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Jean Watson

Theory of Caring

Presentation by:
Deborah Cook, RN Danielle Kokkonen, RN Stephaine Ryan, RN Shannon Sheffer, RN, CNOR

The purpose of our presentation is to dive into Jean Watson's Theory of Caring and pull out the heart of it. To bring forth the important aspects of her Theory and to define it so we can better apply it to our personal practices and everyday situations.


To transform nursing care to blend hearing and caring together. Treat the whole patient. o Mind o Body o Spirit "Preserve human dignity and humanity" (Watson, p. 339) Jean Watson felt very strongly about the balance between science and caring that helped form her theory basis of the nursing profession. Watson's Theory of Human Care draws from philosophers, approaching the human care relationship as a moral concept. It seeks to elucidate the human care process in nursing, preserve humanity and the inner life of patients, and reintroduce true caring and healing into educational and clinical practices

Who is Jean Watson?

She has undergraduate and graduate degrees in nursing and psychiatric nursing. She also has a PhD in educational psychology. Has 10 honorary doctorate degrees, seven which are international degrees.

Nursing Theory-Biography of Jean Watson

"Although the bachelors degree is considered still the [unresolved and impossible to implement] minimal entry into the professional practice of nursing, the mature practice of nursing, as a career health professional, ideally should be at the professional doctoral level, or at least the graduate level." (Fawcett, 2002, p. 217)

Authors Philosophic view on Education Development

Authors Philosophic view on Nursing

In terms of the nursing profession being informed by the discipline, I think we have a long way to go. I think, too, that we are still in the process of clarifying what is the nature of the disciplinary matrix of nursing science. (Fawcett, 2002, p. 217)
Caring Theory Within a Computerized Charting System

What influenced the Authors philosophy?

. . . thus the early work emerged from my own values, beliefs, and perceptions about personhood, life, health and healing and how they manifest clinically and empirically. Further my work was guided by my commitment to nursings collective caringhealing role and mission in society as attending to and helping to sustain humanity and wholeness as to foundation to health and nursings purpose for existence. (Watson, 1997, p. 49)

Watson's Four Major Concepts

Human being Human being refers to .. a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, human is viewed as greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts (Watson, 2013).

Watson's Four Major Concepts

Health Watson adds the following three elements to the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health: o A high level of overall physical, mental and social functioning o A general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning o The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence) (Watson, 2013)

Watson's Four Major Concepts

Environment/society According to Watson, caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation.

It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment. (Watson, 2013)

Watson's Four Major Concepts

Nursing Nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health. It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. She believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing. She defines nursing as.. a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human transactions." (Watson, 2013)

Caring Theory Implications

The caring theory according to Jean Watson involves the body, mind and spirit. It is something that needs to be experienced on a personal level to truly engage in the effects of the caring theory. Current Nursing

Caring Theory Implications

It offers a framework that embraces and intersects with art, science, humanities, spirituality, and new dimensions of mind/body/spirit medicine and nursing evolving openly as central to human phenomena of nursing practice (Watson, 2013).

Caring Theory Implications

Important issues to think about with the caring theory include being ready to have a caringhealing relationship with others around you and yourself.

Values and beliefs of the nurse include all aspects of their life and work to properly practice the caring theory.

Caring Theory Implications

Two important questions to think about whether we are really using the caring theory: Are we interested and committed to expanding the caring consciousness and actions to self, others, environment, nature and wider universe and are we working within the model with the interest in shifting our focus from modern medicine to a true caring-healing-loving model? (Watson, 2013)

How to use the Caring Theory

Use "Carative Factors" o Be kind o Show concern o Be supportive o Create a trusting relationship with the patient Have "Caring Moments" o Make patient's environment more comfortable o Make eye contact with the patient o Explain to the patient all aspects of care to the patient. o Give uninterrupted time to the patient.

Watson Caring Science-Definitions, Processes & Theory

Where is Watson's Theory of Caring used? Miami Baptist Healthcare Systems

Scottsdale Health University of Colorado College of Nursing and some hospitals Magnet certified hospitals o Used as a core principal

Is This Philosophy Unique to Nursing?

This philosophy is not unique to nursing, it can be used in any profession that has personal interactions with a person. For example: Psychology, Massage Therapist, Physical Therapy, Dieticians/Nutritionists, Trainer at a gym. This is all a theory as I could not find anything written or posted online to support my opinions.

Is It Clear What Influenced This Model?

Based on an article given by Jean Watson, in 1997, she credited the phenomenological psychology and philosophy of Rogers, the existential work of Yalom, and Peplau's interpersonal domain and therapeutic use of self. She also listed Kierkegaard, Whitehead, de Chardin, and Sartre as being influential on her early theory development based on their philosophical and intellectual traditions. (Watson, 1997)

Case Study
"Rico Sandoval, a 39-year old truck driver is admitted to the hospital following an accident which caused the front of his truck to catch fire. He suffered from burns and was rushed to the ER, diagnosed with deep split-thickness and full thickness burns of the anterior chest, arms and hands. His vital signs are as follows: T: 96.2F;PR=140/min; BP=98/60. A rapid infusion of lactated ringers was started and he was also receiving 40% humidified oxygen via face mask. Lung sounds indicate inspiratory and expiratory wheezing and a persistent cough reveals sooty sputum production. A foley catheter is inserted and initially drains a moderate amount of dark concentrated urine. He is alert and oriented but complains of severe pain associated with the burn injuries." (Shaher222Y, 2012) He is also talking about his family, but you cannot catch everything as he is switching rapidly between English & Spanish. He appears extremely anxious, he is not absorbing anything you are saying.

Case Study Questions

1.How the client assessment structured?
2.How the client data is analyzed?

3. What will you do to make him at ease with the question & answer phase of your assessment?
4. What will you do to assess his needs in regards to his family? 5. Understanding that Rico has anxiety about the situation, what will you do to ease his anxiety?

6. The doctor has ordered no narcotics to be given until a full workup has been done for drugs and alcohol, in what other ways will you attempt to ease Rico's pain?

Clarke, P., Watson, J., & Brewer, B. (2009) From theory to practice caring science according to Watson and Brewer. Nursing Science Quarterly, 22, 339-345

Fawcett, J. (2002). The nurse theorists: 21st-century updatesJean Watson.

Nursing Science Quarterly,15, 214-219. doi: 10.1177/089431840201500307 Shaher222Y. (2012, November). Case study of Jean Watson caring theory [Web log

post]. Retrieved from

http://www.studymode.com/essays/Case-Study-Of-Jean-Watson-Caring-1215869. html Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10, 49-52. doi: 10.1177/089431849701000114 Watson, J. (2002). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health science. New York, NY: Springer Watson, J. (2013). Caring Science: Theory & Research. Retrieved from http://watsoncaringscience.org/.