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HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

CONTENTS HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES CONTROL VALVE V50 CONTROL VALVE V90 and 91M CONTROL VALVE V80 LOAD CONTROL VALVES ADDITIONAL VALVES SPOOL POSITIONERS SLEWING MOTORS CYLINDERS HYDRAULIC DIAGRAMS COUPLINGS and FITTINGS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Contents

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Section 1 Hydraulic principles Contents


Safety regulations ........................................................3 Hydraulic principles .....................................................4
Energy transfer by oil .........................................................4 Transmission of force.........................................................4 Pressure ............................................................................5 Force..................................................................................5 Pressure x cylinder area = Force.......................................6 Force = Pressure x cylinder area.......................................6 Displacement .....................................................................7 Flow ...................................................................................7 Speed ................................................................................8 Work...................................................................................9 Power.................................................................................9 Power (cont.) ................................................................... 11 Power (cont.) ...................................................................12 Power (cont.) ...................................................................13 Hydraulic system..............................................................13 Check valve .....................................................................14 Hydraulic system (cont.) ..................................................14 Hydraulic system (cont.) ..................................................15 Single-acting cylinder, idling ............................................16 Single-acting cylinder, lifting ............................................17 Single-acting cylinder, lowering .......................................18 Single-acting cylinder, overload .......................................19 Double-acting cylinder, idling ...........................................20 Double-acting cylinder, lifting ...........................................21 Double-acting cylinder, lowering ......................................22 Double-acting cylinder, overload......................................23

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The manufacturer accepts no liability for any consequences resulting from inappropriate, negligent, or incorrect operation of the equipment or from misuse of the equipment. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy the contents of this Manual, however the manufactures, publishers and author accept no liability for any loss, damage or injury caused by any errors in or omissions from the imformation contained within this document. The contents of this Manual are believed to be correct at the time of printing. In the interests of a commitment to a policy of continuous development and improvement , the manufacturer reserves the right to change the specification of the products or their performance or the contents of this Manual, without notice. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be stored, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically including photocopying, recording or by any information retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Copyright October 2002

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Safety regulations
Read this for your safety
The HIAB Cargo Handling Equipment can be hazardous if it is not operated correctly. Make sure you read and understand the general safety information given in this chapter. The equipment must be operated in accordance with the instructions given in the relevant Operators Manual. Using the equipment in any other way or for any other purpose is prohibited. Warnings, cautions, notes and tips are given in this manual. Their meanings are as follows:

WARNING A Warning is given where wrong action could result in death or injury to the operator and nearby personnel. Warnings must always be adhered to, and given precedence over written and verbal instructions as well as Cautions. CAUTION A Caution is given where wrong action could result in damage to the equipment. Cautions must always be adhered to, and given precedence over Notes, and written and verbal instructions. NOTE! A note emphasises an important piece of information or an instruction. Warnings and Cautions that apply to the general operation of the HIAB Cargo Handling Equipment are given in the relevant Operators Manual. TIP! Tip to make work easy to carry out.

Excluded personnel

Untrained personnel must not operate or carry out repairs to the Cargo Handling Equipment.

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Hydraulic principles
Energy transfer by oil
The advantage of using oil to transmit force is in its unlimited mobility. These qualities are shown in fig.1. 1. 2. 3. 4. It can easily change form. It can be divided up to enable it to work in several places at once. It can be moved quickly from one point to another. It will work in any direction or angle. fig.1
H001-7

Transmission of force
In simplified form as in figs.1&2 the transmission of force is achieved by putting the oil under pressure so that the work, such as lifting a load is carried out. The load is moved when the pressure created by the force acting on the left-hand piston is higher than the pressure generated by the load on the righthand piston. If the same force is applied to a smaller piston the pressure created will be higher and a bigger load can be moved using the same force. fig.2
H002-7

fig.3

H003-7

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Pressure
Pressure is the load per unit of surface.

P=

F A

It follows that a small diameter piston produces a higher pressure compared to one with a large diameter when subjected to the same load. The example in fig.4 shows pistons having an area of 500 mm2 and 5000 mm2. When subjected to a force of 100 N a pressure of 0.2 and 0.02 Mpa respectively will be generated.

fig.4

H004-7

Force
Inversely, pressure against a surface will produce a force. F= p x A Assuming as in (fig.4) a force of 100 N on the small piston, thereby producing a pressure of 0.2 Mpa and letting this pressure act on the larger piston having a surface 10 times larger, a force of 1000 N is produced, this corresponds to a weight of 100 kgs. (fig.5) This demonstrates the force is in direct proportion to the pressure and the area. fig.5
H005-7

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fig.6

H006-7

Pressure x cylinder area = Force


If this theory is applied to a practical crane application fig.6 it can be seen that a certain oil pressure can lift or, stop and hold a load.

fig.7

H007-7

Force = Pressure x cylinder area


The force exerted by a crane inner boom (fig.7) depends on oil pressure and piston area. Nothing else. For example increasing a trucks engine speed will not affect the pressure in the cylinder.

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fig.8

H008-7

Displacement
Displacement is the same thing as swept volume. The swept volume is calculated by multiplying the piston area by the stroke. (fig.8) In a hydraulic pump the displacement is taken to be the swept volume per revolution, which is the volume of oil that the pump moves in one revolution of the shaft.

fig.9

H009-7

Flow
Flow is the volume passing per unit time. (fig.9) If the displacement is two litres per stroke, and the pump does 10 strokes per min, the flow will be 2 x 10 = 20 Litres/min. A hydraulic pump with a displacement of 53 cm3 per rev, and running at 1000 rpm, delivers 53,000 cm3 per min or 53 litres/min.

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fig.10

H010-7

Speed
At a given flow to a cylinder we get a particular speed. The speed will be inversely proportional to the piston area. (fig.10)

Speed=

flow area

If we open the throttle of a truck and increase engine/pump speed, the flow will increase and we achieve more speed.

fig.11

H011-7

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Work
The work of a crane requires the lifting of a wieght over a certain distance (s =distance). To achieve this it is necessary to lift with a certain force (f = force) using these factors we use the formula, Work = force x distance (fig. 11). As shown in fig.7 hydraulic force is equal to pressure x area, F = p x A. Combining these two formulas results in W = p x A x s. It is also known that displacement is equal to area x distance D = A x s. This leads to the conclusion that work is equal displacement x pressure. W = D x p. From this it can be seen that the factors that do the work are the displacement of the pump and the working pressure. The speed that results will depend on how fast we pump, as speed is dependent on the flow.

fig.12

H012-7

Power
A job can be done quickly or slowly. If done quickly, more power is required as shown in fig.12.

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fig.13

H013-7

fig.14

H014-7

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Power (cont.)
Here follows a more complete definition: Power (P) is most simply defined as work (W) per unit time (t). Since work (W) is force (F) times distance (s) we get, after combining the formulas, the expression Everyone knows that speed (v) is distance (s) divided by time (t), i.e. We are familiar with kilometres per hour. If we substitute v for s/t we get the formula: power (P) is equal to force (F) times speed (v)

P=

W t Fxs t s t

P=

V=

P= F x V

Assume that the horse lifts a weight of 75 kg through a height of 1 metre in a time of 1 second. The horse will then be lifting with a force of 75 kgf, which is equivalent to 736 N, and a speed of 1 m/s. If we substitute these figures in the formula we find that the power developed by the horse was 736 watts, or, if we employ an older unit, 1 horse-power (hp). If the weight weighed 100 kg we see at once that at the same speed the horse will develop a power of 1,000 watts (W) or 1 kilowatt (kW). Doubling this speed to 2 rn/s would raise the power to 2 kW. Power is thus dependent on time.

The power formula for a crane is p = Qxp 60 Flow is given in litres/mm, pressure in MPa. Power is received in kW.

fig.15

H015-7

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fig.16

H016-7

Power (cont.)
A derivation of the formula leads to the following: The crane is lifting with a force F and a speed V. We already know these three formulas: Power is equal to force times speed. P= F x V power will vary with the speed (RPM). Force is equal to pressure times area. Speed is equal to flow divided by area.

Thus power is dependent on time. This means that the

F= p x A v= Q A

In order to arrive at a power formula that will apply in hydraulics we combine these three expressions. The result is

P=

pxAxQ A

Cancelling out A leaves us with the basic formula:

P=Qxp

Power is equal to flow times pressure. Using the standard units of these formulas, flow is measured in cubic metres per second. In our pump world, however, we are concerned with cubic decimetres, which is the same thing as litres, and with minutes. To be able to calculate, we must first convert to the right units. A cubic metre is the same as a thousand cubic decimeters.

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Power (cont.)
A second is the same as one-sixtieth of a minute. If we substitute accordingly in the basic formula, we get a thousand above the line and sixty below it.

P=

1000 x Q x p 60

watt

Kilo means a thousand, so that the final formula will be:

P=

The pressure p is calculated in MPa. We see, then, that the power increases if the flow increases. The flow is directly dependent on the speed and the displacement. The power also increases if the pressure increases.

Qxp kW (kilowatt) 60

Hydraulic system
A hydraulic system, as used on a loader crane, is built up by: A pump (A) to move the oil into the cylinder (B), which moves the boom. A tank (C) to store the oil. (D) and (E) are check valves, which stop oil flow in one direction and allow free flow in the opposite direction. (Fig 17).

fig.17

H017-7

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Hydraulic system (cont.)


When filling the pump with oil from the oil tank, the check valve under the tank opens and lets the oil pass. The check valve on the cylinder side is closed because of lower pressure on the pump side.

fig. 18

H018-7

Check valve
In the left-hand picture (fig.19), the balltype check valve opens when the oil below the ball (1) is sufficient under pressured to depress the spring (2). The ball is lifted from its seat (3) allows the oil to pass. In the right hand picture, the oil pressure above the ball has decreased and the ball has been pushed back to its starting position (4) by the spring and the oil pressure below the ball. The connection is closed.

fig.19

H019-7

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Hydraulic system (cont.)


