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SOLUTION MANUAL

OF THERMODYNAMICS

By Hipolito Sta. Maria

Answered by: ENGR. NASER A. FERNANDEZ

Published by: ‘I Think, Therefore I’m An Atheist’ Enterprises

and Priority Development Fund (PDF)

CHAPTER 4

1.A perfect gas has a value of R = 58.8 ft.lbf/lbm - °R and k = 1.26. If 20 Btu are added to 5 lbm of this gas at constantvolume when the initial temperature is 90 °F, find (a) T2, Change in H, Change in S, Change in U and (b) Work for a non flowprocess.

Given:

 R = 58.8 Q = 20 BTU k = 1.26 T 1 = 90 F + 460 = 550 °R m = 5 lb

Solution:

 (a) Q = mcv(T 2 – T 1 ) i = R = 58.8 = 0.0756 x ii. cv = R/(k-1) = 0.0756/(1.26-1) cv = 0.29 iii. Q = mcv(T 2 – T 1 ) 20 = (5)(0.29)( T 2 - 550) T 2 = 563.8 °R (b) i. cp = (kR)/(k-1) = (1.26)(0.0756)/(1.26-1) cp = 0.366 ii. ΔH = mcp(T 2 – T 1 ) = (5)(0.366)(563.8-550) ΔH = 25.25 BTU (c) ΔS = mcvln( ) = (5)(0.29)ln ) ΔS = 0.036

= (5)(0.29)(563.8-550)

= 20.01 BTU

2. A reversible, non flow, constant volume process decreases the internal energy by 316.5 KJ

for 2.268KG of a gas R=430 J/KG-K and k=1.35. for process determine: a.)the work ; b.) the

heat and c.) the change in entropy if the initial temperature is 204.4 °C?

Given:

 U = -316.5 kJ k = 1.35 m = 2.268 kg T 1 = 204.4 +273 = 477.4 K R = 430 J/kg.K

Solution:

 (a) W n = pdv ; constant volume W n = 0 (b) Q = U + W n = -316.5 + 0 Q = -316.5 kJ (c) i. cv = R/(k-1)

= 430/(1.35-1)

cv = 1228.57 J/kg.K

= 1.22857 kJ/kg.K

ii. finding for T 2

Q = mcv(T 2 -T 1 )

-316.5 = (2.268)(1.22857)(T 2 -477.4)

T 2 = 363.81 K

iii. ΔS = mcvln(

)

= (2.268)(1.22857)ln

ΔS = -0.757 kJ/K

)

3. 10ft^3 vessel of hydrogen at a pressure of 305 psia is vigorously stirred by paddles until the

pressure becomes 400 psia. determine ∆U and W. no heat is transferred, Cv = 2.434 btu / lb.R.

Given:

V 1 = 10 ft 3

cv= 2.434 BTU/lb.R

P 1 = 305 psia

= 43920 lb/ft 2

P 2 = 400 psia

= 57600 lb/ft 2

Solution:

Q = 0

(a) i. R (hydrogen) = 765.9 lb.ft/lb.R cv = 2.434 BTU/lb.R

ii. U = mcv(T 2 -T 1 )

= mcv(

)

U =

(p 2 -p 1 )

=

(57600-43920)

U = 434.75 BTU

(b) Irreversible nonflow constant volume

 Q = U + W n ;Q = 0 W n = -434.75 BTU

4. Three pounds of a perfect gas with R = 38 ft.lb/lb.R and k = 1.667 have 300 Btu of heat added during the reversible nonflow constant pressure change of state. The initial temperature is 100 . Determine (a) final temperature, (b) ∆H, © W, (d) ∆U and (e) ∆S.

