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REPORT RESUWES €D 010 478 4 BEGINNING CAIRO ARABIC, PRELIMINARY EDITION. ®y- LEHN, WALTER ABBOUD, PETER UNIV. OF TEXAS, MIDDLE EAST LANG. AND AREA CTR., AUSTIN REPORT NUMBER NDEA-VI-129 Pus DATE 65 EDRS PRICE MF-$0.45 HC-$12.44 321 DESCRIPTORS- ¥ARABIC, #PATTERN DRILLS (LANGUAGE), #LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION, LANGUAGE PATTERNS, #LANGUAGE GUIDES, GRAMMAR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, #PRONUNCIATION INSTRUCTION, TAPE RECORDINGS, FHONOLOGY, AUSTIN, TEXAS, CAIRO, EGYPT THIS COLLEGE-LEVEL TEXT CONSISTS OF A SET OF DRILLS AND NOTES ON THE BASIC OR COMMONLY USED PHRASE AND SENTENCE PATTERNS OF CAIRO ARABIC. A REFERENCE GRANMAR, WITH PHONOLOGY, HORPHOLOGY, AND SYNTAX I$ PROVIDED IN 30 LESSONS. EACH LESSON IS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH TAPE RECORDINGS. THE TRANSCRIPTION OF THE TEXT REFLECTS THE "PRESTIGE USAGE™ OF THE CAIRO DIALECT. ENTRIES IN THE TEXT GLOSSARY ARE LIMITED TO THE VOCABULARY USED IN THE LESSONS AND TO COMPARISONS OF ADJECTIVES, HODALS, VERB AND NOUN PHASES, AND SUBORDINATORS. (eer E0 0/0178 1U. 8, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE, Office of Education ‘Tis document hos sen reproduced exactly a8 received from the Porson or organzition eriginating it. Polts of view or opinions Slated do not nevescaniy represent official Office of Education postion or policy. BEGINNING CAIRO ARABIC WALTER LEHN and PETER ABBOUD The University of Texas Preliminary Edition Middle East Center + The University of Texas - Austin ‘The research reported herein was performed persuant to a contract with the United States Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. ro PREFACE The lessons in this book are the product of the classroom and the non- availability of a text designed for basic instruction in Cairo Arabic for university and college students. Efforts to adapt available teaching materials for this purpose proved frustratingly unsuccessful, and gradually a new set of drills and notes on the basic or commonly-used phrase and sentence patterns took shape. These were used in the classroom for two successive years and then completely rewritten. The result is this preliminary edition. Arabic is today spoken by some 100,000,000 people, spread over a large area, from Morocco in the west to the Uzbek S.S.R. in the east. The majority are concentrated in a smaller area, roughly bounded by the Sahara desert, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Persian Gulf. The many regional dialects within this area show differences in sounds, vocabulary, and sentence patterns; nevertheless a high degree of mutual intelligibility exists among most dialects, In addition to the regional variation, there is also variation relatable to the socio-economic status of the speakers. The resulting picture of regional dialects and overlaid social dialects is of course not unique with Arabic; it can be observed in any language spoken over a large area for a long time. The language situation in the Arab world is, however, further complicated by the fact that Modern Standard Arabic, the language of most literature and formal discourse, is a superimposed standard regarded as the ideal by all speakers of Arabic. This being so, the question may fairly be asked: why not study just Modern Standard Arabic? If one's objectives are limited to reading publi- cations in Arabic, then by all means one should study only Modern Standard Arabic. If, however, one's objectives include living and studying or doing research in the Arab world, then competence in Modern Standard Arabic is not enough. It is not used, even by highly educated speakers, in everyday situations; in these all Arabs use their native dialect. In fact, as scholars of language use the term, Modern Standard Arabic is no one's native language. It is learned by the speaker of Arabic in school, and educated Arabs, especially when discussing almost any subject in an academic or formal context, borrow freely from Modern Standard Arabic. The result is what has been called a "mixed" or "in-between" language, of which many examples can be found in the lessons in the second half of this book. ‘The language used in this book is identified as Cairo Arabic; it repre- sents the prestige usage of the majority of Cairenes in all relatively in- formal situations. This is of course not to say that other varieties of Arabic cannot be observed in Cairo. In a metropolis of some 4,000,000, variation in speech is to be expected, and it can most certainly be observed in Cairo. Cairo Arabic seems the most useful dialect for the beginning student of Arabic. It has more speakers and more prestige than any other dialect of iit Arabic, reflecting the fact that Cairo is the political, religious and cul- tural center of the Arab world. In this connection, it is worth noting that most of the movies shown throughout the Arabic speaking countries are produced in Cairo using the local dialect. Thus Cairo Arabic will be understood, not only by all Egyptians, but by most speakers of Arabic, however much or little their daily speech may deviate from it. With reasonable competence in Cairo Arabic, the student will find it much easier to acquire Modern Standard Arabic; it hence serves also as a good introduction to the latter. In the preparation of this book, we have been helped in various ways by many others, not least of these our students who used the first draft. Mrs. Victorine Abboud assisted with the checking of the drills and provided the woman's voice for the accompanying recordings. Mr. Ahmed K. Abdel-Hamid an- swered innumerable questions beginning "How do you say ...?" and compiled the glossary. Professor Ernest F. Haden (University of Texas) made many helpful suggestions, especivlly about the content and production of the recordings. Professors W. Freeman Twaddell (Srown University) and Charles A. Ferguson (Genter for Applied Linguistics) took time from a busy schedule to spend several days with us going over the first draft and suggested many improvements. Since the final respénsibility for the book is ours, no blame must attach to any of the aforementioned for its shortcomings. Of the many works consulted during the preparation of this book, the following were helpful and frequently used. Richard $. Harrell, Laila Y. Tewfik, and George D. Selim, Lessons in Colloquial Egyptian Arabic, revised edition (Washington; Georgetown University Press, 1963); T.F. Mitchell, An Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (London: Oxford University Press, 1956), and Colloquial Arabic, The Living Language of Egypt (London: English Universities Press, 1962); two unpublished University of Texas dissertations: Hilmi M. Aboul-Fetouh, A Morphological Study of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (1961), and Saad M, Gamel-Eldin, A Syntactic Stcdy of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic (1961); W.H.T. Gairdner, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic, second edition (London: Oxford University Press, 1926) from which several stories were adopted; details and statistics about the educational system and the High Dam were taken from Amir Boktor, The Development and Expansion of Education in the United Arab Republic (Cairo: Anerican University in Cairo Press, 1963) and the United Arab Republic Year Book 1963 (Cairo: Information Department, n.d.). We are indebted to Mrs. Priscilla Sandoz for an excellent job of typing a difficult manuscript in draft and onto masters for reproduction. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to the Office of Education for supporting the preparation of this book with a research contract und” che National Defense Education Act. Without such support, this book would not have been written. WL Austin Poa. February 1965 iv ° CONTENTS PREFACE Introductory Lesson: GREETINGS Pronunciation practice Lesson 1: MEETING THE TEACHER Pronunciation practice A. Equational sentences: affirmative B, Equational sentences: negative Lesson 2: MEETING A STUDENT Pronunciation practice A. Masculine and feminine nouns and adjectives B. Equational sentences: questions and answers C. Nwnerals: 1-10 Lesson 3: THE ARABIC CLASS Pronunciation practice A. The demonstrative B. Verbal sentences C. Numerals: 11-19 Lesson 4: TELLING THE TIME Pronunciation practice A. Plural nouns and adjectives B. The demonstrative C. Verbal sentences iit anew © ry 12 13 14 14 15 18 19 20 20 23 2h Lesson 5: THE WEATHER Pronunciation practice A. The demonstrative as subject B. Free pronouns C. or, and, and ne D. Verbs: /zaakir/-type E. Imperative form of verbs her nor Lesson 6: CLASS SCHFDULES Pronunciation practice A. Construct phrases: noun + noun B. Construct phrase C, Verbs: /katab/-type D. /huwwa/, /hiyya/, /humma/ as question words E, Numerals before nouns: 3-10 Note: Stress noun + pronoun Lesson 7: LEARNING ARABIC A. More on bound pronouns B. Verbs: more /katab/-type ©. Tense prefixes D. Active participles of /katab/-type verbs Lesson 8: PREPARING FOR