When exerting a downward movement on the pump (fig.20), the oil pressure in the hydraulic circuit line increases. The check valve (2) will close and prevent the oil returning to the tank. The check valve (3) will be opened by the increased pressure above the ball and allow oil to flow to the cylinder. The increased oil volume in the cylinder will make the piston move and the loader crane boom will be pushed upwards.

fig.20

H020-7

In fig.21, the area of the pump piston is 1 cm2 and the one of the cylinder piston is 50 cm2. When moving the pump piston down 5 cm (fig.22), an oil volume of 5 cm3 will be forced over to the cylinder piston. Since the cylinder piston has an area of 50 cm2, the volume of 5 cm3 can only raise this piston by 1 mm..

fig.21

H021-7

fig.22

H022-7

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Single-acting cylinder, idling

fig.23

H023-7

In order to make the oil circulate in the hydraulic system and to direct it to the functions to move, some more components have to be added to the system. (fig.23) (F) is a pump giving a continuous flow of oil. (E) is a relief valve, which will open, if the oil pressure exceeds the pre-set value, and allow excess oil to return to the tank. (G) is a control valve which starts, stops and directs the oil flow in the system. In this picture, the valve spool allows the oil to go back to the tank. It is said to be in neutral position. Fig.24 shows how the previous figure looks in a hydraulic diagram. The 3-position valve is in neutral position. Oil at a low pressure is circulated through the control valve and back to tank without pressure.

fig.24

H024-7

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Single-acting cylinder, lifting

H025-7 fig.25 In this position, the valve spool closes the return line to the tank and opens the line to the underside of the cylinder piston. The oil will press the piston upwards and thus obtain a movement from the cylinder. Fig.26 shows that the valve spool has been moved to the right, making it possible for pressurised oil to flow from the pump up to the cylinder. The tank port is closed.

fig.26

H026-7

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Single-acting cylinder, lowering

fig.27

H027-7

With the valve slide in this position, the oil is pressed out of the cylinder by the weight of the boom and the load. The oil is directed back to the tank.(fig.27) Fig.28 shows that the valve spool has been moved to the left making it possible for oil to return from cylinder to tank. You will note that also the pump flow is directed to the tank port inside the valve.

fig.28

H028-7

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Single-acting cylinder, overload

fig.29

H029-7

The weight of the boom and the load is so big that the pressure created in the hydraulic line exceeds the preset value of the relief valve. The relief valve will then open and allow the oil to escape to the tank instead of creating excessive pressure in the system (fig.29) Fig.30 shows the valve spool is moved to lift position but the load is too high. Oil from the pump is instead directed through the main relief valve to the left.

fig.30

H030-7

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Double-acting cylinder, idling

fig.31

H031-7

We have switched to a double-acting cylinder and increased the number of valve ports to 4. The valve is in neutral position and the pump circulates oil through the valve. Fig.31 shows in more detail how the pump port is connected to the return port in neutral position. The cylinder ports are closed. To the left in fig.32 a cross-section of a real control valve is shown. The top part contains relief valves not shown in the diagram.

fig.32

H032-7

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Double-acting cylinder, lifting

fig.33

H033-7

Pulling the valve spool connects the pump channel with the cylinder channel. Pressurised oil (red) is pumped to the cylinder bottom part. Simultaneously, the spool has opened the passage between return line and tank line making it possible for return oil (blue) to re-circulate in the system (fig.33). This is the same process in the hydraulic diagram (fig.34). The spool has been moved to the left and oil flows crosswise up to the cylinder and out.

fig.34

H034-7

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Double-acting cylinder, lowering

fig.35

H035-7

Here (fig.35) the valve spool is moved in the opposite direction opening channels for lowering the load. In contrast to the single-acting cylinder, where load and dead weight pressed the piston back, here return movement is effected by pressurised oil. The greatest advantage is the pulling force in the return movement. The hydraulic diagram (fig.36) shows the spool moved to the right, giving straight channels from pump to the cylinder top part and return from the cylinder bottom to tank. The advantage of a pulling cylinder is significant.

fig.36

H036-7

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Double-acting cylinder, overload

fig.37

H037-7

Shown here (fig.37) is an overload situation where pump pressure is not capable of lifting the load. The main relief valve E opens and pump oil circulates directly to the tank. The same situation is shown in the diagram (fig.38) The control valve is actuated to lift the load, however, due to high resistance the main relief valve opens and allows the oil directly to the tank.

fig.38

H038-7

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Section 2 Control valve V50


Contents
Control Valve V50 .....................................................................2
Description ............................................................................................2 Connections ..........................................................................................2 Pressure gauge connection ..................................................................2 Sections ................................................................................................2 Manufacturers sign...............................................................................2 Casting marks .......................................................................................2 Technical data .......................................................................................2

Valve variants ...........................................................................3 Valve variants ...........................................................................4 Dump valve (open) ...................................................................6 Dump valve (closed, work position) .......................................9 Inner boom function, all CE-cranes ......................................10

Description ............................................................................................6 Function ................................................................................................6 Description ............................................................................................9 Function ................................................................................................9 Descriptio ............................................................................................10 Function ..............................................................................................10

Slew function, small CE-cranes ............................................11 Slew function, small CE-cranes (overload)..........................12 Slew function (large CE-cranes) ...........................................13 Inner boom function (small Non-CE-cranes) .......................14 Slew function (large Non-CE-cranes) ...................................15 Slew function small Non-CE-cranes .....................................15

Description ..........................................................................................11 Function ..............................................................................................11 Description ..........................................................................................12 Function ..............................................................................................12 Description ..........................................................................................13 Function ..............................................................................................13 Description ..........................................................................................14 Function ..............................................................................................14

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Control valve V50

fig.1

H001-6

Description

Valve 50 (fig.1) is a further development of valve 40 for open center systems. The main differences include: built-in dump valve, stronger housing, spools with improved operational properties on all functions. There are 4 main varieties of valve 50. .Connections The valve has 3 alternative input pressure connections (3/4) and 2 alternative tank connections (1 and 3/4).

Pressure gauge connection Sections

The front pressure connection is in most cases fitted with a nipple for gauge connection.

At present the valve is only available with 6 sections.

Manufacturers sign

The manufacturers sign shows valve number and data. Following Type the code for week of manufacture is stated. In this case 7 for 1997 and 39 for week number.

Casting marks

The valve casting has markings for B-side, P-connections, T-connections, and section numbers. G means gray iron, SG means nodular iron.

Technical data

Max pressure gray iron 27 Mpa Max pressure nodular iron 35 Mpa Max return pressure 2,5 Mpa Nominal pump flow 35, 50, and 70 l/min Pressure drop P3T 2 in dump position <4 bar at 70 l/min The check valves are preset at 5 bar. Valve block weight = 32 kg.

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Valve variants
There are 4 basic variants of the V50 valve. Figures 2 to 5 illustrate the main differences.

fig.2

H002-6

Fig.2 Illustrates a basic system with no particular features.

fig.3

H003-6

Fig.3 Illustrates a small EU crane layout. The yellow field in the diagram shows features for a small crane i.e: dump valve, spool position indicators, and on the slew function a double load holding valve with a motor spool.

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Valve variants

fig.4

H004-6

Fig.4 Illustrates a large EU crane layout.

fig.5

H005-6

Fig.5 Illustrates the layout for the small OS cranes

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Dump valve (open)


Description
Figure 6 shows a lengthwise cross-section of the valve. The open dump valve is seen to the left. It is a solenoid valve similar to the one used for remote control systems. At the top of the solenoid there is a button for emergency operation.

Function
Here the voltage over the solenoid valve is 0 volt, i e the emergency button is pushed in. The valve needle opens a drain to tank, thereby releasing pressure behind the dump piston. The piston moves up, balanced only by the weak spring. The low circulation pressure through the valve is fully relieved by the open shunt. Pressure build-up via spools is not possible. Also shown is the function of the spool position indicators. A steel core is connected to the spool. The solenoid operation is controlled by the information from the spool sensor position. When the emergency stop button of the remote control hand controller is pushed in, oil supply to any cylinder function is impossible.

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fig.6

H008-6

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H009-6

Control Valve V50

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Dump valve (closed, work position)


Description
Figure 7 shows the same cross-section but the dump valve is closed.

Function
With 24 V over the dump valve, i.e. emergency button pulled out, the valve needle will close the drain from above the dump piston. Circulation pressure or the pressures generated when a spool is activated will together with the spring produce the force needed to close the dump piston. When the emergency button is pulled out it is possible to feed oil at full working pressure to the cylinder functions.

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fig.8

H010-6

Inner boom function, all CE-cranes


Description
Figure 8 is a cross-section through the inner boom function of the control valve, valid for all EU cranes. The cross section applies to the outer boom function as well. The A-side has a pressure relief cartridge with suction valve function included the B-side has a plug. There is a separate load-holding valve at the cylinder. In the return line, as seen in the diagram, a one-way restriction valve is fitted. In the figure the spool is pushed in for lifting.

Function
Via the parallel channel pressurised oil (red) is directed to the B-port and further through the check valve of the separate load holding valve to the inner boom cylinder. Return oil (blue) passes through the one-way restriction valve, then via the spool to the return channel. The separate load holding valve in the closed position prevents the crane boom from sinking. The boom cannot be lowered without pump pressure. Coloured channels are pressurised.

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fig.9

H011-6

Slew function, small CE-cranes


Description
Figure 9 shows a cross-section of the slew function for small EU-cranes. At first sight the load-holding function looks similar to the one for the V41 although fitted on both A and B-side. This was true for the first generation of valve 50. However, valves from 1997 onward are fitted with a completely new development: a patented flow regulator at the tip of the pressure relief cartridge. This provides the valve function in question with a limited throughput area suitable for the slewing oil flow and a hydraulic filter thereby making it possible to increase the pilot ratio from 2:1 to 8.5:1. As a consequence, driving pressure for the slew function has been reduced radically. It follows that simultaneous operation with a low-pressure function, such as extension has been improved considerably

Function
Pressurised oil (red) is directed via the parallel channel, over the check valve into the slew cylinder. At the same time oil is pushed diagonally left to the flow regulator of the lowering side, which opens a slit for return oil to the tank channel. When slewing downhill the slew cylinder can never be emptied quicker than oil is being replenished on the opposite side. This will prevent hydraulic play. Also, it is not possible to slew without pump pressure. Coloured channels are pressurised.

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fig.10

H012-6

Slew function, small CE-cranes (overload)


Description
Figure 10 shows the same cross-section as fig.9 but in an overload situation. The spool is in the neutral position. Pressure is built up in the left slew cylinder.

Function
The check valve closes the channel towards the spool but oil under high-pressure forces the relief valve to open for outlet to the tank channel. At the same time, pressure (green) is created in the right slew cylinder. Therefore, return pressure will lift the check valve allowing the cylinder to be refilled with tank oil. In this mode the flow regulator is inactive. Oil forced out due to over pressure will refill the opposite slew cylinder, thus eliminating hydraulic play. Slewing without pump pressure is not possible. Coloured channels in the small valve picture are pressurised.