 Given: R = 38 lb.ft/lb.R Q = 300 BTU

k = 1.667

m = 3 lb

Solution:

T 1 = 100 F + 460 = 560 °R

 (a) i. cp = (kR)/(k-1) = (1.667)(38)/(1.667-1) = 94.97 = 0.1221 BTU/lb.R x ii. Q = mcp(T 2 -T 1 ) 300 = (3)(0.1221)(T 2 - 560) T 2 = 1379 R or 919 °F (b) Q= mcp(T 2 -T 1 ) = H ∆H = 300 BTU (c) W n = p(V 2 -V 1 )

= ) ; p 1 = p 2

p(

-

= )

pmR(

-

W n = mR(T 2 -T 1 ) = (3)(38)(1379-560) W n = 120.008 BTU

(d)

i. cv = R/(k-1)

= 38/(1.667-1)

= 56.97

x

cv = 0.0732 BTU/lb.R

ii. U = mcv(T 2 -T 1 )

= (3)(0.0732)(1379-560)

U = 179.85 BTU

(e) S = mcpln(

)

= (3)(0.1221)ln(1379/560) S = 0.3301 BTU/R

5. While the pressure remains constant at 689.5 kPa, the volume of a system of air changes from 0.567 m³ to 0.283 m³, what are a. Change in U b. Change in H c. Q d. Change in S e. if the process is non-flow and internally reversible, what is the work?

Given:

 P = 689.5 kPa R = 0.287 kJ/kg.K V 1 = 0.567 m 3 cv = 0.7816 V 2 = 0.283 m 3 cp = 1.00625

Solution:

 (a) i. ∆U = mcv(T 2 -T 1 ) = mcv( ) ∆U = (V 2 -V 1 ) x (0.283-0.567) = ∆U = 490 kJ (b) ∆H = mcp(T 2 -T 1 ) = mcp( ) ∆H = (V 2 -V 1 )

=

(0.283-0.567)

H = -686.56 kJ

 (c) Q = mcp(T 2 -T 1 )= ∆H Q = -686.39 kJ (d) ∆S = mcpln( ) = mcpln( ) ∆S = mcpln( ) = cpln( ) = (1.00625)ln(0.283/0.567) = -0.699 kJ/kgK (e) W n = p(V 2 -V 1 ) = (689.5)(0.283-0.567) W n = -195.82 kJ

6. Four pounds of air gain 0.491 Btu/°R of entropy during a non-flow isothermal process. If P1 = 120 psia and V2 = 42.5 ft³, find a. V1 and T1 b. Wnf c. Q and d. Change in U.

Given:

m = 4lb

S = 0.491 BTU/R

P 1 = 120 psia V 1 = 42.5 ft 3

Solution:

R air = 53.34 lb.ft/lb.R

(a) i. S = (0.491 BTU/R)(778 lb.ft/BTU) = 382 lb.ft/R R air = 53.34 lb.ft/lb.R P 1 = (120 lb/in 2 )(144 in 2 /ft 2 )= 17280 lb/ft 2

ii. S= mRln(p 1 /p 2 ) 382 = (4)(53.34)[ln(17280)]-ln(p 2 )

- ln(17280)]-= -ln(p 2 )

e 7.9669 = e ln(p2)

p 2 = 2883.91 lb/ft 2

iii. p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 V 1 = p 2 V 2 /p 1 = (2883.91)(42.5)/(17280) V 1 = 7.093 ft 3

 iv. p 1 V 1 = mRT T = p 1 V 1 /mR = (17280)(7.093)/(4)(53.34) T = 574.46 R (b) W = p 1 V 1 ln(V 2 / V 1 ) = (17280)(7.093)ln(42.5/7.093) = (219443.50 lb.ft)( ) W = 282.06 BTU (c) Q = U + W; U= 0 Q = 282.06 BTU (d) U= 0
 7. If 10 kg/min of air are compressed isothermally from P1=96kPa and V1=7.65m^3/min to P3=620kPa, find the work change of entropy and the heat for: a) nonflow process and b) steady flow process with v1=15m/s and v2=60m/s.