AN EXAM A. /bitaat/ phrases B. Prepositional phrases C. Passive participles of /katab/-type verbs D. Verbal sentences: time and place complements E. Numerals: 20-99 Note: Verb classes vi 27 28 28 30 31 33 34 37 37 Bes ES 45 47 49 St 53 37 59 60 62 63 64 ‘Lesson 9: THE MONTHS A. More on prepositional phrases B. The relative /ilii/ ©. Dual form of nouns D. Verbs: /¥aaf/~type E. The verb /kaan/ in equational sentences Lesson 10: A TRIP TO NEW YORK A, Verbs more /Saaf/-type B. Participles of /kallim/ and /zaakir/-type verbs C. Negation of verbs D, Numerals: 100-1,000 Note: Predictability of stress Lesson 11: HOLIDAYS A. /£ii/-sentences B. /kaan/ with /fii/-sentences ©. Verbs: /tiabb/-type Lesson 12: THE SIMPLETON AND HIS DONKEYS A. Pronouns as objects | B. Verbs: /rama/-type ©. Numerals before nouns: 11 and up D. /huwwa/ as question word Lesson 13: THE FARMER AND HIS DONKEY A. Comparison of adjectives B. Verbs: more /ram»/-type ©. Negation of verbs wits bound objects Note: Roots and vowel patterns vit 66 67 70 70 72 73 76 7 79 80 82 83 85 86 88 89 92 93 95 7 98 101 102 104 106 107 Lesson 14: CAIRO UNIVERSITY A. Comparison of adjectives: the superlative B. Verbs: /naada/ and /yanna/-types G. Negation of imperatives Note: Verb derivation Lesson 15: FOREIGN LANGUAGES A. The modals /Taawiz/, /nai B. irregular verbs C. Numerals: 1 and 2 Lesson 16: THE FARMER AKD THE SCRIBE A. The modal /Saawiz/ + objects B. Prepositional phrases with /1i/ ©. Manner complements D. Interrogatives Lesson 17: ELEMENTARY EDUCATION A. The modals /Yala/, /nifs/, and /? B. Verbs with two objects G. Numerals: ordinals after nouns Lesson 18: SECONDARY AND UNIVERSITY EDUCATION A. The modal /Sumr/ B. /wala/ as coordinator with negative verbs Verbs requiring two objects D. Numerals: ordinals before nouns Lesson 19: AL-AZHAR UNIVERSITY A. The modals /yadoob/ and /zamaan/ B. Verb phrases: Verb I + verb C. Derived verbs: /it-/ prefix with /katab/ and /rama/-types D. Subordinators vit 109 110 112 113 1s 17 1s 120 123 126 127 129 131 133 136 137 139 141 144 145 147 149 12 154 155 157 159 162 4 Lesson 20: WO FABLES A. Verb phrases: Verb II + verb B. More derived verbs with /it-/ C. Intensifiers D. Predicate complements Lesson 21: CAIRO A. Verb phrases: Verb I + Verb II + verb B. Verb phrases with /laazim/ and /yinkin/ C. /illi/-phrases: /illi/ + verb/participle ma/ and /batd/ Alternative plural constructions D. The quantifiers /mu Not Lesson 22: THE NILE I A. Verb pitrases: inperative B. The imperative /iwSa/ C. The quantifier /kull/ D. The subordinator /inn/ Lesson 23: THE NILE IL “A. The verbs /xalla/, /nad/, and /idda/ B. Derived verbs: /-t«/ infix C. Noun phrases: noun + noun D. Numeral: fractions and perecntages Lesson 24: THE HIGH DAM A. More subordinators B. Topical senteaces C. Verbal nouns D. The verb /ba?a/ in equational sentences Lesson 25: TWO FABLES ‘As Verb phrases with /kaan/ B. More on topical sentences ¢. /i111/-phrases in topical sentences ix 165 167 169 a. 172 115 a7 178 181 183 184 185 187 188 189 190 193 194 196 198 200 202 204 207 210 212 214 216 217 219 ee eee Lesson 26: THE ARABIC LANGUAGE I A. The modal /ba?a/ + /1i/ B. Elliptic noun phrases ©, Derived verbs: /ista-/ prefix D. Verbal nouns from /-t-/ and Jista-/ verbs Lesson 27: THE ARABIC LANGUAGE II A. Verb phrases with /kaan/ + modal B. The modal /yareet/ G. Comparison of adjectives with no comparative form D. Verbal nouns from /katab/ and /rama/-type verbs Lesson 28: ISLAM I A. The subordinators /iza/, /law/, and /in/ B. Models with equational and /fii/-sentences ©. Question tags D. Verbal nouns from /katab/, /Saaf/, and /rama/-type verbs Lesson 29: ISLAM IT A. More subordinators B. Derived adjectives GC. Collectives Lesson 30: YOU CAN'T PLEASE EVERYONE A, Numerals after nouns B. Alternative negative constructions with free pronouns OUTLINE REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF CATKO ARABIC ‘GLOSSARY 222 226 226 227 229 232 234 236 237 239 242 243, 245 287 248 251 252 254 256 260 262 264 265 278 INTRODUCTORY LESSON Conversation 1. saSfida. 2. saffida, dhlan wi séhlan. 3. dhlan wi sdhlan biik. 4hlan wi séhlan biiki. 4hlan wi séhlan béikum, izzdyyak. ik. iz izeayydkum. 5. izeday tadritak. ineday hadritik. 6. kwayyis, ilfiamdu lilldah. kwayyisa, ilfémdu 1illéah. kwayyisfin, ilfémdu 1illéah. 7. wi-zzdyyak-inta. wi-zzdyyik-{nti. wi-zeayydkum-intu. 8. wi-eeday Hadritak. wi-zzday Hadeitik. 9. ilfiémdu 1illdah. 10. saffida. 11. maSa-ssaldama. 12. glléh yisallfmak. allgh yisallimik. alléh yisallimkum. Hello. Hello, good to see you. Good to see you (m) too. Good to see you (£) too. Good to e you (p) too. How are you (m)? How are you (£)? How are you (p)? How are you, sir? How are you, ma'am? Fine (m), thanks. Fine (£), thanks. Fine (p), thanks. And how are you (m)? ‘And how ave you (£)? And how are you (p)? And how are you, sir? And how are you, ma'am? (Reply to above.) Good-bye (by person leaving). Good-bye (to person leaving). (Reply to above.) (m) (Reply to above.) (£) (Reply to above.) (p) Note on greetings. In Arabic speaking countries, greetings form a much larger and more important part of everyday interpersonal contacts than they do in English. The sequence of greetings given above should hence be regarded as the minimum demanded by common courtesy in most situations. Note that different forms are sometimes used by the speaker, whether a man (m), or a woman (£), or more than one person (p); see number 6, ‘Fine, thanks.' Similarly, different forms are used in addressing a man (m), or a woman (£), or more than one person (p); see 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 12. ff Questions like Jizzdyyak/ (4 and 7) are informal and are used only in a addressing persons with whom you are on a first-name basis. In other situations, the more formal /izzday Hadritak/ (5 and 8) should be used. Note on pronunciation: The sound represented by /ti/ and /1/ (pharyngeal spirants) and by letters with a broken underscore (emphatics) do not occur in English. Listen carefully to them and learn them by imitating your instructor. All of these sounds are very.conmon in Arabic and they must be learned. No substitutions are acceptable. Vowels and consonants in Arabic are either long (written with two letters) or short (written with one letter). the /I/ in /yisallfmak/ is approximately twice as long as that in /saldama/. This feature of Arabic will have to be imitated very carefully, since the difference between words may be indicated solely by it: /séma/ 'sky', and /sémma/ ‘he named’. a Pronunciation practice . 7/8 contrasts b/fi contrasts 7aam Saam haan fiaan la Sala habb fiabd Yada Sadd hhadd fiadd rélam sélan hava ‘éwa ia said hémma fina &/S contrasts G/cc contrasts fiaal Saal béna banna fall fall sdma sdmma fiadd Sadd déras darris ‘ian Sann séea Séeza film sim véla valle fi LESSON 1 Conversation + *Gul-issu?éal da tdéani min dati-ilxéer. sabdeh-ilxéer. {tak-ilmudérris? dywa. wi miin Hadr{tak. dywa. wi mlin fadefetk. {emi John Smith. {emi Mary Smith, 4blan wi séhlan. + dblan wi séhlan bitk. » Hadeftak bitttzaf Jérabi? Hadritik bititrdfi térabi? Swayya, mid kittir. Classroom expressions. . féahim? fébma? fahm{in? dywa, féahin. dywa, féhma. 4ywa, fahmfin. 1a? mi¥ féahim. féen-ilkitdab. ahdo-1kitdab. féen-ittilmfiz. ahéo-ttilmfiz. *Guli-ssu?4al da téani min £4d1ik. iddars-il?awwil MEETING THE TEACHER Good morning. Good morning. Sir, are you the teacher? Yes, and who are you (m)? Yes, and who are you (£)? My name is John Smith. My name is Mary Smith. Glad to meet you. Glad to meet you too. Do you (m) know any Arabic? Do you (£) know any Arabic? A little, not much. Do you (m) understand? Do you (£) understand? Do you (p) understand? Yes, I (m) do. Yes, I (£) do. Yes, we do. No, I (m) do not understand. Where is the book? Here is the book. Where is the student? Here is the student. Say (m) this question again please. Say (£) this question again please. _ Pronunciation practice 2/8 contrasts b/fi contrasts H/T contrasts su’éal suSéal Kéahid Séahit Bébaii— Babat sdba? —sdbat Sabah Bbalt raila 48a - nébah dba natil na saa yihidd yitifad yitildd yinted . ait? nahl —nafil yintid yittia k/x contrasts gly contrasts x/y contrasts : kaaf xa gaab —yaab xéaliyali kaan xan séaliyéali xénna_—-yanna keel xeel gesr year xélayéla kal, xall génna anna arr (yar, kéfa xa gore. yarr xéeba_yéeba oe Grammar : A. Equational sentences: affirmative. Subj. Pred. = ittamrfin gidfid. The exercise is new. ittamrfin tawfti The exercise is long. . ilkdrsi-gdfid. The chair is new. ilkdret Yadfim. The chair is old. iddars'-gafia. The lesson is new. iddérs* tawfi1. ‘The lesson is long. Ni.1 The equational sentence is one of the major sentence types in Arabic. Tt usually has no verb and consists of a subject and a predicate. The subject is always definite. N1.2 The article is a prefix: /kérsi/ ‘chair’, /ilkérsi/ 'the ‘chair'; Mars/ 'lesson', /iddérs/ ' the lesson’. @ N1.3 Assimilation of the /1/ of the article to the following consonant is obligatory bi fore /tds 2%nr/. Before /k g/ the assimilation is optional; ‘the chair' is either /ilkdrsi/ or /ikkirsi/. Before all other consonants the /1/ remains unassimilated. ~ N1.4 If the first vowel of a word is unstressed /i/, and this word follows one ending in a vowel, the /i/ is elided. Hence, the sequence of Hilkirsi/ and /gidfid/ occurs as /ilkiirsi-gdfid/, pronounced as if the words were /ilkirsig/ and /d{id/. The hyphen is used to show this type of Linkage. N1.5 1£ a word ending in two consonants (CC) occurs before one beginning with-a consonant (C), the vowel /i/ is added to the former. This is to avoid a sequence of CCC, which almost never occurs. The added vowel is weitten above the line; the sequence of /iddérs/ and /taw{il/ occurs as /idddrs* tawfil/. Note that the unstressed /i/ of /gidfid/ elides after the added vowel as after other final vowels. DRILLS LIST 1.1 Nouns Adjectives mudérris teacher kiblir old (of persons) wélad boy suydyyar young wi il tall cilmfiz student man dyyar short director nabiih intelligent principal pleasant 1.1 1: féen-ilmudérris. ‘Where is the teacher?! S: ahéo-lmuddrris. ‘Here is the teacher.' Continue with the nouns in List 1.1. 