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fig.11

H013-6

Slew function (large CE-cranes)


Description
Figure 11 shows a valve cross-section of the slew function for large EU-cranes the A and B sides have only pressure relief cartridges including suction valve function. Load holding and damping for the slewing motion is taken care of by a separate motion-control valve.

Function
Pressurised oil (red) is directed via the parallel channel to the B-port and further via the one-way restriction valve and the motion-control check valve to the slew cylinder. Return oil (light red) is pressure regulated over the motion-control valve and is flow limited over the one-way restriction valve before it returns to the tank channel under return pressure. When slewing downhill the slew cylinder can never be emptied quicker than oil is being replenished on the opposite side thanks to the separate load holding function. This will prevent hydraulic play. Also, it is not possible to slew without pump pressure. Coloured channels in the small valve picture are pressurised

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fig.12

H014-6

Inner boom function (small Non-CE-cranes)


Description
Figure 12 shows a valve cross-section illustrating the inner boom function for small OS-cranes. The equipment is similar to the old V41 having a pressure relief cartridge including suction valve function on side A, built-in load holding on side B. The outer boom function for small OS-cranes looks alike, the only small difference being that the relief valve has no back-up ring or O-ring in order to create an amount of damping. The lack of spool position indicators should also be noted.

Function
Pressurised oil (red) is directed via the parallel channel and the check valve in the B-port to the bottom of the inner boom cylinder. Since load holding is taken care of by the in-built function in the control valve at the crane base, a separate hose rupture valve close to the cylinder is needed. Return oil (blue) passes through the one-way restriction valve and the pressure relief valve before going to the return channel via the spool. The built-in check valve in the closed position provides the control valve with load holding properties. The crane boom cannot be lowered without pump pressure. Coloured channels are pressurised. The inner boom function for large OS-cranes is identical to the one for EU-cranes. The only difference is the lack of spool position indicators.

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fig.13

H015-6

Slew function small Non-CE-cranes


The equipment in the control valve slew function for small OS-cranes is equal to the one for large EU cranes; the only exception is the lack of spool position indicators. There is no motion-control valve, nor one-way restriction valves. Restriction washers only are used for slew speed limiting.

fig.14

H016-6

Slew function (large Non-CE-cranes)


The equipment in the control valve slew function for large OS-cranes is equal to the one for large EU-cranes; the only exception is the lack of spool position indicators. Large OS-cranes also have a motion-control valve and one-way restriction valves.

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Section 3 Control Valve V91


Contents
Control Valve 91 .................................................................. 2 Spools................................................................................... 4 Dump valve (Closed) ........................................................... 5
Description .....................................................................................2 Connections ...................................................................................3 Description .....................................................................................4 Description .....................................................................................5 Function .........................................................................................5 Conclusion .....................................................................................6 Description .....................................................................................7 Function .........................................................................................7 Conclusion .....................................................................................7 Description .....................................................................................9 Function .........................................................................................9

Dump valve (Open).............................................................. 7

Idling ..................................................................................... 9

1st and 4th function ...........................................................11 Lifting.................................................................................. 12

Description ................................................................................... 11 Function ....................................................................................... 11 Description ...................................................................................12 Function .......................................................................................12 Conclusion ...................................................................................13 Description ...................................................................................14 Function .......................................................................................14 Conclusion ...................................................................................14 Description ...................................................................................15 Function .......................................................................................15 Conclusion ...................................................................................15

Overload (Outer Boom)..................................................... 14

Overload (Extension) ........................................................ 15

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CONTROL VALVE 91

fig.1

H001-2

Description
Valve 91 is a load sensing pressure compensated control valve, a so-called closed-centre valve. This means that each valve function delivers an oil flow directly proportional to control lever movement as long as pump flow is sufficient. The flow is completely independent of load even when several valve functions are used simultaneously. Valve 91 can be used together with a variable pump. However, we recommend a constant displacement pump for HIAB cranes. Except 6 valve functions there is in the valve block, a shunt function, the duty of which is to direct pump oil to tank and further to maintain a certain pressure in the pump line. The valve block can be fitted with a solenoid valve, which controls the shunt function, e g when using remote control. There are no separate port relief valves in valve 91. These relief valves have instead been moved out to the load-holding valves for inner and outer boom cylinders, for the slew function to the crossover valve. For the extension a special spool with built-in signal pressure relief for side A or B is available. The load-holding valve LHV-91 has been specially developed to be used in the inner and outer boom functions together with valve 91.

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Connections
P1 = Pressure connection from pump (R 3/4) P2 = Pressure outlet for pressure reduction filter (R 1/4) (CombiDrive) P3 = Serial outlet to stabiliser valve. Serial connection plug necessary T1 = Tank connection (R 3/4) T2 = Return from pressure reduction filter (R 1/4) (CombiDrive) T3 = Return from load-holding valve 91 (R 1/2) S1 = Gauge connection for signal pressure/ signal connection to variable pump (R 1/4) S2 = Signal pressure connection from following closed centre valve (R 3/8) There are also casting marks for side A and B, P-connections, T-connections, S-connections, and section numbers. (R3/4)

Notes

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Spools

fig.2

H002-2

Description
The spools are adapted to suit crane size and function by means of shaping metering slits for a predetermined and approved speed. Each spool is coded. In this first case 14B which means 63-63-35-35. In more detail 63 1/mm to piston side and 35 1/min out from rod side. From the other direction, 35 1/min into rod side and 63 1/mm out from piston side. It is about time to make acquaintance with the new valve symbol. Ports A and B are closed which is similar to D-spools but we now have a closed centre, i e closed throughput in neutral position. Instead we find here an S connected to T for tank. This S means signal line. Lets take a closer look at the symbol figures when describing the lifting and lowering functions. The spool in the centre is a DM-spool, which as previously means motor spool. The code 84A means 50 L/min out as well as in. As you can see from the symbol the DM-spool has ports A and B connected to tank in neutral position. The exterior of the bottom spool looks like the topmost spool, but there is a inbuilt signal pressure relief valve. This is set at a fixed pressure, in this case 140 bar above port A. A spool of this kind can be used for an extension function, because the 91-valve has a common signal pressure relief for ports A and B and the port relief (shock) valves are fitted in the load holding valves. Normally there are no load-holding valves on the extension cylinder and therefore pressure limiting for extension out is solved in this fashion.

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Dump valve (Closed)

fig.3

H003-2

Description
This is a cross-section of the connection end of valve 91 showing both dump valve and shunt. The shunt housing at SI with shunt spring and shunt piston. The dump valve consists of the vertical cartridge in the top left corner. This version is used for manual operation. For remote control a solenoid valve (dotted line) is added. Shown also is the pump connection P1, the CombiDrive oil supply P2 and the oil supply P3 to the stabiliser valve e g. The blue field in a diagonal pattern is a chamber behind connecting all tank connections such as T1 to tank. Other tank connections include T2 (return from CombiDrive), T3 (port relief oil from and reference pressure to the load-holding valve).

Function

In this case the dump valve is closed. When used for manual operation this means that a plug closes connection between top and bottom side of the dump piston. For remote control with a voltage over the solenoid the connection channel is also closed. Pump pressure having been transmitted up through the dump piston into the spring housing becomes locked in and gives hydraulic balance to the dump piston. The spring keeps the piston closed against releasing pump pressure to tank. The pressure level 13 bar is determined by the shunt spring.

continued on page 6

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Conclusion
When used for manual operation or remote control with voltage over the dump solenoid (emergency button pulled out) the closed dump valve means full standby pressure 13 bar to the valve. Pressure is determined by the shunt. We can follow this in fig.3: The shunt to the left admits oil to tank while the dump valve to the right is closed. The plug below T2 is the serial plug used for a separate stabiliser valve connected to P3. The plug below T3 is the plug seen to the left in the cross-section

Notes

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Dump valve (Open)

fig.4

H004-2

Description
The open dump valve is seen here. For opening a solenoid valve the same as used for remote control is necessary.

Function
Voltage over the solenoid valve is OV, i e the emergency button is pushed in. A poppet opens connection to tank whereby the locked in pressure behind the dump piston is released. The piston moves up and is balanced only by the weak spring corresponding to 3 bar. The shunt spring closes the shunt and circulation pressure is reduced to 3 bar with the shunt open.

Conclusion
Pushing in the emergency button will reduce circulation pressure from 13 bar to 3 bar which means reduced heat generation.The hydraulic diagram shows that the plug below T3 has been replaced by a two-position valve open/closed. With the valve open counter pressure will be drained and pump oil dumped to tank.

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fig. 5
H005-2

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Idling
Description
This is the valve when idling, i.e. no lever has been moved. Fig.5 shows a valve cross-section at different levels. Far left the ground floor is seen with shunt, pressure compensator, and signal system including signal pressure relief valves. Further to the right at the 3rd up to the 5th function we are moving upward to the spool floor. Of course there are pressure compensators and signal systems under the spools as well. At the 6th function we have moved down to the bottom floor again. Pressure compensator and pressure relief belonging to this function are seen. It is to be noted that the signal system is equipped with balls on every function except the last one. The reason for this being that the pressure must be drained when the lever is released.

Function
The pump is supplying oil at 120 l/min. Since the valve is a so-called closed-centre valve there is no other exit for the oil than passage through the shunt back to tank. Since signal pressure is 0 bar and the signal pressure spring puts up a resistance corresponding to 13 bar, this will be the circulation pressure. The colours also make clear that the pressure compensator of each function reduces pressure down to 8 bar above signal pressure which in this case was 0 bar. Seen also is the pressure gauge connection on the shunt cover. It will indicate pressure in the signal pressure system. When idling full flow goes to tank over the shunt.

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fig.6
H006-2

Control Valve V91

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1st and 4th function


Description
Figure 6 shows the same basics figure as the previous one, but the 1st and 4th function are being operated. Same pump flow, 120 1/mm.

