn E' can be calculated. The solar constant for the earth is found to be 1.36 x lOS Jm4 9""1. The solar constant at mars whose distance from the sun is 1.52 times that of the earth,will be approxiI!lateIy 6 x 1()2 Jnr" 9""1 [Using Eq.{l3.19)J.

Greenhouse Effect

.In a greenhouse, plants, flowers, grass etc. are enclosed in a glass structure. The glass allows short wavelength radiation light to enter. This radiation is absorbed by plant's matter. It is subsequently reradiated In the form of longer wavelength heat radiation, infrared. The longer wavelength radiations are not allowed to co.bIenk8t. escape from the greenhouse as glass is effectiVely opaque to heat. That heat radiation is thus trapped in the greenhouse keeping it W1i.rm. Slm1lar effect takes place in our atmosphere. The atmosphere whi<;h contains a carbon dioxide blanket. is transparent to visible light. Thus, the sun's light passes through the atmosphere and falls on the earth's surface: The earth absorbs, th1a light . and subsequently emits it as infrared radiation. The. carbon dioxide layer isopaque to ttifran:d nod\atlOn. .... la;Ik a-n_dIoct It is reflected, rather than transmitted, in the atmosphere, n-tafning tl,le heat. This effect again is the greenIiouse * t I : f e e t . ' .

13.6.3 Newton's Law of Cooling

I,.et us deduce Newton's law of cooling. Newton's law of cooling states duIt the rate ofloss ofh8at (cooUngl of a hot body Is cIfnIctfv po GjiGi doual

to the mean excess of temperature of the hot IJocfJr "..,. duIt qf its surrounding pr1XIided theclVference of teJnperatunr Is .,."wnaIL

Transfer of Heat

Let a body at temperatureTK be sutrounded by another body at TaK. The rate at which heat is lost per unit area per second by the hot body is
E '"

ecr( T4 - To 4 )


= ea(T-To )(T'+T2 To +TT02 +T.') !fIT-T) is very small, T- 7;, T' - To', T2'L'0 - TIo E=ea(T- To ) 4To 3 E=k(T-To ), where k =4ea To 3
2 -

. (13.21)


... (13.22)

Ibis is the Newston's law of cooling, Take a pause and try to solve the following questions

INTEXT QUESTION 13.3 - - - - - - - - - - 1. How many watts of power will be received by a regwn 40m wide and SOm long located on the swface of the earth?

.............................................................................................. .. ............... .


A planet which has rarer atrrwsphere is cooler. Explain.

................. ............................... ................................................................


Using the relation ci' -Ii' = (a+ b) (a- b) establish Eq.13.21 starting from Eq.13.20.

.................................................... ................ ................ ......


.................. .


Heat by Itself flows from a body at hlgh temperatwc (0 a body at lower temperatute. There are three pr<}Cesses by which heat Is transferred. They ar~ conduction, convection gnd radiation. . In conduction heat Is transferred by collision of molecules which vibrate about their fixed posillons. . , In convection heat Is transferred by bodily motion of moleCUles. In-radiation heat Is transferred through electromagnetic waves. The quantlly of heat transferred by conduction Is given by

Q = K(T.-T.)At d
WelD's Law. The spectrum of radiant energy by a body at temperature 1lKl has a .maxlma at wavelength A., such that A.T =cons.tant ( =2880 ~IO Stefan-Boltzmann Law. The rate of energy radiated by a source at 1lKl1s given by E = <!OAT" .

The ab80rptlve power a Is deflned as Total amount of energy absorbed betwcm Aand A+ d). a= . Total amount of incident energy between Aand A+ d).
The _ power of a surface e" Is the amount of radiant energy emitted per square


metre area per second per unit wavelength range at a given temperature. The solar constant for the earth Is 1.36 x 1()3 Jm- 2 s- Newton's Law of cooling. The rate of cooling of a body is p';'portionalto the excess temperature En IT - TJ.


1. A thermosfllll'k (FIg.I3.9) Is made of a douhle walled glass bottle enclosed In metal container.the bottle contains some IIquld whole Cork stopper temperature we want to maintain. Look at the diagram carefully and explain how the CUP construction of the flask helps In mlnlmtztng heat transfer due to conduction. convection and radiation. 2. The wavelength corresponding to emission of energy maxima of a star is 4000A. Compute the temperature of the star. (lA=lO" em).

3. A blackened solid copper sphere of radius 2 em . Is placed In an evacuated enclosure whose walls Insulating are kept at IOOOC. At what rate must energy be material ~~~~~~~~ supplied to the sphere to keep Its tempera! ure constant at I27C. 4. Commont on the statement A good absorber must be a good emitter.
FIg. 13.9:

5. A copper pot whose bottom surface Is 0.5 em thick and 50 cm In dlamter ...,.ts on a llumer which maintains the bottom surface of the pot at 1 IOC. A steady heat flows through the bottom Into the pot. where water bolls at atmosphenc pressure. The actual temperatUre of the Inslde surface of the pot bottom Is I05C. How many kilograms of water bolls off In one hour. 6. 7. Deline the coeffiCient of thermal conductlvjty. Ust the factors on which It depends.

Distinguish between conduction and convection methods of heat transformer.

8. If two or more rods of equal area of cross~section are connected In series. show that their equlvalent thermai resistance Is equal to the sum of thermal resltance of each rod. (Note: Thermal resistance Is reciprocal of thermal condUCtivity] 9. Ratio of coefIIc1ent of thermai conductlvlties of the dlfferent materials Is 4:3. J'o.have the same thermal resistance of the two rods of these materials of equal thickness. what should be the ratio of their lengths? 10. Why do we feel warmer on a winter night when clouds cover the sky than when the sky Is dear? II. Why does a pelce of copper or Iron appear hotter to touch than a ",mllar piece of wood even when both are at the same temperature? 12. Why Is It more difficult to Sip hot tea from a metal cup than from a china-clay cup? 13. Why are the woollen clothes warmer than cotton clothes? 14. Why do who layers of cloth at equal thickness provide warmer coverfng than a single layer of cloth of double the thickness? 15. Can the water be"bolled by connection inside an earth satellite? 16. A 500 W bulb Is globtng. We keep our one hand 5 em above It and other 5 em below it Why more heat Is experienced at the upper hand? . 17. Two vessels of different material are Identical In size and In dimensions. They are lIlIed With equal quantity of Ice at OC. If Ice In bothvessles metls completely'ln 25 mfnUtes and In 20 minutes than compare thermal. conductlvltles of metals of both vessels. 18. Calculate the thermal resistivity ofa copper rod 20.0 em. length and 4.0cm. tn dlamter~


Transfer of Heat
Thermal conductivity of copper = 9.2 x 10-' acrosss the ends of rod be 50C. calculate the rate of heat flow.


Intext question 13.1
The energy 1ransferred Is equal to K the coefficient of thermal conductivity Is the amount of heat energy transferred In one second across the faces of a rectangular slab of area 1m'. and thickness 1m. when they are kept at a temperature difference of IC. 2. The moisture laden air over the ocean 1s cooler than the air near the land. This causes convection currents. The hot dry air over the land rises up and creates a low pressure region. This causes the moist air from the ocean to move to the land. The water content of this air is so large that It appears as clouds and eventually we have monsoon showers over the land. I

Intext question 13.2



Wien's constant

28801lK 300K

=9.6" 2. Hint: woolens trap air which has low thermal conductivity. 3. 66.4W.

Inten question 13.3


Solar constant x area =2.7x I()5W

2. (T' -T:) = (T' -T.')(T' +T:) = (T-Toj(T+T.J(T' +T.') = (T-T.)IT' +T' T. +TT: +T:



In our day to day life. we are dr.pendent OIl eleetrieity. An electric power failure dtmons!ndes our dependence - lights in our homesIscbooIs go out. fans mdI~ coolers stop worting. radio. T.V. and computer cannot be opezatN, in village field cannot be inipted lIS pumps titils. electric trains and elevators stop. This list is DOt c:ompleIe and you am add liliiii)' more things. Our dependet1ce OIl electricity nms evea deepct !ban our niliImce on elcdric:al machinery and home appJiances/pdgeIry. As you all know, eIecIricity is inhemn in all the atoms - of whicb our own body aod cnvironmant is made of. Thus our immediate environment-bebaviour is dominaIed by the behaviour of eIectrU: ct.ps it oontains.. We

knowtbatmatterconsislsofelemeillllrycbargedparticles:eIceIronsandpiOlladand ____ In the following lesson,we will study about the &ictioaal elec:Iri4:ity.lIlIIUre of electric: cIIIage and then about !be electric field produced by them. We willlllso Jeam about electric forces and Ibeir effects. Broadly speaking all these~, under the beactina of electrostalics which is a bnmch of physics desling wilb cIwges at rat.

After studying Ibis lesson. you sbould be able to : explain frictional electricity and give the QCCOIII'It ofil8 hi~toricoJ ....,opment; sllde basic properties of the electric t:hiuge'anti expIDiII the _ingofquantiMllion and ("lIIServotion ~fcharges; slale Coulomb's law and write it in lIf!elal'lIOloIion ; explain the princ:iple ~fsuperposition; define elpetric field at a point due to an electric charge; drllw electric field lines ofa charge Or two apposite eharges; {# define elect,.icdipole and ita _ n t andderiw ~for tlte electricfieidintemity dUt' ta tJiI eleclric dipole; Slull! Guuu-theorem and Us signijicant.'t! and use it for determining electric field ofa POint chu'1(f!, IOllg wire. spherical shell.,olid sphere. p/OIU! sheet ofcharge.



We know that when a glass rod is rubbed wilh a piece of silk cloth, !he rod develops a property of attracting small pieces of paper, leaves etc. towards it. This rod is said to be chargd Dr electrif-. Similarly a comb is cbalged on passing through dry bair. An electric charge is developed on a sheet of paper moviog through a .,nnting press and so on. The II charges at rest are produced due to friction between two insulating bodi~ which are rubbed against each olber. The knowledge offrictio_ehw:trlcIty~back to 600 B.C. We find, in writings of early Greek philosopher Thales that tlIIIber (!he gum that long ago, oozed from softwood trees
~1iIto~Sl'!li4.~iacolourfromye,llowtobrown)acquinls !he,

,,~!'>.!'ttract the ~I pi~ oflightDlll~' when it is rubbed against the furor wool. The Greek name of amber is "Electrum". which is origin of Ihe words electric charge, electricity. electron etc. In 1600 A.D .. William Gilbert after nearly 2000 years ofThales observation, published a book titled' De Magneta' which may be considered as lUst scientific account on the subject. According 10 him. in all experiments on frictiooal electricity, two kind of charges are produced ,An American scientiest Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), named Ihese charges as positive and negative. These names are followed till today.

14.3.1. Properties ofEleetric: Cbarges

In eleCtroStatics. !he process of cbarging a body has been traced to' the actual tnmsfer of electrons. You are aware ot!he fact that every atom consists of nucleus around which neiatiycly cbalged particles revoive in orbiis. When we rub two substances against each ,other, we provide energy to overCOme liiction between them. This energy is used in removing electrons from.Qne subst!!1!l'A: and 1IaDSlening them to !he o1her, This transfer takes place ,. from the material in which electrons are held less tightly to !he material in which 1hey are strongly attached. In this process. the material which losses electrons acquires a positive cJ:uuge and !he material which gains elecfrons acquires an equal amount oCnegative charge. "What is an electric charge"? It is a diftit;ult question of physics. This is because "~ ,is 6etIer IIAlIaSlDOtlIUlt by Sll,YiIIt o,{w"fIIlt Is 611t 6y w"l11 ittlon". We may. however, define it as followS - The e1ectrip charge is a basic and characteristics P'opel1y of !he elementary particles SIJch as electron. proton etc. We can idenlit)- electric chatge wilh some properties, which are mentioned in the following text.

(a) Charges are of two kinds: There are only two kinds of eharges, positive chougc;
and negative charge. There is 00 third kind ofcharge, The positive charge in ordinary matter




l'le,:tri~ ('h:Jrge and H..,uic


is carried by proton and negative charge by electron. To show that there are two kind. uf cbalJ!"S.. let us lake a glass iod. rub it with silk cloth and suspend it by a duead. If 8Ik1lbo:r glass rod rubbed by silk is brougltt near to it. Ill! sho",n in Fig14.1 (a), two glass rods will repel each other. Similarl) IWO ebonite rod o:ach rubbed with fur repel each other fig.:,,~ 14 I(b). But a glass rod rubbed with silk attracts an ebonite rod rubbed with fur as shown in Figl4. I{c). These observations show that the cbargesde\'elopedonglusrod are different from the charges deveped on abonite rod. Conventionally, the charge developed on glass rod is laken as positive and that on the ebonite rod as negative. These observations also show that like c/lfII'gG rqeI ~ ot/Ier wIUIe IUIlile duirge6 tItITtICIS each oilier. Electric charge istbougbl of as the source of electric forcejUst as IJIBSS is the source of gravitational force.

(b) Quaatizatioa ofeJectric charges : Any charge exists only in iategraI multiples of a certain minimum charge. i.e. the charge on an electron. The value oftbis minimum charge (e =1.6 xlQ-" coulomb) is so small that the grairiinessofcbaJge (or qnaatimiOll of charge) does not show up in Jarge scale eKperimenlS in real life. This property which envisage. the discrete _lire of charge. ruling'oul il.' cOli/iII/milS nature. is known as ~i=Qtioll of electric charge. According to quantization of charge. allY charged body can have opl) an integral multiple ofthe magnitude of charge on an elocunn (also kno",n as quanta ofcharge) i.e. q = ne. where n ia an integer i.e .. II = O. I. 2, 3...... The fractional value of charge
lying in between these "alues is nOt possible. All the kno~ fundamental particles have chaJBes that are some integaaJ multiples of fundamental charge i.e . charges are always O. e. :! le, Je .... etc. (c) CODservation of electric charge: According to tlUs property the oIgebraic SUIII ~f electric charges on all the bodie. in an isolated &,V3tem relllD;ns constant for 011 tinN8. Thus it is clear that charge can neither be created nor can be destroyed. It can only be transfered from one body to other. As you know. when a glass rod is rubbed with silk. the amount of positive charge acquired by gla...s rod is exactly equal.1o the amount of negati~.., chall!e produced on silk. 'The algebraic sum of charges on gla. .. , rod and silk. before and after rubbing. continues to be zero. The conservation of electric charge is one of the most fundamental properties of charge and no violation of this. has ever been observed till toda) ~ in any natural event or in the laboratory experiment. According to this property charges can be created only in equal and opposite pairs as in case of pair production i.e. production of electron and positron pair from X-rays. Properties of electric charge

I. Charge is a scahu quantity: 1. There are two and only two type ofcharges t/O/I1f!ly posiJilIe and Mgative; J. Charges ofsame type. always repel one another while charges of opposilL kind always attract OM another; 4. Charge is addiU,.,. in l/aIrIrt i.e .. 10101 charge ofa gillen sysfe", is oI.braic slim ofall the charges ",-e.,ent in if: 5. Charge;s qllumi=r!d: 6. Charge is t'OlIsened.


INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. 2. 3. Can Q body have Q charge 0.8 x 10-" C ? Give reason. A glan rod is rubbed with lIi1k cluth and it giziJu QJ10IIitive charge 0/4.8 x 10 -''C. What type and how tmiCh charp will be gtlined by the sill cluth ? Give an exmnpIe illJI8troting the conservation 0/electriC charge.

14.3.2 Electrostatic lateradioD betweeD two Charges :.Coulo_b's Law

When an electric cJ.uuge is held in tile viscinity of 8D01her charge, it experiences a force. Accon:IiDg 10 Coulomb's law, this force ofinlaJlctionlletMcn two point electric c:Iuages is: i) directly popwtionallO tile poduCt of tile magnitudes of the charges; ii) inversely pvportioIIal to tile square of tile distanre between them; and iii) a:ts a100g tile stiaisJd line joining tile two cbaIges.

Ifq, andq. _two point c:1uugcs sepiliated in vacuum by a distance or'. Theoacc:ordius to Coulomb's law the force (F) bet"w_1bem is : .

ql q, or F= lq, q. r' r' When: 'It is eledJOSIaIic fon:e oousIant. As shown in Fig.14.2, force 'r acts a100g the straight line joining the two c:1uugcs and is directed a) tiJMrdsql (orq), ifthe charges_ ofopposite",,-.;t.,


kind. b) away fimI ql (or q.) iftllecJ.ges _ o f _ kind.



1-- r

' .. - I . F.. ' -----------... ..


If F"

=force OIl q, due to ql aod PI2 =llllit vector pointing fimlq I to q,1ben accordiug 10 Coulomb's . '" law.
Similarly, tile force on q, due to q, is

" A As we know r =-r., 12

.: F" =-FI2



r ... , .

_ _

This slJows that forces exerted by the two charges on each other _ equallIIId opposite. The experimentally measured value of electrostatic force constant I is 9 x 10' Nm'C'.ln 81 unit we write I where &. (spoken as epsilon zero) is known as absolute electric: permittivity of tht free space IIIId its value is 8.85 x 10 12 C' N" m'.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Electric Cbarge and Electric Field

a-_ strictly speaking Coulomb's law is valid 0ftIy fOl' point charges. It is

true fOl' vel)' large distances to very small distances such as atomic di _ _ (= 10"" iii or sriIall)

You can _ thot'M CotIIomb'& law of mectlWtatic ~ between two c'-gu is quile similar 10 Newton's law ofgravitaJionaJforet! belovet!n two mmses os

1l1e Sl Unit of electric charge is CoU/OIffII and it is defined as tM charge which wMn , placed oJ a distance ofJm from an identical charge, in vacrnun. will repel it wilh a force of

9 x JO'N.

14.3.3 Vector Form of Coulomb's Law

Let two point charges q, and q, be located at points A and B specified by position vectOl'S', and" respectively (see FigI4.2). We then write Coulomb's law in vector form as

I F,,=-4ltE

q, q, ,

I':u 1
= -41t&. ql %


-';1.:"!'_--==:C (', 13 'f'z



:-q::..:...1~qz:.. (, _,)



',1 ('1 Here " r =--= 21 I'n I '.1 (r - r,)

- ',>

In case one oft,be clwges is situated at !he origin itsdf" = 0"1'" (say). 1 q, q, , Then, F --- ---

4 K&.


.... (14.3)

14.3.4 The "Dielectric CoDStaat" 'of the Medium

The fonxlletween twodlalJes 9 1 and 9, bpt ala given distanc:e "'lIpIIrt.decJ IISC wilen the ~ an: .,..:sent in a medium adler !ban vac,pnn In case the charges an: kept in a medium Coulomb's law is written as :


4 K E.Er

- - , . 'Il

q, 9"


The factm e,. turns out to be _ dallractaiBlic I*opcrty of tile medium and is known as its rtUliNpa iWDi(Jiorits 1" ok _ _" Thedid tJ/c _ _.f(ornlalivepeawi!Mty)of_mecliummaybedefuwl as tile ratio of tile DI8pbxIe offon:c betuuIIIIl die two ~ placed at_ given ctisl!!r!Ce apart in vacuum, to die fon:c betheal tile same two cbargcs, wbal ~ are similarlyPJaced, 1bc same disl!!r!Ce1lpll1, in 1bc givenmeclium.
Thus, B

Jlvacuum> Jlmeclium)
- ~....".

We often write : Absolute pemlitivity E =6.6,

Note that 6, is _ ctimmsiOD1ess "',.,.,... aud it has DO uoiL

14.3.5 Forces amoag maar Cltarges and Superposition Principle

If _large mDDher of charges f,. f7 frhh .. f. are pa:aent in space, at positionr" r .....".' tile force OIl any charge 'f.' placed at positionrdlJc to 1bese charges (See Fig. 14.3) is given by:
p.=li'.. + li'..+ li'ol +................li'.

I F=--


f (r-r.) (14.5)

4.6. ;=1


'I'1&< 14.1: 1'riItdpI. ofs",..,-pasiliOll -tiro ~fon:a _ sIIo'l'n

ACCOfding to tile _IfH!rJIDSilitm priIIdpk,1bcftwt.:e 6eIwMI two c1,tugG ;. not tIItered diu! 10"J I I - 11/111. :vtIIt1rdulrga. Coulomb's law is ..,pticable tocalcul&te 1he interaction of each pair, inespectivr: of tile I*f:SCIXe of 0Ibet ~ in 1he system. The total force expeaieoccd by any charge due to die 1* II M'" of the rat of ~ in 1he system can be obtaiDed by tile vector sum ofIII forces of~ on the chaise. Bllrkftlrra"..,..",tll/ftlNllldr 1 ..... " , _ fa C!' witj""'lI/wt:t:vr




To explain tile mec:banism ofiDtenM:tion betweal two charges placed at _ ctisl!!r!Ce the idea ofelectric field isc:oocieYed. WMachqcdbody ispllced in the hood of......... dwged body, it expeaieDces III dDellCiiiIaIic fCJn:e, _ D)' that tbIn is III elecIric field in the surmomding ofdle dwged body. The value of clecIric field lit any poiDI is cakuIated in tams of electric field inteosity. which is exp1'".a below.



a.rae -' EIec:tric Fidel ::

14.4.1 Elec:Jaie Field latellsity

The eIocIric ficId ~ lit -,y poiDt is tile ....__ of cI.cc:Iric field lit 1bIIt poiDL k is defiled .. tile filn:e per __ n h of cIIIap II:IiDa CJO a wr:y positMI.. cIIIap pI..t lit !hilt poiut.


F i. e. I: ~-NC-'


... (14.6)

Here, I: is electric field iDlaIsity (1Ilacth) and J' is tile filn:e actiDs CJO tile . . cIIIap 'II: II !hilt poiIIL 11 f.r a wctor and iI6 dIrectioII U _ , . tire dIrectioII ofJ'. The use of CClIICCpt of electric field is !hilt _ can cakuI.... radiJ:y tile .....;. . . and dira:tioo of tile force cxpc:riax;cd by lID)' cIIIap ldd lit !hilt point in tile elec:Iric field i.e. F = III:. The dira:tioo of fon:c 00 positive cIuap is tile direcIioD of elocIric ficId iDlaIsity.
Iotcosily ofeJcctric field .. a point r due k! a point ct.F. , II tile origin is givm by.

Ili'I 1 1 ,II. IEt=-=-x- - . q. q. 4 a. IrF



o O. . ------:....-....:~ . ... .---.;,

,,*1#.#: m-tejllU-.y_,o tlpoiItI

....- - - r ~---9'

Similarly. field due k! a mlDlber ofcharges in space can be calculated. The fon:e expaieaced by . . cIuap q.1It lID)' point usiaa principle of auperposition is givm as,


4. ;=1


, I


-1 -

-'I, -2

r. + q.



-'2 + -II." " +..... r. r



1:=1:, +E,+E, +1:.+ ..........-


Heace. eJcctric field inteasily lit lID)' point is the veckJr IIIIIIl of the iDfcnsitics due k! each
iDdi"viduII cbIrge. lhprillclpkD/.NfI lip It'.. "",.,. -II/IIiM:IIkJWl--..

: Physics

14.4.1 EIec:trie Liaes of Force

Elec:lric field around a cIuage configIiraIion may be depicted in tmms of electic lines of force. An electric liM offorce, in an eleclrlc Jiskl. ", the imaginOry smooth CIIrW, the IDIIgent to any point ofwldch givu the dinctkm oltheJisltl at that point.



In Fig. 14.4, lines offorce of different systems arc: shown. Lines offorce due to an isolated positive charge go snight into infinity and on the other hand due to free negative charge, lines of force comes straight from infinity upto negative charge (Fig. 14.5 a and b). It is also clear from Fig. 14.5 (a> and (b) that for a charged sphere, the lines of forces are straight and radial aDd appear either emerging from or heading towards the centre of the sphere. In Fig. 14.5 (c),lines of force are drawn for a system of two equal and .opposite charges: The lines of force arc: drawn in the field produced by two equal and similar (positi;'e) charges . in Fig. 14.5 (d). At the mid-point N of the line joining the two charges, the resultant field is zero and this point is known as -"e.trlll poi"t'. No two lines of force can intersect each other, because if they do so, then at the point of intersection two tangents caD be drawn which would mean two directions of the force at that point, which is not possible. The poIitive clJ4rges are sourcell of /ines of force mul
negative charges are sinks.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.1"'--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Why two electric lines offorr:tt can not intersect /lOCh ather? Distingl4i.>h between electricJisld and ekctric field intensiJ:y at a point.


While dalecting the electric field why the tat cItarge q. 81roJlld be very smDll ?


Electric Charge and Electric Field :: 9


An electric dipole consisIs ofa pair ofequal and opposite point charges separated by a p very small distance. Several molecules such as HCI. H,o, Ammonia etc., behave :It IE: as!fermanenl electric dipoles. because in these molecules.. the centres ofpositive and negative charge distributioos are separated by some small distance (although the net charge on the molecule remains zero). Fig. 14.6 shows an electric dipole consisting of Fig. 14.6: Elwrk dipole IJItd ofelectrk two equal and opposite point charges (:,:q) dipole m.",.", separated by small distance 2t'. The product of one of the charge of dipole and distance between the charges is called 'dipole-mo_nt' and it is usually denoted by p.



IPI=q x 2t; p=2qt t"


The electric dipole-moment is a 'vector' quantity, whose direction is along the axis of the dipole pointing from negative charge to the positive charge. Its unit is 'coulomb-meter'.

14.5.1 Electric field ofa dipolt!

There exists an electric field around an elecmc dipole. To calculate electric field intensity of a dipole at any point, we imagine a unit positive charge held at that point. We calr,J!ate force on this charge due to both the charges of dipole and take vector sum of the two forces. This gives us dipole field intensity at that point In dais coonection, two position are important (a) electricfield at /I point 0" the tDds ofdipole kIf_If 11$ end-oll poDtioIIlIIUI (b) electric fteld at /I point 0" the eqUJllDriaililte /If the dipole kM"''' lis brtHuk...." positio",

(a) Field intensity at a point on the axis of dipole (end-on-position)

Consider an electric dipole AB consisting of charge +q and -q separated by small distance '21'. We have to determine electric field intensity E at a point P on the axial line of the dipole and at a distance OP =r from the centre 0 of the dipole (See Fig. 14.7). Let E, and E. be the intensities of electric field at P due to the charge +q and ~ of the dipole respectively. Obviously,


' .... 2/ .... 1 ~'~~14






".. U.1: FJectrkJWd i",ensiiydw dipole at md ..... positim


IE,I = __ 1_ ~

(r- fi'

(In the direction AP)

IE; : - - - - (In the direction PAl 4 Ire (r +t )"

Thus, resultant electric field intensity E at the point P will be

lEI : IE,I-IE,I (in the direction AP since E, > E,)


[2(~J (r'-i)"

41t &

1PI 21pl;'


where Ipi = 2qt : dipole moment

If't' is very small as compared to r, then I term may be neglected in tbe above expression. Then, electric field intensity at P due to ctipoIe is given by



- - - - N(,-'
4 It &.



4 It & 0 ' "

The electric field is in the direction of dipole moment i.e. along the axis of dipole from the negative charge towards the positive change.Clearly
(b) Field iDteDlity at a poillt on the eq_torilllliDeofa dipoie(brolld....... on-position)

lEI a ~

COnsider an electric dipole consisting of two point charges -q and +q sepsrated by a small distance AB : 2t with ct':IIIre at 0 (Fig. 14.8). Suppose !hat tbe point P is situated on the right-bisector oftbe - q dipole AB at a distance r meter from its midpoint O. Again let E, and E, be !he intensities of electric field at P due to the charges +q and -q of the dipole (8) respectively. The dislance ofP ftom each FlIJ. 14.1: Eleclrh:./ield inI"",il)" d .... 10 dipole III ""-Icharge is'J r' + t'
side-OI' p(}..cili~' (<</uaJoriai Li"d


EI:llie Charge ..... "'"Cbi<: F,icld ::

We, thus, have

IE,I =-.-.1


q (In the direction AP) (r'+ l')

q (In the directioo PB) (r' +1') .


On resolving E, and 1:,. parallel and pel pendicular to AB. the components perpendicular to AB (E, sin 9 and E, sin 9 ) cancel each other as they are equal and opposite. The compc ents parallel toAB (E, cose and E, cose t add up being in the same direction (see Fig. 14.9 b). Hence resultant electric field intensity at P is

A __-)~~_

Fill: U.9:


I q cose+ - cose 4 ItEo (r' + I') 41t& (r'+1') .


=4 1t Eo

(r' + I" )

From Fig. 14.9, we get cos 9 =






(r'+I") (r'+1 )"2 2tq




wherf' I p

I = 2qt = dipole moment

:. E is effective in opposite direclion to P

E =-

4 1t Eo (r' + t' )'"

If 'f is very small as compared to 'r' then f can be negiected,in the above relation. Then electric intensity at a point P due to dipole is.


4 It E.

I p..1 = _._1_.

~ N/C


41t Eu

FIOIl1 tbese calculations. we see that for a dipole. the intensity on an axial point is iwice the intensity at the same distance on the equitorialliile.


14.5.2 Behaviour of Electric Dipole in a Uniform Electric Field

Let an ele\:tric dipole be placed in a uniform extemalelectric fieldE at an angle 6 with the direction ofE (Fig. 14.10). In the field the fuR:cooeharge+qisF=qEalongthedirection - - - - - - . - - - - --~ - - - . _ - - -A--F---=t~ -. - .~~ =- -=-~ E ---,.-----7'

ofE and the force on change -q is F=qE in the - - ?'?'!) _ - L.. _ _ _ ? directionappositeloE.ThesefOrcesbeing ual, F" eQ- - - ..L - - - -~ , eq --8----C----~ unlike and parallel, form a couple which rotates - - - - - -...; - - - -_~ the dipole in clockwise direction and tends 10 align it along the direction of external electric field E. We know Torque(t) = Foree x ann of couple =FxAC =Fx AB sinO ( From Fig 14.9) =(q E)(21 sin 0)

Fit". 14.1':



.. (14.13)

In vecter notations, we can rewrite the above relation as

I r-p x E I
lid force 011 dipoIf! is UTo.