1.2 ilwélad nabiih. "The boy is intelligent.' a. Substitute in the predicate position. b. Substitute in the subject position. ¢. Substitute in either position. LIST 1.2 Now Gi) kitdab book sutéal question imtitigan examination tamrfin exercise, drill wéagib assignment (is) dars lesson Buy] work name line chapter, class 1.3 ilkitdab sahl. 'The book is easy." Adjectives. a. Substitute in the predicate position. b. Substitute in the subject position, using souns (i). c. Substitute in either position. 1.4 idddrs* sahl. ‘The lesson is easy. a. Substitute in the predicate position. easy difficult long short important b. Substitute in the subject position, using nouns (ii). . ¢. Substitute in either position, using nouns (i-it). 1.5 ilkitdab gidfid. 'The book is new." idddrs*-gdfid. ‘The lesson is new.' a. Substitute in the subject position, using nouns (ii). b. Substitute in the subject position, B. Equational sentences: negative. Subj, Pred. ittamrfin mi gidfid. ittamefin mi tawfil. ilkdres mB gidfid. iddére’ mis sahl. iddérs’ mis using nouns (i-ii). exercise is not new. exercise is not long. chair is not new. lesson is not easy. lesson is not difficult. N1.6 ‘The negative of an equational sentence is formed by adding /mi3/ before the adjective in predicate position. N1.7 Note that /3/ assimilates to /s/ before /s/; hence /mis sahl/ not . /wif sahl/. (Similarly /% 2/ becomes /z z/.) DRILLS 1.6 Repeat drills 1.2-5 in the negative. ‘Lesson 2 Conversation 5. + Hadritak mdgei? fadr{tik maeriyya? dywa, dna nésri. fywa, ana nasrfyya. na minsiskindirfyya. na Yamrikdani. na ?amrikaniyya. éna min Texas. ana amrikéani, mi¥ més 4na Yamrikanfyya, mi¥ masriyya. dna tilmfiz. ana tilmfiza. imta- ilfi{ssa fi-1%6ode nfmra 14¥ar: Classroom expressions. Gul-ilgimla di téani min £4dlak. Muli-Lgimla di téani min £4d1ik. MGulu-lgimla di tdani min fadidkum. yatni ?ée-1kf1ma di bi-L?ingilfizi. mid Séarif. mis Sarfa, mi Sarffin, féen-ittilmfiza. abée-ttilmfiza. iddére-ittéani MEETING A STUDENT Sir, are you Egyptian? Ma'am, are you Egyptian? Yes, 1 am Egyptian (nm). Yes, I am Egyptian (f). I am from Alexandria. I am American (m). I am American (£). I am from Texas. American, not Egyptian (m). American, not Egyptian (£). an an ama student (m). I am a student (£). am learning Arabic. am learning German. When is the lecture? The lecture is at 10 o'clock. The class is in Room 10. Say (m) this sentence again please. Say (£) this sentence again please. Say (p) this sentence again please. What is this word in English? I (m) don't know. I (£) don't know. We don't know. Where is the student(£)? Here is the student(f). . Pronunciation practice k/x contrasts g/y contrasts x/y contrasts fakk faxx taag saay Baax - saay Seek Beex damag damay yixiib —yiyfib sfkin sfxin *dgmal —?dyma? textir avfir yikdun — yixdun yigfib — yiyfib yixdlliytyélli yéakul — ydaxud yigri —yfyri yixé yiydtti “B/x contrasts G/ce contrasts V/V contrasts fiaal xaal fata fatta nin min fall xall méda médda futt fuut Hatt att slim sfllim beet baat arr xart séva séwwa aéwa déawa feet né?al nd? Sélam Salam Grammar A. Masculine and feminine nouns and adjectives. ilkitdab sahl. the book is easy. iddérs*-gdfid. ‘The lesson is new. ilkfima shia. The word is easy. ilgtimla-~gdfida. The sentence is new. ilgiimla mi¥ gidfida. ‘The sentence is not new. N2.1 /kitéab/ and /dars/ are masculine (m) nouns; /k{lma/ and /gémla/ are feminine (£) nouns. In spite of the fact that both of these £. nouns, and most £, nouns, end in /a/ (and most m. nouns do not end in /a/), you cannot always tell the gender of a noun from its ending. The gender of Arabic nouns must be learned for each noun, N2.2 Adjectives have two forms and agree in gender with singular nouns. The base form is m. /sahl/; the suffix /-a/ marks £, inflection. Adjéctives ending in /i/ add /yy/ before /~a/: /mé N2.3. If @ word ends in /iC/, like /witit¥/ ‘bad, ugly’, or /Séatir/ felever', or /kwayyis/ ‘good*, the (unstressed) /i/ before the final C is elided when a suffix is added: /wifii3/ (m), /wii¥a/ (£). At the same time, since W never occurs before CC in the same word, the /aa/ in tyya/ (£). (8 adds /-a/: /kwiyyfsa/ (£). DRILLS LIST 2.1 Nouns Adjectives mudarrisa teacher (£) nabfiha néera principal (£) Batre tilmfiza student (f) kibfira mudfira director (£) tawfila _sitt woman kwayyfsa , bint girl latfifa 2.1 1: £€en-timudarrfsa, ‘where is the teacher?! S: ahée-lmudarrfsa. ‘Here is the teacher.’ j Continue with the nouns in List 2.1. 2.2 ilbfnt! nabfiha. ‘the girl is intelligent.' a. Substitute in the predicate position. b, Substitute in the subject position. ¢. Substitute in either position. i LIST 2.2 Adjectives ndsri nasrfyya Egyptian Yamrikéani © Yamrikanfyya American Yingilfiei -Pingilizfyya ‘English ?alméant, ?almanfyya German faranséawi faransawfyya ‘French ?asbéani ?asbanfyya Spanish Sarabi Sarabfyya Arab 2.3. ilbfne* magrfyya. "the girl is Egyptian.’ a, Substitute in the predicate position. b, Substitute in the subject position. ¢. Substitute in either position. 10 tix/ (m) is shortened: /S4tra/ (£). However, the /i/ is not elided if a sequence of CCC would result. Thus /kwéyyis/ (m) simply ‘ LIST 2.3. Nouns kilme word sah gdmla sentence nfmra number, grade fifssa class mas?éla problem muiédra lecture 2.4 ilkfima-gdfida. ‘The word is new." 2.5 Be a, Substitute in the predicate position. b. Substitute in the subject position. c. Substitute in either position, Repeat drills 2.2-4 in the negative. Equational Statement: ilwdagib sahl. The ai Question: -ilw4agib sah? sentences: questions and answers, Adjectives sahla gidfida Padfima muh imma easy difficult new old (of things) important long ignment is easy. Is the assignment easy? Answers: 4ywa-Iwdagib sahl. Yes, the assignment is easy. 1a?, ilwéagib mis sahl. No, the assignment is not easy. ywa, sahl. Yes, it is. la?, mis sahl. No, it isn't. N2.4 Statements and corresponding questions of equational sentences 2.6 Tr ilwdlad nabf{ih? differ only in intonation. to that of English yes-or-no questions. DRILLS "Ze the boy intelligent?* $: dywa-lwalad nabfih, 'Yes, the boy is intelligent.' 1a?, ilwdlad mi¥ nabfih, 'No, the boy is not intelligent.’ Continue with the following sentences: derdasil letfif. i1?imeitidan gab. » daadte* sani. ittilmfiza nabfiha. iNifssa nuhfnma. issftt! ?almanfyya. iibint® ¥étra. ilmudérris mésri. cry /1/ xepresents.a pitch pattern similar T: irrdagil lat{if. ‘The man is pleasant.’ S\: irrdagil lat{if? 'Is the man pleasant?" "Yes, he is.’ "No, he isn't." . Continue with the sentences in drill 2.6. C. Numerals: 1-10. wéehid 1 sftta 6 itnéen 2 sébta 7 taléata 3 teninya 8 4 efsta 9 5 10 DRILLS 2.8 Ti taléata 2da%id Pitnéen yisdewi kam, '3 +2 S: xémsa. 5! Continue with the following: 544 2+4 743 a 6+2 545 1+4 345 941 6+3 : SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 2.9 ilmuliédra-ssdata $4¥ara. "The lecture is at 10 o'clock." Substitute: 5 o'clock 9 ofclock 8 ofclock 2 ofclock 3 o'clock 4 otclock 2.10 ilfifssa £1-17éoda nfmra taldata. 'The class is in Room 3.' Room 10 Room 6 Room 5 Room 8 Room 7 na ?amrikéani. ‘I'm not Egyptian. I'm American.' 4na mi¥ masriyya. éna ?anrikanfyya. : Substitute for /né English, Arab, German, Spanish, French. 12 LESSON 3 Conversation ~ 1. fzeday kdanit Hissit-ilférabi. 2. 41h g kdanit muffida gfddan. 3, ilmudérris kéllim-ittalémza bi-1}érabi. ar-iddérs® bi-1?ingilfizi. tilm{iz sénmaf bi-1$érabi. 6, wi térgim-ilgimla “aw-ilk{Ima bi-1?ingilfizi. 7. miin dérris-{lfifssa di. 1é?ya-Iférabi. 10, 1a”, ilfgrabi Ll. léakin Sdawiz Sdyl*-kefir. Classroom expressions. 2 ténya min fi tanya min 3 ténya min mik kida. 3. léazim ti?dlha kida. ldazim ti?ulfiha kida. 4. Yulduha méfa bafd. 5. dywa, satit. 6. tamdam. 