Function
First, the system will sense which one of the functions needs the highest working pressure. It is seen that slewing needs 50 bar, extension 100 bar. The slew spool is made for 18 l/min, the extension spoo1 for 75 1/ min. 100 bar being the highest pressure passes through the signal system to the shunt. Attempting to follow the diagonal pattern signal pressure we find it begins at the A-port of the 5th function, passes through the spool out into the centre channel down to the pressure compensator and signal pressure relief below (not shown). From there, signal pressure passes via the shuttle valve out toward the shunt. We can see it appearing at the 2nd function (inner boom) where it is compared to 0 bar before progressing further to the slew function. There, the signal pressure 100 bar is compared to the signal pressure 50 bar (lighter colour) before going to the shunt. Since the shunt spring is sized for 13 bar the shunt piston will build up a pump pressure of 13 + 100 bar = 113 bar. Following the pump channel to the slew function we can see that the compensator reduces pump pressure to 58 bar which is 8 bar above signal pressure for this function. The same thing happens in 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 6th function but down to 8 bar, signal pressure being 0 bar. In the 4th function (extension) the pressure regulator has adapted pressure to 108 bar since signal pressure is 100 bar. Oil consumption is 75 + 18 1/mm = 93 1/min. The surplus 27 1/min is conducted at 113 bar to tank via the shunt.

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Lifting

H007-2

fig.7

Description
We will now look at what happens in a cross-section of the valve when lifting. The spool at the top floor, pressure compensator and signal pressure relief valve at the bottom. The spool has been moved. It has an effective control stroke of 8 - 2 = 6 mm. Pressure requirement is 100 bar

Function
First thing to happen is signal pressure 100 bar being sensed at the B-port. The pressure is transmitted to the right along the spool and out into the centre channel. From there signal pressure goes down to the bottom floor, lifts the shuttle valve ball and goes further toward the shunt where it is added to the shunt spring corresponding 13 bar. Out comes a pump pressure of 113 bar. At the same time the pressure compensator adapts oil pressure for this function to 108 bar (signal pressure 100 bar + spring pressure equivalent to 8 bar). Oil at 108 bar is conveyed up to the spool and is reduced in the metering spool slits to 100 bar as required. On the return side the spool has opened to the tank channel.

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Conclusion
Pressure drop across the spool is always 8 bar, independent of load. This gives controlled, similar and proportional flow regulation over the full effective spool stroke of 6 mm Valve 91 with load sensing and pressure compensation makes it necessary to learn a new symbol figure. The diagram to the right shows from bottom: The shuttle in the signal pressure system, pressure regulator, signal pressure relief valve 265 bar and the moved spool. The restriction shown below the spool is physically the restriction found inside the signal channel of the spool at the outlet to the centre port (in practice two restrictions but only one at a time can function). More about this restriction in the next figure on overload. The restrictions inside the spool symbol are physically the metering slits in the spool. When the spool is moved the centre signal channel is pressurized. The pressure will open the shuttle, (and prepressurize the shunt, not shown), it will pre-pressurize the pressure regulator as well and apply pressure on the signal pressure relief valve. Pump oil at a determined pressure is conducted out in port B, return oil goes to tank via port A.

Notes

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Overload (Outer Boom)

fig.8

H008-2

Description
Same basic figure as before but now there is an overload situation shown by the opened signal pressure relief valve.

Function
Pressure level after compensating is always 8 bar above signal pressure. In this case at maximum level 265 bar + 8 bar = 273 bar. This pressure is found all the way to the cylinder since the cylinder is at standstill. Oil at overpressure is led into the spool channel where it is restricted down to 265 bar before entering the centre channel and further to open the signal pressure relief. Only 3 1/mm at 265 bar passes out via the signal pressure relief valve. The remaining surplus oil at 278 bar goes to tank via the shunt.

Conclusion
When measuring the pressure at the shunt cover it will be the max pressure 265 bar. If measuring at the cylinder it will be 8 bar higher, i e 273 bar. The overload 273 bar from the cylinder is led via the spool through a 8 bar restriction down to pressure regulator, signal pressure relief valve and shuttle valve. The signal pressure relief opens at preset maximum pressure.

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Overload (Extension)

fig.9

H009-2

Description
Overload as shown in the previous figure but in this case a spool with built-in signal pressure relief valve. It could be the extension function. From the hydraulic diagram we find that maximum working pressure for port A is 140 bar.

Function
As always, the pressure level after compensation is 8 bar above signal pressure. Here 140 bar + 8 bar = 148 bar. Since an overload situation exists this pressure is found all the way up to the cylinder. Oil at 148 bar is directed into the spool signal channel but is restricted at the entrance to 140 bar. Signal pressure travels as before down in the centre channel but it acts upon and opens the signal pressure relief of the spool as well. In this way signal pressure is limited to 140 bar for port A. The regular signal pressure relief at 265 bar is valid for port B only. Also in this case only a small amount of oil at a signal pressure of 140 bar is going to tank. Remaining surplus oil exits at 153 bar via the shunt (unless another function at a higher pressure is operated at the same time).

Conclusion
The valve function is normally equipped with 1 signal pressure relief valve, valid for both ports. If separate settings are needed a spool with built-in signal pressure relief is to be used. The symbol for a spool with builtin signal pressure relief is much simplified and is expressed in our hydraulic diagrams only by noting a max pressure inside the spool symbol. The function in the diagram is otherwise similar to the previous case, the only difference being that the regular signal pressure relief has not opened.

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Section 4 Control Valve V80 Contents


Introduction...............................................................................2 HIAB V80 Control Valve ...........................................................3 Description................................................................................3 Exploded view ..........................................................................4 Spool section ............................................................................5 Identification plate....................................................................6 Port sizes ..................................................................................7 Tightening torques ...................................................................7 Function (manually operated) .................................................8

Function (manually operated)...................................................................... 9 Function (manually operated).................................................................... 10

Relief and Anti-cavitation valves .......................................... 11 Load check valve....................................................................12 Inlet and outlet connections..................................................13 Spools......................................................................................14 Remove and refit spool..........................................................15
Remove and refit spool ............................................................................. 16

Connection Drawing V80 valve with 4 function ..................17

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Introduction

The information contained in this section relates to the manually controlled V80 valve only. Please consider the information as preliminary. The V80 remote control version is scheduled to be released on the HIAB 088 during week 07 2003. A revised edition of this section will also be issued incorporating information covering the remote control version, and any further information that is available for the manual control version.

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HIAB V80 Control Valve

H001-11

fig.1

Description
The HIAB V80 valve introduces a new concept in open-centre control valves to the XS crane range. Modular construction allows for easy maintenance and modification should customers needs change, such as the addition of hydraulically operated accessories. The V80 consists of 4-7 spool modules, an inlet section, and an outlet section. The Inlet and outlet sections give the flexibility needed when connecting power beyond functions such as hydraulic stabiliser legs etc. The V80 is designed for use with a fixed output hydraulic pump only. The choice of pump is therefore extremely important, the use of a pump with a low output will severely reduce the functionality of the valve. However the use of a pump with to greater output will increase the functionality of the valve but will also create an unacceptable increase in oil temperature.

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Exploded view of 6 section manually controlled V80 valve


fig.2

H002-11

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Spool section

fig.3 Figs.3&4 illustrate the low number of components used in the V80 valve.

H016-11

fig.4

H003-11

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Identification plate
Fitted to the valve assembly on the inlet section the identification plate contains information as shown below (fig.5). The serial number contains information relating to production time and works order number, it is important to quote this number when ordering spare parts. Parker Type designation according to specification
H017-11

HIAB Information Serial No. fig.5

Specifications
Note: Initial deliveries of the V80 valves will be supplied with the specifications listed below. As new specifications are compiled, amendments for this manual will be issued.

Spool flow L/min

Relief B side Mpa

Relief A side Mpa

Spool type

50 Section 1. Slewing 2. 1st boom 3. 2nd boom 4. Extension 5. Tool 1 6. Tool 2 7. Extra 16 12 18 14 20 20 16 30 30
See note 1

I IU Yes D D D D D D a a a a a a No

12v 24v

US USP

a -

Yes No Type

Notes.

20 20 -

1.No port relief or anti-cavitation valve fitted. Connection between service port and tank gallery blocked. 2.I=Standard inlet section IU=Inlet with integrated pump unloading function. 3.US=Standard end section. USP=End section with pilot pressure generation. 4.Series connection function used to block connection between free flow gallery and tank. Flow in free-flow gallery fed to subsequent valve through eighter T1 or T3 connection. Tank connection T2 in the inlet must be open.

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Control Valve V80

Power beyond connection


a S-plug

Outlet Section

Spool sensor

Inlet Section

See note 2

See note 3

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Port sizes

Unless otherwise stated all threaded port connections used on the V80 valve are BSP

Connection
P1, P2 T2 P3 T1, T3 A, B.

Location
Inlet section Inlet section Outlet section Outlet section Spool section

12" bsp 34" bsp 12" bsp 12" bsp 12" bsp

Size

Tightening torques Description Location


Inlet section Inlet section Outlet section Outlet section Spool section Inlet section Inlet section Inlet section Outlet section Outlet section Spool section Spool section Spool section Spool section

Connection P1, P2 Connection T2 Connection P3 Connection T1, T3 Connection A, B.

Torque
60 Nm 60Nm 60Nm 60 Nm 10 Nm 30 Nm 100 Nm 25 Nm 10 Nm 7 Nm 7 Nm 60 Nm 60 Nm 100 Nm

Pilot relief valve to inlet section Dump valve to inlet section By-pass spool plug Valve block clamping nuts S- Plug Lever bracket screws Spool actuator screws Check valve Relief / anti-cavitation valve

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Function (manually operated)


The V80 open centre valve is designed for fixed flow hydraulic pumps only. The V80 valve comprises of a number of spool modules, 4-7 module configurations are currently available. The spool modules are placed between an Inlet and outlet section. All modules are secured together by a stud and nut clamp system with O-ring seals fitted to all internal oil-ways. The following illustrations show the valve in its simplified form divided into 3 galleries these are named: Work gallery Free-flow gallery Tank gallery Oil from the pump is supplied to the free-flow gallery. If all spools are in the neutral position the oil will flow through the free-flow gallery and back to tank via tank gallery (fig.6). Once a spool is moved the flow in the freeflow gallery becomes restricted and pressure will start to rise in the work gallery. Once the pressure exceeds any residual pressure in the work port, hydraulic operation will commence (fig.7).

Pump/work gallery

Free-flow gallery

Tank gallery

H004-11

fig.6

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Function (manually operated)


2.Once sufficient pressure has been built up to overcome any existing pressure, oil will flow through the work port. 3.Excess oil flow is returned to tank

1.Spool moved down. Pressure builds up in freeflow and work gallery.