R~ tlu!ftll'a 011 tAe two c6111J:f!8 oftlu! dipoIf! fII'f! t!fruU IIIUI ~. thD"f!fon

arid then

Case -I: We see, that in case the dipole is in the directioo of external electric field, 0 = 0 t ...= p E sin (0) = 0 (MiniollUJl Value)

Case -D : Torque will be maximlUJl when 9 =90' i.e. dipole is kept perpendicular 10 external electric field. T _ =p E sin (90) =p E (Maximum Value)

INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. A comb Iffter """,iIIg through hopperu when Iroir i.r wet.
O1/I!'S dry

ltDir attracts smoIl bits ofpaper, why? What


, ....................................................................... 3.' CQII two similarly charged balls attract each other?

Two -free protons tmd twofree eleclrolu QI'fI separaJed by the same .di.rtOlfCe. Compare Coulomb's force ofrepubiOll between a pair ofelectron attd a pair ofp#Jtons.

4. Give two basic differences between charge and ma:u.


Electric Cbargc and Eleqric Field


Answer whether the foIltlMliltg statemelltS Q1'f! irue orfalse? Electric chorge is additive. h} 10 Coulomb = /0 Ampere sec. c} Dipole moment is a scalar qutmtity. d} E/ectriJ: line offon:e can cui only at neutral poiIil. e) Intensity ofelectric field due to a dipole 011 till electric axial point u twke tire field at the some distance on irs equitorialline. j) When dipole u porallel to uniform externai'electricfield. netforce acting upon it u =ero hut torque will have small finite value.

14.6 GAUSS THEOREM Total number oflines offorce passing through an area immersed in an electric field (E) U
lcntlMln osjlux. It is usually represented by 'PE . The electric tIux through a surface is defined as the product ofthe area (8)_ thecomponent of the electric field nonnal to the surface. (E.)

i.e .

'liE = Eo' 8


... (14.15)


r<;" )
. -Burr-


~E 1

Fig. 14.11.:

Thus. electric tIux through a close surface will be positive or nagative depel;'tjoowbetber the field lines emerge from the surface or enter i!Ito the surtilce.

14.6.1 Gau'ls Theorem in Electrostatics

Gauss's law states that total electric flux linked with a closed surface (8) in vacuum is ~. times the algebraic sum of charges (i.e. total charge) GIIllosed by the surfaces






E.8 =



Remember location of Q inside close surface 8 does not alfect the value of tIux . There is no contribution to total electric tIux due to the charges present outside the closed surface. TIle cIosd lI.f"" ~ ;" tltis iIIw is IGIUIlIy cllllerJ tile GtuaSiIuI nuj.a. Note that dUring the ilpplicatioo of GIIUSS'S law. Gaussian surface is usally chosen in such a way so that the electric field intensity may have a single fixed value at eVery point on the surface. While selecting such a surface. we should avoid charges on S itself.


:: Physics

14.6.2 Important Applications of Gauss's Theorem

<a> Determination of electric field dne to a point cbarge
Consider an isolated positive point charge q at O. To determine field at point P distant' from 0 imagine a spherical Gaussian surfa<:e of radius 'r' with centre 0 [Fig. 14.11] Let E be the magnitude of electric field intensity on the Gaussian surface and it is directed radially outwards. Fw1her, the direction of vector dS representing a small area element dS on the spherical Gaussian surfa<:e is along E only, i. e,


According to definition, flux from small area

rig. U./J:

'P E =E. S= E. 4lt"". cos 9 =4ltrE

According to Gauss's Law, total flux passing through clossed surface,

... (14.17)



from (14.17) and (14.8)

47tr lEI = q


41t Eor q r or,E = - - . 4lt&ol r I]


This is the electric field entensity at any point at a distance 'r' from an isolated point cbargeq.

(b) Electric field intensity due to a long line of charge

A line charge is in the fonn of a thin charged rod with unifonn linear charge density I.. (charge per unit length). We have to find an expression for elecll'ic field intensity at any point P at a perpendicular distance r from the rod.

let us consider a right circu1ar closed cylinder of radius r and length t, with the infinitely long line of charge as its axis. Fig. 14.13. The magnitude of electric field in!ensity E at every
Fig. 14./3


Electric C~and EIectrie Field ::

poiDl on !he curved surface of !he cylinder is the same, because all such points are at the same distance ftom !he line cluuge.
Also. E IIDd llllit vector ~ normal to curved surface 81!e in !he same directioo, so that 9 = 0"

. . 1'bere1br. CODIribulion of curved surface of cylinder toWards electric flux.


1: E. dS = 1: E . dS

= E

1: dS = E (2 x rt)

wbae (2 x rl) is area of!he curved surface of the cylinder.

00 the edges of!he cyIiDder. angle ,*-elecIric field iaIaJsity E _ IheIIe edges make DO CODIribution to electric flux of Ibe cyIiDder.

~ is 90". Thaebe.

'PE= E(2xrt)
Charge euclosed hi. the cy~ = IiDer cIuuge density x length

According to Gauss's theorem q

'P.= 1:.

E (271:rl)= -







ctemy. Ea!
The Vllrialion of electric field intenty E with distance is shown in Fig. i4.14

(e) lIedrie fidel mteaaity dae to lIIlifoIwly dull.1 spberiCIII . . .

Cansi..... ali!in spbcncal sbell of radius R _ . call1eO. Letachllrge+qbedislribubid unifurmly ow:rlbesurface oflbe shell (see Fig. 14.15,. To caJcu!.... elecIric field iDIcosity at any point P. ' wbae OP ='. i..,..p... apbcrc S with cemre 0 I IIDd ndius ,. The surface of this sphere is ~ ('..egssjm surface at e\ICI)' point of~ch electric \ field iIIIaIsity E is the same. directed radially', ourw.ds (as is unit vector Ii, so that 9 = 0"). ,..
Acconling to Gauss's theorem


-1- _./

/ S (Gee _ _ IUlfacw)

/ CMrged shell
F/tt.U.I5: U"ifumJ(,..:h"'1pl ~



ELdS = E









CIarly, der:lric jieItI inmuity lit My POW _ _ lire splruical shdl/8 SlICh as if the entire charge were concmlrtlted til lire CDIIre of tlte sheIL LeI_ CDIISider a few special cases. Cue - I: Ala Point on lire slII'fllCt! ofthe sheU
r =R


If a is surface denisty of chart!e on the shell, then

q=411R'u 411R'a E=

... (14.22)

=-4 11 to R' to

c_n: Iftlte point P lies inside tile spherical shdl, then Gaussian surface is surface of a sphere of radius r R), as cbargc inside a spherical shell is zero. Therefore the Gaussian surface in the case encloses no chart!e.
i.e. q =:0.


:, E=O

i.e. electric field inside a spherical shell is always zero. . The variation of electric field intensity E with dists- from the centre of a uniformly charged spherical shell is shown in Fig. 14.16
~from cenfnt(r) ".. 14.16: ~""-*'fi~/di"MSiIy with di6ItIItco iIr dw c-. oftJ. thmpl spherical .MIl

(d) Electric field intensity due to cbarged solid spbere

Suppose a solid sphere ofradius R and centre 0 has uniform volwne density of chart!e P. as sho",n in Fig. 14.17.


Eleclric CbIIBe aud EIccIric Field ..

We have to calculate electric field intensity E at any point P. where OP = r. With 0 as centre and r

as radius. imagine a sphere S. which acts as a Gaussian surface. At every point of S, magnitude of E is same. directed radialIy outwards. If q' is the charge enclosed by the sphere S, then
according to Gauss's law

tI t E.dS =t LadS = EIdS-s s

s where E. is electrical permittivity oftbe material oftbe spbme. if q'
E(4lt ,z)= or E = - -


Now, charge inside sphere S. q' = volume ofS x volume density ofclwge 4 q'~ - l t r ' xp

4xr' p


3 X 4x E.,.z
Clearly, E ac r.


r:3 i.et=5J


C_ 1 :At tII~ 1IIn oftlut IIpIu!N, r - O.


C_ 11: At tIut sruf(JJ:~ oftll~ splt_. r

.E =-- -+
. Rp . maxlDlum



We have already proved that outside the sphere.


...( 14.2S)

All these results are shown in Fig. 14.18 which represents the variation of electric field intensity with distance (r) from die centIe oflllliform sphere



DlllliiCetnlm centre (t)

"., 1#.1': rtrilli. q{U:IrIcjNld


(e) Eleetrie field iateDtity due to. dliD bafblite lIleet.f eh....e
Consider a thin, infinite p/oM ,hut ofcbarge. Let (J be the surfiK:e density of cb8Ip 011 the sheet (i.o. chargeI_). Webavotocalculatoolec1ric field iDtouity E atllllYpointp,diJIaDt

,. fiom the sheet (See .IIi&- 14.1')..

FI'\lIIISYI!IIDeby. _ fiud !bat E em oi1her side

oCthe sheet must be pcrpeIIdic:uIarto the ~ oC the sboet. having same mapitudc at all poiJIIs equiclistaat fiom tbe sbeet. To calcu1ato E. at a point diJIaDt ,. fiom the

shoot let us imagine a cy1inder of c:roassoc:tioDal area dB IIJId length 2,. piercing through the sbeeL At the two eyliDdrical. edp P and Q. I: and /tare para1Icl to each 0Ihcr. ~: J#.lf: FJectricjWddwt""lhillil!forl/nIrM

Fig. 14.19.


:. Electric flux over these edges = 21:. ~ = 21: dB

On the curved surface oftbe eyJiDder.1: are.L to each other. Therefore to, ContributiOD to electric flux is made by the curved surface of tho eylioder.


:. Total oIcctric flux over tho oo.tire surface of tho cylinder =21: dS Total cbaqJe encIoaed by tho eyliDder dB

AccordiDg to Gausa'slaw in electrostatics, " dS 2I:dS-":" = -


We obseIve that I: is iDdependeDt of r. the distance of the point fiom the plane cb8Ipd


cIwJe (i.e., 11>0). E is directed away fiom both

sides of the Ibio plaDe sheet and vico--. lfthe iofiDite plane sboet bas lItfiform thlckMu. the IUI'fiM:e density of c:batJe G is uniform and same 011 both the sure.:es of the sbeet.
Tho electric field intensity at 1lIIY JIOint P due to each sutface Is I, - I, = I1l2s. Both I, and ": are perpendicular to the plaae of tho

Furtber. it is clear !bat ifthe IIbeet carries poeitive


Elec:lric Charge I11III CIccIric FieleI' ::

sheet and directed away, Fig. 14.20. Therefore, according to superposition principle, net electric field intensity at P due an i'lfi,lite plane sheet of lIniform thickness is.

(I (I



Note: That the sheet is supposed to be of iilifinite size so that tbc 'edge e&c:t' due to distortion of electric field at the edges (of a finite sheet) can be ignored.



field intensity due to two thin parallel infinite sbeets of cbarge

Let A and B be two thin infinite plane charged sheets held parallel to each other as shown in Fig. 14.21. Suppose (I, is uniform surface density of charge on A and ", is uniform surface density of charge on B. We use the equation obtained above to write the field intensity for each sheet and then apply superposition principle to calculate the net field intensity in the three regions. As a matter of convention. a field pointing from left to right is taken as positive and the one pointing from right to left is taken as negative. We assume that a,>a,>O.


40';:::::::' Eo"

Thereror in reglOD 1

I'Jr. IoI.JJ: Elet:ttW jWd"".,.,Uy dw 10 tWo ""."

E,= -E,- E, E =- - = - - x (" +- a) I 2Eo 2Eo ' , 2",
Similarly, iD reglOD II

,..,.,....,<1. . . . .









and, iD recioD

= _1_
(a; + a,)



Suppose ", = - a,B 10',1-10',1,


i.e. two thin infinite plane sheets with equal and opposite uniform surface densities of charge are held parallel to each other.


:: Pbysic:s

From (14.28); E, = 0 From (14.30). Em =0

From (14.29). E. = 2.


= Constant.


Thus, field intensity in between such sheets having equal and opposite lIIliform surface densities of charge become collSlant i.e. a uniform electric field is produced. Also E does DOt depend upon the distance between the thin sheets. This is bow uniform electric fields ani produced in practice.

INTEXT QUESTIONS: 14.4_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Write the unU ofe1ectricjlllX. 2. AI a point 011 the &W.face ofthe sheD, what it the,.,,1ation between electric.M1d inteiuity due to a uniformal/y charge sphericalllhell ? 3. What is a Gauuian surface? 4. State whether the following statements are true or false.

ii) iii)


The normDI component of electric field it positive when the electric field is out wardfrom the surface. Locatio" ofcharge 'Q' inside the closed surface decides the value ofjllIX. Electric field ilrtemity due to a lo"g line charge it independent ofthe distance Or". F the UifinUe sheet the "edge eJfoct" can be ignored. Electricfield ilrten.sity imide a uniform solid spite,." ofcharge ts always zero.


~ to friction, glaas rod can be electrified and this was known to Greek philosopher. Thales as early as 600 B.C. Electric Charges are of two kinds. Charge is CODSel'Ved and quantized. It is additive in nature. Coulomb's law state that the force of electrostatic interaction between two cbatges is directly proportional to the product of two cbatges and inversely propostional to the sqll8rC of distance between them. Coulomb's law of electrostatic is quite similar to Newton's Law of gmvitation. 1be "dielectric constant" of the medium is defined as the ratio of megnitude offorce between the two charges placed at a givendistance apart in VIlCll1llll, to the force between the same two cbatges when !bey are similarly placed, same distance1IJIIIIt in given


Electric forces produced by different charges combiDcd by vector addition. Electric lines of forces and theit properties. The positive cIwge are sOurces of lines of force and negative clwges are sinks. To establish relation between lines offorce and electric field intensity. About aD electric dipole and related electric dipole moment. To derive the expression for the electric field inteniity due to dipole at 1liiy (a) axial point (b) equitillal point.


EIecIric Charge and EIcctrie Field ::

Net force on the two charges of dipole when placed in UDifonn electric field is zero but torque ~ = P x.K where p is dipole-momenL Flux (d'P.) of electric field E through sma1I an:a cIS is 'PE =.K.cIS where How to use Guass's law to obtain the value'of eIectric fieIcl due 10 a long line charge. (ii)Pointcbalse (iii)Cbarged sbelI (iv) SJ!ba"eofc:lmBe. (v) plane sheet of charge.

14.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

I. If a brass sheet is placed between two charges placed at a certain cIistMra apart, what happens to the force between them ?
2. How many electrons should be 1rIIDSfen-ed fiom flannel to the eboDite rod 10 produce a

psitive charge of 3.2 x 10-7C on flannel ? 3. State Coulomb's law in electrostatics. Explain the vector form of Coulomb's law.
4. 5.

What are the limitations or" Coulomb's law?

What are dielectrics? What happens to the electrostatic force between two poinI charges if the medium between them is filled with a dielectric medium of dielectric constant?

6. Whut do you mean by electric lines of force? Give the characteristic properties of "',,"Iric lines of force.
7. Draw the lines of force of (i} a point positive charge. (ii) a positively charged sphere. liii) a clecllic dipole, (iv) a pair of positive charges. 8. \\'hal is an electric dipole? Find an expression for the dipole moment

When are the electric lines of force parallel to each other?

10. Two point charges q, and q, are 3m apart and their combined charge is 20 "C. If one repels the other with a force ofO.01SN, what are the two charges?


IDtext QuestioDS 14.1
I. No. hausc this charge is equal to halfoflbe charge on 8Il electron. wbich according to quantization of charge. is not possible. 2. The silk cloth will gain a negative charge of 4.8 XlO-il C. 3. When a glass rod is rubbed with silk cloth, both get equal I11III opposite charge. Thus, the total charge before I11III after rubbiDg remains UDCbarged i.e. 2ICI"O. Ja other words charge remains, conserved.


IDten QuestioJis 14.2 I. (fthey do I/O. lite tengents at two points of intersection will show directions of electric field which is not possible.

2. Electric field is the regioIlllt"OUDll c:harge in 'which. test cluuge can be influenced. ' where as the electru: field iateDsity is the vslue of field at that point.
3. Otberwise, there may be an eloctric field due 10 test cluuge itself.

latext QuestiODS 14.3 1. This is because comb gets cIuuged by friction. If the hair is wet charge due 10 friction will not develop.


The furces are same because each proton and electron carries same magnitude ofcbaIge.

3. Yes, when charge on one is mUch larger 1han the charge on ot;her.


For maSs, law of C91JSC[Vation as weU as quantzation principle. not applicable.

5. 8) True (b) True (e) Fsise (d) False (e) True (f) False

laten QUestiODS 14.4

1. Nm'C-'



3. (a> True, (b} Fslse. (e) False, (d) True. (e) Fslse.


We have already learnt in the previous lesson that an electric field around a given charge can be represented by a vector quantity E. known as intensity of elec1roStatic field. It is also possible to describe the same electric field by a scaJar quantity called electric poteptiaJ Yas electric field is a conservative field. These two physical quantities E and Y are closely related to each other and any one of these can be used to describe the electric field. In this lesson we wilileam about electric potentiaJ and electric potential difference. We will calculate electric potential due to point charge and electric dipole. We will establish relation between E and Y. We will also learn about capacitor&- their worldng principle and grouping. Beside these we will talk about dielectric IIIIIterials and their role in capacitors.

After studying this lesson, you should be able to :
. describe the meaning 0/electric potential ti1uJ electric potential difference; der;w electric potMtiaI dw to point clrtrge tmd due to ./ectrlc dipole; explain etectrlc poIMIiaI.MI'fl)I pos8uud by a clrtrge in an e1mric field; u,uiMrlttmd eqIIlpot.ntialll/l'focu and their J1I'Olrtiu; ,ftita/IIDI.potelllioldtfe,..-from .lectrlcfi,ld tmd derive a ,..lt1Iion betwHII electric field inlelUUy tmd .Iectric potential "..itent; explain the IH!htlvloll1" 0/COfItIivcton in .lectro8totic field; define capacity and iLllII/it tmd delCrlIH! the principle 0/capacitor&; explain the capacitance 0/para11.1 plat. capacitor; find the ~ent capacitance ,n grouping 0/capacitorl and identiJY the advantage ofgrollfJing; calcuJote energy ltored in a capacitor tmd _lion 1M naIu1"e oftmergy; /ut tlie properties 0/diel.ctric materlah tmd uplatn the procell 0/polarisation 0/ dielectric material in an electric fi.ld; explain lhe role 0/dielectric In increaIing the capacitance 0/a capacitor.



When a charged particle is made 10 move in an electrostatic field. against the force of field, work is 10 be done by the exlernal agency. This work is stored up as potential energy oft4e. charge in accordance with the the law of conservation of energy. An electric charge plaCed al any poini in any electric field. thus. has a potential energy which is a function of its posilion. We can. therefore. visuali7Je a S(:8]ar function of position, specifYing the potential energy per coulomb of charge in the field, which we call as potentUU. Different points. in the electric field, may have different potentials and then if a positively charged particle is pll\ced in an electric field, it will tend to move from higher to lower potential.to minimize its potential energy. We will see in the next lesson how this conccpt of potential difference leads to current flow in electric circuits.

The electric potential at any poilll in' an electric field is eqllQl to the work done against the electric force in moving a unit positive charge from outside the electric field to the given point in electric field, Electric potential is a scalar qllQlltity as it is related to work done. The potential at a point is taken as positive when work is done against the field by the positi\'e'Charge but as negative, when work is done by the electric field in moving the unit positive charge from infinity to the point,in the field. 4 <to
Consider two points A and B in electric field (See Fig. 15.1). If a test charge q. is moved from the point A to the point B along any path by an extemal force, assuming that the charge q. does not disturb the pre-eJdsting field E, the amOWlt ofwark done inmoving the dwge from A to B by the extemal force is given by.



Flg.J5.J:Wori; done be,.._

po/It' A and B (W..I

Here, V. and V. are the potentials at points A and B respectively. Thus, potential difference between point A and B. will be
V..= VB-V. =~

An electric potential difference is said to exist between two points in an electric field. if work is done against the electric for-ce in moving the positive test charge from one point to the other. It must be remembered that this worl<done in moving the charge from one point to other point is independent of the path. Due to this reason, the electric field is called a conservative field. SI unit of potential and potential difference is WIlt. The C.G.S. unit of potential and potantial difference is st6t volt (or e.s.u.)

I stat volt (e.s.u.) ~ 300 volt. I volt = I joule/coulomb.

If one joule of work is done in taking a test charge of I coulomb from one point to the other in an electric field.tben the potential difference betweal these pOints will be 1 volt. If one joule of work is done in bringing a test c.harge of I coulomb from infinity to a point in the field. then potential at that point is I volt.

EIt!1.:lri,-" Ptl1t:n[lal and l'ap-.acitar:-.

15.3.1 Potential at a Point dut to a Point Charge

Due to the point charge. electric intensity at . r will be . I E =--x .. (15.3) p 41ffi r!

Fig. J 5.1: CalcNlation 0/ electric potential at P

Similarly. the electric field at point A will be


r] .,


Considering point P and A to be very close to each other the average field between these points P and A may be taken as

E =JE. x E


= jr-:I--q----=---q x 41tEo 1 41tEo r



.... (15.5)

:. Force on a charge q. over this region will be F AI = q.E., :. Work done in moving charge q. from A to P



=FAp xr =



Similarly, work done in moving this charge from B to A

w ... = ~ x (.2.. __ I

.... (15.8)


rB qq. =-X

and wode. done in morning the charge from C to B i.e.


(1 1)
- -



and so on. The total work done in moving the charge from infinity to point P will be


= =




, - -00
. ...(15.9)

411E' o In ac:c:ordance with the definition of potential, W I q y= _ = - - _volts /I q. 4uo r


Note: If there aresevera1 chargesofmagnetudeq" ql' qJ'" .etc. then the electric poteotiaI at a point is the scalar sum of the potentials due to each charge i.e.

y= y,+y,+ y'+ .............. .





y= 1:
i= 1 41tEo "

We see that YocIt is positive or negative depending upon whether q is positive 01' negative.

"". lSJ:},

IiiII til P dw 10 - - - pWIt cItaiga

15.3.2 Potential at a Point due to an Electric Dipole

Let us consider.an e1eclric depoIe consisting of two equal and opposite point charges -q at with centre at O. Suppose we have to A and +q at B. separated by smail distanCe calculate potential at any point P (whose polar coordinates are (,. 9) i.e. OP = r and L BOP = 9 as shown in Fig 15.4. Here AP and BP ='1"



Potential at P due to the charge at A : I (-q) Y,=-- x _ _

411:&0 '1

Potential at P due to the charge at B: I q Y~=--. x __



Total poCential at P due to both the charges of dipole:

Y= Y. + y.


=.' c:o..9

From A BOD, "'" get OD '" lCOS 9. SimiIIIrty from A O.(C "'" iet OC

From the Fit! IS.4. _ - . ....o.im"oly

r,=r+lcos9 r, =r-lcosO


or y z



,... -qx71




Cae-I: When !be poim P liesoo the uialline oldie dipoIeOllibe iide olpllllitive cbmJe. 1ben9=OBDdcos9= 1

y- =

f.;.-ri I



0-- H: When die point lies 011 tbe uialline oftbedipole 011 tbe sideofueplive dIqe,
1ben 9 '" -1"_ cos 8 --I

""1' y.... 4_

.(1S.14) oltbeclipole, ""8-!IO' _

c--1II: wma .. ",-P"OII tile ....... _

_ 8-0

.. CftI)' ~0Il


i.e. eIa:IijL . . . .ieI due to. dipole is _

* eq;...... 1ine ofdipole.

Note : EqIliputionlial s!ll'/oc is that surface at every point of which electric potential is same. No work is done in moving a charge from one point of equipotential surface to the other. Electric field intensity is al_ys perpendicular to such surfaces. A plane surface normal to the dipole axis and passinglhrough its equitorial1ine is an example orequipotential surface as potential is zero at all the points on the surface.

15.3.3. Eleetric Potential Energy of a System of Point Charges

The det:tric potnrtiIJl energy is the energy po3Sessed by a system 0/point charges by virtue o/their position in the electric field. When charges are infinite distance apart, !hey do not interact as their fields do not extend upto each other. Under such situation, their pote..tial energy is zero because no work is done in II10ving a charge plac:ed at infinity. If we want to assemble a cllarge system i.e. bring clwges near to each other, then worl< will be done. This work is stored in the form of potential energy in the system of these charges. This is called the electric potential energy o/the chorgt! system. Hence, we can define potential eneJgy of a system of point charges as the total amoWlt of work done in bringing the various point charges of the system, to their respective positions from infinitely large mutual separations ...

Suppose, a point charge q, is held at a point P, with position vector r, in space. Another point charge q" is at infiuity. This is to be brought to the point P, with position vectorr, where P,P, =r 12 as shown in Fig. 15.5. We know that electric potential at P, due to a charge . q, at P, is,

1 =--


4 lIE.

I r,,1

FIg. J5.5: Potential e-xr oftwo charge.

From the definition of potential, workdonein bringing charge q,fromooto point P, is

W= (potential at P,) x value of ~harge 1 q, = - - x (q,) .

4 lIE.


This work done (i.e. eDer8Y spent in doing work) is stored in the system of two point charges q, and q, in the form of electric potential energy U. Thus,


U= W=--

10 case of two charges of same sign, work is done against repulsive tme to bring them closer and hence, electric potential energy of system increases. COnversely, in 1Afpei..n." them from each other, work is dooeby die field, IS a result potentiaJ. ener&Y of die sy1IIiD will decrease in this process. Ifcharges are ofopposite sign i.e. one is positive aod other is nepdve. 1bepotential energy ofdle sysJem decreaseS in bringiDg the charges ncar to CEb
other whileincreases in sepaniting them from each other.

-'1- .

Elearic,roa..tial and Capalln

Note (1): In case of a system consisting ofpointcbargesq,. q1, q, .................. q. at position

vectors r l , r 2' r 3' r .. respectively.

qll, I 'U=-- 1: - 4 ltEo all poi. IrIJ1 _,




when it makes an angle a. is


Potential energy of an electric dipole of moment p in Ibe UDifonn eIccIric field (I:)

IU.=-PEcosa I


15.3.4. Relatioa betweeD Eleetric Field aad Poteatial GnUtieat

Consider any two points A and B in a UDiform electric field E, sep"uded by a small d.istaDce

By definatiOll, potential cIiffi!JeIK:e (dY) positive test chaJge from A to B.


A and B

= Wottdone in moving lIIIit

i.e. dY= (Force on UDit positive charge) x (AD) = E. (dr) =(E)(dr) cos 1110"



dY Idrj





{Negative sign indicates that-work is done against Ibe electric field.} Hence, at any point in an electric field, intensity is equal to negative rate of chIDge of potential with distance (called}Hlfll 'WI,e#rl) at that point In Ibe direction of field. Remember electric potef!Ual is a scalar quantity but electric potentiaI sradi~ is. vector U it is numerically equaIto e\llc1ric field intensity. From the above relation, fix unibm electric field:




Here YA and Y6 are potenl:ials at point A &; B respectivly separated by a dlsbmce 'd' meter.

15.1._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. How is force related to chpige and electric field intensity?

............. ......................................................... .


Ifa pain! charge be rotated in a circle ofradius r around Q charge q. what will be the
work done ?

..................... .'.~; ... .' ~ ........................................ .

.3." The electric potential V is con.sltJlJl in a region. What Cart you say about the electric field E there ?

Ifelectricfield intensity is zero at a point. ",!lithe electric potential be necessarily zero

(.It thaI point.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ', .......... '.' Can two eqllipolential surfaces interseted?

............................... .

On the basis of charge conduction, substances can be grouped into two classes namely
conductors and insulators.Jn solids the conduction of electricity usually takes place due to tree electrons where as in case of fluids it is due to ions. Substances that have free charge carriers through ~ich eleCtric currents can be established by the application of suitable eleCtrl~'i\etJ are 'callc!c! co';ductors. Metals are good examples of condll~tots.Substances that bave no free charge carriers are called insulators. The.j:ommon insulators are ebonite, glass, quartz, mica etc. Insulators me also called dielectric.. The substance ~ch bave electrical conductivity between conductors and insulators are called semiconductors. The ratio of electric I:011ductivity between good conductors and good insulators is of the order of 10'"

15.4.1 Behaviour of Conductors in an Electrostatic Field

As we have learnt, conductors contain free electrolls and these electrons move within the conductor, when an electric field is applied. When the conductor is placed in an electric field, there is lirift of electrons and this drift continues till the el~ctric field produced due to redistribution of charge (because of drift of electrons) is equal and opposite to the applied electric field. Thus, the field within the conductors will be zero irrespective oCthe shape of the conductor. In most of the metals equilibrium is reached in a very short time of thr order of 10-" second. After equilibrium is reached, the complete interior of conduCtor constitutes l1li equipotential volume as net electric field in the interior of conductor is zero. Net charge in the interior of conductor is zero and there is no net charge density within the conductor. The ~1e charge always resides on the outer surface of a conductor. Therefore, surface of the conductor is an equipotential surface and there is no electric field along the surl'al:e III any poinL oflhl: I;onducter. The electric field will be normal to the surface !It any point. T/lus. there is no electric field inside the conductor.. Field out side the conductor 4:8Il exist "lllis property of conductor is used in dectrosltllic shieJdin,r. E1trostatic MN/dinfIsctwing ;s the phenomenon ofprotecting a certain region Ofspace from electric f.e14. To protect del icatc inslnunents from external electric fields, we enclose them in hollow conducters. Such hollow conductors are called Faradlly Cages. These need not to be earthed. That is wh} in a thunder storm accompanied by lightning, it is safer to be inside a car or a bus than 10 be in open. The metallic body of the car or bus provides electrostatic shielding to you from the lightning.

P .............--.-,.....,,.... Q


Fig. 15.6 (II) &. (b):


Potential and Capacitars

Further, an eatd1ed conducter PQ can also act asa screen against die e)e<'tric lieltf:lYbu can understand it from the following [Fig. 15.6 (a) & (b)]. When PQ is not earthed. field of charged body A due to electrostatic induction continues beyonds PQ [See Fig. '15.6 (a)). However. when PQ is grounded. the induced + charges flows to earth and the field in the region beyond PQ disappears [Fig. 15.6 (b)]. Usually high voltage generators Isources are enclosed in earthed cages. This would prevent the electrostatic field ofthe generater from spreading out of the cage.