13 idddrs-ittéalit ‘THE ARABIC CLASS How was the Arabic class? The class was very interesting. ‘The teacher spoke to the students in Arabic and explained the lesson in English. Every student recited in Arabic and translated the sentence or the word into English. Who taught this class? Prof. Ahmad is the teacher of Arabic. Do you (m) find Arabic difficult? Do you (£) find Arabic difficult? No, Arabic is not difficult. But it-needs a lot of work. Say (m) it again please. Say (£) it again please. Say (p) it again please. No, that's wrong. Not that way. You (m) must say it this way. You (£) must say it this way. Say (p) it together. Right. Perfect. Pronunciation practice Nonenphatic/emphatic contrasts tin thin bérdu haze faze tab taab féadi mahzduz : baat baat seef rabb féatir faatir bass Samm dam résad ‘imma darb zann Yaxx Grannar A. The demonstrative. itkitdab da sah. The book is easy. iddérs* da-gdfid. Tais lesson is new. iddars* da mis This lesson is not difficult. itk{ima di séhla. This word is easy. ilgimla di-gdfida. This sentence is new. ilgimla di mis sdf This sentence is not difficult. N3s1 Like adjectives (N2.2), the demonstrative has two forms, /da/ (m) : and /di/ (£), and agrees in gender with singular nouns. The demonstrative in these sentences could be translated ‘that’ as well as ‘this’. N3.2 The subject of these sentences is a definite attributive phrase, a construction of article + noun + demonstrative. DRILLS 3.1 ilwélad da nabfih. 'This boy is intelligent.’ a. Substitute, using the nouns and adjectives in List 1.1. b. Repeat, using the nouns and adjectives in List 1.2. 3.2 ilbint! di ¥étea. ‘This girl is clever.’ a. Substitute, using the nouns and adjectives in Lists 2.1 and 2.2, b. Repeat, using the nouns and adjectives in List 2.3. 14 . 3.3 ilmudarrisa nabfiha. ‘The atl kibfir issite ilwdlad Zusdyyar 3.4 ilmudarrisa di nabfiha. "This teacher iJ teacher is itetimitea ilmudarris cawiil ilmudfira ilbint Continue with the irems in drill 3.3 3.5 idddre’ sahil. ‘The lesson safb ilkilma ilmuhadr, il?imtitidan mubimm 3.6 idddrs* da sahl. Continue with the items in 3.7 ietilmfiz da mésri. ‘This ilmdarrisa dagil amr ikdani B. Verbal sentences. kallio he spoke kallfmte she spoke kallimu they spoke kéllim ?éhimad . kalifmit mudérris. kallimu-lmudarris Ldazim yikdl lim-ilmudarris. Ldaaim tikdilim-innde is easy.* der ilmas*ala ittamr fin rawiil ilhissa 'This iesson is easy.‘ drili 3,35. student is Egyptian * alndant issite ilmudarris faransdaui ittilmiiza yikaliim tikéLlim yikat fou He spoke to Ahmad intelligent. Substitute: Substitute: ilwalad cusdyyar Séatir inner: ilmudfir intelligent.‘ ilgdmla issu?dal gidfid ilk{1ma ilwéagib Substitute: ilmudfir Pingilfizt ilbint Sérabi ittilnfiz he speaks she speaks they speak, She spoke to a teacher. They spoke to the teacher. He must speak to the teacher She must speak to the principal. tdérgim gimla. He translated a sentence. targimit-ilgimla. She translated the sentence. targfmu-lgimla di They translated this sentence. Léazim yitargimu-lgimla. ‘They must translate the sentence. ?éfimad kdllim-ilmudérris. Ahmad spoke to the teacher. ittilmfiza targ{mit-ilgimla. ‘The student (£) translated the sentence. N3.3 A verbal sentence always has a verb (cf. N1.1). The simplest form of the verbal sentence consists of a verb only: /térgim/. More complex verbal sentences given above are: (free subject +) verb + object /kéllim "éfimad/; modal + verb /léazim yitargim/; and modal + verb + object /léazim yikdllim-ilmudérris/. N3.4 Every verb has a bound subject, either a suffix or a prefix. The verb forms with suffixed subjects are perfect: completed action. The forms with prefixed subjects are imperfect: not completed action. Note that the bound subjects with some imperfect forms have a suffix as well as a prefix: /yikall{mu/. Although unstressed, the /i/ of /-it/ ‘she! never elides (cf. N2.3). In addition to a bound subject, a verb may also have a free subject. Free subjects usually precede the verb. (A free subject may be added to all of the verbal sentencés given above.) Free and bound subjects agree in gender or number. N3.5 Note that these verbs have the same stems in the perfect and the imperfect. This is true of all verbs with CVCOVC stems. Verbs like this will be called the /kallim/-type. N3.6 The imperfect forms of the verb are not ordinarily used without a Preposed modal, like /léazim/, (or other items to be discussed later). The perfect forms may be used with or without a preposed modal. 3.7 Some verbs like /séllim/ require a preposition before the object /sA1lim 141a~Imudérris/ 'He greeted (said hello to) the teacher’. Such verbs will always be given with the required preposition: /sdllim féla/. N3.8 Note the different forms of the article. At the beginning of sentences and after the terminal written /,/, the article is /?il-/ (or /7iC-/), although the glottal stop of the article is not written in this position. Elsewhere in sentences, the article is /il-/ (or /iC-/) after consonants and /1-/ (or /C-/) after vowels: /térgim-ilgémla/, /targ{mu-1gimla/. 16 LIST 3.1 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.1 Verbs he he he he he he séllim ‘dla T: kdllim, "He spoke." S: kéllim. kallfmir Continue with other verbs. T: ldazim yikéllim. 'He must S: léazim yikéllim. léazim tikdllim. ‘She .must Léazim yikall{fmu. Continue with other verbs. kallimu. DRILLS spoke (to someone) translated taught completed explained recited greeted 'He, she, they spoke.' speak." t speak. ! "They must speak.! Tt kAllim-iltudfiri; ‘He spoke to the director.’ 8: kéllim-ilmudfir. kallimit-ilmudfir. 'she spoke to the director. kall{mu-Imudfir. ‘They spoke to the director.’ Continue with the following sentences: kAllim-inndazir. f4ssar-ilmas?éla. térgim-ilkitdab. sdnmaS-issétr. kémmil-ilwdagib. dérris Sérabi. sdllim $dla-lmudérris. ti Léazim yikéllim-iimudfir. Léazim yikdllim-iimudfir. léazim tikéllim-ilmudfir. léazim yikall{mu-lmud{ir. Continue with the sentences -argim-ilgémla. "He must speak to the director.’ ‘She must speak to the director." "They must speak to the director.’ in drill 3.10. 7 C. Numera! 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 u sittda¥er 16 12 17 13 18 . 14 19 15 DRILLS T: taménya zéa?id t{sfa-ysdawi kaam, '8 +9 =" S: si a¥ar. '17' T: gittéaSar nda?is xdmsa-y.sdawi kaam, '16 - 5 =! S: Hidda¥ar. '11' SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS ilmudérris kéllim-ittaldmza bi-1 i. "The teacher spoke to the students in Arabic.' Substitute for /mudérris/: ilmudarrisa irrdagil ilbint targimi-lgimla di bi-L7ingilfizi. 'They translated this sentence into English.' Substitute for /7ingilfizi/: Arabic French German English Spanish 18 LESSON 4 Conversation 1. Séudak maSéad mé$a Had? Yandik maféad méSa fad? 2. dywa. andi matdad méva raSdad-issdata $a¥ 3. mi¥ Sar£-it?éxxar lee. mi¥ térfa-t?éxxar lee. 4. ba?éalak hina-ktfir? ba’dalik hina-kéfir? 5. fawdali rdbst séata. tilt” sdafa niss’ séata sdata séava-w rubs 6. mimkin ti?illi-sséava kaam, minkin ti?ulfili-ssdava kaam, min £éd1ik, 7. isséata watida-w x4msa. itnden wi $4¥ara taldata-w rub? 2erbéte-y ELLE xdmsa-w négs-{lla xénsa sfttaw nyse sabfa-w ni taménya-lla tilt tLeta-Lle rubs uy xémsa 19 iddérs-irr: TELLING THE TIME Do you (m)-have an appointment with anyone? Do you (£) have an appointment with anyone? Yes, I have an appointment with Rashad at 10 o'clock. I (m) don't know why he is late. I (£) don't know why he is late. Have you (m) been here long? Have you (£) been here long? About quarter of an hour. 20 minutes (third of an hour) half an hour an hour an hour and a quarter Can you (m) please tell me what time it is? Can you (£) please tell me what time it is? It is 1:05. 2:10 3:15 4:20 5:25, 6:30 7:35 7:40 9:50 10:55 12:00 8. ldakin saftak ldazim mi?addima robs! séata. Ldakin sdftik Ldazim mi?addima ribs! sfata. 9. Sa¥4an sdSt-ilgémta watida-1la 4 in séftak ldéazim mi efit! sdata. Ldéakin sttik léazim mi?a: efit! séata. 11, Sa¥éan sétt-ilgénta wétida-w nigs-{1la xénsa bi-zzdbt. Pronunciation practice long vowels tiin beet rii¥ deel fit been Bil yeem Siid Seen Grammar A. Plural nouns and adjectives. ilwdlad nabfih. itbint® nabfiha. il’awldad nébaha. ilbangat ndbaha. But your (m) watch must be quarter of an hour fast. But your (£) watch must be quarter of an hour fast. Because by the university clock it's exactly 12:50. But your (m) watch must be 20 minutes slow. But your (£) watch mist be 20 minutes slow. Because by the university clock it's exactly 1:25. 