H005-11

fig.7 The actual flow rates are controlled by the machined lands in the module housing and the cutaways machined into spools (fig.8). It is therefore critical that the correct spool is used for each function. Each spool module is assembled and tested individually so should it be necessary to change a function task, for example installing a winch. Always order the complete spool module, this will ensure that not only are the spool and housing matched, and the correct relief and anti-cavitation valves are also installed.

fig.8

H006-11

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Function (manually operated)


Larger opening than on the return side of the spool allows the required flow the drive the cylinder down

Arm must not be allowed to fall under its own weight. It must be driven down by the red pressure

Small opening provides the desired pressure build-up fig.9

H007-11

The designs of the machined cut-outs in the spools are critical to the correct functionality of the valve. Fig. 9 shows how the valve can deliver more oil to the piston rod side of the cylinder. This allows the cylinder to be driven down, as the smaller opening at the other end of the spool allows the required back pressure to be created. This also clearly illustrates how important it is to ensure the connections to the A & B work ports are made correctly. This prevents oil draining from the piston side of the cylinder through the large cut-out in the spool, whilst only a small amount of oil can be delivered to the piston rod side, this would allow the boom to lower under its own weight. Correct pump flow is also important. Selecting a pump with a low flow rate will cause reduced functionality of the valve. Selecting a pump with a high flow rate will give increased functionality, but will create an unacceptable rise in oil temperature.

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Relief and Anti-cavitation valves


Each module is fitted with anti-cavitation valves figs.10&11 in the work port galleries. In the event of a cavitation situation the anti-cavitation valve will open allowing oil to be drawn from the tank gallery to eqaulize any imbalance. These valves can also incorporate relief valves figs.10&12. The relief valve is easily identified by the visible external spring. For certain applications a port plug fig.13 is also available. Relief valves are available in many different pressure settings. When parts are ordered as a module the correct valves will be fitted. If it is necessary to obtain separate valves always order for the correct crane model, type and function. Never attempt to substitute a valve from another function.

H008-11

fig.10

H009-11

fig.11

H010-11

fig.12

H011-11

fig.13

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Load check valve

H018-11

fig.14

The load check valve is located in each spool module housing between the work ports (fig.14). The load check valve ensures that, if for example, a higher oil pressure is present at workport B side of the spool than is available in the freeflow gallery, when the spool is moved to deliver oil to workport B the higher pressure will attempt to force oil back to the A side of the spool and back to tank. The load check valve prevents this and remains closed until sufficient pressure is available in the freeflow gallery to overcome any existing pressure in the workport. Under normal circumstances on cranes fitted with load holding valves this situation will not occur because the load holding valve prevents high pressure being created at the work port in this way. However, if when moving for example the 1st boom lever in the up direction, the boom begins to lower momentarily before starting to lift, this is a good indication that a problem may exist with the load check valve. No repairs are possible to this valve, always fit a new valve assembly.

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Connections
Hydraulic connections are made to the V80 inlet section as shown in fig 15 To connect power beyond functions such as leg control valves, connect to T3 on the oulet section (fig. 16). All valves supplied from HIAB AB will have the S plug illustrated in fig.16a/b installed ready for power beyond applications. If problems are experienced ensure this plug is present. If fitting of an plug is required, treat threads of S plug with suitable thread locking treatment and tighten to 10 Nm.

T2 Connection to tank

P1 and P2 Pump connections

H019-11

fig.15

T3 Power beyond connection

S Plug installation

T3

H020-11

fig.16

fig.16a

H021-11

H022-11

fig.16b

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Spools
The spools in the V80 valve are critical to the correct operation of a given function. Each spool is individually machined to suit a specific function. Never substitute a spool from a different function. At present no list is available for the full range of spools available. A full list will be inserted into this section of the manual as soon as it becomes available. The slewing function spool has built-in load holding valves. These valves are not available separately. In the event of problems with these valves the complete spool must be replaced.

H012-11

fig.17

H013-11

fig.18

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Remove and refit spool


Remove
Replacement of the spools only is possible if replacement is not required because of scoring or damage to the machined surfaces. If such damage exists the complete spool module must be renewed. Warning Ensure that the boom system of the crane is stowed in its parked position and that no latent pressure is present in the hydraulic system. Caution Ensure valve block is cleaned externally before starting this operation Fig 19. 1. Remove spool sensor pack if fitted. 2. Remove e-clips (1) 3 Withdraw pins (2) and remove operating lever. 4 Remove two socket head screws (3) from spring housing and lift housing away from valve (4). 5 Carefully withdraw spool assembly (5) from housing. Warning High spring pressure exists in the next operation. Wear eye protection. Caution Always use soft faced vice jaws when clamping a spool in a vice and never clamp the spool on the operating surfaces. 6 Fig 20. Care must be taken during this operation to ensure the spring is kept compressed. Press down on the top washer of the spring pack and unscrew the socket head screw holding the spring pack to the spool. Release the spring pressure slowly and remove all parts (1)

fig.19

H014-11

fig.20

H015-11

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Remove and refit spool

Refit
1.Renew the O-ring type oil seals fitted to each end of the spool housing. Do not use sharp metallic objects to remove the old O-rings this can cause damage to the housing. 2.Fit the spring pack removed from the old spool to the new and tighten the fixing screw (7Nm). 3.Lubricate the spool housing and spool with clean hydraulic oil and fit the spool into the housing. Take care not to damage the oil seals during this operation. 4.Refit the spring housing and tighten the 2 fixing screws (7Nm). 5.Refit spool sensors (if fitted). 6.Refit the operating lever/pins/e-clips. 7.Start-up and operate the crane to remove any air from the hydraulic system. Note. If there is insufficient room to allow the removal of the spool assembly from the spring side, it is possible to withdraw the spool from the lever side. Extreme care must be taken however when removing the spring pack to avoid injury or the loss of any parts.

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Control Valve V80

10
4

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V2 C2 V1 C1

0,5

B4
5

A4

B4

A4

0,5

Connection Drawing V80 valve with 4 function Walvoil valve


Note. Slew spool load holding valves are shown in this drawing

H023-11

4:17

fig.21

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Section 5 Load holding valves Contents

Introduction.................................................................................2 Load Holding Valves .................................................................2 Load-holding valve 91 (Lifting) .................................................3 Load-holding valve 91 (Lowering) ............................................4 Load-holding valve 91 (Overload).............................................5 Load-holding valve DHVL (Lifting)............................................6
Description ............................................................................................6 Function ................................................................................................6 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................6 Function ................................................................................................7 Function ................................................................................................8 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................8 Description ............................................................................................9 Function ................................................................................................9 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................9 Function ................................................................................................5 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................5 Function ................................................................................................4 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................4 Description ............................................................................................3 Function ................................................................................................3

Load-holding valve DHVL (Lowering).......................................7 Load-holding valve DHVL (Holding) .........................................8 Load-holding valve DHVL (Overload) .......................................9

Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Slewing) .............10 Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Holding) .............11
Description ............................................................................................11 Function ................................................................................................11 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................11 Description ............................................................................................10 Function ................................................................................................10

Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Overload) ...........12 V91 Load Holding Valve Component Identification.................13 Port Identification .......................................................................14 Adusting Pressure Reducer V91 DLHV ....................................15
Description ............................................................................................15 Adjustment ............................................................................................15 Function ................................................................................................12 Symbol drawing ....................................................................................12

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Load Holding Valves


Introduction
Load holding valves are fitted to HIAB cranes to perform the following duties. 1. 2. 3. 4. To prevent an uncontrolled lowering of the boom, in the event of hydraulic hose or pipe failure. To ensure that boom lowering speed is controlled by lever movement at the control valve, and the not by the load. To allow the boom to be lowered at a low pump pressure irrespective of load. To prevent the crane from being overloaded.

In the event of a sudden dynamic force being applied to the crane boom system which causes the hydraulic system pressure to rise above the pre-set values of the shock valves the valves will open and allow a controlled descent of the boom. In addition to added safety for the operator, this feature protects the crane structure against damage thus allowing the design of cranes with a lower overall weight. HIAB currently uses load holding valves produced by the following sub-suppliers: Olsbergs Walvoil Oil Control This section of manual will deal with each make of valve in a separate sub-section. Each sub-section will be grouped in the following way. Basic operating principles. Component identification. Connection. Component variations. Application data. Please note: Part Nos. quoted in this manual are not updated with the same frequency as those held in the C-Service program. You should always use the number in C-Service program to order spare parts.

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Load-holding valve 91 (Lifting)

fig.1

H001-3

Description
Figure 1 shows a cross-section of the V91 load-holding valve. At the top right the pressure relief valve for the piston rod side. It is combined with a counter pressure valve at 30 bar (thick spring). Second from top is the pressure relief valve for the piston side. The third unit is unique for load holding valves, namely a co-operating pressure reduction valve. To the left, in vertical position, the regular load holding function with a pilot piston working in two stages due to the high pilot ratio 10:1. First it will release pressure by means of a small poppet, then the piston opens the large poppet.

Function
During lifting only a pair of check valves are active. Oil enters at V1, lifts the check valve of the pressure relief valve, and passes the outside of the pressure reducer piston and exits at cylinder port Cl. The dashed/dotted line frames the symbol diagram for the complete load-holding valve. Shown are pilot piston, pressure reducer, counter pressure valve, two check valves, and the two pressure relief valves. Oil passes from port B of the control valve, lifts a check valve and continues to the cylinder. Return oil goes from the cylinder, lifts another check valve and continues into port A of the control valve.

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Load-holding valve 91 (Lowering)

fig.2

H002-3

Function
Oil enters at V2 where the counter pressure valve builds up a counter pressure of 30 bar before letting the oil exit at C2. During pressure build-up the pilot piston is pressed downward opening the small poppet, thereby releasing locked-in pressure in the pressure reducer and behind the large poppet. This makes it possible to lift the large poppet. At the same time the reducer begins releasing oil from the cylinder; however, at 13 bar being the balancing pressure of the reducer piston. Through pressure drop in the lines the return pressure 13 bar then drops to the required 8 bar across the spool before reaching the control valve. In this way the ideal condition for proportional flow control is being maintained, even during lowering. This is the unique and patented advantage with the V91 load-holding valve. Load lowering takes place at 30 bar regardless of load level. Lowering speed is proportional to lever movement.

Symbol drawing
Oil goes from port A of the control valve lifts the counter pressure valve and continues to the cylinder. It will also produce servo pressure to the pilot piston. Returning oil goes from cylinder over pressure reducer and the poppet of the load-holding valve into port B of the control valve. Note the connection line T3 to T. It is important for conveying reference pressure from the control valve tank channel to the spring housing of the pressure reducer so that wanted pressure difference 8 bar is maintained without influence of counter pressure in the return line.