Given:

m = 10 kg/min p 1 = 96 kPa/kJ V 1 = 7.65 m 3 min P 2 = 620 kPa/kJ

Solution:

(a) i. p 1 V 1 = p 2 V 2 V 2 = p 1 V 1 /p 2 = (96)(7.65)/620 V 2 = 1.185 m 3 /min

ii. W n = p 1 V 1 ln(V 2 / V 1 )

= (96)(7.65)ln(

W n = -1369.63 kJ/min

)

iii. S = mRln(p 1 /p 2 ) ; R air = 0.287 kJ/kg.K

= (10)(0.287)ln( 20 )

S = -5.35 kJ/mink

8. one pound of an ideal gas undergoes an isentropic process from 93.5 psig and a volume of 0.6ft3 to a final volume of 3.6 ft3. Ifcp=0.124 and cv=0.093 BTU/lb.R, what are (a)T2(b)p2(c) H and (d)W

Given:

P 1 = (95.3 +14.7) psia

= 110

= V 2 = 3.6

0.6

V

1

x

ft 3

ft 3

= 15480 lb/ft 2

C p = 0.124 C v = 0.093 BTU/lb.R

Solution:

(a) i. R= cp-cv = 0.124-0.093 R = 0.031 BTU/lb.R

ii. T 1 =

T 1 = 394.063 R

iii.

/ k= cp/cv

= 1.3333

/

T 2 = T 1 [

= (394.063)[

T 2 = 216.87 R or -243.13 F

(b)

p 1

= p 2

p 2 =

= 10.09 psia (c) ΔH = mcp() = (1)(0.124)(216.87-394.063) ΔH = -21.97 BTU

(d) W =

=

W = 16.48 BTU

9. A certain ideal gas whose R=278.6 j/kg.K and cp=1.015 kJ/kg.K expands isentropically from 1517kpa,288 C to 965 kPa. For 454g/s of this gas determine (a)Wn(b)V2(c) U (d) H

Given:

R = 278.6 J/kg.K or 0.2786 kJ/kg

Cp = 1.015 kJ/kg.K P 1 = 1517 kJ T 1 = 288 C +273 = 561 P 2 = 965 kJ

m = 454 g/s or 0.454 kg/s

Solution:

(a) i. cv=cp-R

=1.015-0.2786

cv=0.7364

ii. k=cp/cv =(1.015)/( 0.7364) k= 1.378

iii. T 2 = T 1 [

=(561)[

T 2 = 495.53 K

/

W n =

=

W n = 21.9 kJ/s

(b) p 2 V 2 =mRT 2

V 2 =

= 0.6495 m 3 /s

(c) ΔU = mcv(T2-T1)

= (0.454)(0.7364)(495.53-561)

ΔU = -21.888 kJ/s

(d) ΔH = mcp(T2-T1)

= (0.454)(1.015)( 495.53-561) ΔH = -30.169 kJ/s

10.A polytropic process of air from

Given:

P1=150 psia

T1=300 F+460

=760 R

V1=1 ft3

P2=20 psia

n=1.3

Rair=(53.34 lb.ft/lb.R)(

)

= 0.06856 BTU/lb.R

cv=0.1714

cp= 0.24

Solution:

(a) i.
=
T2=(760)[
= 477.39 R -460
=17.40 F

ii. p1V 1 n =p2V 2 V2 = [p 1 V 1 n /p 2 ] 1/n =[(150)(1) 1.3 /(20)] 1/1.3 V 2 = 4.711 ft3

n

(b.) i. p 1 V 1 =mRT 1

m=

= 0.5328 lb ii. ΔU = mcv(T2-T1)

/

= (0.5328)(0.1714)(477.39-760)

= -25.81 BTU

iii.

ΔH=mcp(T2-T1)

= (0.5328)(0.24)(477.39-760)

= -36.14 BTU

iv.

/

k=cp/cv

=0.24/0.1714

k=1.40

/ cn=cv[(k-n)/1-n]

=(0.1714)[(1.40-1.3)/(1-1.3)]

cn=-0.571

ΔS= mcnln(T2/T1)

=(0.5328)(-0.0571)ln(477.39/760)

ΔS=0.0141 BTU/R

(c) i.pdV=

=

= 34.41 BTU

ii.- Vdp =n(pdV)

= (1.3)(34.41)

= 44.73 BTU

(d)Q= mcn(T2-T1)

=(0.5328)(-0.0571)(477.39-760)

Q=8.60 BTU

Check:

Q=ΔU+ pdV = -25.81 + 34.41 Q=8.60 BTU

 (e) W n = = W n = 34.41 BTU (f) Ws = Q- ΔU = 8.60-(-36.14) Ws = 44.7 BTU