7/2? contrasts né?al darli?a 54770 sa’fil séba? 47a dar? $éa7il da?dayi? nd? The boy is intelligent. The girl is intelligent. ‘The boys are intelligent. The girls are intelligent. N4.1 There are many patterns of noun plural formation in Arabic, and the form of the plural (p) cannot be predicted from the form of the singular (s). The p. form must hence be learned for each noun. N4.2 Most adjectives with /ii/ in the last syllable form the p. by vowel~ change: /gidfid/, /guddad/; /ndbith/, /ndbaha/. Most other adjectives form the p. by suffixing /-{in/: /sahl/, /sahl{in/; /kwdyyis/, 20 Jewayyistin/; {in/ (N2.3). If the s. has the form CaaCi (ending in /i/ but unlike /mésri/, cf. N2.2) then the /i/ is replaced by /y/ before both the £. /-a/ and the p. /-iin/: /yéali/ (m), /ylya/ (£), /valyfin/ (p). N4.3 Adjectives are inflected for gender (N2.2) or number. With s. nouns, 4a 4.2 4.3 44 adjectives agree in gender (sentences one and two above). With p. nouns, adjectives agree in number, but not in gender (three and four above). LIST 4.1 mudérris mudiir mudarrisa bint sitt tilmfiza tilmfiz Pustdaz wélad féen-ilmudarrisfin. ahvimeilmudarrisfin. DRILLS Plural nouns and adjectives mudarrisfin mudirfin mudarrisdat bandat sittdéat tilmizéat talémza rasddza Pawldad riggdala ‘Where are the teachers?! ‘Here are the teachers.' Continue with the nouns in List 4.1. ilmidarrisfin tuwéal. "The teachers are tall.’ a. Substitute in the predicate position. b, Substitute in the subject position. ¢. Substitute in either position. Tr ilwélad ¥éatir. S: ilvawldad ¥atrfin. "The boy is clever.! "The boys are clever.' Continue, using different nouns and adjectives. Tr issittéat kub: S: issfee!-kbfira, "the ladies are old.' "The lady ie old.' Continue, using different nouns and adjectives. 21 4,5 ilmudirfin tuwdal. ‘The directors are tall.’ Substitute: 4.6 47 4.8 a issittd. ilmudarrfsa ittalémea kubéar ilmudarrisfin ilmudfira ilbint a. guddad dra iiwélad ilbint il?awldad nabfih ‘ ittilmfiz issftt iltasddza irrigedala ilbandat inndera LIST 4.2 Plural nouns and adjectives kitéab kdtub sahlf{in dars durdus safbfin ?imtitidan Timeifiandat ——guddad tamrfin tamarfin muhima{in sate kilma gimla ‘Bissa mas?éla nufddra ilkdtub guddad. "The books are new.' a, Substitute in the predicate position. b, Substitute in the subject position. ¢. Substitute in either position. T: iddurdus sablfin. "The lessons are easy 8: iddérs! sahl. ‘the Lesson is easy.! Continue, using different nouns and adjectives. Tr ilgimla sdhla. 'The sentence is easy.' 4 ilgtimal sahliin, 'The sentences are easy. Continue, using different nouns and adjectives. 22 4 4,9 ilkdtub sablfin. ilwdagib ilfifsas ilkfima muhimmgin sath ilmutiddra il?imtifidan issu?dal ilmas?éla tawfil B. The demonstrative. ilwdlad da S4atir. il?awléad dool ¥atrfin. ilkitéad da-géfid. ilkdtub dool guddad. inine! di Sétra. ilbandat dool ¥atrfin. ilgdmla di-gdfida. ilgtimal dool guddad. N4.4 Like adjectives, the demonstrative has three forms: "The books are easy.! Substitute: ilgémla ilgdmal guddad ittamriin innimra This boy is clever. ‘These boys are clever. This book is new. These books are new. This girl is clever. These girls are clever. This sentence is new. These sentences are new. Maal (a), /ai/ (£), and /dool/ (p). With 8. nouns the denonsteative agrees in gender; with p. nouns it agrees in number (cf, N4.3). DRILLS LIST 4,3 Plural nouns and adjectives ?élan Alden pencil fustdéan fasat{in dress ?amfis shirt Santa bag, purse, briefcase gdema pair of shoes burngeta beranfit hat wddra zudr green ‘fhdmra fumr red zdr?a zur? blue béode bite white yalya yalyfin expensive 23 4.10 i1?dlam da yéali. is pencil is expensive.! 4, Substitute in the subject position using m. nouns. b. Substitute in the subject position using f. nouns. ¢. Substitute in the subject position using either m. or £. nouns. 4. Substitute in the predicate position. . Substitute in either position. 4.11 Llkitub dool yalyfin. hese books are expensive." 4, Substitute in the subject position. b, Substitute in the predicate position. , ©. Substitute in either position. 4.12 T: ilkitdab da yéali. ‘This book is expensive.’ S: ilkdtub dool yalyfin. ‘These books are expensive." + Continue, using different nouns and adjectives. 4.13 Repeat drills 4.2-9, adding the’ demonstrative. . C. Verbai sentences. i kallime you (m) spoke tikéllim you (m) speak | kalLfmet you (£) spoke tikallfmi you (£) speak kallfneu you {p) spoke tikalifmu you (p) speak kallint I spoke ?akéllim I speak , kallfmna we spoke ntkéllim we speak kall{mt-iimudérris? Did you (m) speak to the teacher? dywa, kallfmt-ilmudérris. Yes, I spoke to the teacher. targimti-ddérs? Did you (£) translate the lesson? aya, targimt~iddérs. - Yes, I translated the Lesson. léazim nitérgim-ilgimla. We must translate the sentence. yinkin nitérgim-ilgiimal. We may translate the sentences. sail{mtu 'éla~Imudarris. You (p) greeted the teacher. N4.5 The complete set of bound subjects (N3.4) is given in Table 4.1 Note that the absence of any suffix with perfect marks the 3m. subject. Note also that in the perfect the 2m. and 1 s. forms are the same, while in the imperfect the 3 £. and 2m. are the same. 24 4.6 4b 4.15, 4.16 47 4.18 Perfect Imperfect - 3m. yi- nit Brae Sees tie ou + 3p yin ou ot an tis | oti 28. teak atu 2p. tie su ot 1s. tan ona Lp. ni- Table 4.1 /y{mkin/ is another modal and patterns like /léazim/ (N3.6). DRILLS T: kdllim-ilmudfir. 'He spoke to the director." dna. S: kallf{mt-ilmudfir. 'I.spoke to the director." T: fntu. 8. kallimtu-lmudfir. Continue with other 1st and 2nd pers., using the sentences in drill 3.10. Repeat drill 4.14 with all persons. T: ldazim yikéllim-ilmudfir. 'He must speak to the director.' S: ldazim ?akdllim-ilmudfir. 'I must speak to the director.’ Tr intu. S: léazim tikallfmu-imudfir. Continue with other Ist and 2nd pers., using the sentences in drill 3.10. Repeat drill 4.16 with all persons. T: kallimna-lmudfir. 'We spoke to the director.' S: léazim nikdllim-ilmudfir. 'We must speak to the director." Tt kallfmu-lmudfir. St léazim yikallimu-lmudfir. Continue with other persons, using the sentences in drill 3.10. 25 4.19 4.20 4.21 SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS isséava t{sta-w muss, "It is 9:30." Substitute: It is 8:55. It is 11:45. Tt is 2:35, It is 1:10, It is 9:20, It is 7:05. saSti-maddima ribs séata. 'My watch is quarter of an hour fast.' + sd¥ti xémsa-w "My watch is 5:30." bt, 'What time is it exactly?! Si issdata xémsa-w ruby. "It is 5:15! issdava kaam bi- Continue with the following: sditi tfeta-w niss'-w xémsa. itnéen wi ruby ?arbéfa-11. sitta-w xdmsa satin tiie! séate. 'My watch is 20 minutes slow.! Continue as in drill 4.20. 26 é LESSON 5 Conversation 1, izzday-ilgéw-inn iddfnya bérd* 7éwi. iddfnya bitmdttar. ilgéww! -myéyyim. : issdma-myayyina. kaam, 4, tistfin déraga ta?ritban. 5. bitméttar kitfir £1 amrfika? 6. bitméttar kitlir £1-¥8ita wi-rrab{it, wi Yafiydanan 7. wi-zday té%s! mi rewi. 9. bitmittar kitfir £1 masr? re idfid £1-¥8fea. Ll, wi fi-lgah{ra-Imdtar ?alfil. 13, wi-aeday géuw-ilgahfr: 14, ilgdwa fi-sséee dre wi tardawa bi-Lléel. 15. ilgdwe £i-38fta déafi fi-m wi bard? bi-11ée1. 27 iddérs-ilxéamis ‘THE WEATHER How is the weather today? Today is very hot. It (the world) is very cold. It is raining. It (the weather) is cloudy. It (the sky) is cloudy. I wonder, what is the temperature? About ninety degrees. Does it rain a lot in Anerica? It rains a lot in the winter and the spring, and sometimes in the summer. And how is the weather in Egypt? ‘The weather in Egypt is beautiful and moderate, neither very hot nor very cold. Does it rain a lot in Egypt? In the delta (Lower Egypt), the rainfall is heavy in the winter. And in Cairo, the rainfall is light. However, in Upper Egypt there is no rain at all. And how is the weather in Cairo? In the summer, it is very hot dur- ing the dey and cool at night. In the winter, it is warm during the day and cold at night. And how is the weather in Upper Egypt? fi-sséef. Upper Egypt is hot in the summer. . 18. dé bitkdun fadétan The temperature is usually 110 degrees or more. 19, inndme £1-B8fea-1géww* £ However, in the winter the weather gfddan, wi min ?dgmal maa is very pleasant and beautiful yénkin. beyond expectation. , Pronunciation practice long vowels hC sequences ruuti dol Léhga sah : suu? moot fahd lahw tuut zoo? sahm Sahm nuur noom abl Suud Soom a Grammar A. The demonstrative as subject. da-ktéab. This is a Book. da-ktéab gidfid. This is a new book. da-Ikitéab-ilgidfid. This is the new book. di kilma mid gidfida. This is not a new word. dool kitub gudéad. These are new books. dool+ilkitub-iiguddad. ‘These are the new books. N5.1 In addition to its use as a noun attributive (/ilkitéab da/ 'this book'), the demonstrative is also used as the subject of equational sentences. The predicate of such sentences is commonly a noun or an attributive phrase: noun + adjective. N5.2 In addition to agreement in number or gender, adjectives in attribu- tive phrases also agree with nouns in definiteness: /kitéab gidfid/ . ‘a new book", /ilkitéab-ilgidfid/ 'the new book". 28 5.2 fustéan bantalson bédla Zakitta Alam 2% Substitute in Substitute in Substitute in badla zér?a. + Substitute in Substitute in Substitute in Substitute in DRILLS 2 "A1dan manadfil fasatfin bantalunéat Banat bidal Fakittdat "This is a yellow pencil.’ the position of /?élam/ using m. the position of /?ésfar/. either position. "This is a blue suit.' shirt pencil handkerchief, scarf dress trousers bag suit Jacket hat pair of shoes blouse inexpensive green red blue yellow white black brown beige nouns the position of /bédia/ using £. nouns. the position of /zér?a/. either position. either position, using either m. or £. nouns, 29 5.3 dool ?iléam fume. a. Substitute in the position of /7ildam/ using either m, or b. Substitute in the position of /fum/. "These are red pencils.’ £. nouns. c, Substitute in either position. 5.4 di-lbédla-zzdr?a. ‘This is the blue suit.' a. Substitute singular nouns and adjectives. b. Substitute plural nouns and adjectives. c. Substitute either singular or plural nouns and adjectives. B. Free pronouns, héwa mudérris. He is a teacher. hiwwa mudérris gidfid. hifyya mudarrisa. hfyya-Imudarrfse-Igidfida. fda mudarris{in guddad. He is a new teacher. She is a teacher. She is the new teacher. ‘They are new teachers. inta mabsdut. You (m) are happy. {nti mabsduta. You (£) are happy. fneu mabsutfin. You (p) are happy. ana maSydul. I am busy (m). I am busy (£). We are busy. na maSydula. fina maByulfin. 5.3. The free pronouns are commonly used as subjects of equational sentences. ‘The predicate may be a noun, an adjective, or an attributive Phrase. am héwwa he, it 38. hiyya she, it 3p. dma they 2m. inta you (m) 28, inti you (£) 2p. fntu you (p) 1 na r lp. fina we ; Table 5.1 30 DRILLS LIST 5.2 Adjectives | sayyéan Sayyéana Sayyanfin sick tatbéan tatbéana tavbanfin tired guidana gutanfin hungry Sat¥éana Sat¥anfin thirsty bardéana bardanfin cold Jana farranfin hot nafsdéana nafsanfin sleepy géhza gahzfin ready asia ?asftin sorry fédya fin empty, free 5.5 hfyya nasdana. ‘She is sleepy.’ (not occupied) a. Substitute in the subject position, using free pronouns. b. Substitute in the predicate position. c. Substitute in either position. 5.6 hiiwwa walad nabfih, 'He is an intelligent boy.' Substitute: bint taldmza maBydul sayyéan Séatir riggéala rdagil mudarrisa Ebadi gidtid sitt mudarrisfin nabfih mudfir madyéul 5.7 {nta walad nabfih, ‘You are an intelligent boy.’ Continue with the items in drill 5.6. Cc. 91 and, and neither ... nor. héwwa tatbéan walla Say; héwwa tatbéan wi Sayydan. hdwwa laa tafbéan wéla Sayydan. hdwwa gufdan. Is he tired or sick? He is tired and sick. He is neither tired nor sick. He is hungry. 31 hiyya tafbdéana walla na‘séana, Is she tired or sleepy? hiyya tatbéana-w nafsdana, She is tired and sleepy. hfyya laa tafbdéana w4la naSséana. She is neither tired nor sleepy. hfyya Sayydana. She is sick. : N5.4 /walla/, /wi/, and /laa ... wéla/ are coordinators, here used to Link two adjectives. They may also be used to link other parts of speech. DRILLS -" + 5,8 Tr iB¥akftta di béeda walla mand{i1. S,: ilmandfil da ?ébyad walla ?éxdar, 'Is this scarf white or green?! 8): ilmandfil da laa » "Is this jacket white or green?’ yad wala ?éxdar. ‘This scarf is neither white 2 nor green.' S,: da mand{i1 ?{owid. 'This is a black scarf.' ida. S11 {17i1dam dool biid walla St i1?{1dam dool laa bitd wéla : dol 7ildam suud. manadfil Bénta bantalgon iM Ls 5.9 Tz {nta nafsdan wélla guféan, ‘Are you (m) sleepy or hungry?! Sayydan, tatbdan. {nta Sayyéan walla tatbéan, ‘Ate you (m) sick or tired?! {nti Sayyéana dla tafBéana,' Are you (£) sick or tired?! na laa Sayydan wala tatbéan. ‘ZI (m) am neither sick nor tired.’ na laa Sayyéana wala tatbdana. 'I (£) am neither sick nor tired.' Continue with the following: fdadi, ma¥ydul tawfil, 2usdyyar barddan, farrdan _muddrris, mudfir kibfir, suydyyar guidan, Sat¥den - 32 5.10 Tt hinna nafsanfin walla gutanfin, ‘Are they sleepy or hungry?! Sayyéan, taTb4an. Sy ‘hhimma Sayyanfin walla tafbanfin, ‘Are they sick or tired?" Spi hiama laa Tayyanfin wéla tatbanfin. ‘They are neither sick nor tired." Continue with the items in drill 5.9. D. Verbs: /zaakir/-type. zéakir he studied yizdakir he studies zékrit she studied tizdakir she studies zékru they studied yigdkru they study zakfrt you (m) studied tizdakir you (m) study zakirti you (£) studied tizdkrd you (£) study zakirtu you (p) studied tizdkru you (p) study zakfrtu 1 studied Yazdakir I study zakfrna we studied nizdakir we study NS.5 Like the /kallim/, /zaakir/-type verbs (CVVCVC stems) have the same stems in the perfect and the imperfect. Note the elision of /i/ before /edkrit/ (N2.3). Note also the stress shift in the 1st and 2nd pers. forms in the perfect and shorten- suffixes, and shortening of /a, ing of /aa/. WV never occurs unstressed. With verbs ending in /d/ (like /séa‘id/ "he helped'), the /d/ assimilates to the following /-t/ in the }s. and 2nd pers. forms of the perfect: /sat{tt/ 'I helped’. DRILLS LIST 5.3 Verbs : ehakie he studied Vdabil he met séavia he helped séafir he travelled Héawil he tried gaawib he answered 33 . 5.11 T: fiéawil. 'He tried.’ na. S: fiawilt. ‘I tried." T: hiéimma. S: féwlu. Continue with other persons, using the following: séafir. ?b1-ilmudfir. gdawib. sdfd-issitt. adakir. zdkr-1ddére-tosdsb 5.12 Tt ldazim yifidawil. ‘He must try.' 'éna.! 8: ldazim 7atidawil. 'I must try.! T: ffina. S: léazim nifiéawil. Continue with other persons, using the sentences in drill 5..1. 5.13 Tt laa sdllim {4la-lmudfir wéla s4afir. 'He neither said good-bye to the director nor left.’ himma, 8: laa sall{mu $la-Imud{ir wla séfru. ‘They neither said good-bye to the director nor left.' Continue with other persons, using the following: laa *ébl-ittalénza wila fdssar-iddérs. laa térgim-ilk{1ma wila kémmil-ilgdmla. ~ ldazim yizdakir wAlla-yséafir, E. Imperative form of verbs. kéllim speak (m) zéakir study (m) kallfmi speak (£) zékei study (£) kallfmu speak (p) zékru study (p) kallim ?étimad. Speak (m) to Ahmad. kallimi-Imudérris. ° : Speak (£) to the teacher. 2dakir. Study (m). 2dkr-idddrs. Study (m) the lesson. 2dkru-ddérs. Study (p) the lesson. N5.6 The imperative forms of all verbs are the same as the 2nd pers. forms of the imperfect without the /ti-/ prefix. 34, NS.7 Note the elision of /i/ of /zéakix/ before a following word, as before a suffix: /zdakir/ + /iddérs/ is /zdkr-iddérs/, like /2dakir/ + dtl (£) is fedkrt/. DRILLS 5.14 Ts kéllim ?étimad. He spoke to Ahmad.! S: kéllim ?étimad. Speak to Ahmad.' kallfmi ?étimad. ‘Speak (£) to Ahmad.! kallfmu ?éfimad. 'Sp¢ak (p) to Ahmad.' Continue with the following: fdgsar-iddérs. séafir. séakix Séra ‘térgim-ilkfima di. kémmil-ilgdmla. sAllim ‘éla-rrdagil. tidawil. 5.15 Tt kéllim sdami, "Speak (m) to Sami." Si ldazim tikéllim sdami. ‘You (m) must speak to Sami.' te Continue with £. and p. forms, using the sentences in drill 5.14, ‘i SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 5.16 ydtéra, déragit-iltiardara kaam, ‘I wonder, what is the temperature?’ yatdra, fen-ilkitdab. 'I wonder, where is the book?! Contifue with the following: : When is the lecture? Why was he late? What time is it? What is the weather like today? What is the word in English? © What is the temperature today? What time did I come? Where is the professor? Who taught this class? What is the weather like in Cairo? 5.17 mif Séarif déragit-ilfiardata kdam. - mi¥ Sdrfa déragit-ilfiardara kaam. Continue with the sentences in drill 5.16. 35 LESSON 6 Conversation 1. Téndak kam Hfgeit Térabi fi-L?usbduy, 2, Yéndi sdbat Hisas £1-17usbiut. 3. {mea fifsas-iltérabi, 4, kill! ySon-issibii-isséata tista, wi ySom-ittaléat wi-lxamfis batd-idddhr-isséata watida. kam di?fi?a, 6. Hisas-isstbt! sdata-lla t4¥ar da?éayi?. * sdata-w 8. bitdaxud mawadfi? tanyfin? 9. dywa. béaxud tarfix wi t Yalméani. 10. {nta léazim maSyéul ?dwi. LL. dywa. Sandi 7 Litnéen wi-1é 12. wi télat mifadrdat ySomeittaléat wi-lxamfis. 13. yéon-issdbt* wi-1ndda! péndi agdaza. Yee ySom-issdbt, 15, atétt-issdbiil £i-1béet. 16. Taméit! wagbi-w darést* tawdali safdat. 36 iddérs-issdadis CLASS SCHEDULES How many Arabic classes do you have a week? I have seven classes a week. When are the Arabic classes? Every day in the morning at nine, and Tuesday and Thursday after- noon at one. And how many minutes is the class? ‘The morning classes are for fifty minutes. ‘The afternoon classes are for an hour and a quarter. Are you taking any other subjects? Yes, I am taking history and physics and German. You must be very busy. if yoom Yes, I have four lectures on Monday and Wednesday and Friday, and three lectures on Tuesday and Thursday. On Saturday and Sunday I have (a holiday) no classes. What did you do last Saturday? I stayed at home in the morning. I did my assignment and studied about four hours. 17. wi katébe” télat gawabéat, 1i I also wrote three letters, one to gglibfti Mary, wi-1 sdfibi Bill, my friend Mary, one to by friend wi-l Yaxuuya John. Bill, and one to my brother John. 18. bata" -dddhe'-nefle-ilbélad méta In the afternoon, T went downtown Tom bi Sarabiyyftu. with Tom in his car. 19. hfyya di Sarabiyy{tak? Is this your car? 20. la’. di §: ibiyyit Tom. No, this is Tom's car. Pronunciation practice CC sequences -S/-ta contrasts fia? far? tfsat Sami fal? far tfsta Sémta sud? da?n gémat ¥énmat urd San? gama wa? wate watt gamt wate Grammar A. Construct phrases: noun + noun. da maktab mudfir. This is a director's office. da méktab-ilmudfir. This is the director's office. da méktab mudfir-183frka. ‘This is the company director's office. da méktab mudfir ¥{rkit-inndur. This is the office of the director of the Light Company. dool makétb-ilmudfir. These are the director's offices. dool makéatib mudirfin-i8$irka. These are the offices of the directors of the company. di Séntit-issi{tt. This is the lady's purse. ¥éntit-issitt!