15.4.2 Electrical Capacitance


Electrical Capacitance of a conductor is a measure of the ability oj me conduclor III slore cha~e on it. If the charge on a conductor is gradually increased, i~ potential also mecca",,' no .t any instant the charge (q) given to conductor, is directly proportional to ils p(,lential \ V) Le. q ex: V or q=CV or
C=...{l5.21) V Where Cis cOllStant of proportionality and is called capifciry 0;' capacitance dlthe co1Ulllctnr. Ibe value of C does not depend:upon the mate,.ial Of conductor I)/lt depends

upon ils shape andsi::e.lt also depend, upon Ihe nallUe ofmedillm in which 'he cOIid'ltlar is localed The capacitllnce of conductor is defined as the amounl of charge 1"<11 has Iv be gil'"n 10 it to raise its potential by unity. The S.l. unit ofC isfarad In the above rdation.lf q=1 coulomb and V=I volt, then C= I farad. Hence, capacitance ofaconductor is said to be one farad, when a.charge of one coulomb raises its potential through one volt.
Smaller unit of capacitance are :

I mlc:ro farad (j.IF) = 10 -0 farad.

1 micro micro farad (J.1J.1F) or picofarad (pF) = 10- 12 farad.

15.4.3 Capacitance of Spberi<:al Conductor

A sphere of radius r is given a charge q. Let the potential of sphere be V. Then I q V = _ ....... 4ltEo r We know capacitance;' . Charge Potential


c=--q 14 a.,.



... (15.22)

=4a, = . o .9 x 10'

It gives th. C oc ,. Thus, we learn that the capacitance of a spheiica\ conducter in farads is numerically equal to its radius devidecl 9 x 10', where radius is _en in metre.



: Physics

64 x 10

9xl(r = 0:1711 x IIt"F


farad = 711 ...F.

This shows that farad is too big a utait of capacitance as earth's capacitance is very large.



A capacitor consistS of two c:onduI:torS, one charged and the oIbcI" usu8I1y earthed. ne pritIdple ofa Ct1ptICiIII1r is IfJ u.erc'" I ill. of. CIIIMwcttw.,

To IIIIderstand tile principle of a capacitor, let us consider an insulated mctaI plate A. Some positive charge (q) is given to il. till its potential (II) becomes IJIIIXimIDll. No further charge can be given as it would leak out. The capacitance of this conducter is q/~.

Now consider. another insulated metal plate B held near the plate A. By induction. negative charge is produI:cd 011 the nearfiM:eofB andcqual positive charge develops on the farther fiM:e of B. The induced DCgIIive charge tends to decrease the potential of A and induced positive charge tends to increase the potential of A. When the plate B is earthed. the induced positive charge 011 B being free. flows to e8rth {Fig. 15.7). But negative charge will stay as it is bouDd to positive Charge on A. Due to ~ -+ dUs induced negative charge on B, ++ potential of A is greatly reduced
-+t- -1+ - +Hence, we wncludc that the capacitmce of an insulated Conductor is increased considerably by bringing near it an uncharged eanhtd conductor. This is die principle of the capacitor. Capacitors IIIf ".. 11.7 used for storinglugc amounts ofelectric: charge and hence electrical enagy in a small space. for a small interval of time. iDI:reasiDg its capacity.

15.4.$ Capacitaaee of a Parallel Plate Capacitor

This is tile type of capacitor wbich is used most cOlDlllllllly. h consists of two meIaI plates CKhoflraA andbeld parallel toeacb oIbcI", a small dilUDCe"' IpCt. pJateSare oqaated by an insulm". medium like air, p8p0", mica, glass cIe. Que ofthe plate is CoImccte to !lJ"OUDd mel 0Iber is imuletcd ~ Fig. IS.I). When a charge +Ii is given to the insulated plate, a charge -q is iDlhvwl on the iunCI: fiM:e of -.-by placed OIberpiate and. +q is induced 011 the outer fIIce of this plate. This plate is earthed. as explained previously. ...q cl:uqe being free, flows to earth. Due to +q charge on one plate mel -q cl:uqe 011 oIbcI" plate, an c\ec:tril: field intensity E will set up between the plates. When the ~OII 'd' is small, fringing or distortion of eleclric field at the boundaries of the capllCitor can be

nesIected. .

EleclnC: P"'''''1iaI1IId CIqIKita's .

We know. if a b; _IKe charge densi'Y on either plate. IMn the electric field iDfellSi'Y between the plates is. .


1'= Ed~ .a d (Where I'ispotentialdifference E between the plates)

+=----=) t ....

Here, cr

Ie -

Charge on plate

Area of plate




...... - ---+ ..

+ ... -E-

1- ~

- ---


As we know, C = capllCi'Y =iI'

Hence. the capacity 'C of parallel plate capacitor separated by d in \I1ICUIIID is aiven by.
(.,,::;- = I' qdfEnA


s ..4 C " dwhere E ...


ul)( 10"1l Pm-I. It is clear from tbia relation that to obtain hish capacitallee.

(I) 'A' area of plate should be !up

(b) 'd'. sepAration ' * - plates should ,be small.

Note: When the plarea ofcapacitor lie separated by lOme dielectric material ofpermittivi'Y E,. other then air or vacCWD. then the ClplCitallee of parallel plate capacitor is :





Here. B, ,. relative permitivi'Y

- sIr.

Hence. '(' .. II, 7- I, C.




Where /C is known u " ' ttrk _tut of medilllD. The caplCitlllCe of dielectric fined parallel plate capacitor bec:omeII /C times die ClplCillDCe with air or VIICUUIII u dielectric.


15.4.6. RelativePerlllittivity or Dielectric CODstaDt

Accordina to Coulomb's law. 1M force of interaction between tWO ciwl!es q; aDd q: separ;.led by dishlnt:e r in vacuum is. " \
F. =
... (15.25)

Where E. is absolute permittivity of free sp;!ft4lr ,acuum. If same c;harges are held at the same distance in a material medium. then 1M force of interaction between them is.
F' = __ 4 'It:

q, tf,.

r '.

. .. ( 15.26)


From these equations we get (on dividing)

F E -'=-=EorK
.f: '

where E, or dieleCtric Constanl of the medium ...\s w.: nllt;';.:. il is the ratio of absolute permittivity of the material medium 10 the absolute pennitti\i~ "ffree space. We can also define the dielectric constant of a medium as the r.lio l1f the declmstalic fon;c of interaction belween two givcu point charges held at certain distance apart in air vacuum to the force of interaction between the same two charges hela al the >rune dislance apan in the material medium.
It can also be expressed u Capacitance with diclt.etric belWeen the plates

. . or K is relative permittivity

... ((5.27)

KK S = - - - - - - - - - - - - - : - - , Capacitance with vacuum between the plates

C. K, sCThus.

... (15.181

C. - KC. a E, C. Note: For iqetal. K ao.and for mica K ::.. 6. paper K:: 3.6

INTEXT QUESTIONS H;.l,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


If the potential diJJiIYnc, QCrosl the plal'l of a parQllel plaIt capacilor Is doubled
what will be change In the capaclttlllci ? Writ' lhe di"u",.rlons of capacilQ1lt:' 'C'. Give Ih' value of capacilanc, of partill,1 plat, capaCitor In terms ofQl'fa ofplat" \4' and their mutual dilltlllC' of..,paralion 'tf. LlI platu . . I,paratld by a di,l,ctrlc oflY/aliv, permiIIM/)' e,.
~ ~:,


J, C,.., lhe t:.flPIICi1Qlfl:l of,,,plwrU:tIJ CDIIducIor ofrQl/i~ 10 em.

.. .. ...

......................... , .............. , ....................................... , ............ .

, "" ,
~ ~."

.. ...



......... ,

~ "~.~





To obIIIin die.de1lile4 valueoteapflCitabce ill mauy electric circuits, capacitors .., to be groupedsuitably: Two most eo.limon modes of grouping of parallel plate capatitOl's are (i) series grouping. and (ii) parallel grouping.

15.5.1' $eries Gro1ipiagof Capacitors

In the aeries combiDatioB of c&pIICiiors, the fint plate ofifint capacitor is joined to the electric soun:e: The second plate of this capacitor or is j~ to the first plate of the next capacitor. The second plate oflbis capacitor is again connected to fust plate ofnext capacitor of the combinatio.n and so on.. The second plate of last capacitor of the combmation is connected to the earthas shown ~ Fi&J 5.9. Let +q Unit of charge be given to the fust plate of capacitor C, fronl the soUrce. Due to electricel iDduction, as explaiDed in theJlrinciple of capacitor. -q charge appear on the inner side ofright plate of C, and +q charge develops on the outer side of the second plate or C" The +q unit of charge flow to the first plate of C, and so on as indicated in Fig. 15.9. Thus, each capacitor receives tIie same charge of magnitude q. As their capacitances are different, therefore. potential difference across the th!"ee capacitors are

= -

-C c v3

f' = - andsoon , C


/ 1 '


If c, is the total capacitance of the series grouping then,

q ~-
~ - ~/

.' V,










+ ~, + ~, + ...... :.








+ -C



+ ....... .






n ........... I C ;=1 i C,


Thus, tbe HdpI'ocaI ~f ",,1IlwIIMt CtIpIICiIIDt of"", ."., of C8pflCJton joilled ill _ _ II ""II1II til _ of til. rec/prfJctIII of illtIlvIdlltlJ ctIpIldttmt:a. From the above relation, iunuS! the clear to you that C, is less IlIaD the least ofC,. Cl' C, ....... C.

All the ClpllCitors in series grouping have the SIIIIlO amount ofcharge but the potential difl.'efm:e betweell their plates are inversely proJ'!'l1ionaI to their capacila\lccs. Series combination is used w1ien the high voltage i~ to be divided on several capacitors. Remember thst the lowest capacitor of the combination will have maximum potential dlffereiICe '*-n its plates.
. 301

15.5.2 Parallel Gro.pl.. ofCapact..,.

In. this type Of.1f01IPiaI, tin! plata of -.h i:epedaor of IJ.'QIIIIiaa _ Q IIDI ctld 110. _ poiDt A IIid all tbc IMICOIId plata 110 MMldwpoiDt , .. _ _ ill Fia 15.10. PaD B is
cOllMCled 110 the earth.

"I. _.

Let f'be the poteIIIial dilfereDce appiied 110 tbc combiDlltion botw!jIID poiDt A.a B.1n tIrb I)p ojCOlllbinat/on, lInIiM COIIIbbrDtfoll,~"I"". - . . .ac1iCifKlCitot tbmefoze, dwp OIl tbIm wiD be di. . . . A)' f,. f .. f ...~..... f, -e,f' ...(1S.32) f. -e,f'




. /-1 Thus. we lee that equivalent capacitance of 1lIIY number of capacitors. joined in-pmllel is equal 110 the SIII,II of the individual capacitances. .
Remember in parallel combination all the cllpllCitors have same potenlial difference beNoeen their plates but charge is distributed in proportion to their capacitances. Such combination is used for charge accumulations.


Ie, - e, + e, + e. +.... 1- 1: e,

".. /S.IO: CtlpGCuDI".inpil/"QII.I.-bhHltl...

15.5.3 EDeI'IY Stored iD a Capacitor

The chlrJial of a capacitor can be visualized by imapnillll as if some eKlemai agent. II)' batler)'. pulla electrons from.the poaitive plate of a capacitor and transfer them to negative plate. Some work is done in IrInIferrina this charp. which i. stored in tile capacitor. in the form of eiectrottalic field or potential eMIlY. This eiIe~is obtained from thIi batter)' (stored chlmical ene!J)'). When this cllpllCitor is dischqed throuah a resistance. this enetIY is re1eaaed back (in the form of heat etc.). Net electrostatic potential eMIlY of chIrge capacitor II aiven as: 1fT' I I U - - - - Cr: -qV jowl ....(U.35) 2 C 2 2 Where all terms clllt)' tlleir usual meaning. This enet"i)' of the dIIIJId capacitormuaias in the dielectric medium between the plates. 302 ---------------------------~-------------------------

15.5.4 Dieleetrics aDd Dielectric Polarization

We know dielectrics are insulating materials which transmit electric effects without conducting. Dielectrics are of two types : non-polar and polar.
(a) NOR-polar dielectrics

In the molecules of such Iyj.c of dielectrics, the CCIIIre of positive c1uqe coincides with the centre of negative charge. Each molecule has zero dipole moment in its IIOIDI&I state. These molecules are mostly symmetrical such as nitrogen, oxygen, bcDzeDe, methane etC.
(b) Polar dlelectrla

These type of dielectrics have asymmetric shape orthe molecules such as water, CO" NH; ,HCl etc. In such molecules, the centres of positive and negative charges do not coincide and they have 80me permanent dipole moment. When the non-polar dielectric is held in an ext~ electric field E, the CCIIIre of positive charge in each molecule is pushed in the direction of E and centre of negative charge is displaced in the direction opposite to E. Because of external electric field, centres of positive and negative charges in the non-polar dielectric molecules'are separated. Dielectric is said to be polarized and a tiny dipole moment is induced in each molecule. In fact. the force due to external electric field pulling the charge centres apart balances with the foree of mutual attraction between the centres (i.e. equilibrium is set ) and lIIulecule is said to be polarised.lnduced Die' IIeb dipole moment p acquired by the molecule P may be witten as. p-ocB.E Where oc is a constant of proportionality and is called atomic/molecular polar#:ability. Let us now consider a nonpolar Ila. ABCD placed in an electric field E mai ntained between two plates of capaciter. As shown in Fig lS.l1 ,dielectric slab gets polarised. The nucleus of dielectric moleculos are displaced towards the negative plate and electrons towards positive plates. Because ofpolarisatirm, an electric field E, is produced within the ,.,. 1.11: DIII_ po/lI1'IItIIItJIt"""" lIN dielectric, which is opposite to E. Hence pI_ '"tNIptIIJllor due to the presence of the non-polar dielectric, the field between the plates i. reduced. i.e. effective electric field in a polarised dielectric Is,

.Thus, the potentW difference betw_ the capacitor plates is correspondinaly reduced (as

"., E'd,), increasing the value of caplCltsnce of capacitor (as, C - qIJ').


INTEXTQUESTIONS 15.3._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--"-_ _


Ifair. paper and oil an us~d ur dir!rctriL., he""~~" 111"1'1,,10''< ala "apadlor in ...lIh:1I
("ure Ih~ o'u/1u";IOO",' ...illin higM.'1 :'

TIIr,, CIII'"dlor., 1I""inS ,ap"..ilu",c I,if: 5 ./iF ,,,,,I -}iF an' !trouped (u) in series and (hI i" (IIlnul/l.'I ('''pan lilt: "'1/11;\'(11.'", nlpddll.lnn in h"th -",.' t.'me.'; ?

.4 cal'"dltlr i.t t"lwlJr,eti. remo....Jfmm 1M "lIalJr,i"K ""ttery and u Ji"ltric" in.fl!rteti in ""tuten t"" pIOlf.,. Whut ...ill happr" t" lilt! ele,trostat;(" palfntial.~ ? Will il
inC'f'f!(l.ft. decrea.f( or remain th .., J"nJ~?



Ek'CIl'oS1alic field is a ...nscJ"\ali\c field. The e1ecllic Pole~lial an an~ r"inl in al c1edri. lidd j. e<JU3II" ~ \\"rIo. dllne againsl !he elecllic fo",e in mewing a unil charlie Irom oUlsidc Ih. eleclric field 10 Ihe given pllinl in electric field. . Won. done in Ir--~t;'rinl! a charlie. (rom one pc,inllo anolher. in an dcclrU!;lalic rlCld is path indc""ndcnl. The capacilancc IIf ~ .. ">l1lI""1.... incn:a.., "'hen II/IOther canhed eonductor is brovahI in ils \icinity. If one joule "f",or~ i5 done in i"';"l!ing a lesl charge nf' one eoulumb from inrmily 10 a ""inl in Ihefield. then pc'lenlial allhal roinl is one \'<111. f.lcctric re'tcntial due In a dire,le i. lew al C\'ery poinlon the equiloriallinc of dipole. Equipc,tcnlial .urface i~ Ihe surlace at eve". pc,inl (If which cl.'Clric pc,tcnlial is IIUIIC. / The work done is auembling t\\'o charg(s infinilel), apan from eacil oOIIr, is aid 10 be the electrostatic polential energy o(the slslem. AI an)' poim in an eleclric field. intcnsil)' ;. equal to negalive rale ofchange of poIeI1tlll wilh di!llancc (caUed pnlcnlialll1adienl,. I'lcctn>slalic ~hieldinl! i. the phenomenon nrprolctling. cenain n:gion ofspace Iiom elc.:lric field. (. apae itan..: or a conduclor docs nol dcpcndupc,n the rnaterial "f c:emdUl:tor bul depends upc.n ils ile and nature o(medium. 1111: capacilanl;" ,.( dielectric filled panlled "Iale capaci"', be.:umcs K limes the caracitance "ith air or vacuum as di(lcclric. R(lalh c pcnnilli\ il) is the ralio of capacitance wilh dielectric belV._1he plalClto the capacitance \\ith \'Icuum bel\\een the plales. In series combinalion of capacilotS. lhe cqui"alent capacitance is _ .dlaDllllltut of any of the indi, idual capacitance. In parallel combination of capacilors. the equivalent capacitance is equal 10 cbt lUll of inc!i\'idual capacitances. Due ft) the presence ofa non-polardielectric.1he field between the plata ofa c:apadror is reduced.




Define electric potenlial. Is il a sc;alat or a veclor quantity?

2. V.bal is meanl b) potenlial srac!ienl"? WiU il have the same unit u poIeDtial ? 3. A metallic box is placed in the space ha"ina electric field. ""bat is the field iDIicIe h ?
Explain> our BIIS"cr.


!:Itric PQlCllliailDd C..,.atar








I"'rhe the \aluc ofpolcntial at any point on the equatorial line nfan de"ric dipole. deline the tenn ,""It. \\ bat i. the "'''rkdone in moving a charge of 10 C ""Iween Iwo pnints "'pc....t..! hy. dislance of6cm. on"'" equipolential surface of 100 IAV? What i. a capacitor" BrieRy. explain"'" principle of. capacitor. oefine the SI Unit of capacilance. \\bat is diellric ? When a dielectric: is inserted in between the plates of a c:apac:itor. how does the capacitance change and ~ Derin an expression for the equi\'alent capacitance of twu capacilOn (.', an4 C, connected (a, in series (b) ill ......1cI. Write two IIpplication of capacilon in electric circuits. The ~Iectric potenlial is + 80 V ala point distant 80 mm from a pow charge. What is the magnitude of charge? In a bydrogen atom. the electron and prolan are bound at a distance of about 0.S3 A. ESlimate"'" potential energy of the system in i: 1'. taking "'" zero of potential energy at inlinite separalion of electron from the protun. Two capacitors of ''<Iual capacitance when cOMccted in serieJ. have a net capacilanl:e C and when cOMected in parallel. have a net capacitance C, What is the value ufe A capacitor C, =2~ is cbaIged l'la potential qf200V. Another capacitor C,"",~ is charged 10 a potcDtiaJ of 4OOV. Fipd is charge and energy stored in cacb capuitor? The t"O cbargc;d c:apac:itors are nowjoined in parallel. What is their _on potallial dift'crcnce ? What is the final energy stored in the system ? Is IhIIre .1l1li of ? If yes. wh&1 Mppens 10 the encrg)' lost?




Inttll Queslions I S.I
I. Fon:o: - charge x electric field intensity l.ero. because is rollliina the c:Jwae in. circle. fon:e is alOIII the I'IIIIIus IUd direction of moti,)n is p4;~ndicular 10 il. 3. As E' and I' is consent. hence E .. 0 .t. :-':". electric pulo:nlial will nul necessarily be zero. but it c:an be COIIIIaDt in that reJion. 5. :-':0. a.~ cquipolenlisl surface is always normal to electric field iDtaIIiy E.


Inlul Questions IS.2

I. Capacilance will remain same. :!. :\1 -:! T" A'. C _ teE, A 3. Il.l.pF d

IRanI Questio IS.3 I. oil 2. 61J; 35 3. PotcnIiaJ CReIIY dec:reaRa by. factor K, tile dielectric "MSI'IIt oftile cIieIectric.

.......1QtI.d... 10.0.71 pC II. 27.17eV 12. 114 13. Q,.4x lo-'C.Q,16ylO"'C;B,4lc 10"2J.B2 .32 x 10"21.
Tbe lost energy appears as beat producecl ill the wire. 30S


In our daily life we read books with the light of electric bulb and tube ~ Iiste:n music on a tape recorder or radio receiver. see different programes on televiliOn, eqjoy cool breeZe from electric fan or coOler. Do you know. what makea theae app1IaDcea work. It is electric current EleCtricity is a unique gift of science to mankind Our every day. life is governed directly or indirectly by many applications of electricity. We cannot imagine to live without electricity in the modern world. At home you observe that by merely switching on an electric bulb starts glowbJs. Why does it so happen? WhIt Is the timction

of a 5witch?
In the previous lessons you have studied about static electric clwp 1114 their etfecta, Electric charge is stored in capaciton. In the p.-t lellSOll you villi study the electric charges in motion. You will also learn. .in this lellSOll, that the rate of flow of charp through a conductor depends upon the nature of material and potential differeDCe (Ohms law). You will study the distribution of current in cireuiU. laws necessar.Y to understand various electrical circuits and how to calculate current in circuit Mtworka

(Kirchhoff's laws).

After studying this lesson. you should will be able to; vcplaln d71ft velocity ofel,ct/'oIU, charge tralUport and ,lectric CllmlIIt; stat, andprove ohm', and dl8tIngWlI bfrwun Ohmic andnon-ohm/c ,."IIttmcu; d.jiM and vcplaln ruuti)rlty and dl8cuu 1Mj'actrn 011 widell ruuti'llity t/epf1rdI; ~ lfllllval,1It rul8tanceforu"", and paI'QII" comb/nQtfOli ofruilltn; calculat, r"ut~ on tM lxuu ofcolour cotIa; stat. and apply KJrcIalaojJ',I_ ID clDlled electric circllb;. ID dedMce Wlleauton, /JrldgI eqtIIII/OIIlIIIlkr balfIItCM condltloll and III' find IOIknowII ruutanc,; and explain tile principiI ofpotentiorMler and apply It 10 cGlClllfll&tlw e.".".(lldllrMrItII resutQl/CI ofQ Clll.



El",,1ric Currem


In the previous lessons you have studied that when a potential difference is applied across a conductor an electric field sets in the conductor and e~ in the direction opposite to the field. Due to electron drift charge flows through the conductor and we say that electric current is flowing through it. The direction of current it taken opposite to the directionofflowofelectronS (negative charge) and in the directionof flow of positive charge. Let a charge A Q be passing acroSs a conducting wire uuhort'time interval At. Then, we define electric current as 1=At



ne electrie clIITetlt throllglt any cmubu:tor is tlte rtIIe of trtIIISfer ofcIuute from o"e
side ofany cross sectio" ofco"dllClor to tlte otIter side. The SI unit of current ~ ampere
(symbol A). If one coulomb of charge passes through a cross-section of the conductor

per second then the current is one ampere.

Ampere (A)

=- - -

coulomb(C) second(s)

Commonly used sources of current are electric cells, electric generators etc.

16.3.1 Ollm's Law

In 1826 German Scientist George Simon Ohm studied the relation between current flowing in a conductor and potential difference applied across it. He expressed this relation in the form of a law known as Ohm's law. According to this law: the electric CIIITI!IIt tIrroIIglt II ctJIIdMctor is directly proptIrIiofuIl to tile potential difference across it pnwided tile p/lpictd. colUlitions :ruelt lIS temperatllN are IIIICltanged.

Let "be the potential difference applied across the conductot and lbe the current flowing through it. According to Ohm's law,



Y or -=R

.... (16.2)

where constaJU R is the electrical resistanc:c applied by the conductor in flowing the electric current. Resistanc:c is the property of the material of the conductot wbich opposes the flow of current throught it. The V-I graph for a metallic cooductot is a straight line (Fig 16.1).

U"it of nsi6tlUlce is Ohm. It is expressed by symbol n


.... Voltage (Y)

Fig.I6-I: V-Igraplr/ora _ollie

"t Ohm =1 voltllampere



No"". lei us study !he faclors which elleel lhe rL..islance of a conduclor. YOI'!bit. ),ou ma), . pcrll>nn IWO simple experimenls :
II) r,,4e JiO"r"nrlellgtlu u/" ,unt/",/ing ...ire ,ifs""'" IIIIlleriel """s""''' aua. Apply same voJl,,# lhose ai,emutel)' """ reod 1M "alllt! of"wrenr/or each CtHIdIICling wire. You ...111 ulnerw IhDt CinellI changes ilw(rsel), proporlion 101M length of1M condJIcIor. II shu...s IItIll,IN FaIsWMe of CHilMCItIr.1s .11)' prt1ptll'limu1llo '-lilt (II of lite CfIIIII_




(2) Take ,-undueling wires ofsame_",ial unJ "f same length but 0/ diffonnl cross se"/i,,,,,,/ """- Apply same poIMliai difforence QII(/ nod 1M va/UI! 0/cvrrem/or ea&h 0/ Iht!m. ruu "'iII obserw lhat 1M voJue of ~"""'"1 is in proporlion 101M area ofcross s ..,lion. This sho..s lhal 1M resislQllce of 1M conduclor is invrrsely proportianallo 1M JUea ofcross sIion (A) i.e.

Ihus on I:OIDbiDill& lIbove two relatiOlll, R ~ -




wba'e P is CODSI.IDt for the matetW at CIJIIIIen! temperature and is calledspecifu: rnisIiura



If,.Im, .4-11RI,1hcn P-(RObm)(Im2)'IIR-R 0Ia )( m

Thus. lite WIIw tlfraistWlly of. R'

0/1.,."..",11..' _ 0 / -

rW .,II1II10 ralJtnece 0/ ."., ofllte -.iIIJ cd" . . . . r ailllfl"'l-A

ID-. ofraistivity is called CMDcIHIyOC 'fJ'CifIc ~ and is represenred by a. I



U~iofCOlldIledrity is Obm1 metre -I (O-'m-')ormbometer-'.

but II i.r ~ 0/ its diIItIouions, ReIiIIivity dq.rttb 011 " . IUIIIIrr of'" wIIaas ... ,......... of .co,......... cItIpc "'" 011 its dimensioas .. -U .. 011 the IIIIIfCriaI ofwbida it is IIIIIde up of.


III ..... of he eIec:IroIa coo"",,1lIiOD (II) IDII nduaIicJII time ('r) ... cap RIIiIImty II,

'M fiJr



Electric Curren!

where e and 'm are respectively charge and mass of an electron. The reslSl1v,ty at a temperature is inversely proportional to free electron concentration. Thus. for a ccinductor having large number of free electrons resistivity and hence resistance is small. Silver is rh" best conductor. copper and aluminium are also good conductors. Due to very low resistance copper and aluminium wires are used as connecting wires for joining various components is electrical circuits and house hold fittings.
Several resistance wires of high resistivity are made of materials obtained by alloying some metals., Some ofthe import;ant alloys are lIllIgI1anin (84%Cu, 4% Ni and 12% Mn). constanton (60% Cu.. 40% Zn) and mchrom (80% Ni. 20%Cr). Resistance wires for electric heater. electric iron etc. are made of these alloys. Due to extremely high resistivity ebonite. mica. china clay. fused quartz etc are used as insulators. In household wiring. oopper and alumiuium conductors are covered with a layer of some insulating materials like P.V.C. (polyvinyl chloride). rubber. cotton etc. We have materials like germanium (Zn) and silicon (Si) which have resistivity much smaller than that of insulators but much greater than that of metals. They are called semi-condllClors semiconductors are used to make electronic devices such as diode, transistor etc. In book-5 you will study semi-conductors in details.

16.3.2Temperatllre Dependence of Resistance

You have read in previous section, the following relation for resistivity and relaxation time.

P=--2ne r
according to which the resistivity is inversely proportional to relaxation time t. The resistance of a wire of length eand area of cross - section A is given by.



R=PT= niTA
FOr a given wire ( A and n are constants, therefore resistance

R-Reloxation time is the average time between successive collisions of electrons with die lattice ions (positive ions of metal). If mean free path (the average distance between two successive Collisions) of electrons is A and root mean square speed is v_, then



R---,r ],



With increase 'lftemperature,rootmeansquare speecUncreases(v_ 1)andmeanfree path decreases (because ampJitnde fvibration ofIattice increases) so that colliSIOns of electrons with the lattice take place more frequently. As a result resistivity and hence,



r.isttmce Dftlle ",ire iIIcretIU$ with ~ DflUrpmfllllH., III DtIur WDl'bCIJNIWduity ofcotulMCtor tintIses willi illCIWI8I! Df "'I+a....
If R. and R, IIR tho values ofresistance of a wire at O"C IIIId t'C sespecUvely fJlm R, DJaY be obtained by relation

R, =R. (1+ at)


Where IX is a constant, called IDIIperaIIIre coefTu:ieIIt of re!IisItuu:e (~resistivity). Then,




(per '0C)

If Ro=IQ and t = 1C, then ;a = R, R. the increase in resistance. 11rus, IeIIipeItIIIJre coefTu:klll of nsisttmce is ~11111 tIJ cll""ges ill ~ Df. win ofre!lisltuu:e _ Oil", til lie ",hell IeIIrpet'iltIIn clltutgell by J'C

If the resisbmce of a wire at temperature t C is R, and at t C, is R , then RI =R (i+at)andR =R0 (I+at,) . I 2


R i+at . on dividing -'- = - - ' R i+at,


So that

R, -R'(per.C)
R t-R t
I 2 2 I


The resistivity of alloys also increases wilh ~ of temperature but increase is very small in comparison to that for metals. For ~oys such as mqpurin ~'"'MI andnicbrome temperature coefficient of resistivity is negIi!itD'y small and resistivity. is high, hence these 'lire used to l118ke resisbmce wires or standard ruistatrce3.

Here, you note that the resistivity of some materials like carbon, silicon, germani.im etI:. decreases with increase of temperature that is tempe.tature c:oeflicicat ofl'eliJtivity for
these iDateriais is negative.