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Load-holding valve 91 (Overload)

fig.3

H003-3

Function
The working principle is similar to the one we know from a control valve having a built-in port relief valve. The difference is the load-holding valve being fitted directly on the cylinder, which gives a faster reaction. This results in good function for pressure shocks.

Symbol drawing
Cylinder oil at over pressure opens the relief valve. Return oil goes in a separate line to the tank channel of the control valve. At the same time reference pressure is being fed back from the return line

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Load-holding valve DHVL (Lifting)

fig.4

H004-3

Description
This is a further development of the V91load-holding valve to include load holding for lifting as well as lowering. All functions are built into the top left cartridge. Both pressure relief valves have been fitted with suction valves.

Function
When lifting, the piston side check valve opens as earlier. But at the same time the collar of the load-holding cartridge is pushed upward which makes the seat of the inner poppet open and return oil can pass out through V2. There is no pressure reduction when lifting. In this boom position there is no practical difference compared to a single-acting load-holding valve.

Symbol drawing
The symbol for the complete load-holding valve has been altered from V91load-holding valve so as to make one of the check valves pilot operated.

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Load-holding valve DHVL (Lowering)

fig.5

H005-3

Function
Oil is directed into V2 where it pushes down the load holding cartridge before going further to the right for buildup of 30 bar counter pressure, then out into C2 and the cylinder. When the pressure builds up the load holding cartridge pushes the pilot piston down opening the small poppet. Locked-in pressure in the reducer and the backside of the large poppet is released and the large poppet is lifted. At the same time the pressure reducer begins releasing oil from the cylinder but at 13 bar pressure level, this being the level at which the reducer piston is balanced. After this, return pressure 13 bar sinks due to pressure drop in the lines down to the required pressure difference 8 bar across the spool before reaching the control valve. In this way ideal conditions for proportional flow control are maintained over the full effective spool stroke even for lowering.

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Load-holding valve DHVL (Holding)

fig.6

H006-3

Function
Outward movement of the outer boom is to be prevented. Pressure from the piston rod side distributed into C2 is kept locked in by the check valve of the pressure relief valve and also by the long and narrow poppet of the load-holding valve. The upper part of the load holder cartridge is drained to tank via the dashed passage. This gives a load holding function for the piston rod side also.

Symbol drawing
The pressure is kept locked in by check valves.

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Load-holding valve DHVL (Overload)

fig.7

Description
Figure 7 illustrates the V91 load-holding valve in an overload condition. The valve spool is in neutral.

Function
Oil at overload pressure forces the shock relief valve to open at 330 bar. Vacuum created on the piston rod side when the boom sinks will open the suction valve of the rod side port and oil will be refilled. Since the load-holding valve is situated directly on the cylinder a rapid response to shock loads is provided. Suction valves take care of the refilling

Symbol drawing
Cylinder oil at over pressure opens the relief valve. In a separate line return oil goes to the tank channel of the control valve. At the same time oil is refilling the rod side by means of the suction valve.

H007-3

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Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Slewing)

fig.8

H008-3

Description
Figure 8 illustrates the crossover valve with a double load holding function for the slew function. The valve is shown in two cross-sections. The top one shows the load holding functions, the bottom section the shock functions.

Function
Oil enters V1 where it pushes down the cartridge, lifts the check valve, continues out via port C1 to the left slew cylinder. The pushed-down cartridge at the same time acts upon a piston releasing return pressure and opens the load holding function for return oil. Slewing speed is controlled by the rate of oil fed in without regard to downhill or uphill. Oil from the valve is supplied to the cylinder via the check valve. Oil is allowed to return over the load holding function.

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Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Holding)

fig.9

H009-3

Description
The slewing system is to be held stationary in a certain position. The valve spool in neutral position.

Function
Both pressure and return oil are kept locked-in by poppet type check valves. This results in no slewing creep,even on a steep downhill slope.

Symbol drawing
Oil locked in by check valves.

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Double load-holding/crossover valve DLC (Overload)

fig.10

H010-3

Function
Oil at overload pressure forces the shock valve to open at 270 bar. The load-holding valves are closed. Vacuum created opposite the pressure side when the crane slews will open the suction valve and oil is being refilled. Overload cannot cause hydraulic play in the slew system.

Symbol drawing
Oil exits through the shock valve and is refilled over the suction valve.

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V91 Load Holding Valve Component Identification

Figure 11.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Pilot piston Pilot needle Pilot check valve Pressure reducer Check valve Check valve Pressure relief valve C2 Pressure relief valve C1 Cylinder connection C1 Cylinder connection C2 Valve connection V1 Valve connection V2 Tank connection T3 on valve 91 Pressure sensor (optional) Pressure gauge connecton point Back pressure valve

H011-3

fig.11

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Port Identification

H013-8

Fig.12

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Adusting Pressure Reducer V91 DLHV


Description
If the pressure reducer is adjusted to low, the flow out from the cyliner is too low compared to the flow into the piston rod side of the cylinder. The result of this is that the pressure in the cylinders piston rod side will increase to maximum pressure and the excess oil will be forced over the shock valve. This results in wasted energy, an unnecessary increase in oil temperature, and a reduction in lowering speed. The pressure reducer must be adjusted so that the oil flow out from the cylinder is greater than the flow into the piston rod side. This will ensure no unnecessary pressure occurs during lowering operations. Any shortage of oil on the piston rod side will be compensated for by flow from the tank assisted by the anti-cavitation valve.

Adjustment
The same adjustment procedure is used for both inner and outer boom valves and is carried out without any load attached. Fig.13 shows the procedure for adjustment of the outer boom. Pressure measurements for this procedure are made with a manometer connected to the dump valve connection on the main control valve. 1.Set the crane boom system to according to fig.13, with the outer boom horizontal. 2.Release the lock nut on the pressure reducer, unscrew the adjusting nut carefully, until no resistance can be felt. 3.Lower the outer boom through the area shown in fig.13 and note pressure reading. (This reading is commonly approximately 100 bar but can vary slightly from crane to crane). Raise boom back to start position. 4.Carefully screw the adjuster in until resistance is felt, and then tighten a further 12 turn. Tighten lock nut. 5.Repeat step 3. Pressure reading should have now have reduced to approximately 40 bar. If pressure is still high, reset boom position and screw in the adjuster screw a further 12 turn. Repeat this procedure until the lower pressure is achieved. 6.Tighten adjuster locknut fully.

Inner boom range

outer boom range

fig.13

H014-8

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Section 6 Additional Valves Contents
Additional valves .....................................................................2 Restriction valve......................................................................3 Motion control valve (anticlockwise).....................................4 Motion control valve (clockwise) ...........................................5 Motion control valve (overload) .............................................6 Pilot-controlled check valve ...................................................7 Load-holding valve (lifting).....................................................8 Load-holding valve (lowering)................................................9 Load-holding valve (overload) .............................................10
Description ........................................................................................10 Function (overload) ...........................................................................10 Introduction .........................................................................................2 Description (fig.2)................................................................................3 Function .............................................................................................3 Description (fig.3)................................................................................4 Function, left slew cylinder pressurized .............................................4 Description ..........................................................................................5 Description ..........................................................................................6 Function (fig.5) ....................................................................................6 Description ..........................................................................................7 Function ..............................................................................................7 Description ..........................................................................................8 Function ..............................................................................................8 Function ..............................................................................................9

Hose-rupture valve ................................................................ 11 Load-holding function for extension cylinder (moving out)...........................................................................12 Load holding function for extension cylinder (overload) ...............................................................................13

Description ........................................................................................ 11 Function ............................................................................................ 11

Description ........................................................................................12 Function ............................................................................................12

Description .......................................................................................13 Function ............................................................................................13

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ADDITIONAL VALVES

H001-8

fig.1

Introduction
This hydraulic diagram (fig.1) gives an overview of the most common additional valves. The valves are, starting from the bottom of the diagram. 1.Restriction valves (4 pcs), allowing free flow up and restricted down or variations thereof. 2.Motion Control valve for damping the slew motion. Used for large cranes only. 3.Support leg valves (2 pcs). It is a pilot operated check valve fitted on top of the support leg cylinder. 4.Load holding valves for inner and outer boom cylinders for creep-free holding of boom position and safety at hose rupture. Used on all cranes except small OS-cranes. 5.Separate hose rupture valve used on small OS-cranes having load holding built into the control valve. 6.Dual load-holding valve for the extension cylinder. Used on all cranes except small OS-cranes.

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Restriction valve

H002-8

fig.2

Description (fig.2)
The valve throttles the oil in both directions, but more so in one than the other. The valve can, for example, be used to reduce hydraulic play in the slewing function. The valve is installed so that the return oil is throttled more heavily than the pressurized oil. When the valve is used for an inner or outer boom function the restriction valve is fitted on the piston rod side throttling outgoing oil only. The orifice in the plate for return is in this case so large that it will never restrict flow.

Function
Direction of flow from left to right (Fig.2). The orifice plates are angular and provided with orifices of different sizes. The left-hand one has the larger orifice and the right-hand one the smaller orifice. When the flow comes from the left the choke plates are forced to the right. The result is that the oil is forced through the smaller orifice = heavy throttling. When the flow is reversed the orifice plates are forced to the left. The oil can now pass both through the orifice and round the outside of the right-hand choke. It follows that the orifice of the left-hand choke decides the throughput = lighter throttling. Restriction valves come in a number of variants as regards orifice plates and connection sizes.

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Motion control valve (anticlockwise)

H003-8

fig.3

Description (fig.3)
The primary function of the valve is to reduce oscillation when slewing is stopped. It is used for all large cranes. The valve design is a pressure compensated double over centre valve. Pressure compensation means that adjustment and function is insensitive to counter-pressure between the control valve and the valve ports V1 or V2. The valve is a 2-storey design (fig.3). The cross-section shows the top floor only but the bottom is a duplicate of the cross-section shown.

Function, left slew cylinder pressurized


Pressurized oil (dark red) enters via connection V2, lifts the check valve and continues out to cylinder connection C2. As seen from the hydraulic symbol, pilot oil at the same time opens the pressure relief valve at the bottom floor so that return oil (light red) can move out via C1 / V1. In a downhill slope it is not possible for the slew function to move faster than oil is supplied, i e faster than control lever movement allows.