-gafida. The lady's purse is new. méktab-ilmudfir gidfid. The director's office is new. N6.1 ‘The sequence of nouns in these sdntences are’called construct_phr: Construct phrases are used to express possession or similar relation- ships: /kitdab-ittilm{iz/ 'the student's book", /1éon-ilkitéab/ 'the color of the book'. Construct phrases may be definite or indefinite and always consist of two constituents: (1) the last noun, and (2) the 37 noun or nouns preceding the last. The article can occur only with the last noun; its occurrence (or nonoccurrence) marks the whole phrase as definite (or indefinite). N6.2 F. nouns ending in /a/ always have a special form in construct phrases except when occurring as the last noun; note: /3irka/ and /Sirkit-inndur/, also /$énta/ and /$éntie-issiet/, and /mudarrisa/ and /mudarrist-ilnadrésa/ "the teacher (£) of the school’. This form of f. nouns, with /-it/ (or /-t/ if @ vowel follows and CCC does not result) replacing /a/, is called the bound form. P. nouns ending in /a/ (except those whose form is CVCVCa) have a ‘bound form in construct phrases: /taldmza/ and /taldmzit-ilférabi/. DRILLS , LIST 6.1 saféat watch, hour tarabizdat table car ticket room wallet : 6.1 ahdo-ktéab-ilbint. ‘Here is the girl's book.’ ; Substitute for /kitéab/: alan sizan Santa 6.2 da-ktdab-ilbint-iigidiid, 'This is the girl's new book.’ Substitute for /kitdéab/, using the nouns in drill 6.1, 6.3 kitéab-ilb{nt! da-gdfid. ‘This girl's book is new.! Substitute for /kitéab/, ueing the nouns in drill 6.1. B. Construct phrases: noun + pronoun. da ?élam tilmfiz. , This ie a student's pencil. da 7élam-ittilm{iz. This is the student's pencil. da "alam. This is his pencil. 38 di Séntit site. ‘This is a lady's purse. di B4ntit-issitt. ‘This is the lady's purse. ai Zant{tha. ‘This is her purse. This is my purse (or briefcase). N6.3 Pronouns in construct phrases have a bound form (cf. N5.3). Construct phrases of noun + noun may be indefinite /?élam tilmfic/, or definite /?élam-ittilm{iz/, However, noun + pronoun construct phrases are only definite /?4lamu/. Bound pronouns, like the article, mark a noun as definite. Hence a noun may occur with the article, or with a bound pronoun, but never with both. N6.4 The full set of bound pronouns is given in the following table. Note that there are two groups: Group I has the structure -V(C), and Group II -cv(C). ?4lam aimra I. 1s. ?élami nimi tt 2m 7élamak nimritak 2. 7élamik nimritik 3m ?4lamu nimritu 1.3 f. ralénha nime{tha Lp. ralémna nimrftna 2p. 7alémkum nimrfekon 3p. ?alémhum nimr{thum Table 6.1 N6.5 In the construction noun + pronoun, either the noun or the pronoun, or both, may undergo some change. Remenber that VW does not occur before CC, nor unstressed, and that CCC does not occur. Nouns ending in VC add the pronouns with no changes unless the stem ends in /iC/: /wdagib/, /wagbi/, /wagibna/. Note the shift of stress before Group II pronouns. F. and p. nouns ending in /a/ always have the bound form (N6.2) before pronouns. Note that the £. noun /?oda/ has the bound forms /rast/ before Group I pronouns and /?ud{t/ before Group II. 39 DRILLS “6.4 T: 7élam. 'Pencil.' $11 feen ?élamak. ‘Where is your pencil?! 8): ahéo ?élami. ‘Here is my pencil.’ Continue with the following: Sénat Santa i keeub bédia wéagid Fakfeta steam géema séatiib farabfyya 6.5 7: 7élam. 'Pencil.' : $,: 7élam miin da, ‘whose pencil is this?’ 8): da ?élamu, 'This is his pencil.' Continue with the nouns in drill 6.4. : 6.6- T: ?élam. ‘Pencil.’ 8,1 feon Yaldmkun. "Where te your pencil?" 8p: ahdo Yalémna. ‘Here is our pencil.! Continue with the nouns in drill 6.4. 7 : 6.7 T: ?dlam. ‘Pencil. S,: da ’alémha? 'Is this her pencil?! s gi 1a?. da mi¥ Yalémha. da ?alémhum. 'No, this is not her pencil; this is their pencil.' Continue with the nouns in drill 6.4. GC. Verbs: /katab/-type. kétab he wrote yikeib he writes kétabit she wrote efktid she writes kétabu they wrote yikefbu they write katdbe you (m) wrote efktib you (m) write katébei you (£) wrote tiktdbi you (£) write katdbtu you (p) wrote tiktibu you (p) write katabt I wrote réktib I write . ‘katébna we wrote niktib we write 40 : libis he got dressed yilbis he gets dressed Absit she got dressed tfibis she gets dressed 1fbsu they got dressed yilbisu they get dressed libfst you (m) got dressed t{1bis you (m) get dressed N6.€ /katab/-type verbs (CVCVC stems in the perfect) have CCVC (here CCiC) stems in the imperfect. Note the elision of /i/ in /1{bsit/ (n2.3). N6.7 The imperative forms of these verbs are the same as others (N5.6). 6.8 6.9 However, since words do not begin with CC, /i/ is prefixed: /{ktib/ (m), Hikttbi/ (£), /ikttbu/ (p); /{1bis/, /ilbLsi/, /ilbfsu/. DRILLS LIST 6.2 Verbs déras he studied : kétab he wrote agai he closed, locked sémal he made, did Libis he got dressed, put on nfeil he went (got) down nfsik he took hold of, grasped T: déras. ‘He studied.' S: déras. dérasit. dérasu. 'He, she, they, studied.' Continue with other verbs. T: S4mal wagbu, 'He did his assignment.’ dna. s: tamélt! wagbi. ‘I did my assignment.' T: hémna. S: Sémalu wagfbhum. Continue with other Libis gazmftu. ?éabil sétbu. térgim guml{tu. persons, using the following: mfsik ?élamu. kétab-tlkf1ma. déras-iddérs. Lfbis wi nfzil. 41 6.10 T: léazim yf{Imil wagbu. 'He must do his assignment.’ 4na. S: léazim 74%mil wégbi. 'I must do my assignment.’ 7: hémma. St léazim yitmflu wagfbhun, Continue with other persons, using the sentences in drill 6.9. 6.11 1: Sémal wégbu. 'He did his assignmenc.' S: ?{Tmil w&gbak. 'Do your assignment. 7i0mi1i wagbik. 749milu wagibkum, Continue with the sentences in drill 6.9. D. /héwa/, /nfyya/, /bimme/ as question words. . da-ktdab-ittilmfiz. This is the student's book. da-ktdab-ittilmfi2? Is this the student's book? hiwwa da-ktdab-ittilmfiz? Is this the student's book? inbint? séfrit. The girl left. iibine’ série? Did the girl leave? hfyya-1bint* séfrit? Did the girl leave? ittalémza biyzdkru Sérabi. The students study Arabic. ittaldémza biyzdkru $érabi? Do the students study Arabic? . hémma-ttalémza biyzékru Sérabi? ‘Do the students study Arabic? N6.8 Questions may be formed from statements (verbal with free subjects or equational) by placing the 3rd pers. free pronouns (here used as. question words) before the subject. When so used, these pronouns agree in gender or number with the subject. DRILLS 6.12 .T: ittilmfiz ‘4mal wdgbu. 'The student did his assignment.’ 8: hdwwa-ttilmfiz fémal wagbu? 'Did the student do his assignisent?' Sp: hfyya-ttilmfiza Témalit wagibha? ‘Did the student do her asbigrinent?" héimma-ttalémza fdmalu wagibhum? ‘Did the students do their assignment?! Continue with the sentences in drill 6.9, adding the free subject Jittilmfiz/. 42 : 6.13 hfyya di alam séava Banat maktab gdema B. Numerals before nouns: katébt! kam gawdab, taléata. télat gawabdat. iyyftak? 3-10. ittélat gawabéat dool. dool xémas kitub guddad. dool-ilxdmas kitub-ilgudéad. ilxémas kitub dool gudéad. N6.9 The numerals three through ten have a special form used before nouns. "Is this your car?‘ Substitute: kdtub badla tazdakir burnéeta How many letters did you write? Taree. tifee letters. ‘These three letters, These are five new books. These are the five new books. These five books are new. The counting and pre-nominal forms are given in the following table. The numerals one and two do not have pre-nominal forms; their use with nouns will be taken up wear aune 10 in Lesson 15, Gounting Table 6.2 Pre-nominal télat ae xdmas sitt sdbat téman tisat sé8ar N6.10 The numeral + noun + adjective phrases are either indefinite /xémas kiitub guddad/ 'five new book: ‘the five new books'. » 0x, definite /ilxdmas kitub-ilguddad/ In the definite phrase the article occurs with the numeral and with the adjective, but not with the noun. ‘The numeral and the noun pattern as one constituent, the adjective as the other. 43 N6.11 ‘The question word /kaam/ ‘how much, how many' is always followed by a singular noun. Note that before nouns /kaam/ shortens to /kam/. N6.12 There are a few nouns which have a special p. form used only after numerals. day yoom ?ayyéam télat tiyyéam ; month line thousand ‘The numeral /s{tta/ has the form /sit/, rather than /sitt/, before these nouns: /sit tiyydam/. DRILLS | 6.14 T: dool kam kitéab, ‘Wow many books are these?! xémsa. 8: dool xémas kitub. ‘These are five: books." Continue with the numerals 3-10, using the following noun: kflna sitt simla su%éal réagtt tame fin , bint ?élem ae tlintiz mand{i1 6.15 ittélat kitub dool guddad. ‘These three books are new.' I Substitute for /kitub/, using the nouns in drill 6.14, 6.16 ahémeil?