'.3.3 Drift Velodty of Eleetroos You see that by switchins OIl eleCtricity of a power statiOll, .all tile electrical "PP'imees
COIUlCCted to the power atation at once start werking iflOlllll. switdIes are 011, even though power atationis faraway. Haveyouevertbroughtwbatisbappeningliere? OI!switI:bin& charge transport takes place in the form of electron drift in the supply line.
As we have I~ that a solid COI1Iiuctor CODSists ofionsplaced in a regwllummr_rt and free electrons IIR not bound to any particular atom. The free elec:bons CIIIl move about in the eutire volume oftile material. The ions which_ muchheiM.. dumlbe elec:lmlscm only vibrate about their fixed positiollll. poaitiOllS of Ii.; ious.fIlIJn a npbsr periodic pattern which is called a IIIi1ice:

The _


Free eleo:tooa collide 01' interact witb the ions at the lattice positions. The speed and directiOti ""uJaeS randomly at each such event. As a result the electrons move in zigzag path (Fig. 16.2). In a \ metal. a 1arge number of free electrons l.,__\~ _ __... _-'. move in pmdom directions. The number 1.--7 ,J. , of electroils crossing an area Ii A from II ,,' y' / ' one side very nearly equals the number x crossing from other side in 'any given ~~-0.-1-'-.... ./+4 time interval. Therefore. 1\0 net transport of charge across any cross section takes place. When electric field is applied accross the conductor. a force acts on each electron in the direction opposite to the field. The electrons get drifted sfowlY in the direction of force. The drift is much lesser than the actual velocity of the electron. At each collision electron starts a fresh in random direction with a nmoom speed but gains a velocity component v' due to electric field. This component v' inc:reaaes with- time till next collision occurs. Again it starts aftesh with a random velocity and in the process the velocity component in the direction of field is lost. If the electron drifts a distance t in long lime t. then drift velocity. t


;'. ,

y=d ,


You may define the drift velocity as an avertlf:e velocity colfll1tlMni wltll wAieA eItrons drift opposite to the dinctIofI of electricfield.

Let T be the average time called as mean.free lime between successive collisions and iI be the acceleration due to electric field E. Then
force acting on an electron

mass of the electron


eE m


Where e and m are charge and mass ofelectrons. Therefore. the displacement ofelectron in

the direction offorce.


12 (eE)2 TQ r =2" -;;- 't


The drift velocity is.


= - = - ( eE


)'t =.:

eE 2 m



It shows that drifi velocity ofelectrons is directly propori:iorwI to electric field.




16.3.4 Ato.1e Ex'.....a o{Ob.'. Law

I,. lIS comider a cylindriclllawbM1Ol' ofcross sectiODlllareaA. in which m electric field E exists. In lime IJI ~ drifts a disraoce v.lJI, wbC.:e v. is the drift velocity. cOnsider a lengthv.Atoftheoooductot"(Fig 16.3).

1bc volume of tbia J'!Il1ion is A v. l!J. '1,. there be n tree eleclnllJS per unit volume of cooductor. 1bc munber of eleclnllJS in tbia J'!Il1ion is 1IifvAt . All these electrons cross the m:a A in time l!J. Therefule, charge crossing this area in time l!J is,

FIg. 16.3: Crou-sIion ofD. cotfductor.

I!.Q or Current 1= At



Ane 'tE

Ane T Y
... (16.13)


I <r; Y

This is Ohm's law.

It is clear from this expression that the cmrant is directly proportional to the drift velocily of free electrons in a conductor.
Eu.plel6.1 : A total of6.0 x J(f' electrons pass through any cross - section of a conducting ....ire p4r second. Find the Clll7"enl.

501.&8: 1bc total charge crossing the cross section in one second is,

I!.Q - .. =6.0 x 10 x 1.6 x 10 C =9.6 x IO"C



AQ 9.6 x 10" C -9.6 x IO A 1=Is IJI

ED.aple 16.2: Calculate the drlq sp4ed of electrons when 1 A of current flows in a copper wire ofc:rou - section 2_. The number offree electrons in 1 cm J ofCDpp4r is
8.S x



501.00.: From the current and drift velocity relation

So tbat,

1 -6 21 -19 2 x 10 x8.5 x 10 )( 1.6)( 10


v =_1_=

=3.6)( Hr'


Eicclric Cun-ent

SuperC.... _n: W. _ _ fur_material. below a_~""'st1vity suddL'Illy becomes ...... Thish:ll1pel'llt1lR is called CI'ItIetd ' - '.. _ .... filrlbisllallSidoa. TIle -.rial in this _ is caII... .,,~cbN .... 1be ......._ _ is coli... Sllpaalllduc1ivity. It was oblem:d fur """"my in 1911 by Kamerleigh Orm... Critical fur IDCUI)' is 4.2K.


If .. eleclriecurrmti.... upin ....,........_. it .... peniIt filrJooatime_filrlDDlllhsmd years alia" mDO!Iingtbe II'PIi"'potaUiaielilf.n",,:e.~ducImty_ .. WllYlow ........_ which are djfficult to oblain. SciOllliSl$.arellyins to prepare COJDpOUDds mel alloys which wnuld be superconduaing at room temperatures (lOOK). Supen:onductivity .. aroWld 125K has already been achieved and elfurts are on to impmvC: upCJIl this. SupercondUC\On are used to construct very strong magnets. Possible applications of supeR:OIlducton are u1tra IlIst compute!" .witches mel poWer through superoonducting power lin... Iran.missi... of


Example 16.3: T....o wires A and B ofsame mass and material are talcen. Diameter of wire A is halftl101l that of wire B. !fresisJance af....ire A is 24f2jind the resistance ofwire B.

Solution: Let r A and rD be radii and 1 ,t be lengths of wire A and B respectiwh. As AB mass and density of the wires is the same, we have

'I d=7tr 'I d




~- iA
PtA = --,

Resistances of wires A and B are

aodR. = - 'If, 7


RA tA -=--x



.. ~=(2)


= 16


1.5 ohm

. 16


16.3.5 Ohmic and Non';'()hmic Resistances

You may easily see by drawing graph IK tween voltage and current across conductors that many conduclors obey Ohm's law. 1beir resistance is called Ohmic resistance or I ineac resistance. But Ohm's .law does not always hold good. If we replace the resistance wire by a torch bulb in an electrical circuit and note down values of current (I) for different voltages (I') then we see that the entire V-I graph drawn is not straight line (Fig 16.4-a). For low values of V. it remains straight lin~ and then becomes cun'ed. For high voltage


c\meDt through the fil_t of the. bulb bceomes large 10 tbat tile

filllMllt ofbulb becomes _ aDd_ u current increases in the filllMllt Ratio YR for low Yalue ofT ai- resi-..:e of the filam_ OIan'.low haIcI. in metallic wires, for 1ow'Ya\ues of curnmt 0DIy. Other examples of non-ohmic resistances arc vacuum diode, scmi.CODductor di~ transistor, liquid elcctro1ytes etc. In vacuum diode ohm'slawdoesDOtholdmm. for low values of curreut. Its Y-T curve Is shown in Fig 1(1.4-11.

ImI1pa'8tUre ofthe


Tcnhbulb II




16.3.6. Resistors
For different electrical aDd elccttonic cin:uits we require resistors of ~ VIlues. Resistors may be divided into two groups; wire WOUIId resistors aud carbon resistors
,., W"" rttnorlfit:lJro-JoftleJlIIiIe' /mrgtII tu:t:OI'tibtg III WIllie 01 " ....i...c b wollllll two fold OWl' bullllltbfg cyllluJa: III llUlke it Mil illdIIctiPe.

Ina JIInwollJldr : ... ,

= JIlIn! (of 114

To make aubtm 1ubitot, emboli with a suitable bi1rdbtg agent is molded btto a cylinder. JY"U't! leadr an attached to thU cylinderlor _cling it loan electrical circllit. The value of resistance is indicated by four coloured b8IIds DIlUted onthe surfilceofthe cylinder(Fig 16.5) awIl11C1111ing of diffi:reJlt colours are given in table 16.1 the colours and tbcir
orders may be remembered by the statement given on the next page.

multiplier .Jad.....

( ( 1;.....

Teble 16..1 : Re8ist~ code.r (ruisfl1ltce giw1I ill ohIII)

Black Brown
Red 0raI!ge

0 1 2 3
4 S

Yellow Green

1 10 10' 10' 10' 10'


Blue VIOlet Gray


6 7

Gold SiM:t

10 10' 10' 10 0.1 0.01



Eleclric C_,



RO Y Great Red Oraage Yellow GreeD

Britain Blue

Very Violet

Good Wife Gray White

For example suppose the colours on the resistor shown in Fig. 16.S are brown, yellow.
green and gold as read from left to right. Using the table the resistance is

Yellow 4 SQ = 14 x 10 + 14 x 10 x _ 100

GreeD x 10'

Gold S%

=(1.4 0.07) 10 Q =(1.4 0.07) M!l

Some times tolerance is missing from the code-and there are only three bands. Then the tolerance is 20%.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ __

1. Electrons move continuously inside a conductor even then no current flows through it WI/ess a potential differences is applied across it. Explain

2. When a current is established In a wire. the free electrons drift in the direction opposite to the current. Does the nilmber offree electrons in the wire continuously decreQlJe ?
3. In a TV tube the electrons are accelerated from the rear to the front. What is the

direction ofcurrent?
4. A potential difference. V is applied across a copper wire of length I and diameter d WhoI will be the effect on drift velocity ofelectrons if

(i) V becomes twice (ii) I becomes twice. (iii) d becalMS twice


Why are resistance wires made ofmagamin. constanton and nichrome? Give two

....................... '., .......................................... .

WhoI will be the ratio ofcurmru flowing through two wires ofsame material if they have: a. Same area ofcross section but length in the ratio 2: J . b. Same length but area ofcross-Iections In the ratio 2: 1




When we WIlDt to increa!Jr; or decrease the c:urrent of a circuit we have to reduce or increase the resistance of the circuit. -For this resistors are combin$ld. Two types of combinations are frequently used. Here. we define equNalent ra/stimce of _ the comiJinaJion as a single resistance which draws same current as the given combination when same potential difJCrence _is applied across it. -



16.4.1 Series Combination

You may COIUlect more resistors in series by joining 1hcm cmd to ead IIUCb 1haJ _ CIIIIYlflfHlSJ/GtJuo,.gl"lIl* nsiskln. In fig 16.6t1ueeresisklrsofresist.iH esR,.R,and R, are shown connected in series. 'The combination can be COIIIICCted to a baUay or other circuit at ends A and D. Let a curren1 J flows tbrougb !be series ~ina1im wbe:n it is connected to a battery ofvoltage Y. Potential diffa~ V,. 1'2 and be developed across R,. R, and ll, respectively due to Ibis curreDl I. Then V = IR , V = IR and V = IR . . c;qual to V'I.e. . "2 2 , , B ut sum 0 f vI' V2 and y] 15


1'= 1',+ 1',+ V, 1'= fR, + IR, + Ill,

If equivalent resistance of this series combination is R, then A


1'= IR = I (RI + R, + R) or R=RI+R,+R,



This arrangement may be extended for any number of resistors

R = RI + R, + R, + R, + .........

...( 16.14)

Jilg. /6.6: &ries c_ _ of_aim

Thus, equhtaJellt rnisttmCl! of II series eombintllioll of ruiston is eqlllll to 811m of ruislllllen ofall resiston. Ifwe require to apply a voltage across a resistor (say electri<; bulb) less than the constant voltage supply source, we should connect another resistor in series ofil

16.4.2 Parallel Combination

You may connect the resistors in parallel by joining their ODe end at one point and other ends at another poinl In parallel Combination potentitIJ difference exists IICI'tIS6 all

Fig 16.7 shows the parallel combination of three resistors ofresistancesR"R2 and R,. Let the combination be c:onnected to a battery of voltage V and draws a current I from the source.





. "'. . ...Rz.

'The main current divides into tIuee parts. Let II' I? I, be the currents flowing through resistors Rt' R,. R, lespedively, then I, = YlRI , I, = VIR, and I, = VIR~

AA .... AAAA

'" y r

1" I . -

'The main current is the sum of II' I, and I,



/ =/.+-I +/


Y " ++ -Y -





or I=YIR

.: /=-=-+-+R RI R,
Y R Y RI " R, " RJ




'he process may be extended fuc lIlY IIII!J!bao of n:siston 10 .....

-= -+-+-+-+


7 WI . " . " .

, eqllllllllS_Dflmoersa of"''';'''''''
for lWO resistors in p8IBllcl 1 1 1

From this weinferdud: _ _ ~~

. -


Ibd'. '-

-=-+-or R R, R,

R,R, R=-:.....!.R, + R,


Note dud: tht: trqllillalmt ruis'- of~ tllOlllr",""", 9 , iIItlividwJI ruisllJnce. You may CIISily see this filet by uilllpluh CIrbl~"",. resistor of2 n rcsisIucec:anowm! across a J.tIayof~2 wit. It wiIIlkawa _ _ of I ampere. When IIIIOtbern:sistorof 2 ohm msi~ is 01**. :teI .,......... i l . alsodl'awacurrentofllllDjlCie. Thatistolld CDmIIl~~is2 i ........ rcsistanceoftht:circuitisbalved. ff_goOllm-ilrg"''''''' of' ........JIGI 7" the resistance ofcirCIIil goes 011 tkcrell/lilrg aItd". C.llwt""";- """.",. . . ,.. increll/ling.
In our homes all the clectrical appIi_ bulbs, fans, h:areas dI: . , _dell in
(Fi~ 16.8). J>ottntial clifli:aCD am.. eKhremaiasSll1lCSO that cumD~

_=1"'''' _'11

parallel IUId CIICh -1ICpII'Idc switda -~----'r----'----_

in any oflbem docs DOt ........... the. H othe. As we go 011 swiIIcIIiD& ....... ad fans, tht:rcS!id... :eof1bce'.....pI cin:uit . - - - I I - - -........---~_ _ _ _ _...l of the house goes on dec:rNsiII& ad ...... Fe ... current drawing from DWiDS goes on increasing.



16.4.3 Division of Current in Resistors Connected in ParaDel

Let the two resistors of resistanc:es R and R be connected in parallel between points A and B (Fig. 16.9). Themaincurrent/tie divided intotwoparta/,andl tlowingtbroughR and R respectively. The main current 1 is swn of I and I i.D. 2 ,
2 , 2

1+1= 1 , 1


According to Ohm's law Y-Y"'1 R II B I I

and also

Y-Y=/R If , 1
:. 1R.=IR






2 1

From eq (16.17) I R = (l-f)f

n,. IIU: DfW.r/Off ofCfInYIfI in _ulon

1I (RJ +R') =IR'I

R 1- - L J, , R+R
I 1


l=-'-J 1 R+R
I 1

... (16.19)

bampl.16.": For.p circuit lhown in FI, 16. 10. jind the value ofresiatance R1 and . . cJU'rent I. flo,""i", tw-ough Rj

SoIlI~ll: .l( equi~;Uent reJi~ of paralIel COmbil)APOO of R ~ R is 1l. then .'" ' I 2

. ... R,R,

lOR' R= - - =---1. R +R 10+R


1= ilIA

According to Ohm's law,

50 R=-=5D 10

+ -'-







I 2

,.". 16.lIJ :An Eloclrical Ctrctdl


The current is equally divided into R and R , hence 1 = 5A.

o .',



Example 16.5: Find equivalent resistance of the network shown inj/g 16.11 between points Ii) A and Band (ii) A and C.

SolutioD: (i) The to 0 and 30 0 resistors arc COJJDeCted il) parallel between points A and B. The equivalept resistance between A and B

30a A,,./V\A

10 x 30 RI = - - - obm=7.50 10+30



The resistance R is connected in series with resistor of7.S 0, hence the equivalent resistance betwe4!:n points A and C is, R, =(R I +7.5) obm =(7.5+7.5) olUII'=I5 0

Eumple 16.6: Find potential difference between points A and B of the network shown in Fig 16. J2 and distribuJion ofgiven main current through different resistors.

Solution: Between points A and B resistors of40,60 and BO resistances sre in series and these sre in parallel to 90 resistor. Equivalent resistance of series combination is R=(4 + 6+8)obm=IBO

If equivaJept resistance between A and B is R = 9><181 (9+18) ohm =60



PoteptiaJ difference between A and B is Y=IR=2.7><6 Y =16.2.Y Current through 9 0 resistor = 16.2I9=1.8A CutreDt through 40, 60 and 80 resistors

, A

:; s

=2.7-1.8 = 0.9A


INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.2._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. Which ofthe following is stl1nefor each ofthe resistors cOIIMcted in series (a) potential difference (b) CU1'1'e1II (c) power (d) heat generated

2. Which ofthe jollowinlP is same for each ruistors connected in parallel (a) potential'differe- (b) cummt (c) power (d) heat generated
3. Three ruistOl"8luNing rufsta11ce8 In. IOOD and 10 ()()()D _ What will be the order ofeqIIivQJent ruUtance.

ctmneCted in parallel.

4. A rmi{orm wire of ruistance SOD I.r cut into S equal parts. Thue ports are now , connected in parallel. The equivalent ruistan.ce ofthe combination is (a) 2 D (b) IOD(c) 2S0D(d) 62SD




Ohm's JaW gives current - voltage relation in simple eIectrical circuits. But when the circuit is complicated, you will face difficulty in finding current distribution by Ohm's law. Kirchhaffin 1842 fonnulab:d the following two Jaws wbich enable us to find the distribution "f curredt in complicated e1ectticaI circuits or electrlcaI netwud<s.

(i) Kirc"ofl's Fint Law (.JuBetio. Law): It states that tile II-of IIiI
tile cIlTrell1ll directed tow.,.ds " jllllClioll (poillt) ill l1li electriclll IU!ItIfoI'j is qlllll to tile 11_ of IIiI tile clll7"t!lIIII dirt!dd tIWfZYfrom tile jlllldiolL


Thus, in Fig 16.13,

1+1=1+1 I 1 J ., orlI +11 -1-1 =0 J 4

Fig. 16.13: Dimib_ Ifft:rmY!IIlllI ajNN:liOft in


Ifwe take currents approaching point A in Fig 16.13 as positive and that leaving the point as negative, then the above relation may be written as

1+1 + (-1J ) + (-1) I! 4



Hence the fust Jaw may also be stated in other words that tile ~ 11II1II ofclII7"eIIIII til "jfmditHt is UTO.
lGrc:bhoff's fust law tells \IS that there is no accwnulation of charge at auy point if sIeady
current flows in it The net charge coming towards the point should be equal to that going

away from it in the same time. (il) Kirc:Waofl's Seco.d Law (Loop Law): This law is generali::atiOil of Ohm s law. It te/Is that tile lllgebralc 11_ of tile prodtICIII of tile CIll7"elllllIIIId ,eSiStIUU:S ill 1119' closed loop (or mn/t) ill l1li electric", IIdWOI"t is eqlllll to tile IJ/gebralc s_ of electro-me forces IICtiIIg ill tile loop.
While using Ibis law we stan from a point on the loop IIIId go aIoog the loop eidIeI: dockwise or anti clock - wise toreach the same point again. The product ofcumut and lesiid ,~ is taken as positive when welJaverse in the cIirecIioa of CUIl1IIIlIIIId e.m.! is taken positive when we IJaverse from negative to positive eleebode Ihrough the ceIl. ~ yru can write the Jaw as

Let \IS take an electrical net:wod sbown in fig 16.14. For closed mesh AOCBA






1Z R,+(1I +If lR ~E J Z

" +t.





JHl'AdM tIiJI-lIIoIrg. d-.t IIIOp ill. c:frarit is _

AIr" ,P'iaJI_
of l1li tile

In IIIOI'egenml form Kirchhoff's scc:ood law is Slated lIS: 7h "'e6~ -

Ex-.pIe 16.7: Consider the nstworkar sitawtt ill Fig. 16. 15. C1In"eIII is ntppIietl to the network by two hotteri(!8 OIISirawn. Find the vaIries oft:IIITMIIll. I I. 17re tiiret:tioID of
the ClllTt!1IIs are as indicated by the arrows.


Solutio. : Applying KirI:bboff's 1st law to junction C, we get 1+/-1=0 I , J

Applying Kirchhoff's lind law to the closed meshes ACDA and BCDB, we


51,+21, = IU 3I,+21,=6A

.. , ....(3) .




subtracting eq (3) limn eq (2) we get

51 -31 =6A


, ,




Multiplying eq.( I) by 2 and adding with eqn.(2) we get


71 +21

, , = IU


Multiplying eq.(1) by 2 and eq.(5) by 3 and adding them we get .

31/, = 4&
1 = l.54&

Putting value of I, in eq.(5) we get


from eq.1 we get 1= 1+1= 2.12BA

J ,


INTEXTQUESTIONS 16.3_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I. Foracircuitshownin.Fig. 16.16j1ndthe~alue of current jlowing in the circuit and potential A difference between points A and B.

2V 1U


2. Apply Kirchhoff's law to jlnd the value of currentlJjlowing through R in the circuit of Fig 16.17 J

--to 2V


Fig. 16.16

3. FOr/he cirCuit shown in Fig 16.18, evaluate the currentjlowing through resistance RJ'


As you have learnt that a resistance can be measured by Obm's law using a voltmeter and an ammeter in an electrical circuit. But this measureznent is not accurate. To measure it more accurately Kristie devised and Wheat Stone popularized a special network desrgn called Wheat Stone Bridge. It is an arrangement of four resistances which can be used to measure one of them in terms of the

L--..! E

1-1- - ; (

Consider the circuit as shown in Fig 16.19 where:

K FI,. 16.19: Whe"'.Iw"e Ilridg.".,,, "rk


S is a unknown resistance to be measured. Arm CD of the bridge is called unknown

(ii) P and Qare two adjustable resistances connected in two ratio anns AB and Be of the bridge. (iii) R is adjustable known resistance. Ann AD is called known ann. (iv) A sensitive galvanometer G is connected in one of the cross ann BO orthe bridge. (v) A battery E along With a key Kisconnected in other cross ann AC. Ann AC and BO are called conjugate arms.


Electric Cwrem

On closlngthe key, ingenaiU there will be some CUl'IeIlti flowing Ibroughthe galvauometer and you will get some deflection in the galvanometer It indicates that 1Iicn is some potential difference between points B & D.

We sbaII now consider the following three ~: (i) Point B is at higher potential than point D: Current will flow from B towards D and galvanometer will show deflection in one direction. (ii) PoiDt B Is at lower potential tlaan poiat D: Current will flow from point D towards B and galvanometer will sbow deflection in opposite direction: (iii)Both points B and D are at same potential: In this case no cummt flows through the galvanometer which will show no deflection i.e. the galvanometer is in oxmditioll. In this condition the Wheat stones bridge is said to be in the Idt* o/lHIJaat. The points B and D will be at the same potential only when the potential drop across P is equaI to that across R. Thus at the nnll State

Applying Kirchhoff's first law at junction B and D we get and /-1-1 =0 I ~ G


/+1-1=0 3 G ,

M the null state JG = 0

:. 1= J1 ,

....(16.23) .... (16.24)

and I3 =1 Also potential drop across Q will be equal to that across S. So that


.... (16.25)

Dividingeqn.(16.22) by eqn.(16.25)

I P _'_=



IS ,

Using eqns (16.23) and (16.24) we get

I~ I
= :


This is the condition for which a Wheat stone Bridge is balanced

From eq.( 16.26) W1known resistance S is



r ....ysics

You can easily see that the measurement ofresistance by Wheat Stooc's Bridge meIhod has the fullowing merits.

(i) The balance condition given byeq (/6.26) at null pruition irindependentoftlre applied voltage E. In otlrer words if you change tire e.m.f. of tire cell, the balance wi/I 1101 change.
(ii) The meosurement ofnrutilllce does not depend (HJ tire ~ ofcalibratimJ oftire galvanometer. Galvanometer ir IISed only as a mdl indiCotor.
The main factor affecting the accw-acy of measurement by Wheat stone Bridge is its sensitivity with which the changes in the null c:oodition can be detecu:d. It has been foUnd that ihe bridge has the greatest sensitivity when the resistances are as nearly equal as possible.

EumpIe 16.8 : Find the value of R In Fig 16.20 so that there is no current in the 50 a resistor.
Solation: This is the Wheat Stone bridge with the galvanometer replaced by 50ilresistor. The bridge is balanced. because there is no current in 50a resistor, bence,

20/Hp401R 40x





INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.4,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

I. Consider tire circuit shawn in Fig. 16.21 wlren tire bridge is balanced tire resistances are given: P=20fJ, Q=50D and R = lOa What will be tire value of tire unknown resistance?

Fig. 16.11

Fig. 16.1J

In Q circuit given In Fig 16.22,find current through 2Dresirtor

': a ,

3 In Q Wheot Stone Bridge circuit P and Q. I1re ratio armr being~Iyplfll. I1re
bridge ir balancedwlren R=500a On interchanging P and QtIre vailll! ofRfOr tire balance ir 510fJ, find.the value oftire unbrow1I ruirtance s.

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... ............................................... .

Elecuic CIIITeIIt


EMF is the short name of electromotive force. EMF of a cell or battery equals the potential difference between its terminals when the terminals are not connected exlerna/Iy. You may easily understand the difference between e.m.f. and potential difference of a cell. For this CODD"!'t a cell in a circuit having a resistor R and key K. A voltmeter of very high resistance is connected in parallel to the cell as shown in Fig 16.23. When key is closed voltmeter reading "ill decrease. Do you explain the reason for this decrease in voltmeter reading? Actually when key K is opened no siguificant current flows through ihe loop having cell and \'oltmeter due to very high resistance of voltmeter. Hence, voltmeter reading is equal to e.m.f. E of the cell which is the potential difference between tenninaIs of the cell when no current is drawn from it. When key K is closed current flows outside and inside the cell. The cell introduces a resistance r, called internal resistance to the circuit. Let current I be flowing in the circuit. Potential drop Ir across internal resistance r due to current flow acts opposite to the e.m.r. of the cell. Hence, voltmeter reading will be E-/r and is equal to V. But V = IR

E, r



, I

\ - r +
... A

.... _ /I

_ _ _R _ _ V ___ "

Fig. 16.13: ("inuil Jiugram canneL'led with }VAlmeler

Fig. 16.24: = i l diagram ,howing in/emal resistance

E-Ir = IR= V or V + Ir


IE -

... (16.28)

Thus, e.m.f ofa cell is always greater than the potential difference across external resistance unless internal resistance is zero. E.m.f of a cell depends on: H) the liquid Used in the cell (ii) the material of the plates, and (iii) temperature of the liquid. Note that the e.m.f. of a cell does not depend at all on the size of the cell i.e. on the area of plates and distance between then. This means that if you have two cells of different size one big and one small, can the e.m.f.s be the same? Yes the e.m.f. will be the same if the cells are made up of same material and liquid. Then what is the difference? Ifthe cell is of large size it will be of less resistance to the passage of current through it.


E:umple 16. 9 : When a current drawnjrom a balU!ry is 0.5A. its tmninaI potential difference is 10V. And when current drawn from it i3 1. OA. the terminal voltage reducu to 16 V. Find OUI e.mf and internal ruistance ofbattery. Solutiou : Let E and r be the e.m.f. and internal resistance of battery. When a current I ampere is drawn from it. then potential drop across internal resistance or inside the cell is = lr. then Y =:...lr For /= 0.5A. Y=20 Volt. we have 20=E-0.57 For I = 2.0A. Y=16 volt we have. 16=E-27 From eqs (i) and (ii) 2E-7=40 E-2r= 16 solving we get E=21.3 Y,r=2.67

..... (i)

. .... (ii)

You have already studied how to measure. e.m.f. of a source or potential difference across a circuit element using voltmeter. An ideal voltmeter should have infinite resistance SO that it does not draw any current when connected across a source of e.m.f. Practically it is ""t possible to make a voltmeter which will not draw any current To overcome this difficulty a circuit devised by Pnggendorf and known as potentiometer is used for measming the e.m.f. of a . source or the potential difference across a circuit clement without drawing any current from it. It employs a null method. The potentiometer can also be used for the measurement of the internal resistance of a cell, the current flowing in a circuit and comparison of resi$tances.

16.7.1 Description of the Potentiometer

The potentiometer consists of a wooden board onwbich a number of resistance wires (usually ten) of uniform cross - sectional area are stretched parallel to each other. The wire is of maganin or nichrome. These wires are joined in series by thick copper slrips. In this way these wires together act as a single wire of length equal to the sum of the length of all the wires. The end terminals of the wires are provided with connecting screws.
A meter scale is fixed on the wooden board parallel towires. A joCkey ( a sliding contact iDaker) is provided with the arrangement. It makes a knire edge ~t at any desired point on the wife. Jockey has a pointer which moves over the scale. It determines the position of the knife edge contact. In Fig. 16.25 a ten wire potentiometer is shown. A and Bareendsof the wire. Kis a jockey and Sis a scale. Jockey slides over a rod CD.


ElectriC Currenl


16.7.1 Theory o(M. .uremeDt by Poteatiemeter

Let us consider that a steady soun:e of e.m.f. E (say an lCCUDlulator) be ClOlIDeCted across the uniform resistance wire AD bfleug1h I. Positive terminal of aa:umulaIor is connected at end A(Fig 16.26). A steady cumntltlowsthroughthe wire. Potcntialdifferenceaeross AB is given by Y,a = Rl ...(16.29)

Ifr is the resistance per lIDit 1eug1h oftile wire, II1II lis the potential fall across unit length of the wire,
E K 4~-------':-I t------f.( ,......---.....

- -- - -I, - _______ ...

.. Y.. =kl=E


E 1=--.

. ,


For a 1eug1h t ofebe wire, potential fall

1 .

F Y= II = - 1

.....(16.31 )

Thus, poteoSiaI fillls linear,~ nth the .Jistaoce along the wire from A to B.

.. _' -----.-..-----------------~----.-..----.----------~

Physics Let us measure an unknown voltage V lillY a cell of e.m.t:E. The positive terminal of the cell is CODDeCted to end A of die .wire and neptive terininaI through a galvanometer to jockey having variable contact Y. Note that V mUst be less than E. Let you start jockey moving from A towards B. Suppose at position Y potential fall across the length Ayl of the wire be less I:bJII! voltage V. Than current in the loop Ayl XA due to voltage V exceeds the current due to potembd diff=ce across AY". Hence galvanometer shows some deflection in one direction. Then jockey is moved away say at Y' suc:h that potential fall across AY' is greater than the voltage V, then galvanometer shows deflection in other direction. Now in be'- yo and Y the jockey is moved slowly. The stage is reached say point Y such that potential fall across A Y is equal to voltage V. Then point X and Y will be at same voltage _ bonce the galV11JlO11lC1er will nOt show any deflection i.e. null point is achieved. If'l is the length betWeen A and Y, then
V=At =_1
I ,


Thus, the unknown voltage V is measured when no current is drawn from it. The potentiometer has certain advantage. They are as follows :

(i) When the potentiometer is balanced, no current is drawn from the circuit on which the measurement is being made. (ii) It produces no change in condition in any circuit to which it is connected. (iii) It makes use of null method for the measurement, the galvanometer used need not be calibrated.