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Motion control valve (clockwise)

fig.4

H004-8

Description
The opposite movement is illustrated here (fig.4). Dark red pilot oil acting on the pilot piston compresses the pressure relief valve spring making it possible for return oil to pass.

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Motion control valve (overload)

H005-8

fig.5

Description
Quick braking of the slewing movement can also cause an overload situation. To show the whole flow process the control valve spool is also included in the symbol drawing.

Function (fig.5)
Oil at over pressure enters at C2, compresses the pressure relief spring so that oil can exit through V2. From V2, however, there is no direct passage to tank since the valve spool is closed. First, the oil must be forced out through the pressure relief of the control valve. This will produce counter pressure in V2, but since the over centre valve is pressure compensated (same pressure both sides) spring force will not be affected. In the valve symbol drawing it can be seen that under pressure (green) at the same time is found in the opposite cylinder. Oil is being refilled via the check valve at Cl. There will never be hydraulic play caused by oil at overpressure being drained to tank.

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Pilot-controlled check valve

H006-8 H006-8

fig.6

Description
The valve is used on the support leg cylinder to prevent the support leg from collapsing under load.

Function
The pressurised oil lifts the check-valve ball from its seat and passes through to the piston side of the cylinder (fig.6). The return oil from the piston-rod side passes by a separate line, via the control valve, to tank. The check-valve ball stps the trapped pressuried oil (red). The pressurised oil on the piston-rod side (light red) is in communication with the valve via a pilot line. The pressure in the pilot line drives the piston to the left and lifts the check-valve ball. The return oil from the piston side is now free to pass through the check valve and on to the tank.

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Load-holding valve (lifting)

fig.7

H007-8

Description
The design of the valve (fig.7) differs from the conventional type in the following respects: -Separate return line (T) direct to tank -Valve bolted directly onto the cylinder -External pilot line (S) from the piston-rod side of the cylinder

The valve is provided with an extra connection point for overload protection (OLP) or a pressure-gauge socket.

Function
The oil enters via connection (V), lifts the check valve, and flows past the relief valve and on to the piston side (C) of the cylinder. The return oil is carried by a separate line direct to tank.

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Load-holding valve (lowering)

fig.8

H008-8

Function
A separate line carries the oil to the piston-rod side of the cylinder. The check valve in the load-holding valve stops the return oil from the Piston side of the cylinder. A pressure build-up takes place, causing the pilot piston to open the passage to the tank (T) by lifting the poppet in the relief valve. Note that the pilot piston is built into the relief valve and that a separate pilot line is run between the piston rod and piston sides of the cylinder. Pilot ratio=1:3.2

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Load-holding valve (overload)

H009-8

fig.9

Description
The same cross-section fig.8 is shown here as in overload situation (fig.9). To show the whole flow picture the control valve spool is also included.

Function (overload)
When the pressure in the cylinder (C) (fig.9) exceeds the value to which the relief valve is set, the valve opens and releases the over pressurised oil to the return line (T). The draining of the piston side of the cylinder sets up an under pressure on the piston-rod side. This is eliminated by oil that is drawn to the piston-rod side via the suction function of the relief valve in the control valve. Note that the load-holding valve is not pressurecompensated. Any back-pressure that is present in the tank line (T) will be added to the pressure at which the relief valve is set.

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Hose-rupture valve

H010-8

fig.10

Description
The valve is flow-controlled and acts as a safety valve in the event of a hose failure. The valve has a built-in pressure-relief function that damps the stop movement (a patent-protected design). The valve is mounted on cranes without load holding valves (small OS cranes) directly onto the inner and the outer boom cylinder.

Function
The oil is free to flow through the valve as long as the thrust of the spring is strong enough to hold it open. Maximum throughput 60 litres/min. In the event of a hose failure the pressure drops rapidly (blue colour) and the speed of flow of the oil forces the poppet down into its seat. An overpressure (~ 30-35 Mpa) arises when the poppet closes, but the ball rises from its seat and allows it to drain away (= damping). The ball then closes, and the valve is tight. After snapping shut, the poppet has to be forced out of its seat. Run the function up, which will cause the poppet to release. This occurs at about 16 Mpa. The valve is independent of viscosity and functions well on both thick and thin oil.

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Load-holding function for extension cylinder (moving out)

H011-8

fig.11

Description
This type of dual over centre valve (fig.11) is used for all cranes except small OS-cranes. The valve is integral with the piston rod head of the first extension cylinder. Connections in/out are placed above the cross-section shown and are marked with a red and a blue position ring. Shown also is the piston rod connection and the channels in the rod conveying oil without hoses.

Function
Pressurised oil (red) is conveyed over a check valve to the cylinder. The same check valve holds the load against creep. From the pressurised over centre valve there is a channel to the corresponding valve for return oil. This channel acts as a pilot line for pressure-operated opening of the return oil valve. In addition to creepfree load holding the valve makes sure that an extension cylinder in a down slope cannot be emptied quicker than oil is being replenished on the opposite side. Speed control is guaranteed. Extension cylinder operation without pump pressure is not possible

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Load holding function for extension cylinder (overload)

H012-8

fig.12

Description
So as to show the whole flow picture the control valve spool is also included.

Function
Oil at over-pressure comes out from the extension cylinder and forces the pressure relief valve spring to open passage to return. However, the return does not go straight to tank since the valve spool is closed. At first, the oil must be pressed out over the pressure relief valve of the control valve. This will cause counter pressure but since the over-centre valve is pressure compensated (same pressure both sides) the spring force does not change. We can see under pressure (green) appearing on the lower piston side but here oil is being refilled via the suction valve in the control valve. The suction valve is refilling oil lost due to over pressure.

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Section 7 Spool Positioners Contents

Scheduled for release November 2002

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Section 8 Slewing motors Contents


Lubrication ..................................................................................3
Slew gear teeth .....................................................................................3 Slew gear bearing .................................................................................3 Slew motor gearbox ..............................................................................3 Specifications........................................................................................4 Remove.................................................................................................4 Refit.......................................................................................................5 Refit (cont) ............................................................................................7

General ........................................................................................4 Remove and refit motor assembly............................................4

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Lubrication
Slew gear teeth
Lubricate every week, or 16 running hours. Greasing is made through the grease nipple in the cover (fig.1).

Slew gear bearing


Lubricate the bearing assemblies approximately every 100 working hours. Lubrication is made by injecting 5 cm3 approximately into every one of 5 grease nipples around the bearings Bearing should be rotated during lubrication. The grease filling is there to reduce friction, seal the bearing and provide protection against corrosion. Before and after prolonged stop of the crane, lubrication is absolutely necessary. This is especially important after a winter shut down.

Slew motor gearbox


An oil change must be carried out after approximately 150 operating hours. Thereafter change should be repeated approx. every 2000 or 4000 operating hours depending on working conditions. Change the oil at least once a year. Refill with oil SHELL Omala 100 1. Remove both plug A and one of the plugs B in (fig. 2.) and allow oil to drain fully. 2. Refit plug B and refill with oil until it flows from the filler hole. Allow oil time to sink to ensure trapped air does not give a false reading and refit plug A. Fig 1

Fig. 2.

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General
This section covers cranes fitted with a continuous rotation slewing system, driven by two hydraulically powered rotation motors. Both motors are fitted with hydraulic braking systems. An elecro-hydraulic swivel unit handles the delivery of both oil and electrical signals to all components mounted on the column and boom system. .

Specifications
Tightening torques Slew bearing to base DRACOMET bolts (grey in colour)..................................................70 Kgm Slew bearing to base Zinc bolts (yellow in colour)...........................................................90 Kgm Column base to slew bearing DRACOMET bolts (grey in colour)......................................70 Kgm Column base to slew bearing Zinc bolts (yellow in colour)................................................90 Kgm Slew motor to column securing bolts.............................................................................30 Kgm Tolerances Slew motor to slew gear drive gear backlash...................................................................0.3 m Slew motor brake release pressure................................................................................ 30 bar

Remove and refit motor assembly


Remove
1. Unfold crane and remove the rubber inspection plug (fig.3) from the righthand side of the column base. NOTE. If both motors are to be replaced,park the boom system in a position that will allow the column to be rotated 180o. Motors must be installed aligned with the green teeth. 2. Slowly slew the crane until the 3 teeth marked with green paint can be viewed through the inspection hole. (usually located appoximately in the position shown in fig 4.) 3. Make a mark on a fixed part of the crane in line with the center green tooth. 4. Slew the crane until the centre line of the motor to be removed is in line with the mark you have just made. 5. Switch off and isolate the the crane.

fig.3.

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fig.4 6. Remove plastic moulding from lefthand side of crane. Access to the lefthand motor is necessary even if it is not being replaced. Drain the oil from the motor to be removed. (fig.5) Disconnect hydraulic connections to motor assembly. Loosen the inter-connecting pipes between the 2 motors, do not attempt to bend the tubing, this may affect sealing when reconnected. Remove the 8 bolts from the mounting flange, and using suitable lifting equipment lift the motor away from the crane.

7. 8.

9.

Refit
1. 2. 3. 4. Ensure the green alignment teeth are as shown in fig.6. Lightly grease the mounting position on the column base. fig.7 Lower motor assembly into fixing position, and ensure motor gear engages fully with slew gear. Fig.8 Place the 8 securing bolts into the mounting flange and finger tighten only. Fig.9 fig.5

Note 1. the 2 bolt holes at the back of the flange are not used. (cont. overleaf)

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fig.6

fig.7

fig.8

fig.9

fig.10

fig.11

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fig.12

fig.13

Refit (cont)
5. 6. 7. 8.

Remove the upper row of socket head bolts and lift away the reduction unit. fig.10 Pull the motor unit towards the outer edge of the column base to ensure that the gear teeth are fully engaged in the slew gear. Mount a dial test indicator on the outer edge of the motor mounting flange, and set to zero. fig.11 Using hand pressure or a soft face hammer, move the motor towards the column until a reading of 0.3mm is obtained on the dial test indicator. fig12 Start to tighten securing bolts evenly. It is possible for the motor to move as the bolts are tightened. If this occurs loosen the bolts and reset motor position. This operation may have to be repeated several times to obtain the correct setting .Once the correct setting is obtained tighten all bolts to the final torque setting, 30 Kgm. fig. 13 .See Note 2 before starting this step. Refit reduction unit, making sure that the O ring sealings are correctly placed, and tighten the 8 socket bolts. Refit and tighten all hydraulic connections. Refill the reduction unit with oil. SHELL OMALA 100

9.

10 11 12. 13.