16.7.3 Comparison of the E.M.fs of two Cells by Potentiometer

You have aJready studied how to measure the e.m.f. of a cell using a potentiometer. We shall now extend the same technique for comparison of C).m.fs oftwo cells. Let us take, for example, a Daniel cell and a Leclanche cell and let E and E be their e.m.f s.


J"K .......,....,







FIg. 16.17: C_ _OfO <I. oftwo Ml

Potentiometer connections are made as shown in Fig 16.27. One cell say of e.m.f E is connected in the ,circuit by connecting terminals of 1 and 3 ofkey K. The balance POin~ is obtained by moving the jockey on the potentiometer wire as expl~ earlier. Let the balance point on potentiometer be at point Y and let the lengtbAY, = ',. Then other cell of e.m.f. E, is connected in the circuit by conn~tiDg terminall: 2 and 3 ofthe key K, . Again baJanc~ is obtained at point Y and let length AY = t . 2 , 2

, ElecDic Current
Applying potentiometer principle,

E =/d and E =kJ

/ I .2

Where 1: is the potential gradient along the wire AD





If e.m.f. of one cell is known, say E" the e.m.f. of other cell can be determined
, I

.... (16.32)


16.7.4 Determination orInternal Resistance of the Cell

You have learnt that cells always offer resistance to the flow of current through them, which is often very small. This resistance is called the internal resistance of the cell and depends on the size ofthe cell i.e. the area ofthe plates immersed in the liquid, the distance of the plates and the strength of the electrolyte used in the cell. Let us now learn how to measure the internal resistance ofthe cell using a potentiometer. Connections are made as shown in Fig 16.28. There is a cell of emf E and internal resistance r. A resistance box R with a key K, is connected in parallel 'with the cell. Rest of the circuit +E


At-______________ y_2_y~t~----------4




H K,

F/g.16.1I: /Jet.",.ination ofi.,,,,,,,,, -ui8IQIIC, of"1I

is similar to that in preYious seeUOD.. First of all key X is closed and a current I flows thrOugh wire AB. The key X, is kept open and on moving jockey balance is obtained with
the cell at point say Y . Let A Y

= I, then

E =Jt

Now key X, is closed.This introduces a resistance across the cell. A currens say I, will flow in loop E RK E due to cell E . This current I is given by Ohm's law as,


.... (16.34)



: PhySIc,

Where r is the intemal resistance of the cell. Now. terminal poteDliai difference V, oft"e cell will be less than E, by an amount I, r. The value of V, is V=IR= - - R




Then. potential difference V, is balanced on the potentiometer wire without change in current I. Let the balance point be at point Y, such that AY,= e, then

v, =kt,
From eqs (16.33) and (16.36)

..... (16.36)

-'=-' V, t,
From eq (16.35)

-'=-V R


R+r t _ _ =_1


or r=R( i.-I) Thus. by knowing R. e,. ande, the value ofr is calculated.

Example 16.10: Length o/apotentiometerwire i.r 5 m. It i.r eonnectedwith a battery 0/ fixed e.mj. Null point i.r obtalnldfor the Daniel cell at 100 em on it. Jfthe lell1!fh o/the wire is kept 7 m. then what will be the position o/null point?
Solntion: Let the e.m.f. of battery be E volt. the potential gradient for 5 m length is E k,=S-V/m When the length of potentiometer wire is 7 m potential gradient is

E k =-Vlm

Now. ifnull point is obtained at length E=kl=-I V


I,. then


E 7

Here same cell is balanced in two arrangements, hence


1.4 m

e,= 7/S =


Elec:tric Current:

INTEXT QUESTIONS 16.5-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2. Is it possible that potential difference between, p/atu ofa eell becomes zero ? 3. In the J6.i9 shown, ifr i.I the resi.ltance per lI1I;t length of the wire AB. The value of potential difference between A and B due to cell ofe.m.f.E is given by (a) rill (h) ril (c) rUt (d) Ur.t


4. Potentiometer circuit is used to compare e.m.ft of Ji7r. 16.29 two cells EI and E7 The balance point on potelltiomete,. wire is obtained at a distance IJIII/fll'8 and 112 metflrs for EI and E, ,.flSpectively. VEl - 2 vo/ts./bId 1M value ofE1"



Drift velocity i. the lverliJe velocity componeat with which electroDI move opposite to the field when an elec1ric field mats in coaductor. Electric current throuah lIlY CI'OII-*tional_ ia.the rate oftralllfer ofcbarge from one side to other side of the area. Ullitof current ia IlllpenlI denoted by A. Ohm's law state. that the cummt flowlni tbrouah_ coaductor it proportional to the potential difference when physical conditioas, ~ etc remain uncb8 Df1ed. Resistivity (or specific resistance) of I material eql!lls the resistance of a wire of the material of 1m lenglh and 1m2 _ oferou lectioa;, Ullit of resistivity it ohm meter. Ratio Yllia called and ia deIIoted by R. Ullit OfresiSlanre is o.bm (denated by 0) ResillfUCe ofaconductor for which Wiratioianotctibstant but depends on the value of voltage applied, is called non-obmic resistance. For a serie. combination ofreslstors the equivalent tesistance ia sum of resistances of all reslltorI. . For paralIel combination ofresiaton inverse of equivalent resi8tlDce is sum of inverse of all the resistances. Kirchhoff's laws to study systematically the complicated electrical circuits are: Law I: The sum of all the currents directed toWll'ds a point in an electrical network is equaJ to the sum of all currents directed away from the point. Law II: The algebraic sum of all potential differences a10Df1 a closed loop in an electrical network is zero. The \\'heat Stone Bridge cin;uit is used to meaaure accurately an unknown resistance (S) by comparing it with known resistances (P.Q and R). In the balanced condition



The e.m.f of a cell ia equa1 to potential difference It its termina1s when a circuit is not connected to it i.e. it is open. A poteatiometer_a voltages without drawins current. Therefore, it can be used to mouure e.mi. of source that has appreciable internal resistance.



I. What is drift velocity offree electrons in a 1II4ltalli~ condudor? For. c _ carrying conductor establish relation between current, drift velocity "" concentration of conduction electrons n and electronic charge e. 2. Define electric =ent and discuss Olun's law. 3. Define resistivity of a conductor. How does the resistance of a wire cIepcmd upoIl,the resistivity of its material. its length and area of cross-section? 4. Define electrieaI conductivity. Write it,. unit. How does elec1rieal conductivity depend, upon free electron concentration of the conductor ? 5. Explain the difference between olunic and non-olunic resistances. Oive some examples of lIOn-ohmic resistances. 6. What is the effect of temperature on the resistivity of the material? Why does the electrical conductivity of a conductor decrease with rcrease in temperature ? Red Orange Green 7. The colours on the resistor' shown in Fig., 16 ..30 are red ?range. gree~ and.gold as rea~!, from I~ft to rIght. What,1S resistance ofl~ accordmg to colour code? , Three resistors of resistances R ,. R,. and R, "---''-.lL........L--'I..._ _.....J are connected (i) in series (ii) in parallel. Find ' Gold out equivalent resistance of combination in F/k. lUO' ,J: each case. ' What is the diff=e in e.mJ. and potential difference between electrode of a cell Derive relation between the two. What are Kirchhoff's laws governing the cUlTCnts and electromotive forces in an electrical network? Give thcol)' of Wheat Stone's Bridge method for measuring resistances. Discuss the theO!)' of the potentfbmeter. How wUl you measure unknowdlpotential difference \\itb the help ofa potentiometer ? Describe potentiometer method of comparing thee.m.f of two celis.. ' How will you find the internal ~sistance ofa cell \\ith the help ofa potentiometer? What are the factors responsible'for the internal resistance of the cell? A wire oflength 1m and radius q.l mm has a resistance of 100 n. Find the resistidty of the material. . 2 Consider a wire oflength 4m and cross-sectional area I mm Carl)'ing a current of 2A. If each cubic meter of the material contains 10" free electrons find' the average time taken by an electron to cross the length of the wire. Suppose you have three resistors each of value 30n. List all the different resistances you can obtain. The potential difference between the terminals of a battery of e.m.f 6.0V and internal resistance I n drops to 5,8V when connected across an external resistor. Find the resistance of the ' I n .... externaI resistor. 5,2A A For the circuit shown in fig 16.31 calculate the value3~2A 40 of current / and resistance R. ~. + -

I '_





9. 10. I I. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16, 17.

18. 19.

FIg. 16.31


. ---, -


Electric ClUT~n\ 21. Four resistors P. Q. R and X whose values area 2. 2. 2 and 3 ohms respect;vely are joined to form a Wheat Slone Bridge. Calculate the value of resistance with which the reslSIance X must be shunted in order that the hridge ma~ be balanced. . 12. l11e potentiometer set-up has been used for measuring the e.l11.f of a cell X. When a standard cdl of e.m.f 1.02 volt is connected to the circuiL the null point is obtained at a distance of I.02m on the potentiometer wire. \\ihen the unkno\\ll cell X is connr;cted.., the null ;, "btatn~d at a distance 01'0.6111. Calculate the e~n.f "fthe cell X. 23. Potentiometer circuit is used tor c(}mparing c.m.f oft\\o cells I and ! .. Cell gil es null when the jockey is placed on the second wire opposite to O.Sm mark and cell . gil es null when the jockey is at U.:! m mark on the third wire. Compare the e.m.ts of cells E and E . .

2,). Keen ~ives n~ deflection in a galvanometer connected with potentiometer cireuit when jockey is at 1.20m. On <'onnecling Jl)0 resislance across the cell. the null point is al 1m. Calculate the internal resistance oflhe cell .

- - -..



IllteAt questions 16.1
I. Vue 10 high resisti vii), wid low temperature coellicient of resistance S. (a) 1:2 ' (b) 2:1

Intext Questions 16.2

(b) 2.(a) 3.


4. (b)

Intext Questions 16.3

I. 2A. VD=V ;\
2. 0.4A 3.0.4A

. 2. Using/

lntcxt Questions J6.4 1.250

, R +R

= -!30

R /

= - x 1.4=IA

42 3. - 5050

Intext Questions 16.5

I. V= - fr. With increase of current. [r increase resulting decrease of V.

2. Yes. when cell is short circuited 3. (b). -I. I;

Temlinal Questions
7. (2.4 0.115) MO. IS. Ion. 200. 450. 900.

x 10" 0 m 19. 290, 20. 2A. 6.40


17.8.9 hours

21. 60.


23. E,:E, =5:2



In the earlier lessons we have learnt about the various characteristics of electric charges when at rest. for example the electric field and electrostatic potential. We must remember that these features. refer 10 Ihe behavior of charges at macroscopic level. We have also learnl thaI when a charged body is connected 10 another uncharged body via a metal wire. the charge of the fonner h transferred to %be latler through the metal wire. The flow of charge i. said to constitute an electric current. However the electric resistances have an ability to oppose the flow of current througb them. The flow of current and resiltance In it. flow caule. variety of interesting phenomenons luch al chemical effect. thennal effect etc. In this lesson we shall learn aboul chemical and thermal effect. of currenl and some of their applications in our daily life.

After studying this lesson. you should be able to : explain Joul, i law ofhealing: calculate electric paw.r comlmNd ;" Mating ~Sll: dlacrlb. process ofIII.r;troly!lls: explain lhe Faraday i law, (If ,I,r;tro/y!Ii!I: mention tilt practical applications of,l,r;tro/yll.r: underSland lilt tM,."",..e/,ctrlc ~r;t; slale Seebat:k, Palti,r and Thonuon ~r;II: molce distinr:tion b,tw"n 1M dljf.re", tMrmo-e!er;tric 1I1/fct!J.


Thennal and Chemical Effects , of Electric CUlTont


Many modem household appliances such as electric heater, electric iron etc, utilize the

hearing effect of an electric current. Because of the resistance of the conductors the work must be done to maintlrin the flow ofelectrons (cunem) through them. Just like the mechanical energy us<:d in overcoming mechanical friction. the energy used in overcoming electrical resistanc:.: is transformed into heat energy. Thus, when an electric current is pllSsed through a resistor. work is done against the resistance resulting a heating effecting. We know that in metals electric-curtent is due to free electrons. These free electrons frequently collide with the atoms of the metals in lattice. At each collision they lose some of their kinetic energy and give it to the atoms which they strike. Thus, as the current flows through a wire or a conductor. it increases the kinetic energy of vibrations of the atoms and hence. it generates the heat in metal wire. The electric resistance of the metal is due 10 the aloms of lattice obstructing the drift of electrons. To calculate the heat produced due to flow of current. we consider a circuit consisting of a resistor ha\'ing resistance 'R' and a battery as shown in Fig. 17.1. Let a potel)tial difference' JI" exi~ls across the two ends 'a' and 'b' of the resistor and current I is flowing through il from ' .. to 'b', As ~ou are familiar that the flow of electrons is in opposite direction of current, So electrons are flowing in the circuit from 'b' to 'a' ,Electrons entering at'b' possess more energy than electrons leaving at 'a', Hence there isa 1058 in potential energy of the electron while passing from 'b' to 'a' and this loss of potential energy appears as the heat energy during the flow of current through resistor' R' ,

+ 1 ...-_ _ _ _--'
"., J7.J

You know that the potential energy of an electron at 'b'ooand the potential energy of electron at 'Q' =-eV" Where 'e' is the charge on the electron and V. and Yb are the potentials of ends 'a' and 'b' respectively, Loss of potential energy per electron =[-eV.- (-,v.)],


Further, the number of electrons crossing the section ofwire in time ',' is,

Id =-charge of each electron e

. total charge

Thus, the total loss in potential energy of electrons in time ',' is, It Woo -[-,V.-(-eVj],

=It(V.- VI

As you see from tfIe Fig, 17,IV= (Y. - Vb) Thus, W=I V,
or or
~ I(

,.. (17,1)

From Ohm's law V= IR)

IH::=~Rt I

-------====---- ------------------------Physic. As already said above. this work done is converted into heat, therefore the heat produced due to tlow of electrons (electric current) through the resistor in time 'f will be,

H= WIJ. whereJ=4.2J/cal; Jismechanical equivalent of heat H=F RrJoule= IRtcal........ ...(17.2) J . This relation is kno'Wn as Joule's law ofiJealing. It clearly expressed the following facts that the heat produced is proportional to;
i) ii) iii) the square of current strengtli ( the resistance (R). the time (t) for which the current tlows.


This heating effect of electric current has many applications. Electric iron. the incandescent lamp (electric hulb). electric fans. electric furnace/oven. electric arc. electric welding. safety fuse. are some of the examples.

17.3.1 Electrical Power

You know that power is the rate of doing work. thus energy liberated per second in an electric device is called electric pawer. The electric PO"''ef P.. using the Eq 11.1 can be written as,

p= p=

= I V (Equation 17.1 W= IVt) i R (where V=IR. Ohm'slaw) V:!/R (where 1= VIR, Ohm'slaw)

H<lre power P is in watt when I is in ampere, R is in ohm and V is in volt: larger units of power are often found to be -more useful. 1000 watts = I Kilowatt 746 watts = 1 Horsepower

17.3.2 Calculation of Electrical Energy Consumed

You know that almost all housebold appliances are marked with their power-rating. The electrical bulbs (incandescent lamps). may be marked 15W, 25W, 60W or lOOW or even higher. An automatic transistor may be rated at 1250 W, an'clectronic iron at 2000 watts. a small radio receher at 25 Wand a television set at 350 W. When appliance is in use. you pay' for the account of power. it requires for the time you use it. If the power of one watt is provided for one hour. the consumer pays for 1 watt-bour of energy. Similarly. if one kilowatt ( 1000 watts) is used for one hour. then you have to pay for one kilowatt-hour (kwh) of energy. . Electric energy used in kwh = Power (kw) x time in hr_

1 kwh

1000 Wh

= 1000 W x 60 x 60 sec. = 3600 x 1000 W s -: _,6 x 100000 W s

It kwh

36 x 10' J

Thermal and Chemical Effects ofEleclric Current

Example. 17.1 : Find the cost oJoperalingan~/ectric'ironJor 2 hours. iJitdraws 4 A on 220 volts circuit. The electric energy costs one rupee per leilowatt hour.
Solution: /= 4 A.t = 2h.

V = 220 volts.

Because P = IV, P=4x220=880W =0.88 kW

Electric energy used in 2 brs = 0.88 x 2 = 1..16 kwh Nov.~ 1.76 kv.h cost = I x 1.76 = I. 76 rupees.

Thus. the cost of operating the iron = Rs. 1.76



_ _-:--_ _ _ _ _ _ __

Which oJthe two bulbs 25Wand 100 W will hm'e more resistance whm both are operating at same voltage ?

..................................' ... ............................ .


2. 3.

On whatJactors does the thermal effect ojelectric. current depend?

Li$t three appliances that works on the healing effect ojan electric current in your


An;rwer whether the following statements are 'True' or 'False .. al Fuses work on the heating effect ojan electric current. b) Electrical energy is,measl/red in kilowatt. c) Electric power P={IR where I is current In Ampere and R i$ resistance in ohm. dl Electric appliances are IIsually marked in watt as per their power rating.

We know that electric energy can be converted into heat energy. From the principle of physical s}mmetry. it is natural to expect the existence of phenomenon in which heat energy can be converted into electrical energy. It turns out tbat such process is J;l0ssible. This effect. where electricity is produced by the direct conversion of heat energy into electrical energy, is known as thermo-electric effect. As you know 'thaI healing effect 0/ an electric current is an irreversible effect while thermoelectric effect, is reversible effect. If a circuit-contains conductors of different materials. and the junctions between those ~onductors are maintained at different temperatures. then electric current are found to flow in tbe circuit. Three related effects of this kind are found. They are:
a) Seebeck effect , .

h).Peltier effect. and c) Thomson effect


: Physics

17.4.1 Seebeck Effect

Seeback discovered in 1826 that an electric current could be produced by thermal meaDS alone. When two dissimilar metals are connected as in Fig. 17.2 and one of the junction is heated, there is a current in the circuit. This current is known as thermoelectric current. The emf developed in the circuit, which can be determined from the ClUTent and resistance, is called the therm0electric emf and is of the order of a few millivolts. This effect is ca1ledSbeck effect. ~ The pair or metals in Fig. 17.2 constitutes a thermocouple. "


Seebeck studied the behavior ofmmy pairs of ",. 17.1: SHbocI:Effect metals and arranged them in a series in such iI way that when two metals from thtJ series were ,connected to form a thenno-couple. the CIII'mIt at the hot jllllCti01l WQ8 from the _tal OCCIII'rlIrg IIQ1'l/lIr ill the lerie! to the one occlII'1'ing later. Further its II1Ig1Iitude. depeDda upon the extent of separation of the metals in the series.

The Seebeck ,erles is :


AI, Sb, Te.

This series indicate that Bismuth (Bi) and Tuapton (Tc) thermcM:ouple is the most _itive as it will produce Jarse thenno-emf. The C1DTCIIIt in this thermo-couple will flow from Bismuth to TlIIliston aeross the hot junction. If one of the themio-couple junction il kept at a fixed temperature and other ODe il heated, the Seebeck thermo emfinthecircuitwlll vary with temperature difference of the junctions. The' T NeutrII_PII.... variation of thermo emfwith this difluence of temperature is shown in FiB 17.3. The T,T~at~ioft temperature T. of the hotjunctinn It wbich then i is maximlllll cunent in the circuit, i. called ~ "lIlIIJ'al tetnpfll'fllllH. The temperature T, of the hot junction at which there is 2lml current at which reversal of cumnt is about to bezin, is called the IDtfIeI'atIlH o/illvenitm. For copperiron thermo-c:ouple. the neutral temperature ia o~----~~----~-'., 27S o C and the inversion temperature is 55()o C. when the cold junction i. It O C. If the " . 17.J: ~.,. . . . .wi""'" temperature of the cold junction is raised to 100 fa aM. J01j;sa. C, the neutral temperature will remain the lime


Thennal and Chemical Effects of Electric ClUlem

." \>"I"r. but the inversion temperature will become 540 C. Thus. neutral temraturefor " giwn thermo-couple is constant while the inversion temperature is as much above it as the cold junction temperature is below it. For majority ofthenno-<:ouple. the temperaturethem)" emf graph (as shown in Fig. 17.3) is very nearly a parabola. In general the Seebeck ~mf (E) can be expressed as.


Where T ~s the temperature difference of two junctions in K and a and b are constants, and they show the characteristics~fthe given tbermo-couple.

rhe rale llfchange of thermo electric emf(E) with temperature difference Tis known as the. thermoel<!ctric power (Pl. Thus, dE


P=a+ 1hT. rhus P varies with Tin 3 linear way.

It T. is the ttmper.lLlf. ',f the cold junction, T is the neutral temperature and T the temperatu." of invenil'n for a given thenno-<:ouple then, it is found that

1<7; - T,)'" 2 (T.

. 7;)


11.4.2 Peltier Effect

Peltier in 1834 discovered that wbevever a cummt flows in a tbermo-couple, heat is absorbed al the hot j unction and liberated at the cold junction. Thi3 absorption or e)'Oiution of heat at u junction when a CIIITfmt is sent through a thermo-couple is known as the PeIIin e,fft!Ct. To study the Peltier effect, insert a battery in the circuit of Fig. 17.2 and pass a current as shown in 17.4. It is observed that heiIt is absorbed at MeIaIB junction I. while it is generated at junction 2. Head up 1 On campiring Fig. 17.3 and 17.4 you may note 2 MeIalA that particular junction is cooled which IIIWlt be heated in order to give a tbenno-couple cummt in the same direction as the battery current. Currant Battery The phenomena on of Peltier effect is the under Ffe. J 1.4: Peltier eJlet:t lying principle of thermo-electric refrigerators. The energy absorbed (or evolved) at a junction, when a unit charge passes through it is called the PeIIiu coeffu:ieIrl and is denoted by It the usual practice i. to measure c1wge in coulomb and heat injoule and hence 71 will be expressed



as joule/coulomb i.e. volt. This coefficient depends on the temperature and material of the junction. The rate at which Peltier heat i~ transferred is proportional to the power of the current or equal to tr It. The Peltier effect is reversible. When the direction of the current is reversed, the Peltier heat is same but in the opPosite direction. Important difference between Joule heating effect and Peltier thermo-electric effect are listed below:
a) Peltier effect takes place at a junction only but the Joule heating is distributed along the entire length of the conductor. b) Peltier effect is reversible while the Joule heating is irreversible. c) Heat generated is proportional to f1 in Joule heating effect while it is proportiol1al to I in Peltier effect. d) In Joule effect, heat is always generated while in Peltier effect heal; is absorbed at one junction and evolved at other.

17.4.3 Thomson Effect

Thomson discovered that when a temperature gradient exists along the conductor and a current is allowed to pass through the conductor, then the absorption or evolution of heat can take place in the conductor itself. This phenomenon is known as Tlromson effect. Consider a copper rod AB. Let a symmetrical temperature gradient be maiptained along the and keeping the length of the rod by heating it at the central pointe (0 a temperature ends A and B at the lower temperature T, (see Fig. 17.5). In this figure, the height of ordinates at each point is a measure of temperature of the rod at that point. Now if the current is passed along the copper rod in the direction ACB. it is observed that heat is absorbed when the current flows from A to C i.e. from cold to hot parts whereas heat is evolved when current flows from C to B i.e. t'romhotto cold Symmetrlcaltemp. dl8trlbutlon parts. Thus. there is a transfer AIymmetrIcaI temp. of heat due to current in the cfiltrtbutton flow direction. Metals like silver, zinc, antimony and I:8dminium etc. shows similar behavio.r as that shown by copper. All these metals are B B A,..A I said to posses a poJitillt! IThomson t!Jftct. Copper lOCI Healing _ PJIj Copper

I' Atmt~7/P1,...mA ..


Metals like iron, bismuth. cobalt, platinum and nickel FIg. 1-7.5 evolve heat, when current flows from cold to hot and heat is absorbed, when current flows from hot to cold parts. Obviously, for such metals, the tnuiSfer of heat due to passage of current take place in the direction opposite to the direction of current flow, These metal behave differently then copper and ef(ect shown by them is termed as negatille naomson effect.


Thelma! and Chemical EffectS oflilectric CUrrent

II is worth wbile to note that in either of the two cases (i.e. positive or negative), Thomson's -eftect gets reversed when the current flows in reversedirection. Following important point had been established on the basis '1f extensive experimental studies. (i) The rate at which Thomson heat is transferred (H) into a small region of a "ire carrying current I and . having temperature difterence dT. is proportional to Id T i.e.
..... (17.5)



is Thomson coefficient. It is measured in joule and some time called the

specifIC heal of electricqy. It is regarded as positive when a current opposite to the

direction of temperature gradient causes an absorption of heat by the conductors. (ii) The Thomson effect is rever .~. It the direction ofcurrent is reversed. heat is absorbed in the region where it was pr,,\iously evolved or vice-versa. (iii) The Thomson coefficient is characteristic of a particular metal under consideration. h,r metals like copper it is positive and for metal like iron it is negative. The Thomson coeflicienl for lead is practically zero. (iv) Thomson coefficient is a function oftemperature and is not constant.

INTEXT QUESITONS 17.2_ _ _ _'--_~_ _ _ __


Distinguish between seebak effect and Peltier effect.

........ A. .... ....... . ... ........... .

What.do you mean by the fact that the Pelter effect is reversible?


If the

cold junction of a thermo-couple is OC and the temperature of inversion in 60C. what is the value ofneutral temperature ?

Aqueous solutions of inorganic salt.~, acids and bases, conduct electricity and these are called electrolytes. The process of conduction of electricity through solutions and through molten salts is called electrolyis. The phenomenon of electrolysis i.e. the ~sage of current through a conducting liquid solutions, is different from the conduction of electIi city through metals in foilowingtwo important aspects. I) Flow of CWTent causes a chemical reactions. Chemical reactions at the anode are ditTerent from those at cathode. Conduction in electrolytes is due to ions which are produced by the dissociation of ele..1rolyte in the solvent. Unlike conduction in metal, here matter is actually transported through the solution.




17.5.1 Laws of Electrolysis

The pbenOlilenon of electrolysis was first studied in detailed and systematic way by Faraday. whose observations led him to make two statements. These are known as Faraday's Laws of electrolysis. Battery The Fig. 17.6 shows a setup called voltameter consisting of the cathode in centre. surroUnded by two electrodes (connected together) which form the anode. The outer vassel, generally of glass, contains the electrolyte. The ch\>ice of the metal electrodes depends upon the nature of the electrolyte lind chemical change it is likely to undelgo. Using the copper voltameter as shown in Fig 17.6. Faraday observed that the mass of copper (m) deposited on the cathode is proportional both to current (1), and to the time (I) for which the

.,....----1-1 11111;-<



-- --- ----

currenught(1) waslallowed to flow the ~~metertha Fig. 17.6: Copper Vollam"'er thro the vo tameter. From result, 11 ,0Uows t,

m oc II m =Zll =ZQ
where Z is the constant of proportionality.


(since 1 x t =

Q where Qis the amount of charge flowing thro~ the electrolyte)

Thus. the moss ofan element or radical deposited or liberated at an electrode is proportional to the quantity ofelectricityflowing through the electrolyte. It is known as FIII'IIIIIlyIs Finlltlw ofelectrolysis.

The constant Z is known as the eJectrocllemiCld eqllMrlMt of the element or radical and may be defined af the maJS liberated by the po3sage ofa unit quantity ofelectricity through the electrolyte.
Faraday connected number of voltameter in series so that the same quantity of electricity could pass through all the electrolytes placed in different voltameter. When he measured the amounts of element liberated in such a situation, it was always found them to be in the same ratio as their chemical equivalent weights. He was thus led to frame his second Itlw in the COJDl as :

Whm the same quantity ofelectricity po3ses through the solutions ofdifferrmt electrolytes. the masses ofthe elements or. radicals liberated at the electrodes art! in the same ratio af their chemical equivalent weights


lbmnal and Chemical Effects ofElecuic Curnml Thus. if masses mr mt inJ ............ ofthe-equivale.~tweights,. " E, .............. are liberated by the pas.qge of the same quantity of electricity. We have mol' m. .... m"~ :.~ .. - E,. E..,. - EI

From Faraday's second law of electrolysis it follows that the same quantity of electricity is needed to liberate I kg equivalent at any substance. Precise measurements have sbown that this quanti 1)'- is 96500 x 1()3 coulomb which is also known as one FtUOIIay i.e'

) Faraday ~ 96500 x 103 coulomb Form the I'.q. 17.6 we get Z = mlQ
Thus. Z. the eleccroc/temica/ equivalent is the omOUltt ofsubstance Iiberwed by passage of" 1 coulomb of cbarge. Hence.

Z=----96500 x loJ kg
where E is the chemical eqUWuJelft weight. I!sing this value of Z in Eq. 17.6 we can easily obtain: E m=Zlt= xlxt 3 96500 x 10 AI-llve relation may be considered as the expression incorporating both laws ofelectrolysis.

17.5.2 Expbination of the Process of Electrolysis

The theory of ionic dissociation can be used to explain Faraday's law of electrolysis. Considering the case of CuSO, we know that this molecule will split into Cu" and SO, ions. Now every time a SO, ions reaches the anode under the influenced of electric field. it dissolves one copper atom from the anode. At the same time. one copper atom is deposited at the cathode. Thus. the mass ofCuSO, in solution is unaltered and the loss in mass of the anode equals to the gain in mas.~ of cathode. FW1her. the mass of copper deposited in this case is proportional to the number of ions reaching it. Since all the ions carry the same charge. the mass deposited will be proportional to the quantity of electricity depositing lh~m as stated by Faraday's first !a\\,:

17.5.3 Applications of Electrolysis

Electrolysis is one of the very important chemical effect of electrical current and has many applications. Some of these are mentioned below: (i) Electroplating.' You all have seen sbinning handle ofyolU' bicycle made of iron. Do you know how it is made to shine? It is electroplated with cromium or Ilickel. Th~ process a/depositillg a thin layer of one metal over another metal by the method ofelectro~ysjs is known . electroplating_ The article of cheap metals are coated with precious metals III make their look more attractive. The article to be electroplated is made the cathode and the metal to be deposited is made anode. A soluble salt of the precious metal is taken as the c1ectwlyte. When current is passed. a thin layer of metal is deposited On Ihe article made cathode.



(ii) Ex"1l<.1ion oj metals from th .. ores : Certain metals like Na. At. Ca. Mg.ln. Cu etc. atl:

extracted from their ures by electrolysis. Ores solution acts as electrolyte /IIld metal ions are ooll"cted at dectrode,. Y,.u \\illieam more about it in yourchemis!I: lessons.
Hii)Purificatitlns oj metal.' : 'VIetals can be puritied 'b)' electrolysis. The impure metal sheet IS made the anode and a pure metal sheet as the cathode in a large electrolytic cell. The soluble salt to the pure metal is used as electrol)te. When current is passed. pure metal oW of anode dissoh es inll> dl!ctrol) te solutiom. and get deposited on the pure metal sheet acting as cathode. ('oppcr l~ puritied in thi!oo manner.

(iv) ELeL'trotypinK: fhe "xaclcnp":s offhe metallic t>pe used in the printing worl./IIld!'he "ngra,~d blocks un the metal can be prepared b) the proce.. of electrolysis. A sheet,ofwax is tirst pressed against the type sel or block. The impression optained on wax is made conducting by coating it wifh graphite powder. Then it is copper plated by the process of electrolysis. The sheet so obtained is a copy of the type of the block.
(v) Anodising: It is the process of coating aluminium with its oxide. electrochemically to

pmt"c! it against corrosion. In dilute sulphuric acid as electrolyte. the aluminium article is made the anude. Sometime. to give Ihe surlace of the article beautiful colours. dyes l\I'Il mixed in the electrolyte.
(vi) iI1ellical Apl'licatians : Electrolysis is finding applications in medical science too. It is L1scd nerve stimulation especially for polio. for removing unwanted hair on any part of the body etc.


INTEXT QUESTIONS 17.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

, On whatjaclOrs does the mass l?/,radical deposited at electrode depends ? For an electrolysis process if we pial a graph hellVeen mass deposited and time. thell what will he Ihe shape ofcurve? One Farad,/)' is equal To how man)' coulomb? In ellso. m/Ulmeter. on which elecTrode willihe copper ions will deposit .
An~....er whelher thefollowing statement are True or False.

3. 4. 5.

a) b) c) d),

In an elecII'lJ~\'Ie soilltiol/. current is maintained hy the flow '?f electrol/. The malltr is oCllla/(v transported through the solation in electro~vsis. There are only two lllws ofelectrol)-..is. Electroplating is based all electrolysis.


o The electrk current through the conductor can produce heating. ollie electron on their way collide lrequently with atoms. In each c,)lIision. kinetic energy is 10'i1 and cc.mvt!ned into heat cnerc~y. Ileat generated in a simple electric circuit is proportional to 0) square of the current (ii) the resistance. and (iii) the time during which current flows. o The unit of po,ver is watt. o The difTerencc hetween conductio" of electricity through a metallic wire and lin
dcctrol~ te.


Thermal and Chemical Effects of Eleclric Cun-~m

The definitions of Faraday, electro-cbemical equivalent. The electrolysis has various pnu:tical application. Thermo-eiectricity-pbenOlpenon involves the conversion of heat energy iroo electrical energy. According to Seebeak effact if two junctions of a thermo-couple are kept at different temperalUrS an emf is generated in the circuit. If an electric current is passed through a tbenno-couple, heat is absorred at one junction and liberated at the other jUI!Ction, This is called Peltier effect. A~cording to thomson effect when temperalUre gradient exist along the conductor and current is allowed to pass through the conductor then the absorption or evolution of heat can take place across the conductor itself. The variations of Seebeck emf "ith temperaturP difference of the junctions is generally parabolic. The neutral temperature. is the maximwn temperature beyond which thermo emf starts decreasing. Peltier effect is reversible and different from Joule's effect. The Thomson coefficient can be positive or negative depending upon the nature of metal. It is practically zero lor lead. Thomson effect is again reversible effect. The Thomson coefficient is a function of temperature and not constant.

17:7 TERMINAL QUESTIONS_ _ _--:-_ _-:--_ __

I. 2. 3. 4. S. State and explain Joule's law for the rate ofproduction of heat for a coil ofwire carrying an electric clirrent. Define Electric power and state its units. Discuss the phenomenon of electrolysis. State and explain the Faraday's law of electrolysis. Explain some practical applications of electrolysis. Explain the tenos : Electrolysi,;, electrolyte, electrodes, voltmeter. How does tbe-conduction of electricity in a metallic conductor differ from that in electrolyte? Vi/hy is the conductivity of an electrolyte law as compared to a metal at room temperature? What is a Seebeck effect? Discuss the variation of Seebeak emf with temperalUre. What is meant by Peltier effect? How does it differ from Joule effect? What is Thomson effect? Explain it by giving proper diagram. Define Thomson coefficient of an metal. Give its unit. Is it a constant?

6. 7. 8. 9.



In everyday situations one hardly lhinks of the connection between electricity and magnetism.

In 1820. Oersted by a series of experiments established an important result that moving charges exert forces. which ~ different from eleclrostatic forces due to charges at rest. This principle is used in many modem day gadgets like electric meters. motors. and generators. In the previous lesson you have studied about the thermal and chemical effects of electric current. In the present lesson you will study about the magnetic effect of current and their applications in ollr day to day life. Youwill also study the principle of v,lorking of current measuring and detecting devices like galvanometer. ammeters and voltmeter. "



AJkr Slud) :111' dlis iesson. you should be abletci: vi.w"l,=e magnetic effect of electric current; dif/ne 8iot Savart's law and understand its applications; explain Ampere's circui/,II law and its application to find the magnetic field due 10 current in solenoids and toroitls." difine ampere in terms ofmagnetic field: explain the motion of a chal'ged particle in a magnetic field and uMuTstand Lorent= force." describe the behuviour of a current loop in a magnetic field; and e.'plain the principle of working of current measuring and dettcling instruments slIch as galval/ometers. ammeters and voltmeters"


EtTec! of Electric Currenl :.


You have studied earller that1he IIow ofe1eclroPs in a c:oJIductor, due to a potential difference across it, is called dectrlc clll7'Mt. The CUI'I'CIIt flowing in 1he conductor exerts fo~e on a free magnetic needle in a region, this legion is known a magnetic: field. The maglU!tlcfleld is characterised. by the magnitude and direction of the field given by magnetic induction vector B or nuwnetIc lntensIiy. The fieJd is visualised by 1IIIIpetiefleId lbus which give the direction of the field at a point in the space. You will Jearn about ~ and more term, such as magnetic permieability, susceptibility etc. at the appropriate place in this lesson.

18.3.1 Magnetic Field Around an Electric Current

We will do a simple experimmt. FOI'Ibis, you will require a 1.5 volt battery, a win: about 1m long, a campusl!eedJe and a maIch box. Take 1he matd1 box base md wrap tho o1ec:trie 1We on it about l()'IS times. SeeFJ.a.18.1.
Place the campus needle at ita bile. 1\Im wt,. the match box so as to have the.wIroe IUIlI1ing alons the North South cIirectIon.Connect the free ends of the 1We to !be baUeIy. Watch what happens to the needle. The needle deflects. this IIINIIII there Is a magnetic fotce arouod 1he ooiIed up 1We. The 1.1IV' deflec:tionrevenes ifyou chanse!be direction ...... ILl, Dm"""l'tIllon qf.,ognel;c/l.ld dUIO of current by changing the temIinals of the 1M _ _ c,,",n/ bettary. When there is no current in the win: the campus needle points in 1he North South direc:tinn.Fig.18.2(a,b &; c). Fig. 18.2 (d) shows concentric circles around the wire.


In 1820 Hllns Ch,.i8tl"n Ocr., Professor of Physics at Copenhager in Denmark perfOimed similar experiments and established thatthere is a magnetic field around a current

. J}


no dlllllOIIon



I....-_ _ _ _~ (II)

'. ""'I*!*ldlcullir . d III I"- wtre Fla.18.2(a,b,e, )





18.3.2 Biot Savart's Law

We noW present a law that gives a quantitative relationship between the currcot in any conductor and the resulting magnetic field at a point in the space II1'OUIId it. Each part of the conductor con1ributes towards a magnetic field. The net value of B at a point is the combined effect of all the individual parts of the conductor. Acconling to the experiment as shown in Fig. 18.3 we can say that the magnetic field due to any Z current carrying conductor is the vector sum ofthe contribution due to. the current in each minute element oflength LJI. The field IlB due to an element III depends upon
(a) I: current through the conductor; (b) Ill: length of the element: (c) .:!,. : r is the distance of point P


{.fiere the field is to be calculated from the element III (d) 9 : is the angle between the element and the line joiDa the element to the point p.

.Z' JIIf. JI.J:

I III sin 9

II. J IlI.in 471

...{I8.1 )


This is an imperical result and II. is the permeability orVllCUlllllll or air. Its value Is 471)( 10.7 WbA"' m" If the conductor is surrounded by medium then the value of the field is altered and it becomes B - 11 BrHere. 11 represents, the permeabilty ofthe medimn which is diffimml fulm maptic field al a point in vacuum, and B magnetic field at apoint with a mentioned medium of permeability j1.

JJ/1. -

DlrectioD or B : Magnetic field is a vector. Let us conaider the direction of the field produced in some simple cues. As shown in the Fig. 18.4. with your band grasp the wilre, so thai the thumb points (bl cullllllt Into the pImIe d



FIg.II." I Di,...lion oj'magntl/eJl6ld


Magneric EITect of Electric Curran:

in the dim:toin of the current, the curled fingers of the hand point in the dim:tion of the IIUIgIletic field. InFig.18.4(b) check ifthe direction ofmagnetic field matches Ibis description.

In Fig. 18.5, the thumb is along I i.e. the plane containing 01} B is perpendicular to it along the direction of the curl of the fingers of the right band. This is called the right hand grip rille.

18.3.3 Applications of Biot Savart's Law

As Biot Savart's la~ jives the lllllpitude of the masnetic field, it can be used to find the field around cIIff_nt shape. of cunductol'l. However, to find the net field clue to cIIft'ezent

scsmcnts of the weoftbem. acid up the <1 B contribution duecunductor to each 0IIe CalulUi lIlIkes it very 011)'. A few applicstiOlll ofBi.t Savart's law are jiven below. M.p.tlc /I,ld aJ til. C.IIIN of Q circlllar coil carrylllg CIlI"nllt. COIIIidet a wire stifF eI10IIih to form acimllll' loop Ilke 1ll1ee11l111&1e. This would look Ilke PJa. 18.6
To lind the field at 0 due to C1II'I'OIIt element d



t of the circular coil. This element u well u

yo 1lIIY other are It a difta1:Ice ,. &om till centze O. ".,1&6: CImI/",.CQ/J CGr/)IIIIIThe . . . . by Iwilhria9 -90. . UIiDa Biot Savan',Iaw, the field It the centze 0 clue to t .. IS ,
J.l. I -sin 4J 9 48-411 ,...

"4K -1,...
The direction of 48 ia perpeadicular to the xy pllDe along Z-axis. Since the field due to every element ofthe cin:ularcoil ia in the IIIIDICI direction, the resultlnt is found by adding all tile 48 coatributions It the centre of the loop.




: Pbysica


B =~4B = III !AI . 4111"



or B at the centre oC coil oC radius r having a current I in it is ,



In cue there are more then one loop of wire, say there are n turns B--II

IB~ ~l I

...(18.2 )

..(18.3 )

B is measured in teala (T); IT - IN A-I m-I You can cleek the direction of the net field usinaFIg. 18.4. You can use reghtllaDdruie in

any sesment oCtile coil and obtain the 8IIIle result.

(Another simple quick rule to find the diJeetiOll ofllllpetic field due to. coil is as tho1lVllin FiS. 18.7 (a,b).

..". /&1:FIIIdbtf.tIf1wrttJ'''J/'''~jIo/d

When an observer looklDa at the clrcuIlI' coil, finds the cUrrent to be flowm, in the clock wile _ than face oCthe coil behaves like the SoUlh pole of the equiVlleat mapet, or B i. directed in wards., On the other band If the CIJmIIt is _ to flow in the anticlock wile sense the face of the coil behaves like the North pole of the equivalent mapt or the field i. directed towarda younelf.
EUlJlp... 11.1: A.t what diltance fro", a 10llg ,traight wi,. carylng a Clll'lWIII 0/12 A.mp will the IIIIIgMtic field be equal to J )( HI'S 1i,ia. Solution:

2nr B -3)(10-5 T



Magnetic Effect of Electric: CUmDI

1 = 12 Amp


10 TmK





2lt B

= 2 It x 3 )( 10-'

4~ )( 10-7 )( 12

INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


WhaJ Is the 1ItIIIIrI of the field developed by ? (i) a 3tatlonary electron?

............................................ , ................. .
2. Elecl1'O/U In a conductor are In COII8tant motion due to tempfratv7t. wily do they not ,how th, propert)l of lfIlIp.t18m lUll." a pot.ntlal diJfertnc. to appll.d

(ii) a moving electron?

..... , ............. , ....... , .................................. .

3. A cll17Vnt is flowing In a long wi". It Is firlll IIhaplti. as a circular coil of on, tUl'll. Qlld then Into a coil of two tIIm.J of small.r raiJllI.'J. In which cas' Is th, 1fIlIp,t/c field at the centre stronger and by how much? On what factors do" the field around a Cur"lIt carrying cOllductor depend upon ? Us, Blot Savartf Law.


II ?



Ampere's circuital law is another property of magnetic field around a current carrying conductor. This can be used to find the field in some simple situations. Ampere's circuital law states that the line integral of the masnetic field B around any closed path or cin:ult is equal to 1'0 times the total current lthreading this closed circuit This i. independent of the size or shape of the closed path or cirult. ...(18.4)
In order to understand this conslder an infinitely lona Slraisht conductor carrying current I Fig. 18.8.

Consider acircular loops ofndius r. We have alresdy


seen that the lines ofB also form cmles around tile wire. Then magnetic field is parellel to de every where 00 the loop. Further the magnitude ofB is also same st all points ofthe loop.
= IB de cos 9 (9=0) =IBde Now IB.de along the circular loop will be =B-2 x r But B from Siot savart's iaw

1& de



21t r

I B.dI = 1-1/ 2'op.


=1-11 o
Thus, Ampere's law is derived usina Biot Savart's law.

.. (18.5)

In case, the imasined loop in not circular, we CIID cansjder dot product ofB.dl1l every point, wbere I I!Id de lD&y DOt be aloua the same line.
But, de-r9

!be Fla. 18,9 shows any Imapwt Ibape of clOMd loop. The wire puaes 1brouah O. DlYidiq the clOMd loop into many IIIII1l dI.


I B.dI-I.dI COl e
I, 'CIl, + I.' dI, ++-- - 1,.cII,

Since I II pmllel to dill each amaIl

lDIDIeIIt, COl 9 - 1

But eIl the centre 0 - 2 1r, 10 to tnce the eadJe loop 1'bis law II valid for any "M'DhIy ofcurrent I!Id for any arbitlry closed loop





n.... tbillaw it valid for any ..-Illy of current I!Id for any arbiuuy c10Md loop.

18.4. 1 Applieatiou of Ampere'. CireaiDl Law

1be Ampcre'l law Cllllbies us to obtain die ~" field in two situatiolla in a v)' simple maJIII. Both the8e results .., of praetiea1 value and are odJerwiJe difficult to obIIIiD.
(a) Mapetic tleId dae to . . iDfbdtelyloq

coadactor carr:JiB& e~t

Fig. 18.10 shows a CODductor POQ C8II')'ina a current I. Take a circular loop of radius ,. around it in the pl_ as sbown. l B.dl = B.2l11' = IIJ by die law :. B.211" 9IJ

I (e cIn:uII)

Itt 1&11:,ifIIII/IIIy"",._

or B - 2.JJ,,/. lU



This ai.vea 1be fie\d II:'OIDl a IIIIiabt CIJIIdI.....,.


(b) Toroidal SoIeaold : 'like a lup IOleaokL

Brina toptber its euda A "B. This CID llso be piClUriJecl by tIkiDa a bqIe aDd wrappiDa I wire on it. all 110lIl its circumference. It wouIdlooltIlkeFij.18.1l.
M"".fIk FWiluib r-III: COIIIider I section or cut of die toroid in tbe PD of 1be JIIIIIII'. The current loops SO out ollbe 1"ofthe paper at 1be outeI rim, aDd into 1be 1"oftbe peper at die iDDer rim Fig. 18.12. PQR, aDd PQ'R' are two amperian loops one inside the toroid aDd tbe other outside it.

Ittl&II: ......

if I is the ClIITeIII tbrouah tbe toroid aDd if tbere are H IllIIIIber of tums. a totsl of HI current flows in tbe inlier riDI!. We have ,1.eIl -I' I B " cIIlJ'e 110118 die SIIIIO directioa. B.llll' - P NI


!'oN! llll'


If,. is the radius oftorokl ; - . N . _ wilen: n - . - or IU1I11her oftuml perllllit ___ 2111'


17te 1IfIIgIIeIk.fW4 B depetu/811pt111

(a) -C\J!reIlt (J) (b) number oftumperuaitlqlh(n}

What about the field 0IdIidc the toroicl ? We can tID IIIDti.IIIIQICR'i.a con:uit PQ'R.' out side the toroid ; but wiIh centre '0.

The net curnm p"lIi"i wi1hin this cin:uIar diJc is ..,. SDtce NI pawaln IIId out It the imler IIld outer rima oftile toroicla. Thua, B is :rMO.
What will be the dbeetloa ofB ., 1bIt will be tanpnd.1 to tile circle.

(e) Map. tlekl dae to IOIIllOId

So1eDold ilallrliabt con bavh!a IIrp number ofloopI_ in allrllabt Uae wiIh. gommO/l
axis alllbown in FIg. 11.13.

Ifa current I flows tbrouab the wire a .,.IPo!iC field seta up around it. A and B ue two eDdJ of the solenoidof1ength/baviDaNnumberoftlll'lll.

To find IIIIIpOtic field insicki, a10118 the axis in Fia11.13. we can COIllIicler It te be a sectiO/l ora toJOidaI solenoid of a very 1arp Jadius.
B - ~.IN
The direction of the field is a10118 the lXis of tile solenoid. A atraisbt solenoid is finite. it II1II endI. Therefore,


should be correct W\\ll inside the soJeooid, near ita ceal:ftIlIld at points close te the axis. It can be seen mathematically that fur soleooidl oflllll1l ftIdiuI, B It the aadI is IIpJlI'OXiJIIal

-- --'B

Il" IN


The solenoid behaves like a bar mapetllld themapedc field due tea solenoid isDlUChlike the bar magnet as shown in Fig. 11.14.

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current.

Soleooids and Toroids are widely used in motors. generators. toys. fan windings. transformers. elecb'Omagnets etc. They are used to provide uniform magnetic fields. Sometimes to increase S different materials may be placed within the ",Mings
Example 18.1:. A solenoid 5()cm long lUIS 3 layers of windings of 250 lUrns each. Thit" radius of the lowest layer is lcm. If the current through it is 4.0 A. Estimate the magnilUte of B, fa) near the centre of the solenoid on and about the axis. (b) near the ends on its axis. fc) outside the solenoid /lear the middle.

Fig. IlL14: .\'u!enoiJ field is nm('/-, like Ihe bar "'ll.f{1I1!1

(al at the centre or near it B= Iln'
to find n

= 250

for 1 layer

50 ., for 3 layers it would be 3n

or tor 3 layer total nwubcr of turns. = ~~O x 3 = 15 em-I

'" 1500 m-I B=4ltx10 x 1500 x 4 = 16)( ISlt x (05 Tesln

Same about the a.xis also.

(b) at the ends Bends = , B ,",,,

ISlt x 105 Tesla (c) Outside the solenoid the field isnegtigible.





I, A drawing of the lines afforce qf (J magnetic field provides illfol'malioll on (a) direction of./ield only (b) magnitude of field ani), (e) bath the direction and magllittlde of the .field (d) the force of tlU! field ........ ,........ ' " ..................... .....................

2. What is common between Biot Sovart s law and Ampere s circuital law ? ................ ............ , .. .................. ........... .
' ' '


3. In the following drawing of line offorce of a non-lIIIi!orm magnetic field at which point is the field (0 uniform? (ii) weakest? (iiiJ alrollgest?




4. A solenoid /Ocm long is meant to have a magnetic field O.OO2T inside it, wlwlt a current of 3A flows through it. Flng the required turns . ..... . ................. . . ;. ..................................... .


We have understood that a current canying cinductor generates a magnetic field aroUlld it. we are now going to see what happens if a magnet is brought close to such a conductor. You can make your guesses. To support your imagination we can .pe! fonn a simple experiment. For this you need a pencil. 25cm of flexible connecting wire. a jhora pin U-clip ( or a .. piece of copper or awminium wire about IScm long). a battery. two glasses of equal size: See the set up as shown in Fig. 18.16.

Berid the stiff wire into a ~U"shape and slightly bend its ends. Now tie one end of one of the flexible wires to the ~U". Connect the other wini to the other end of the U. Loop the wire over the pencil, U is suspended from the JICI1cil like a swing. Pass current through the wire.

Magnetic Effect ofEIec:uic Cumm Next tjdce the magnet and bring it close to the U. The U- wire swings. What do you think is the reason for this? Stop the current and see if !he swing again takes place. The reason is tbat like tbe interaction between two magnets here also field due to the magnet and the one produceded by the eurrent in the U interact - creating an attraction or repulsion. It islikc; exerting a meclJaoica1 force on it.

If the U wire was fixed. the force would have been there but its effect unseen.
Righ, hlJlld ptdm rule : The direetion of force on a conductor canying cUlTCnt when placed in a magnetic field is given in a simple way by right hand rule (Fig.

Stretcb the right hand palm sucb that the thumb is perpendicular to the fingers and points in the direetion of current I. the fingers point in the direetion of extemal magnetic field Bo Then the force F on the conductor will be perpendicularto the palm in the direetion of pushing by the palm.

Take a paper and fold it, tIUIrlt I along the fold; B aIong the edge of the w-r fold
then the direction of'Fis along the edge

n,. 1&1' : DlrtetlOII o[[orce 011 G curmrl-.yl1f/f



18.5.1 Foree on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field

When a cIwgod body is moved in a magnetic field, it experiences a force. experienced by a moving charge is called the l.ormIr./Drce.

Such a force

You might wonder that we have been talking about currents and now suddenly we are saying a 'moving charge'. Well. sinee the Lorentz force and its magnitude was determined for moving charges, we consider it and later extend the idea to the eurrmts.
According to this the Lorentz force on a particle with a charge +q moving with a velocity 'v in a magnetic field B is given by,



F=q(vxB) = q v BsinO

... (18.9)



where 9 is the angle between the diRction of v aud 8 the diRction of F is aivCD by riPt band palm rule.

Some important points

1. Fiu ",tcJronIcaIf_l'aIIltingiu]1lll1 Of'ap1Uh.

1. 11M diTw:IiOil off- is Biwn by,IM rlr/tt It<md role.

3. ill """ offlllgatlwt cIuup ..ovtng. ,IMtIiTw:ti"" ofib ",otIon to ...,.,.,1II......,u. to F.

4. Q'tMcIuup.,Dp8. tJr./tn .,ipilutlllllly. j. F""",to..,..,!/tMcIItirge",_al_tMjWd B.

6. F__ to ........... I/cIuup-JHI'P.wJkwJIII'totMjWd ~ by F -lIqll

18.5.2 Force on a Conductor Carrying Cnrrent in a Magnetic Field

The idea in the above section can be extended to current canying conductors for fon:e on a

chaIJe q moving with velocity 'v' perpendicular to '8' is,

IFI-qvB Suppose the charge 'q' travels a distlux:e AI' in time .!>t'
Ilt v=-Ilt


F=q - - 8


=> =>


{Ie~, rate oftlowofcharge}



If conductor makes 111 angle 9 with a the 11 F = IAI B sin 9


) ) )




n. ctinIcIicm of the fwee OIl a eumm carryIna c:coductor in a.lIIIIp8lic .Bel4 is fiuIB the resioa of stroDg field to the reQion ofweak field.
The. UDit of IJUl8lldic field '8' can be expressed. as the force experienced by a cum:nt carryIna ooocIuctor in the field. From equ. 18.10.
F 8=-


F is taken in newton, I in ampere and A I in metre, tben the unit of 8 will be NA" m".

If I m long cooductor, carryIna I ampere current is placed perpendicular to ~ maptic field, expericoces a force of lnewton tbeil the IJUl8lldic field is 1 tesIa.

tesia = 1 newton )( (amperer' )( (metref'


18.5.3 Foree Between two ParaDel Wires Carrying Current

EIICl)' CUJrent carrying conducter is surrounded .., a magnetic field, and because of thl~ nearby exert forces upon nearby current carrying conducter. The fur\le is mutual, The forces are magnetic is origin ; a cummt carrying wire bas no net electric cbarge, and hence cannot intenct electriOlty with another such wire.









FiB 18.20 IIbows two panillel wires separated by distaw:e r aad carrying cum:nt I, and I, rapectively. The magnetic fields due to e8cl! wire at distance r are Po I, f.lo I,



The tie&ds are perpeadil:1Ilar to the ICIIIJIh of the wiles and therefore !he fun:e OIl a iengbl L ofCUI'I'aJt is, . . ""II F=BlL=>-- I L 2lrr 2


Fon:cperunitlengtb= - - 21tr

The fon:es are IIItTaC1iw when !he currenIS are in the same direction and repulsive when !bey are in 0J1P081lf! diredions.

DeIhddoa fIIa.pen : We know that


1'0 ,1, --=-1,1 2lU'

I, = 1,= IA, .... =4x x I - 1m, and .,. .. 1m

fl.411: x 10-7


Wb A-' m-'

F=-= 2lt



11k.. If two ptll"lll1eI wins canybrg tllJlIIII CIUI'eIU8 lITe p/l.rced 1m tIptIrt ill vaclUUfl or IIIr ~ce .1NIt1Mllforr% of 2 x [(J-7 N Ifrl, tlrm tire cwunt br each wire is one

18.5.4 Motion of a Cllarged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field

We cin now lhinkofvarious situations in which a charged particle or current carrying coaductor. Wbeu placed in a magnetic field.. moves due to L01'r!nt= foice:

maaniJUde .

The force on die particle of charge 'q' moving with velocity 'v' in a magnetic field B bas the

1'-.. -."-qvB--sin-O--'1

obcius the angle I",tween 'v and 'B'. The direction of the force 'F' is given by die right
baodrulc. The work done b) a force on a body depends on the components of the force in the direction the body IIIOYCS. When the force on a charged particle in a 1fKlgnelic field is pe,.pendicular 10 its dlnction of motion, lhe/O,.ce does no work 011 il. Hence. the particle keeps the same speed v and energy it had when it entered the field. even .though it is deflected. On the other haDd. the speed and energy of charged particle in an electrical field are always affected by the interaction between the field and particle, when v is perpendicular to E. A c!1arged particle moving perpendicular to a magnetic field follows a circularl'ath as ~"own in Fig. 18.21.

Magnetic Effect of Electric Current To find die radius R of the circular path ofdle charged particle. we note that die magnetic force qvB provides the particle with the centripetal force mY' that keeps it moving in a R circle. Equating the magnetic and centripetal forces we have.


Solving for R we have




The mdil4.f ofthe charged particle's orbit 1'1g. 18.21 : Path ofa cluugedpomcl. in a uniform magnetic field is directly propoI1ional to its momemum (ml) and inversely propoI1ionaI to its charge and to die magnetic field. R oc v. if III, D, q are constant The 8f'eIIler the momeDtum, the larger the circle, and the stronger the ~Id, the smaller die circle. The time period ofrotation ofdle particle in circular path is given by,
T= - I)



21t 1111)


I 2; I


We see that the time period is independent of velocity and radius which means once the particle is in die Jll88Detic field it would go round and round in a circle. If III, B. q, are same this T remains <:ODSt8nt even if 1/ and R are different.
Now . . . . wlultlaappeas te R aad Tlftbe foIIowIDge..."l"'Sft ..... !
<.)fioIdBisDlldo ........... (b)fioIdBisDlldo ........... (,,) fioI4 B _ 1 0 exist, (eI) dinoc:Iica of Bill .b....... <e) !be panicle in DIldo to OIItor Ihe IIIIgIlOIic field at. hiBb'" speed. (I) !be panIeIe - ' . . . lIIIIIe 10 B,

(c)!be ....... portic!e_itJcharge.

EUlllpH 18.4 : Using the figure gillen below ca/cuIQle the force acting over a length of j III of the wires. What if the natI/1'e of tlri.r force?

SoIudoD: When cumnts flow in two long parallel wires in die same directions, die wires exert a force of lIltraction OIl each other, P

-=-I 21tr


Jlo I, I,


Fig. 18.22


.: I'hysics


2x 10",
10-1 Nm"


lor 5m length, F = 5x I 0-4)0,

Example 18.S: An electron with velocity 3 x /0 7 m Sol describes Q circular JX1th in magnetic Jield ~r ().2T. perpendicular to it. What is the radius of the path? Solution :
m, . = 9 x 10'" kg = 1.6 x IO"C


9xlO'll x 3xlO7


INTEXT-QUESTION 18.3 -::-:--_ _--:-:-_ _-:---~---'-

I, A stream ofprotons is moving parallel to a stream of electrons what is the natwe of force between them ?

2, Both the electl beMeen them ?

and magneticfield can deflect an electron, What is the difference

3. A body in suspended from the lower end of 0 vertical spring.' What shall be the effect on the position of the body when a current is sent through the spring. Does it depe/Ili upon the direction of current in the spring?


Two long. JX1rallel wires are hanging freely. If they are connected to a battery (a) in series, (b) in JX1rallel, what would be the effect on their positions ?


In section 18.3.3, we had considered the field at the centre ofa coil. It was given by

1l.I B';-


This also means that a cwrent canying coil behaves like a magnetic dipole having north and south poles. One face of the loop becomes as North pole while the other as South pole.

C8IIIIidrz. simple exmceisc lIllY bar mapet is suspeuded by Cbread ~ the horse shoe IIIIgIIde as shown in Fig. 18.23.