Note 2. If both motors are being replaced at the same time DO NOT refit the reduction unit at this stage. Remove the other motor following steps 7-9 in 3.3.1 Remove. Rotate the column assembly by hand until the green alignment teeth are in view fig.3.3.4. Follow steps 2-10 Refit to install the second motor. Complete steps 11-16 Refit for both motors. 14. Start crane and slew several times in both directions to bleed any air from the system. 15. Check for and rectify any oil leaks. 16. Refit plastic moulding.

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Section 9 Cylinders Contents


Full sequence cylinder ..............................................................3
Remove piston rod and piston ..............................................................3 Renew seals in piston rod cylinder head ..............................................4 Renew seals in piston rod cylinder head (cont.) ...................................5 Renew cylinder piston...........................................................................6

Adjusting full sequence cylinders ............................................7

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Full sequence cylinder

Remove piston rod and piston


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remove cylinder from crane and mount securely in a cylinder bench clamp. Unscrew cylinder tube securing nut. Fig.1 Withdraw tube from the cylinder. Fig.2 Release internal circlip from cylinder head assembly. Fig.3 Carefully withdrawn piston rod assembly. Examine piston rod for scoring and bending. Renew if necessary.

fig.1

fig.2

fig.3

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HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS


Renew seals in piston rod cylinder head
1. 2. 3. 4. Remove internal circlip from piston rod head. Fig.1 Withdrawn actuator piston. Fig.2 Take care not to loose distance washers. Fig.3 Unscrew cylinder head. It may be necassary to heat cylinder head to break Loctite thread locking. Max 100o C.

(cont. overleaf)

fig.1

fig.2

fig.3

fig.4

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Renew seals in piston rod cylinder head (cont.)


5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Clean threads throughly in cylinder head and on tube end. Relpace seals on driver head and piston rod tube. Figs.3/4/5 Apply Loctite 275 to threads and refit cylinder head. Tighten to 30dNM. Fig.6 Refit actuator piston. Ensure that all the distance washers are in place. Fig.7 Refit actuator circlip. Fig.8

fig.5

fig.6

fig.7

fig.8

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Renew cylinder piston


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Secure piston rod in suitable bench clamp. Using a C wrench at the position illustrated, Fig.1 unscrew piston. It may be necassary to heat cylinder head to break Loctite thread locking. Max 100oC. Clean threads throughly on piston rod. Fit new sealing rings to piston rod. Fig.2 Apply Loctite 275 to threads in piston. Fig.3 Screw piston onto rod. Tighten fully. Fig.4

fig.1

fig.2

fig.3

fig.4

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Cylinders

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Adjusting full sequence cylinders


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fully extend all extensions. Retract the last extension. This extension is fitted with a standard cylinder. Loosen the locknut on the adjuster screw Fig.1 and screw out the adjuster screw until it touches the the last extension cylinder stop plate. Screw out the adjuster screw a further 2 to 2.5 turns and tighten locknut. This should depress the actuator plunger approximately 4 to 5mm. Extend last cylinder enough for the adjuster screw to clear the stop plate. Retract last cylinder again. Next extension should start to retract as stop plate depresses plunger. If cylinder fails to move or is noisy in operation screw out the adjuster 1/4 to 1/2 a turn and repeat test. Repeat this procedure for remaining cylinders.

7.

Fig.1

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Section 10 Hydraulic Diagrams


Contents
Hydraulic Diagram V50 RD 122/144/166 CL/Duo CE and Non-CE .................................... 4 Hydraulic connection schematic XS 122/144/166 V50 RD .......................................................... 6 Hydraulic Diagram 122/144/166 with Fixed Pump. Pro-HiPro Non-CE V91 man MSC.......................................... 8 Hydraulic connection Drawing V91M Fixed Pump 122/ 144/ 166 Pro-HiPro CL non CE .................................... 10 Hydraulic Diagram V91M Fixed Pump 122/144/166-Pro-HiPro CL Non-CE...................................... 12 Hydraulic Diagram Variable Pump 122/144/166 Pro, Hi-Pro CL Non-CE.................................... 14 Hydraulic connection Drawing V91M Variable. Pump122/144/166-E HiPro ........................ 16 Hydraulic diagram XS600E (2-5) ......................................... 18 Hydraulic Diagram XS600E (4-9) ......................................... 19 Hydraulic diagram XS700E (2-5) ......................................... 20 Hydraulic diagram XS700E (4-9) ......................................... 21

Basic Valve Pressures fig.1 .............................................................. 5 Component Identification fig. 1 ......................................................... 5

Basic Valve Pressures fig.4 .............................................................. 7 Component Identification fig.4 .......................................................... 7

Basic Valve Pressures fig.7 .............................................................. 9 Component Identification fig.7 .......................................................... 9

Component Identification fig.10 ...................................................... 11 Basic Valve Pressures fig.10 .......................................................... 11

Component Identification fig.13 ...................................................... 13 Basic Valve Pressures fig.13 .......................................................... 13

Basic Valve Pressures .................................................................... 15 Component Identification ................................................................ 15

Basic Valve Pressures fig.19 .......................................................... 17 Component Identification fig.19 ...................................................... 17

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10:3

V2 C2

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

C1

V1


A4 B4

A4

B4

2,0x4

Pressure see Diagram Basic Valve

10:4

fig.1

HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM V50 RD122/ 144/166 CL/Duo CE and Non-CE

Hydraulic Diagrams

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H001-9

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Basic Valve Pressures fig.1



Fig.2

H001-10

Component Identification fig. 1



Fig.3


H002-10

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V2 C2 V1 C1

C1

C2

C1

C2


V1 V2 C1 C2

A4

B4

A4

B4

H002-9

A B

B A

A 4 5 6 T

P 1
B

4 3 2 1

Port A3-(A2) Port A1+(B1)

2 7 LHV 1

2 2 LHV 1

10:6

fig.4

Hydraulic connection schematic XS 122/144/166 V50 RD

Hydraulic Diagrams

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Basic Valve Pressures fig.4




fig.5


H003-10 H004-10

Component Identification fig.4



fig.6

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C2

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

C1

A4

B4

V1

A B

A4

B4

HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM 122/144/166. Pro-HiPro Non-CE V91 man MSC with Fixed Pump

fig.7

10:8

Hydraulic Diagrams

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H003-9

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Basic Valve Pressures fig.7



H005-10

fig.8

Component Identification fig.7



fig.9


H006-10

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V2 C2 V1 C1

C1

C2

A4

B4

A4

B4

Tools Tools

A
P T S

T P S

Fixed Pump

122/ 144/ 166 Pro-HiPro CL non CE

Hydraulic connection Drawing

V91M Fixed Pump

fig.10

10:10

Hydraulic Diagrams

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H004-9

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Basic Valve Pressures fig.10




H007-10

Component Identification fig.10



fig.12

fig.11


H008-10

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10:11

11 14 16

11


V2 C2

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

LHV data see Diagram


C1

V1

A4

B4

A4

B4

11

13

10

14

12 15



16 10

13

10

16

2 1

4
Serial connection V91M

Signal pressure see Valve specification 373 4196

fig.13

10:12

HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM V91M Fixed Pump Crane 122/144/166-Pro-HiPro CL Non-CE

Hydraulic Diagrams

The last section in the system will always have signal relief valve without shuttle 983 0529

Issue 1.0

H005-9

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Basic Valve Pressures fig.13


H009-10

fig.14

Component Identification fig.13



fig.15

H010-10

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10:13

14 16

11

11


V2 C2

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

V1 C1

LHV data see Diagram 13 14 10

A4

B4

A4

B4

12 15 13

10

10

16

Hydraulic Diagram Variable Pump

P2 serial connection V91M

Signal pressure see Valve specification 373 4196

fig.16

10:14

CL Non-CE

1 2

122/144/166 Pro, Hi-Pro

Hydraulic Diagrams

The last section in the system will always have signal relief valve without shuttle 983 0529

H006-9

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Basic Valve Pressures



H011-10

fig.17

Component Identification

fig.18


H012-10

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10:15

11

11

C1

C2

14

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

V2 C2 V1 C1

A4

B4

A4

B4

Tool

10

15

V2

13

Tool
8
V1

C2

C1

10
Tools Tools

H007-9
15 10

8
9 6 5 4 3

P T S

T P S

Var. Pump

Hydraulic connection Drawing V91M Variable. Pump122/144/166-E HiPro

fig.19

10:16

Hydraulic Diagrams

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Basic Valve Pressures fig.19




H013-10

Component Identification fig.19



fig.21

fig.20

H014-10

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H009-9

Hydraulic diagram XS600E (2-5)


Fig.22

10:18

Hydraulic Diagrams

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Hydraulic Diagram XS600E (4-9)



HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Hydraulic Diagrams

H010-9

10:19

Fig.23

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Hydraulic diagram XS700E (2-5)



Fig.24

10:20

Hydraulic Diagrams

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H011-9

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Hydraulic diagram XS700E (4-9)



HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

Hydraulic Diagrams

H012-9

10:21

Fig.25

HYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

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Section 11 Couplings and fittings Contents


Main Data............................................................................................. 3 SJG Nipple ........................................................................................... 6 SJG Nipple ........................................................................................... 7 WJG Angle Coupling 90 ..................................................................... 8 VJG Angle Coupling 45 ...................................................................... 8 TJG T-Coupling.................................................................................... 9 LJG L-Coupling .................................................................................... 9 SJJ Nipple ............................................................................................ 10 WJJ 90 Angle Nipple .......................................................................... 10 TJJ T-Nipple......................................................................................... 11 XJJ Cross Nipple.................................................................................. 11 WJJ 90 Angle Nipple .......................................................................... 12 VJJ 45 Angle Nipple ........................................................................... 12 TJJ T-Coupling..................................................................................... 13 LJJ L-Coupling ..................................................................................... 13 BJJ Bulkhead Fitting ............................................................................ 14 DJJ Bulkhead Fitting 90...................................................................... 14 CJJ Bulkhead Fitting 45...................................................................... 15 EJJ T-Bulkhead Fitting ......................................................................... 15 ZM Sleeve ............................................................................................ 16 NU Nut ................................................................................................. 16 NPJ Cap............................................................................................... 17 HIAB O-ring system ............................................................................. 18 ADAPTER SYSTEM ............................................................................ 19 O-ring/Cone 60/GS Washer/JIC 37................................................... 19-29 Hose fittings-assembly instructions...................................................... 30 Press Couplings ................................................................................... 31-39

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GS Washers

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