What do you tbink will happen IIDdwhy? There i!I' repulsi.on between like poles beDce the bar JIUI8IICt will rotate IIDd turn through 180" to alip.1ike in Fig. 18.23 (b). Siniilarly a cummt carrying coil will rotate to align its dipole in the extmIal field.

18.6.1 Magnetic Moment of a Dipole

This is defiDed as the moment of the o:mple which acts on tbe dipole when it I. kept perpendicular to uniform magnetic tieldofunitlltlellgth(Fig. 18.24). A couple is a pair of oqual IIDd opposite fcm:es for which the line of action is DOt the same. Moment of the couple - force )( pcrpeodiculardistance ~ the line of action oCtbe force.

'\ "'F. - I' Moment of tile couple - II' )( b This is also oJ.Ied torque (t).


b ----~

(F,)" (F.) .. F

,., lU4 : EqIIII1 -."""./tltwI /ICIIIt, ... adJpde

18.6.2 Torque on a Current Loop

A loop of cummt in a uniform magnetic field (B) experi_ DO net force bllt instead a torque acts on it This tends to rotate the loop.coiI to briDg its plane pezpendicular to B. This is the principle that Ullderlines the operauon of all electric motors, meten etc.
Let us examine tbe force on each side of. rectaDguIar.current carryina loop where pIaae is parallel to a uaiform field B.Fig. 18.25 (a).



98 :: Physics


FIg. 18.15: (a) (1))

The sides A and C of the loop are parallel to B heru:e there is no force on them. Side B and D are perpendicular to B, however, and each tberefure experiences a force. We can find the directions of the force on B and D.

F. = FD - so there is no net force on the loop. But F. aud FD do ROt IIi:t aloog the _Iiue and hence they exert a torque on the loop that tends to turn it. This holds good for a cumut loop of any shape in a magnetic field.
In case the plane of the loop is perpendicular to the ~ field inNad ofparallel to it, there is neither a net force nor a net torque on it. See Fig.18.2S(b). A current carrying loop in a magnetic field always tends to turn so that its


perpendicular to the field.

Tarque = force x perpendicular distance -----4~------ID~ between the forces


e is the ansJe between the magnetic field B- - - - A+-+----.....

and the normal to the plane ofthe coil D. The torque is then,

r=NBILbsine N is the n.umber of\Unlii of the coil

r= NBI A sin e A is area of the coil = Lx b r= NB m sin e Where m = fA is known as the magnetic moment of1hD .....gnetic Iaop (coil).

...(1"'-14) .. .(IUS)

Thus. we see that the torque :-is directly proportional to B,

e, A, I. audN.


Magnetic Effe;:t ofElednc ClIfmlt

'18.6.3 Keepiag the Torque Constant

Ifa unifOJm rotation ofthe loop is desired in a magnetic field. we need to have a constant torque. The c:auple would be approximIItely coastant ifthe plane of the coil w.:re always parallel to the magnetic field. This is achieved by making the pole pieQesofthemagnetcurvodtogivearadiai field
If inside the loop or a coil a soft iron core in placed, this would l\IlIke the I118j!11Ctic field stronger. hence ~e the torque greater (Fig. 10.21).

Perhaps. a more simple way of understandjng the rotation of a coil in a rill 111.27 : C _ ' ..... 011 D <tJIl. m8gneuc field is to remember that as soon as the CUITCIlt flows through the coil. it becomes a magnet. If it is free to move it rotates Until the S pole of the coil is'opposite to the Npole of the JlUll!llet and vice versa.

18.6.4 GalVanometer
From what we have learnt so far. we can thiok of an instrument to detCct and _ current in any circuit. A divice doing precisely this is c:aJled a gUv_ter.

The principle of a galvanometer is that when a currient corrying coil I.r p{at;ed in a magnetic field it experiences a torque. CoJlStnletioll : k corisists ofa coil wound on 8 soft iron tame. A soft iroa eyIiDder il pbIcecl inside the coil. The assembly is supported on two pivots altaChed to spriDp with 8 pointer. This is placed betwmt the radial poles of a b.one shoe JBIIgI"IOt, _ YII- 11.28. Theory: When CUITCIlt is passed through the coil. it rotstes due to the torque acting on it. The spring sets up restoring force and bence. 8 restoring torque.

If a. is the angle of twiill and k in the reSlaring torque per uai.t twiCr ~ COIUtIIIIt. NBMsin& NBM =



= 90" for radial field)



a =Go.; Where. G =K


is cded


....(1 11)

or i.e

.11 xl II ilpropartioaaItol


Deflection produced in a galvanometer is proportiooa1lO theClln'Cllt fIowina tbrougbit provided N. B. A and K are cOlI$tant.

is known as current sensitivity.'

It is defined as the diflection of the coil per unit current. The more the current.1CI'OI!8 die torque and the coil turns more. Galvanometers c~ be constructed to respond to very small current of the order ol~.1 microampere (10A). ' , , . . .

Fig. 1&28: ConstruC/ion '!Igalwmonrettl1'

Condition for a sensitive galvanometer: In order to have a more seasitive galVllDllllllller. I. N shollid be large, 2. B should be large and uniform, 3. face area A of the coild should be large,

4. K should be small.
The values of N and A cannot be increased beyond a certain limit. Large values of N and A will increase the electrical and inertial resistance and the size of the galvanometer. B can be increased using a strong horse shoe magnet and by mounting the coil on a soft iron core.
The value of K can be decreased by the material such as quartz or phospher bronze. Shunt: Shunt is a low resistance connected in parallel with the galvanometer. It is used to protect the galvanometer from strong

!..~ f' ,,


Fig. 18.29 : Shunt resi.rtDl'l ~ 10 II



Magnetic Effect ofEledric CurrcIIt

cummts. A strong current maydamage the g&tvanomcter by producing a IaJBe torque. To over come this. a low resistance (i.e. shUDt) is connected io parallel with the coil. The major portion ofthe current passes through' this low (i.e. shunt) ~ only a small portion passes through the instrumenL Due to this the coil remains safe.(See Fig. 18.29).


CurreBt tltrough the plvanometer circuit I.et I is the total current in the circuit. G, is resistance of the galvanometer. S is resistance "f the shunt. I. is current through galvanometer. and I, current through the shUllt From your knowledge in the lesson 16. we have.

I. G = (/-1.) S

or. I,



...(18.17) ....(18.18)


I.G G --=l{-}

16.6.5 Ammenter and voltmeter

(a) Ammeter: An Ammeter is a low resistance galvanometer. Its stale is calibrated to give the value of current in the circuit. A galvanometer can be converted into an ammeter by shUllting it. For this a low resistance wire is connected in parallel with the plv8llOlDCler. The resistance of the shUllt depends on the range of the 8llIDIeW and can be calculated as


m = resistance of galvanometer.
N = number of scale divisions in the galvanometer. K = figure of merit or current for one scale deflection in the galvanometer.

Then, curreot \Wich produces full scale deflection in the galvanometer is. fa = /11K.

Let I be the maximum current to be measured by the galvanometer.

Refer to Fig. 18.29 and using eq: (18.17) we can get.

S -



Where S is the shunt resistance \Wich can be calculated using eq. (18.18).

As G endS are in parallel to each other. therefore the effective resistance R.. oftbe _



S + G =GS S+G R= GS
As the shunt resistance is small. the combined ruistance of the galvano_ter and the shunt is very low and, hence. ammeter resistance Is lower tlran the galvano_ter. An ideal _eter bas zero resistaance. It is always CODDeCted in series with the circuit SO that all the current passes through it without increasing the circuit resistance. (b) Voltmeter : A voltmeter is a high resistance galvanometer. It is used to measure the potential difference between two points in a circuit

A gaivanometer can be converted into a vol1meter by connecting a suitsble high mJistance in series with the galvanometer as shown in Fig 18.30. The value ofthe resistance depends upon the range ofvol1meter ) and can be calculated as follows. ; ",

r - - -

- -'Va11mt18


'- -


_ _ ol

A high resistance. say R is connected in series with the galvanomter coil. Ifthc potential difference across AD is Y volt,

Total resistance of the voltmeter =G + R From Ohm's law I. (G+R)=V

G+R=...E . . I.

=1 R = f.



This means, if a resistance of R is connected in series with the coil ofthegalV8llOlDeter, it works as a vol1meter of raage 0-V volts.

Now, the same scale of the galvanometer wbich was ~ the -wum pokIIltia1/. G before conversion will record the potential yafter conversion into vol1meter. The scale can be calibnlted accordingly. The resistance of the voltmeter is bigber than the I,ilvanometer. Effec:tive resistance of the vol1meter,

I Rp.=G+R I
The resistance of an ideal voltmeter is inliDity, it is connected is pamIlel acrOss the points, wbOae potentia1 diffeRaI:e is to be found in .. ma:m. It istbal expa:lOd DOt to cIraw Illy CUIl'eIII and yet the galvanometer coil to detlect. Seems quite impossibleZ Think about it


Magnetic Effect of Electric CWl'CDI

Eumple 11.6; A eircular coil of J{) turns ond raditlS 8.0 em. carrymg a CIIn'SIIt of 6.0,"" is SlISpeUd vertically m Q /I1Iiform horicontal magnetic field of magnihlde 1.0 T. The field /ilJes moire an angle of 9(JD with lhe norma/to tire coil Calculate the magnitude of the counter torqu<' that must he applied to prew:nt the coil from hmling.
SolutioD : N = 30. I = 6.0 A. B = 1.0.T. 0= 9IJO r = 8.0 em = 8)< 10-2 m Area (Al of the coil =

1t r2

if x

:8x 10-2P

2.0\" 10'2 m!

Torque =

30 x 6 x 1.0 x (2.01 x 10-2 ) x sin 90" 30)( 6)( (2.01 x 10-2) 3.61 NIl'I

= =

Example tll.7: A galvanometer with a coil of resistance J2.0 n shows a full scale deflection for a CJlTN!nt of 2.5 mAo How will you convert the meter into (a) an _re, of range 0 - 2A? (b) voltmeter of range 0 - 10 volt?
l>olutiOD: (a) G= 12.0 n. I = 2 A, S=?

I. =2.5 rnA =2.5 x' 10-3 A.

I, S =( - ) G I-I.

2.5 x IO,J
3x 12 2-25x 10-

= 15 x

10-3 0

Thus. for converting a galvanometer. a shunt of! S x 10-3 n resistance shooId be cODDeCted in parallel to the coil
(b) For convemOIlmto voltmeter. leI R be the resistance to he COIIIIeCted 'in series. V
R=--G I 10

2.5 x 10']


4000 -120

Thus, a resistance 00988 0 should be connected in series to convertinto voltmeter.




INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


What is radial magnetic field?

What;s the main function of a soft iron core used in a moving coil galvanometer? ..................... ; . . ........ . . . .. ' " ..... . 3. Which olle has the lowest resistance - ammeter. voltmeter,and gal,va1Wmeter. explain.'

-/, A galvanometer havi/lg a coil of resistance 20 n neeils 10 rnA current for fidl scale deflectio", In order to pass a maximum of 3A througlJ the galvanometer, what resistance should be added and how?



Every current carrying conductor has a magnetic field ~und it. The value of magnetic field strength is given by Biot Savart's Law. 48 =.l!ol. AI sin fl 4lt r' The direction of magtle!ic field is given by right hand grip rule. Unit of magnetic field is tesla and IT = INA 'm". Field at the centre tor a flat coil is

Ampere's circuital law also gives the magnitude ofthe magnetic field ~und a conductor. tit B.dl = J.I I " using. this B due to a toroid and solenoid are calculated =)I.. nI n = number of turns per uni: lenght for a long II> r} solenoid Thefield at the edges is =.JJ,...nJ.

=...!:L r

o o o

Moving charges have a magnetic field around them. A mechanised force acts on a current carrrying conductor in a magnetic field. The Lorentz force on a moving charge q is F=q(v x B) and its direction is given by right hand palm rule. The mechanical force on a wire of Icnghl L and carrying a current of I in a magetic field B is F=BIL Mutual torce per unillength between parallel striaght conductors with currents I, I, is

~.I, I,

2lt I'

A charged particle traces a circular path ifit enters a magnetic field at right angles

Radius of the path R =- qB



M.aguetic Effect ofElec:lric CumDt .

A current loop behaves like a magnetic dipole. A current cmying coil placed in magnetic field exPrleru:es a torque given by

=NBIA sinO T=NBIA,ifO=90 Galvanometer is an instrument used to detect electric current in a circuit. An ammeter. is a sunted galvanometer and voltmeter is a galVIlDOllleter with a high resistance in series. Current is measured by an ammeter and potential difference by voltmeter.

18.8 TERMINAL QUESTIONS _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

2. 3.




10. II.


Howwill you show that a CUllent carrying conductor has a magnetic field arrourid it? How will you find its magnitude and direction at a particular place?' A fon:e acts upon a charged particle moving in a magnetic field, but this force does not change the speed of the particle. Why? At any instant a clwged particle is moving parallel 'to a long, straight current carrying wire. Does it experience any force? A current of 10 ampere is flowing througba wire, It iskeptpeqxmdicularto amagnetic field of ST. Find the force on its lito m length. A long straight wire carries a current of 12 amperes. Calculate the intensity of the magnetic field at a distance of 48 em from it. TwoparaIIel wires. each 3m long, are situated at a distance ofO.OSm from each other. A current of SA flows in each ofthe wires in the same direction. How mucll force will act on the wires? What will be its nature? The magnetic field at the centre ofa sOcm long solenoid is 4.0 x to2 NA-1 m-I when a current of8.0A flows through it, find the number of turDs in the solenoid. Of the two identical galvanometers one is to be converted into an ammeter and the other into a milli - ammter. Which ofthe shunts will be ofa larger resistance? The resistance of a galvanometer is 200 and gives a fiill scale deflction for O.OOSA. Find the value of shunt requited to change it into an ammeter to measure lA What is the resistance of the ammeter? . An electron is moving in a circu1arorbit of radius 5 xlO'II m attheratcof7.0 x lOIS revolutions per see. Calculate the magnetic field B at the centre of the orbit. Calculate the magnetic field at the centre ofa flat circular coil containing 200 turDs, of radius 0.16m and carrying a current of 4.8 ampere. See the following Fig. 18.31 and calculate the magnetic field at A, B and C.


> -





Inten q"UestiODS 18.1
I. 2.
(i)elcctrical (ii)magnelic Cooducters an: netlb"al and have.no net eleettical field. The IbermaI eleclroDs CIUlCel the magnetic effect prochx:ed by 1bem due to random moIion, heace no net magnetic ficld. . In fustcase length of wire t = 2 lrr, In second case 1eug1h ofwile e, = 2(2lrr,)


Butt,=e, ::

r,= r,

:. Using B =




-=-=--=B, " 2(u,) 4


Heuce. B, = 4B,

"",0 -

B a



a 5.

1. (- distance from the wire) r

= 110 /
4. x 10 x 8

Field at C due to straigbt wile B

= 211: X 10 x IIr'
= 16x 10 NA ..

Field due to the coil B =


= 1611: x 10
Net field = BI =

NA m


(If - 1)(16 x 10")

= 34.3)( 10

Inte:lt questions 18.2

Both give B value due to current in-conductors. (i) A. (ii) (iii) B.

3. 4.

N " B =~ /, TherefQre,pulIingtbegivenvalues\WsetN = 5.3 x



IO-' T


Magnetic ErIect of Electric Current

loten questioos 18.3 I + p t ./.e- therefore repulsion

2. The force exerted by a magnetic field on a moving charge is perpendicular to the motion of the charge. hence the work done by the force on the charge is = O. So the KE ofthe charge does not change. In an electric field the deflection is in the direction of the field. hance; accelerates on a sttaight track. The direction of cmrent in each turn ofthe spring is the same. Since parrallel currents in the same direction exert force of artraction. the turns will come closer and the body shall be lifted upward. whatever be the direction of the current in the spring. In series.,the cmrent in them will be in opposite directions. hence they repel each other moving farther apart. In parrallel. the currents in them "ill be in the same direction. Hence they will artract each other and come closer.



Intext Question 18.4 Radial magpeti.c field is one in which B remains constant for the plane of the coil 1.


always lies in the" direction ofthe magnetic field. (i) This makes the magnetic field radial. In mICh a magnetic field the plane of the coil is always parallel to the direction ofmagnetic field. (ii) This increases the strength of magnetic field due to the crowding of the magnetic lines offorce through the soft iron core. which in tum increases the sensitivity of the

Ammeter has the lowest resistance where as voltmeter has the highest resistance. Using, II = - - I


S+G S=O.3



There are some materials (fouod in nature or artificially made) whida aaract iron pieces and they have some important uses in our day to day life like, Iarge IJIa8llCI5 are used to lift heavy loads, small magnets are used in instruments such as ammeter, .voItmeters. transformers, motors,loud speakers etc., Magnetic tapes are used in solll1!l recordin&. T.V. recordings, computers etc., very'bigh intensity magnetic fields are being employed in fusion

The phenomenon ofmagnetism was known to Greeks as early as 600 B.C. They fouDd Ihat some stones called magnetite (Fe,O,) attract iron pieces. After the year 1819 wilen Ham
Oersted discovered the relation between magnetism and electric current we c!o not look at magnetism as a separate force. It is one of the effects of electric current.

In this lesson you willieam about the laws of magnetic forces, the bebaviOlD' of the earth like a huge magnet and the various classes of magnetic materials.

After studying this lesson, you should be able to : explain current loop as a magnetic dipole; describe the magnetic field due to a dipole in two dimensions; define the magnetic field and magnatic field liRa; understand the magnetic effect ofelectric current; ~ classify the materials on the basis o/their behaviour in magneticfiekb; describe the behaviour .of a magnetic dipole in a uniform magneticfield.

, ,


YouJmultady llludied tile folIowingequations in 1he lesion IlIl elcctIOiIlatio:s. The electric fielct of a dipole at a far point 0l11he axis of tile dipole is

I;=!. ~
4u" r
If the dipole is placed in a uniform electric field E. It experiences a torquc 1;-=pxE -r=pE sin6




wbjIe studying the magnetic effects of electric current you have learnt about tile magnetic field B of a circular coil carying current at a point. Situated on the line passing through its centre and nmmaI to its plane is given by

11. 2NU 1\ 11. 2M B=- - - a = -41t xl 41t


\WereM is the magnetic dipole mOment.

If tbia dipole is ~ in a unifol'l1l magtJetic field B it experiences a torque
.... (19.4)

or /'t I =

IMIID! sine

The symbols in these equations cany the usual meaning. Now you compare the equations (19.1) and (19.2) for electric dipole with theequatioos (\9.3) and (19.4) for current loop. You will observe the similarity between them with the difference that the COlllIUInt in the electric' field equation is _1- while that in magnetic field equation is (J!o) 4~. 41t

The compariSion leads us to the conc:lusions that :


a CUlTent loop behaves as a magnetic dipole with dipole moment M-NIA



The two poles of a magnetic dipole. being lhe two faces of a currenl loop are

(iii) A magnetic dipole in a uniform magneticfield behaves Ihe same W<!Y as an electric dipole in a unifOl'lrJ electric field.


A magnetic dipole also has a magnetic field around it similar 10 the electricfield around an electric dipole.

Thus magnetic field due to a magnetic dipole at (a) an axial point is given by

11 2M B= _ . 411 x' and at (b) an equitorial point






19.3.1 Magnets and their Pmperties

Naturalllllipels are wt;ak. but III8Ieriala iron, DiclreI, cobalt may be ~.alal mto stroDgpenilanent magnets. All JD88IIdS-natmal audartificWhave same pr...... 1ics. Some of the properties of magnets are :
(i) Dinetive property: A small bar magnet when suspended freely, OIl i1s CCIIIIe of mass, so as to rotate about a verlical axis always scays in approximately geoantphicaI NorthSouth direction. (li) AJtrtu:tive Property : A magnet attracts small pieces of ferromagnetic materials like iron, nicked, cobalt. The force of at1raction is maximum at two points _ the ends of the magnet. These points are_called as the poles of the magnet. Ina freely 81'Sp"t"1ed magnet. the pole which points towards the geographical north is called is north pole aud the one which points towards the south is called south pole. (iii) Unlike poles of two magnets attract each other aud like poles repel.

(iv) The two poles of a magnet are inseparable, i.e. magnetic poles axist in pairs. (v) The force between tWo magnetic poles obeys inverse squase law.
ml m, ,..(19.8) 4n r where m1 and m, are the SIIenIdw of the two poles aud ris the sepIrItion ben.DOD tbe two poles. II" .. 4n x 10-7 Wb A-I m-I

. I.e.

IFI-Il. -

(vi) Induc:tion preceeds attraction of a piece of iron by a magnet.

(vii) Repulsion is the surest test for disIinguDishina bmv~ a magnet aud a piece of iron.

19.3.2 Magnetic Field Lines

We have already defined the nwgnitlltk auddirectitm:;aO ' magnetic field. A very convenient method to visualize the direction and magnitude of a eld is to draw the field lincs.These

lines point in the direction of the magnetic field tell us about tbe field in tbe following way. I. The direction of magnetic field vector.8 at any point is tbe tangent to tbe fieltlline at that point. 2. The number of field lines that paslitbrough UDit area of a surface held FJIClIdicular to the lines is proportional to the stnmgth of magnetic field in that region. is larger where the field lines are close together and smaller where they are far apart.

FIg. 1'.1: Magnetic Mid lilla ptWing through ...o ptRWI/<d -:fa-

3. The field lines are closed curves. They ~1art from the north pole aodend at north pole itself via south pole.

Fi&.19.1 shows a certain IIUlDbcr of field lilies plssiog tIJrousjJ two parallel surtiIces SI and ~ . The III1"liK:c area of 8 is smaller than and the same IIUlDbcr oflilles pass through both 1 III1"liK:ca !bat of~. Hence, the number of lines per unit area passing through S 1 is greater than !bat through~. We can. therefore, say !bat the magnetic field in the region around A i. stronger than tbat around B.

19.3.3 Eqtiiv8lenee of a M,gnet to Current Carrying Solenoid

The field lines of a bar magnet are shown in Fig. 19.2 (a). along with the field lines of a cwrent loop Fi&. 19.2 (b). -rru; similarity between the two suggests !bat a bar magnet can be thought of as a combined effect of a Iarge number of loops placed side by side closely packed about the same common axis.

. This 6ilauganeut is equivaIeDt to a Iarge DUIIl\Ierof small magnets ammged along a stIaight line in allJlllllel' shown in Fig. 1!}.3.




IL-S_ _ N...JI

N) "..1'-3: (. tr..o plll'rlllol I...,.......,...,"" _ __'. (b) &pdwIImt""" INr _ _ hi to 1M 1IiIW,...,..(t:) "lito ..... __ _deMY peclriIl1l"", 1M _ _ 1M
g/It ' - .
. ,.."Jt u " IiItgk "'" JIUIgMI.




The north and- sOuth poles of the magnets neutralize each o1ber's efl'ec:t fur aIlJII88IICIS except the two magnets at the two ends. The result is a single bar. magnet IIhown in Fig. 19.3( c). The anangement of close packed loops isequiNaient to'a solenoid, )'UIlhave aImIdy studied in the pervious lesson. We, thus. see that a magnet can also be visulised as alliagnetic dipole. The dipole moment of the magnet being given by .

where m


= pole strength and I = magnetic length of tile magnet.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.1_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

I. 1. You are given a bar magnet. How will youjind 0tII i13 N-jIole end? Three identical rectangular rods are given to you. Rod.A. i.r a bar magnet, rod B i.r of iron and rod C is a non-magnetic material like wood. How will you identi./Y each (lfIe? (Do not consider mosses)
.+ :.


Two identical bar magne13 are given to you. A thread of SO em length i.r the mily additional item available for doing any experiment. How .will)lOll mark the S pole of each magnet? A current ofO.SAflows in a fectangular coil oflength 10cm andbreailth J~ W1rtit will be the pole strength ofa bar magnet oflength JOem which has the:fame inagnetic moment as the coil?



Before we discuss the magnetic properties associated with the earth, we ~certain facts and definitions associated with the earth. We assume tbat the eu1hiS a spbere and it rotates about its own axis which is a diameter of the sphere. One end ofthis.diamCter ill. called the geographical north pole and the other end is called the geographical south pole. Let us assume a,plane normal to this north-south axis, passing thrOugh the center of tile earth. This plane cuts the surface of the spherical earth in a circle. This imaginaty circular line drawn on the sutface of the earth is called the equator. The equatorial plaDe divides the earth into two hemispheres. (i) The northern hemisphere and (ii) The southern hemisphere. Circular lines parallel to the equator are called latitudes measured in terms ofangles 6 ~ reference to equator at 0". The latitudes are north or south. A plaDe plissing through tI:ICl rotation axis of the earth at a given point P on the surface o(theearth is called tile geographical meridilUJ, at the point P. Similarly plaoe passing through the magnetic axis of the earth i.e., the plane which passes through the magni:W: poiesoftlleearthaada point P on the sutface of the earth is called the MLi & _ ' r IldlepoilllP,




The directive ptoperty ofmagnets could be possible only if there is another magnet inside the earth whose south pole is located near the geographical north pole. We therefore conclude that the huge earth behaves as if a big bar /llagMt were placed inside it. This symbolic pict\R is IhoWD in Fig. 19.4 below GeoppIW:aJ NG Sa axis of , - MIpetic uis

. ur,


F/tl.19.4 (.): Mtlg!td/t:fo!J"'- o/d,ulITtir

t ....-


The south pole of earth'smaganet is near the geIlgtlIpbical Dorth pole and the magnetic north pole is near the geographical soUih pole. RR' is the rotation axis of earth and MM' is the magnetic axis of the earth.

. g~lPds.

Let us perl'oliD a dIought eKperimeiIt (you can actually perform the expepment) with a . magnetic needle or a compass needle. The needle is freely suspended in such a lD8IUler that it can rotate in horizontal as 'Well as vertical plane. If the needle is near the equator on earth's surface it.resta in horizontal plane. Suppose this needle is taken to places in the northern IacmispIIerC. 1'be'1ieCdle rotates in the vertical plane and the north pole dips more aad IIIOI'I! ~ eIirth as we move mote aad JI1OR! towards geographical north pole. Finally at a point very near to Hudson bay inCaniW. the oorth pole of the needle points vertically downwat'd. This place, located in 1832, is consideted to be the south pole of the earth's . m8gnet. This place is abom 2100 kmaway from the earth's geographical north pole. If we take the same magnetiC naedle to plaCes in the southern hemisphete, the soU\h pole of the needle dips downward and points vertically doWnwards at a point 2100 km east of the . geogriIpbical soudL This point conld be considered as the N pole of the _ " Fro",tiJiS ... oorecliule tIuIt I/u! mGpeIk cis of I/u! etirdt doa ,,91 coincide witll the


Ibm is ani~ aspeet of earth's magnetic field and it is ~.the earth's tnagIletic field does not remain conStant. its magnitude and<llrection both chaDge with time. Reversal ofthe direction ofthe field has taken place many urnes in the history of earth. This evidence is provided by the stody.ofrocks "Wt!ich came out during volcanic activity. The latest reversaJ is believed to bave~l'faee aboull0,IIOOyears ago. The theory of the earth's magnetic .f1eldis not well understoodinrCD wday.
19.4.1Ele81eats oftbeEarth's Magnetic Field
In dJe last section _ have only qualitatively discussed some parameters of the earth's
magnetic field wbic:h change tiom p~ to place. We now wish, to describe all the parameters which determine the field CIlmpletely at any point pn the surface of the earth. These parameters are commonly known as Elements of the Earth's Magnetic Field. These are <a> inclination (b) declination (c) horizontal component of the earth 5 fiela


: Pbysial

(a) Inclination or Dip:

A magnetic needle when freely sll8JlCllded at a place does. not rest in the horizontal pillru:. It will point in the direction of the resultant intensity of the earths field. . Fig.: 19.5 shows the plane PCDE which is the magnetic meridian at the point P on the surface of the earth and PABC is the geographic meridion. PR represents the magnitude and direction of the earth's magnetic field at the point P. PR makes an angle II with the horizontal. direction. This angle II is known as lI.clbrtdlo" or Dip at a place P on the surface of the earth. In the northern hemisphere the N pole of the needle will dip down and in the southern hemisphere the S pole will dip down.
A ~---T~--------~~p


,D "".19.5: EI."..",. of_Ir'sI1ltlglWl/l:/Wd
j ,


The angle which the earth's magnetic field makes with the horizontal direction in the magnetic meridian is called the l1li61# 0/dip or Inri'"?tf .....

(b) Declination : In Fig 19.5 we have shown two vertical planes (i) The plane PABC is the posraphlcaI meridian (ii) the plane PCDE is the magnetic meridian. It i. this pllllC which -ains the magnetic field vector (PR) oftbe earth. The angle between tbepllllCS PCDE IIId PABC it called the declination at the point P. It islhown u angle 9 in the Fig. 19.5.
The angle which the mllDetie maridian at a place makes witb tbe geographical meridian is called the li:IbttIlIIHIat that plaee.

(e) Horizontal Component: It it the horizontal component ofthe earth's IIIIpIIic field in the mallD"'i': mericlim. F1S.19.S shows that PR is tbe I'\lsultant magnetic field at the point P. PH Itpleseutl the borizoatal camponent and PF the vertical component oftbe earth's magnetic field in magnitude IIId direction. Let the magnetic field at the point P be B. The horizontal eomponem
BH - B cosll The vertical component

.... (19.11)

By" B sin II
I1'H + Bv'



B - "11'H + BV B ___ BH_

cos II
and --Y:tanll




Euapte 19.1 : Tht! earth's magnetic field at a place is 45 pT. The angle of dip is 60". Calculate the WlriOUil parameters. SolrioD: B

= 45

J.I T = 45 x I!T" T

Ii = 60'. hence a '" 30' Bn =B cos Ii =45 x 10"' cos 60

= 45 x! x

I!T" T

=22.5 J.I T


= Bsinli = 45 x

10-6 sin 60

= 45 x




INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.2_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

1. 2,

q YO'" make a map ofmagneticfield lines at Melbourne in Awtraliea, wowd the lines

................................................... , ........, ........ .

A bar mop,t i.r held vertically on a drawing board and magneticfield lines are drawn. How many neIltral points will be obtained?

sellm to go into the ground or come ow ofthe ground?



WIle,., wUl IhI va/.. ofangle ofdip be more


Delhi o3r in Btil:ing ?


At a certainpl,," horlzanlal compo"'''' ofearth's ~tlcfield" 312 times the vertical compoMnt. What i.r the value ofangl, ofdip at thlplac,.


You have already studied the ma8lletic effects of electric currents. You have also seen that a coil carryin& cwrent behaves like a masnetic dipole which when freely suspended. always rests In a particular direction. You are also aware that the movement of electrons in a wire constitute an electric current. All solids are made up of atoms and molecules and every atom haa a number of electrons revolving around the nucleus. All this knowledse put tosether suggests that this' misht be the orisin of weak or strong masnetism in certain materials. Based on strength of the masnetic field in matter. we divide material. ~rqadly into threecatesories (i) diamasnetic . (ii) p.,amagnetic.and (iii) the ferromasneticmaterials. We shall discuss some of these points in detail in the cominS part of the lesson.

MaID.tie MOJ]Jeat of Atom

Let IIII1t1rt wid! simple model of an atom. There ia a IJlIIIIive D\ICll_ and electI'OlllI move in cirCu1ar orbitnbout the nucleus. Let R be the radius of the orbit and v the orbital speed of an electron. The time period T of the election to complete one round in the orbit is.




An electron, tblrefore, completes 2 ~ rounds per second. The effective CUII'CIlI: due to Ibis motion of electron is J.

ev J=-2TrR

1t R'

The area of the orbit or you can say the area of the current loop, A =
The magnetic moment,


= fA = e v 1tR' 2TrR

f. vR 2



where m is the mass of the electron and L is its angular momentum (L = m v ~. The magnetic moment of the electron is (1:' ) times the angular momentum. If we take into account the nature of charge on the electron, then



the magnetic moment vector is always opposite to the angular momentum vector and both vectors are perpendicular to the plane of the orbit as shown in Fig 19;6.
In addition to the orbital motion the electron also has

a spin motion. The spin-motion of the electron also constitutes a magnetic moment which is of the same order of magnitude as orbital magnetic moment.
In an atom we have several electrons, and each electron

has a magnetic moment. The total magnetic moment

ofthe atom is the vector sum oftho: magnetic mommts of all o:lectrons. Lc:t us assume that there ale atoms where the magnetic moment of the electrons are so lI1g 11.6, MagMic M _ ifI1Ir oriented in space that the total sum of all the IWIgIlCtic' momentis zero. Such atoms do not have a IWIgIlCtic' oIllCIroII . moment of their own. However, there can bo: other atoms where the total magnetic moment of all the electrons is not zero. Sucn atoms will have their intrinsic magnetic mommts. We will use these results in later discussions.

19.5.2 Magnetic Properties of Materials

(a) Magnetization: If you take a magnet, youwiH find that it attracts an iron piece '. with some force. If you take another IIIlIgnet you may find that Ibis one attracts the same iron piece with a greater furce. The magnetic scate ofany substanc:o: is descn"bed by a quantity called Magnetization I. It is a vector quantity. Its 1IIIlgIfitude is deftned Q.f tire ~tic moment per unit volume.

IlJ =

Magnetic moment Volume of the substance



Magnetism You havealready studied the magnetic field of solenoid. Let B. be the magnetic field produced by a. solenoid in the core region. This field is because of the current in the solenoid. NowfiU the core with a magnetic substance:. The total field. now. at the same point will be B.

where B.isthe.field produced by the magnetic substance and can be expressed as
BM =fl I . B


B. + Il. J

=-+-' I flo Il.

B-HandH - J.l.,

.... (19.21)

.... (19.22)
It is called the magnetic jieid3trenglh. H and I both are measured in Ampere per meter (AIm).

(b) Magnetic: SUseepdbility: For a large number ofmagnetic materials. the magnetization I is proportional to the magnetic field strength H.
fa H f= X H:


I '"/.=H

... (19.23)

Since J and Hba~e the samediinensionsthe quantity Xis dimensionless. It is called msgnetie S~ity" Tile tMgnnhtltioli per lI/Iltjleld stre"gtll is called tile SlISceptibility . Wehave

Il. (H+I)

= 11. (H+xH) =" 1'. (I + X) H


where K. = I'D (I + X) is called the permeability of the substance. Magnetic substance are .:ategcrizedinto different groups based on the values of X and Km' The various groups are iveD in ~ table 19:1.

.... (19.24)



Table 19.1: Susceptibility and permeability o/magnetic substances.


Susceptibility( r)

PennabiIJty (lCj
K", < ". K", > ).I. K", ).I.

Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic



But no linear relation

between I and H

19.5.3 Paramagnetism
Paramagnetic substances are those substances whose susceptibility is quite small but positive (O<X I). Let us cousider an atom with severaielectrons. Ifthe Vector sum oftbe magnetic moment of all the electrons does not cancel out, then the atom bas a peramanent dipole moment associated with it. The magnetic moment of each atom is randomly oriented in the solid. The solid piece as a whole has no resultant magnetic moment. When we put slich a material in an external field a torque acts on the dipoles and tries to orient them along the direction of the applied field. The temperature ofthe substaw:e prevents complete ordering of the dipoles. There is now a resultant magnetic mOmeDt in the dIrection of the applied 'ield. You can say that '[' hIS, now, a non zero value and the direction of I and Hare parallel. This gives a non zero value of magnetic susceptibility. Experimentally we find that the magnetization I of a paramagnetic substaw:e is directly proportional to the applied field B and inversely proportional to the absolute temperatureT.


This is known as Curi~'11 Law and C is called the ClU'le'. Cotrllllllft. It is understandable why the magnetization decreases with increase oftemperature.The dis,orcfer or random arrangement of dipoles increases with increase of temperature thus decreasing the value of/. The atomic dipole in paramagnetic materials do not interact with each other. One dipole is unaware of the presence ofanother dipole. They are all independent. They intenM:t with.the external field only. Chromium, Magnesium are examplu o/pa1"iIIIKlgMltc IIUbstIInce5. When placed in an external field the paramagnetic material moves towards the regions ofstronpr field. .

19.5.4 Diamagnetism
The atoms of diamagnetic materials do not have a permanent magnetic depole moment. The direction of the induced magnetism is always opposite to the applied field, (lis always opposite to the applied field H). The Susclptlbllity i.r therBj'tJH. alway.rlUlgtltlw. From a microscopic point of view you can appreciate this magnetism with the help orlbe following example. .


Let us cousider an orbital of an atom consisting of two electrOns. It consists of electrons With opposite spins. These electrons move with the same orbital speed' in an orbit but in opposite direction, because they have opposite spins The magnetic moment ofODe electron is equal and opposite to the magnetic moment ofthe other electron. HelICe. the total magnetic moment of the atom is zero. Now suppose we apply an external magnetic field B. The

electrons will experience a force (e V < B) in addition to the electrostatic centripetal force. This additional force due to magnetic field will increase the orbital speed of one electron and decrease the orbital speed of the other electron. The magnetic moment is proportional to the orbital speed ( Eqn. 19.16). The magnetic moment of one electrons will become larger than tltst of the other. giving rise to a net magnetic moment of the atom. This is 'induced magnetic moment and is always opposite in direCtion to inducing field. This is the diamagnetic character. You can easily appreciate that such an induced magnetism aUIli.versai property ofali materials. The effect h~ermay be extremely small compered to the permanent magnetic moment present in materials. Bismuth. copper and silver are the examples ofdiamagnetic substances. Diamagnetic mateli.a1s in non-uniform megnetic field move towards the regions of weaker intensity.


119.5.5 FerromagnetismFerromagnetic materials When placed even in a weak magnetizing field acquire some what
permanent magnetic dipole moment. The atomic dipoles tend to align parallel to each other

even in a weak extemaJ field. The dipoles are not independent of each other. Any dipole ~ngly feels the presence ofa neighbouring dipole. A correct explanation oflhis interaction can be given only on the basis of quantum meclwli.cs:

We can qualitatively understand the fetromagnetic

cIIIlacter alooa the followiDa lines.

A feaomapetic substInce contains snWl regions calJed DOMAINS. All magnetic depolet in a domain _ fully .ligned, The magnetization of domalna i. maximum. But the domains are randomly oriented. The total magnetic moment of the sample is zero. When we apply an external magnetic field, the domains slightly rotate and align themselves in the directionpfthe field giving rise to resultant magnetic moment. The procelS can be easily understood with the help of a simple diagram shown in Fig.l9.7.
four domaiDa are equal in si7.e and so directed that the total magnetization of the sample ia '

Fig.19.8 (a) shows four domains. For simplicity we take a two dimensional example. The

zero. F;g.t9.8 (b) shows the state after the application of an external magnetic field. The boJndaries of the domains (DOMAIN WALLS) have moved in such a way tltst the size of the domain having magnetic moment in the direction of the ,field hIS become larger at the cost of others. On increasing the strength of externat field not only the size of favourable domains increases, but the orientation ofthe domain also ch8nges slightly resulting in greater magnetization Fig. 19.8 (c). Under the action of very strong applied field almost the entire


volume behaves like a single d\lmain giving rise to saturated masnetizatjoo. When Ibe external field is removed, the sample retains a net magnetization. The domain in ferromagnetic sampies can be easily _ with Ibe help ofbigh power 1IlierosccIpe. It is DOt a hypotbdicallllOdel. it is a reality. ,




- - - - ' - - , So


FIg. /9.1: FJfot:t o/cxumaI ~fiekJ m d _ ill aftlr_ulit:~

An experimental set up can be arranged to measure the magnerio: IieId B as a function of the applied field B. The field B is created by passing a current in a toroidal coil

The B-H curve is shown in Fig.19.9. At the point the applied field is zero. so is Ibe total field B in the spec.imen. The domains in the specimen are randomly arranged. By increasing B, the field B increases but not linearly as is obvious from the curve. The domains get IIlQ1'e and more aligned with the applied field. The point 'a' coliesponds to the state ofMturatioo when almost all domains are aligned with the field 8:!Ui no change in B takes phK:e even ifB is -increased. The magnetic field B is brought to zero by reducing B slowly IOd RVerSing . the directiOJi ofIbe applied field. You can see from the curve that B does not become zero when B "->mes zero (Point b). The direction of it bas to be r.versed to make' B _ . corresponding to point 'c'. The magnetic field 'ob' is known PIiTJI __' M~. The value oflbe applied field B in reverse B __..,.a direction (oc in the curve) which makes B zero, is kno.wn as coerc;vily of the specimen. A further increase in H in reverse direction takes the specimen to the point 'd' , a saturation point Reducing the value ofB slowly and Chen reversjng the direction again and then increasing B takes the ------I-'-14"-::...}-.-/----...,.H specimen to Ibe point 'a' again.
TIle B-H curve does not retrace its path except for very lmaII values ofB as sbowII (Fig. 19.9), There is always a finite area enclosed within the B-H curve. Such a d behaviour by a ferrotolIgnetic III8IeriaI is known as rrtIIpdlc "~_curve of a
"'" 1"':Jl..HC-.


ferromagnetic SIJbstaoj:e. It can be sOOWn!hat tile area of tile hysteresis curve is the energy required to take tile materia1 through tbe hysteresis cycle (loss of CJIeIBY). The B-H curve of a ferromagnetic substance is vCI)' useful in choosing materia1s for specific purpose. B B


FiK.: 19.1': B-HC16W!ojlwo/ypel ojmdpetif:

. ..



A material whose B-H curve is ~ one shown in Fig. 19.10 (_) is suitable for making permanent magnets. Such materials are known as btli'd /erromapetic _itlIs . There lie devices where tbe cunent din:ction is reversed with a fiequencey. A vCI)' common example is trtuu/orme . The core of the tranSformer is of a soft/erro"""M1ic IItIlIDial wbosC B-H curve is VCI)' thin. as ohown in Fig: 19.IO(b). ~ hysteresis loop encloses a smaI1 area indicating smail enough energy loss per cycle.
When tbe temperature of a ferromagnetic substance becomes greater than a certain critical ,alue, tbe substance becomes paramagnetic. This critical temperature is known as CIIrie

Below tbe curie temprature T, tbe substance is fCl1'Olllllflliec and above it becomes paramagnetic. The thermal energy at higher temperatures is large enough to cause randomimtion of dipoles so that tbe substance becomes paramagnetic.
Iron, Nickel. and Cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic ma1erials. There lie some olber materia1s also known eanli-ferro magnetic and fenimagDetic. Their discussion is beyond tbe SCOpe ofthis book.


Table 19.1: Ferromognetic sulMtances and their CIII'k temperotures


CIIrie Ullrpa rIIioIIT.,K)


631 1394 317 893

Cobalt Gadolinium , Fe,O,



Example19.2:..4 toroidal solenoid with a mean radius of 20cm and 630 turnI is filled with steel powder whose magnetic SUsCeptibility is 1OO.lfthe current in the winding is 311 Calculate B.
Solution: Ilo

= 4lt x 10-


630x3 =63x3xlOO 2ltx20x 10-' 4 xlt

= 63 x 75 A turns

J!0 (lx-v)H= 4ltx10- x10lx63x75 ..
7 X

= K m H=

= 10-

404 x 63 x 75. T

= 191 mT

Example19.3: 1'he smallest value ofmagnetic moment is called the Bohr Magneton 11., eh It is aftmdamental constant. Calculate this Va/lUI. 2n:m Solution: 1-1.

=J!L =

1.6 x 10-" x 6.6 xlO'" 2xlt'x9.1 x 10-"

= 9.2

x 10->' Iff

INTEXT QUESTIONS 19.3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _--,-_ __

I. Suppose a person proposes a theory that the eurth's magnetic fold is due to the permanent.magnetisation of its moltem iron core. Will you accept this theory? Give reason for your answer. '

.......................... ,'............................ ", .......... .

2. 3.

What type ofmaterial is usedfor making (0) an electromagnet (b) permanentl1lilg1let?

....................................................... f
Give one example each ofa dia, para. ferromagnetic materia~.
The electron in the hydrogen atom is moving with a speed of2.3 x J(I ms-1 in tin orbit ofradious 0.53..4', CalcUlate the magnetic moment ofhydrogen atom.


Give one point ofdifference between dio, para, fema mag1retic sl,lbstance.r.




Magnets may be natural or aruflcal as well as temporory or permanent. Every magnet has two poles. The two poles of a magnets are inseparable. The term magnetic dipole may imply (i) a magnet with dipole moment M = ml (ii) a current carrying coil with dipole moment M = NlA . 2M Magnetic field at the axis of a magnetic dipole is given by B = fl. and on . allin..... -11 M 41t x' the eqUlton e ~J B=-" --,- . 41t r A magnetic dipole behaves the same way in a uniform magnetic field as an electric dipole does in a uniform electric field i.e . it ekperiences no net force but a

torque -c=M xB.

, Earth has a magnetic field which can be completely discribed in terms of three basic quantities called elements of earth's magnetic field. They are : (i) angle of inclination (or angle of dip) (il) angle of declination. (iii) horizontal component of earth field.

On the basis of their behaviour in rruignetic fields. substances may be devided into three broad categeries .
(i) diamagnetic- which are fetbly repelled by magnets such as bismith. copper, silver. (il) jIIII'IIIlI8gIIc-which are feebly attracted by magnets such as charomiwn, magnesium. (iii) fi;rromagnetic -which are strpngIy attracted by magnets such as iron, nickel, cobalt.

Acwrding to Curie Law the intensity of magnetisation of a substance Where C = Curie Constant; T= temperature of
I =


the substance at kelving scale; and B= net magnetic field in the substance.

Magnetic behaviour of substances may be explained in terms of magnetic moments developed in atoms due to motion of electrons.

The quantities used to describe magnetic behaviour of a substance are : susceptibility. permeability and magnetisation.

.19.7TERMINALQUESTIONS._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A small piece of the material is brought near a magnet. Complete the following by filling up the blanks by writing Yes or No.

Diamagnetic Paramagnetic FCITOmagnetic 2.. You have


weak strong

keep two identical bar magnets packed together in a box. How will you

pack and why? ,--_ __,_--.., .1



Pbysic:s 3. The magnetic force between two poles is 80 units. The separatiOn between 1be poica is doubled. What is the force between them? The lUlJ!le of inclination is 40" at some place in northern hemisphere. Ifyan move to a ' place farther away from equator. How will the value of aogIe of inclination cl.nge. The length of a bat magnet is 10 cm and the area of ciOss-section is 1.0 em'. The magnetizatioo I = 10' Nm. Calculate the pole strength. Two identical bat magnets are placed 00 the same line end to end with north pole facing north pole. Draw the lines offorce. No otber field is present. The points, where the magnetic lieId.ofa magnet is equal and opposite to the horizantal component of magnetic field of the eartfi, are called neutral points (a) Locate the nellttal points when the bat magnet is placed in IIllIgnetic meridian with north pole pointing north. (b) Locate the neutral points when a bar magnet is placed in magnetic meridian with north pole pointing south. If a bar magnet oflength 10 cm is cut into two equal pieces eadl oflength 5 _ then what iS'the pole strength of the new bat magnet compare to that of the old one. A!O cm long bat magnet has pole strength 10 A.m. Find the magnetic field ata point on the axis at a distance ofJO em ftomthe center of the bar magnet.








Intext Questions 19.1
Suspend the magnet with a thread, attaching the tbreadto its centre ofmass. Let is stay in equilibrium. The end of the magnet which points towards geographical north is its north - pole end.


Bring the ends of any two bars closer together. If1here is auractiQII between 1hem one of the bar is a magnet the other a ferromeagnetic material. Now lay down one of these bars on the table and stroke along its length with the 0Iher ifuniform is c.Kpetienced then the bat in band is a magnet and that on the table is made offerromagnetic mateial. .


If non-uniform force is experienced reverse is the case. In case there is no at1raction between two bars the third one is a magnet. The bar which is attracted by magnet is ferromagnetic, the one which is not atracted at all is non magnetic. 3. Suspendingbne ofthe batmagncts with thread we can lind its south pole. Then the end of the second magnet which is repeued by the first is the south pole ofi!.



-+ m =0.10 Am.



lnrext Questions 19.2


The field lines will come out of the ground as the magnetic northpole of earths field is close to that place and field lines emerge out of north pole. Only one central point wil(be obtained.

2. 3.

In Beijing. because, it is closure to the pole.


B=B !, 2 ~


. .. 8

= tan-I

k ..J3

Intext Questions 19.3

No. Because. the curie poinl lor iron is 77('/C and the temperature al the core being much higher than this the molten iron there can not retain magnetism. (a) Soft iron or any other material having low retentivity and high penneability. (b) Carbon - Steel or any other material having high retentivity and high penneability. Example of diamagnetic material paramagnetic material ferromagnetic material - Silver



-Chromium -Iron


M=I A =I1e.1t r- =--1t r- = - 21tr 2



2.3 x 10 x \.6 x \0


x.53 x 10




Now-a-days you can illuminate a dark room instantly by merely turning on a switch. Have you wondered what makes this possible? To find an answer to this question we suggest that you follow the wires connected to the switches. Where do they lead? To transmission lines outside your homes. at the end of which you will find an electric generator situated in a Rydro or thermal power plant. At many places between your homes and these generators. there are several substations containing transformers. Both these devices. the electric generator and transformer are essential for large scale generation and distribution ofelectrical power today. Both these are based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic indllClion. It was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry: more than 250 years ago.

In this lesson we shall discuss electromagnetic induction and the laws governing it, namely. Faraday's law and Lem's law. This phenomenon may, in a sense, be called the electric effect of changing magnetic fields. We shall study some consequences of this phenomenon. In particular, the inductance of coils and a.c. circuits along with some of their applications. In the next lesson you will study about generators and transformers which form the cornerStone of electrical power generation and its transmission.

After studying this lesson, you should be able to: state and explain Faraday's law ofelectromagnetic induction; apply Lenz's law and explain conservation of energy on the basis ofLen::'s law; explain the phenomena of self-inductance and mutual inductance and distinguish between them; discuss applications ofeiectromagnetic induction; define alternating current and voltage. their peak and rms values. and represent them graphically; derive the relationship between voltage and current in a.c. circuits containing resistallce: capacitance. inductance ani), and in an LCR circuit; derive expression for powf!rdissipated in a.c.circuits and define power factor alld discuss applications ofa.c. circuits.

Elec:tromagDetic Induction and Alternating CWTeIlIS .


Since a steady c:uiTent in a wire produces a steady magnetic field, Faraday initially (and mistakeoly) thought that a steady magnetic field could produce a current. Some of Faraday's investigations on .8 magnetically ipduced currents used an arrangement similar to that shown in Fig.20.1. A current in the coil on the left produces a magOetic field concentrated in the . iron ring. The coil on' the right is connected to a galvanometer G, which indicates the presence of any induced current in that circuit. There is no induced current for a steady magnetic field. But an induc~ FIg. :l1J.I: Two coil. are w,appe4 current does appear for a moment in the circuit on the armord an iron ring. 'I7re ga/vanOfMler right when switch S is closed in the circuit on the G deflects for a' moment when the left. When switch S is opened, an induced current with switch is openJ or clmed. the oppIlsite sense appears for a moment.; Thus. the induced current exists only when the magnetic field, due to the current in thC: circuit on the left, is cIt/lllflllg.

FIg.1I.]: (a).4 _

Is iNhlcllli in lire co/I ifllre m~ .._Iowanls tiro coil; (b) tiro iNhlcI1Ii_ has lire opposite . _ . iflM mOgMI ....... awayfrom Ihe coil.

The importance of a change is also demonstrated by the arrangement shown in Fig. 20.2. If the magnet is st rest relative to the coil. then no induced current exists. But if the magnet is moved toward the coil. then a current is induced with a sense as indicated in Fig. 20.2a. If the magnet is moved away from the coil, then a current is induced with the opposite sense, as shown in Fig. 20.2b. Notice that in either case the magnetic field is cbanging in the neigbbourhood of tile coil. An induced current also exists in the coil if it is moved relative to the magoet.

The presence of such currents in a circuit implies the existence of an indued electrorruJrlve /oroe(emj)
That is, energy must be supplied to the charge carriers' that make up the current. You know that an emf is the energy per unit charge given to a charge carrier that travels JIlQImd the ci';''lit. This iIuIuced emf is present wlren tire ItUllfnetic field is clrtmgillg, as described above.



This phenomenon of a changing magnetic field inducing an emf or an electric field is termed electromagnetic induction. It was a mark of Faraday's genius that he recognised the significance ofhis discovery and fullowed itop. He also gave the quantitative deScription of this phenomenon. We now know it as Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Let us learn about it.

20.3.1 Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction

The relationship between the changing magnetic field and the induced enif is expressed in terms of the magnetic flux +B for a surface. You will now ask: What is magnetic flux? Let us first define the magnetic flux of the magnetic field for a surface. Imagine dividing a mathematical surface into infinitesimal area elements. The direction of an area element dS at a point on the surface is perpendicular to the surface at that point. A typical element for a surface is shown in Fig. 20.3a, along with the magnetic field B at a point. The magnetic nux 11+. for the area element dS is defined as




Flg.ZO.3 (a)The magnetic flux for an infinitesimal area dS is

gWen by ci+. ~ B. dS: (b) The magnetic flu for a nuface is

propOl'flonai to the nllllther ';Iines interucting the nuface.



The magnetic flux for a general surface is obtained by integrating (summing) the contributions 11+. as the area element dS ranges over the surface. Thus.

+. =



The magnetic flUX over the surface for a surface is the surface integral of the magnetic field.
The SI unit of magnetic nux is the weber(Wb). with 1 Wb = 1 T.m'.

The magnetic nux fur a surface can be iDteipieted in tams ofthe ~ lines that leplesent the distribution of the magnetic field in space. In analogy with electric lines and as suggested in Fig. 20.3b, the number of magnetic lines intersecting a surface i$ proportioDa! to the
magnetic nux for the surface. Now for simplicity. let us consider a fine loop ofconducting wire and an open, I;IIIIIhematicaJ surface bounded by the loop such as the one shown in Fig. 20.4. The I11118Detic nux fur a surface bounded by the loop is given by the surface integral
~= SB.dS

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating CumnlS :

where d+" = B .dS =B 118 cos 9 is the flux for the surface element 118. The magnetic flux is said to IiDk the loop.


A changing magnetic flux linking a loop and the indw:edemfin the loop are related by Farodtzy's 14w:
An emf is intIuced in a loop of wire whe,. the magnetic fluxfor a swf~e bounded by the loop changes in time. The induced emfis given by,

Fig. 20.4: A cont!uctingl00p farms lhe boundary ofa surface

dt The emf "depends on the rate of change of the magnetic flux with time. From Faraday's law, we obtain the relation betweeB the weber (Wb), the unit ofmagnetic flux. and the volt (V).theunitofemf: IV=IWbls.
Notice the negative sign in Faraday's law. You willieam about its iD!portance in the next sub-sec:tion on Lenz's law. This psrti~ular mathematical form of the law (Eq.20.2a) was developed long after Faraday's work, but the law is named after him because he made the

dA, e=--


key discovery and I've the quantitative re1atioDabip.

Now consider the induced emf in a cloaely wound coil. Each tum in such a coil behaves approximately aa a single loop, ami we can apply Faraday's law to determine the emfinduced in each turD. Since the turns are. in aeries, the total induced emfBr in a coil is the swu of the emfi induced in each turD. We suppoae that the coil is so closely wound that the magnetic flux linking a tum of the coil at a givOll instant baa the aame value for each tum. Then the same emfs ia induced in each tum., 0Ild the total induced emffor a coil with N turns is given by Bra He - H ( d;a) __ N d;' ...(20.2b) dt dt
wbIre ;'1s the masnetic flux linking to a single tum (or loop) in the coil.

The maptic flux linking a loop or tum of a coil in Eq. (20.21) is the flux of the total maptic field for Ii surface bounded by the loop. There is a contribution to the magnetic flux for loop due to the loop's own current in addition to the contribution due to an external aource, such aa a I!IIIIIDCI. or the current in another circult. You will read about it in the next aec:tion. In dIis leetion, we shall always aaaume that loops or coils are part of a circuit with Wae reallIIMce SO that the induced current is sznall. Then the flux contribution due to the lilii8ii. Indllced current is aaawned to be nesliiJ.ble compared with the flux due to the other SOUI,'ICeII Thus, we sha1l neslect the effect oftho induced current in determining the magnitude of the indl",M em
Let us DOW apply Faraday's law \0 some concrete situations :

Eumple 20.1: 'I'M axis 0/ a 7jllUn circular coil of radius 35 mm is paraiielto a

IpatIaIly lmiform lffIIIPIeticft.ld. 'I'M lffIIIPIitude ofthe fteld chDnges at a constant ratefrom


25 to 50 mT in 250 ma. Determine the magnitUde o/induced em/in the coil during tlda time interval.
Solution: Since the magnetic field is spatially uniform IDd parallel to the axis ofthe coil, the flux linking each tum is given by

where R is the radius ofa turn. FromEq. (20.2b)!be induced emf in the coil is
a.=-N--=-N dt dt






The magnitude of the magnetic field changes at a CODStaDt rate given by





0.050 T - 0.025 T 0.25 s

.. 0.10T/s

The magnitude of the emf induced inthe coil is then

"r" 7S n (0.035 mf (0..10 TIs)" 0.030 V" 30 mV

This example explains the concept of emf induced by time cMngiq mqaetic: field.

20.5a and 20.5b) . .4 ttme-dependent current in the wire wlridiRg mate8 a time-dependent magnetfcjield B(t} =B 8in 21rvt. Here B0 II con.rtant, and eqllQ/to 1.2 T. 'J7JetjrKmlityv II. . . , the./requ,ney o/the magneticjield. IJ'tth v - '0 Hz and the ring rulltance R - 1.0/2 Calculate the and the current (1) Induced in a ring o/radill8 r concentrlf lflth tM
o/the solenoid.

Example 20.2 :Conrider a long 80knold with a CI'088-&ectiOllQ/ ana of 8 t:ttt' (Figs.


axil '

] ({


FIg. 11J.S: (a) A 1000g .o1."oiI/ IIIfIi II

(b) So/."oid fl!td cOlfCOlfll'ic rlIrg : (l ~ Yi....



riIIg 0III8IU tIttJ.oIMoid.

Solution : The JD8&Mtic flux is equal to

B.sin 21M . .4 d IlIB IDdso E = - =-2 1111.4 BcoS 21M dt


.. - 2n. 50 s'.8 x 10'4 m~(1.2

=- 0.250 cos 21111tV

n .cos 21M

The current in the ring is 1= sill. Tbcrefon:,



ElectromagDetic Induclion and A1taDllliag Cumms

- 0.25 cos 2,n,t V /=----

=- 0,25 cos 27tVt A

The induced current oscillates with frequency 50 Hz and bas an amplitude ofO.25m A. This example explains the conecpt of electromagnetic induction by a time dependent field. You may like to Po a few exercises before you study further.


INTEXT QUESTIONS 20.1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _---.:_ __ 1. A. 1000 turn coil has a radius of 5 cm. What emf i3 developed acr03S the coil if the
magnetic field through the coil i3 reducedfrom lOT to 0 in (a) 1 s (b) 1 ~ ? 2.

The magnetic jIlJX linking each loop of a 250-tum coil is given by the expression =.'1.lhnJ:VbandD =15 ml'Ybls' are constants. (aj Show thoJ the mapihlde ofthe induced emfitt-the coil i3 giwn by G = (2ND)t. (b) Evaluate the flllX linking each turn attG= 0.0,1.0,2.0, and .'1.03. (c) EvalllQle the inducedellifin the coil at each ofthue iNtants.
'8(t) =A. +Dt', WhereA.

.. .... . .... . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. ......................................... .


The perpe1Ullt:ular to the pllme of a condIIt:ting loop main a'./h.ed angle 9with a IpatkJ/1y lI1Iiform magneticfi,ld. /ftlN loop has area S and the mapihlde ofthe field changes at a rau dBIdl, show that the map/hide of tIN induced emf in tIN loop i3 . giNn by G-I (dBIdl) S COl 91. For what or/entation (8) ofthe loop i3 ~ amm:imum? and a ml1ltmum?

Leu's Law


Let us look again at Faraday's law. Why is die minus sign there ? What are its implications?

To answertlJese questi~ consider a bat magnet approaching a CODducting ring (Fig. 20.6a). To apply Faraday's law to this system we first chOOIC a positive direction around the ring. Let us take the direction from z to x as positive. (Either choice is fine, as long as we are consistent) For our choice the positive normal for the area of the ring