érbal kitub-ilgudéad. ‘Here are the four new books.' a. Substitute in the position of /?4rbat/. b. Substitute in the position of /kitub/, using the nouns in drill 6.14. c. Substitute in either position. N6.13 Stre accent. A study of the examples will vield several generalizations In Lessons 1-6, stress has always been marked by the acute regarding the occurrence of stress. (1) A word never has more than one stress. (2), If a word ends with CC, then the last syllable is always stressed: /katébt/, /fih{mt/, /kallfmt/. (Note that, this . is true even 1f /i/, written above the Line, 1s added: /kallimt* mdfir/. ‘The syllable with raised /i/ is never stressed.) (3) If a word has a 44 long vowel (VV), then this is always stressed regardless of which syllable has the W: /féahim/, /gidfid/, /makéatib/. (Note that a word never has more than one VV, that VV never occurs unstressed, and that a word ending with CC never has VV:) Accordingly the marking of stress can readily be simplified. From here on, stress will be marked by the accent only if the word does not end with CC, and does not have W. Thus stress will no longer be marked on any words similar to the examples given above, but will be marked on words such as /kdtabit/, /mudérris/, /mudarrisa/. SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 6.17 ?imtitidan-ittarfix-issdafa t{sta. ‘The history examination is at : 9 ofclock.' Substitute: on Monday at 1:00 on Thursday at 8:30 on Friday .- on Tuesday afternoon | at 9:45 . on Wednesday at 1:15 on Saturday on Thursday afternoon at 5 6.18 fifsas bésd-iddihr’ séata-w hour and a quarter.’ Substitute: half an hour three hours an hour and a half . "The afternoon classes are one four hours three hours and a quarter an hour and ten minutes LESSON 7 Conversation 14 13. 14. 15. 16. W. 18. ba?aalak ?add” Pee-befaris Sérabi, ba?aali *Adris Sérabi tawaalt sdbat ?asabiit. fawaali télat t63hur bidzaakir Sérabi kam saata fi-lyoom, bazaakir fiawaali télat sa‘aat. bitistéimil-ilyérabi bérra-lf fyva, Yabilt* eiimiiz min mage. héwwa biysat{dni bi-19érabi. wedna basdTdu bi-L?ingilitet. batiaawil Takallfnu bi-1Sérabi. ui hiwva biygawibni bi-1?ingilitet. wiets lib-ilmisri da-by{dris "ee, biyfdris handésa fi-1gémta hina. Yabilt-ittaalib da feen, Yablitu mé%a waatiid sétibi fi-Imaktdba. weinta-btfdris Sérabi lee, simite!-ktiir fan-i1férab wi tarfzhum wi 7adébhun. wi darast* guyrdfyit masr, wi fiaaxud bakaluryoos ?adaab toxdesus dirasaat-18¥ar? walt iddars-issaabit LEARNING ARABIC How long have you been studying Arabic? ie I have been studying Arabic for . about seven weeks. for about three months How many hours a day do you study Arabic? I study about three hours. Do you use Arabic outside of the class? Yes, I have met a student from Egypt. He helps me with Arabic. And I help him with English. I try to speak to him in Arabic. And:-he answers me in English. What is this Egyptian student studying? 2 He is studying engineering here at the university. Where did you meet this student? I met him with a friend of mine in the library. Why are you studying Arabic? I have heard a lot about the Arabs and their history and literature. And I studied the geography of Egypt. T expect to get (will take) a B.A. with a concentration in Middle - Eastern Studies. And next year I am going to visit Egypt and the Arab countries. 20. ta¥aan kfda Laazim 2; For these reasons (hence) I must know Arabic. Gramnar A, More on bound pronouns. da beet-irraagil. ‘This is the man's house. da beetu. ‘This is his house. da bftna. This 1s our house. da dérsu. This is his lesson. da darsina. This is our lesson. da kérsi. This is a chair. da kursit. This is his chair. da kursiina. ‘This 1s our chair. N7.1 The nouns /beet/, /dars/, and /kérsi/ + pronoun illustrate other types of change in stem or pronoun (cf. N6.3-5), The full set of Pronouns with these nouns is given below. beet dare kirei I. ls. beeti darsi kursfyya 2m. beetak dérsak kursiik 2£. beetik dérsik kursitkt 3m. beetu déreu kursii MW. 3£. bftha darséha kursitha Lp. bftna darsfna kureiina 2p. bltkum darsékun kursitkum 3p. bfthum darsdhum kursdihum i Table 7.1 Nouns ending in WC shorten the VV before Group II pronouns. Note that /ee/ shortens to /i/; similarly /oo/ shortens to /u/. ° Nouns ending in CC add a vowel (always stressed) before Group II Pronouns. With the exception of /-na/, which takes /i/, the added vowel is the same as that of the pronoun. Note that /bint/ + pronouns should be translated 'daughter' not "girl". a7 M. nouns ending in V lengthen this V before all pronouns, and Group I Pronouns have different forms. 1s. is /-yya/ after stems ending in /415 after stens ending in any cther V, it is /-ya/: /mabneaya/, /rabunya/. 2m. to /-k/ and 2 £. is-/-ki/. 3m. is marked only by the lengthening - of the stem-final V: /mabnaa/, /abuu/. . Note that /?abb/ ‘father’ and /Yaxx/ ‘brother’ have different stems . before pronouns: /?aku-/, /?axu-/. N7.2 Exemining the nouns which have occurred in Lessons 1-7, you will notice that most £. nouns end in /a/, a few in a consonant: /k{ima/, /sitt/. On the other hand, most m. nouns end in a C, a few ina Vv, 41 ox Jal: Ieitaab/, (kirsis, /nébna/. Hence a noun ending in /a/ may be m. or £. (although most such nouns are f.). Similarly a noun ending ina G may be £. or m. (although most such nouns are m.). From now on, for every noun introduced, the gender will be identified. Nouns ending in /a/ are £.- unless identified asm. Nouns ending in a C are m. unless identified as £, Nouns ending in /i/ ave mj thus /kfIma/, /sitt/ (£), Mkitaab/, /cérei/, /nébna/ (m). \ DRILLS FA LIST 7.1 gawabaat letter : Yaxx, ?uxt (£) Pixwaat brother, sister kdrsi karaasi chair mbna (m) mabaani building ydda (m) lunch dawa (m) Yadwlya medicine saahib astiaab friend © 7.1 Ts beet. Sy: feen beetak. St ahoo beeti. - Continue with the following: bantaloon Jastaab uxt dies mébna mandiil fasl bint abb yada gawabaat ism Paxx déva 48 7.2 73 T: beet. 8): beet miin da, Sy: da beetu. ~ Continue with the nouns in drill 7.1. ‘Tr beet. 81: foon bftkun, 8,2 ahoo bfena. Continue with the nouns in drill 7.1, 7.4 Ts beet. 8,1 héwa da bftha? Sy: la? da mi¥ bith. da b{thum. Continue with the nouns in drill 7.1. 15 fooda-kbiira. intu. S: Tudftkum kibiira, issaate yélya. flgawabaat muhinmtin. B. Verbs: more /katab/-type. ‘understand’ fthim 3m. yftham fdhmdt 3£. ththam + séalit £fhmu 3p. yithému sa?alu fihimt 2m. t{fham satalt fihimes 2£. tiehdmi a7 éled fihimeu 2p. tifhdma sa?éitu fihint 1s. 7éfham sa?alt fih{mna Lp. nffham sa?élna 49 ‘ask’ am 3k. 3p. 2m. 28. 2p. Lp. yfs?al tfs?al yis?élu tfs?al tis7éli tis?élu "enter! déxal am déxalit - 38. -- daxalt 2m N7.3.. The /katab/-type verbs in Lesson 6.¢ all have CCiC imperfect stems. Other /katab/-type verbs have CCaC or CCuC imperfect stems. The CCiC and CCaC imperfect stems are corimon; only a few verbs have CCuC. “The 7.6 Vowel of the imperfect of /katab/-type verbs cannot be predicted and must be learned for each verb. ‘The imperatives are regular (N6.7): /{fham/ (m), /ifhémi/ (£), and /ithému/ (p). Note that verbs with CCuC imperfect stems also have /u/ in the subject prefixes. LUST 7.2“ Verbs batat, yibrat s?al, yfs?al fateh, ylftati ‘Mrif, yitrat sfmit, yfsmat alas, yi7lay T: ff{him dérsu. na. 8: fihime’ déret. T: hémma 8: f{hmu,darsdhum. DRILLS send ask open know hear, listen daxal, ytidxul enter g0 out sit, stay tdlab, yétlub ask for take off, undress Continue with other persons, using the following: bafat gawaab. s4?al su?aal. fateh Zanefeu. sim}-ilmutiédra. 50 déxal wi 7étad. edleb-innfnra. Sirf-ilbeet. Vélat séftu. 7.7 T: laazim y{fham-iddars. na. St laazim ?4fham-iddars. E l i Tr hima. 8: laazim yithému-ddars. Gontinue with other persons, using the sentences in drill 7.6, 7.8 7: fihm-iddars. S: ?{fham-iddars. "1 thémi-ddars. ; Vithému-ddars, Continue with the sentences in drill 7.6, 7.9. laazim niktib-ilgawaab. ; Substitute for /niktib/ using the following: fal nisik batat é déras keémmi i fateh kétab taérgim £ihim 7.10 "iktfbu-Lgawaab. Substitute for /ikt{bu/ using the verbs in drill 7.9. C. Tense prefixes. tamalt! %ee-nbaarifi, What did you do yesterday? katabe! gavaab-inbaarifi. 1 wrote a lotter yesterday. zakirna-mbaarifi. We studied yesterday, bitifmil %ee dilwé?ti, What ate you doing now? békeib gawaab dilwé?ti. I am writing @ letter now. binzaakir dilwa?ti. We are studying now. binzaakir ku1* yoom, We study every day. fatitmil ee bikra, What are you going to do tomorrow? - fidktib gawaab biékra. I am going to write a letter tomorrow. fianzaakir békra. We are going to study tomorrow. a 51 N7.4 The tense prefixes /bi-/ and /fia-/ are used only with the imperfect form of verbs. /tia-/ (future) expresses future or intended action. /vi-/' (non-future) expresses-action in précess (continuous), or regular, repeated, and habitual action. : : Note: ‘bi~ + "éktib = béktib - bis + nfktib = binfkeib - bi + nizeakir = binzaakir (elision of unstressed /i/) bi- + tizaakir = bidzaakir (assimilation of /t/ to /é/) fax + 7éktib = dkeib fia- + nfktib = fdnfktib fia~ + nizaakir = Hanzaakir fia~ + tizdiri = fadzdkri N7.5 The time word /imbaariti/ is used only with the perfect. /dilwa’ti/ and /kul1” yoom/ are used with the imperfect with /bi-/. /oiierza/ is used with the imperfect with /fia-/. : N7.6 Two new types of verbal sentences are also introduced here (cf.-N3.3¥3 verb + (time) complement /zak{rna-nbaariti/, and verb + object + complement /eatabt* gavaab-inbaariti/. : DRILLS : 7.11 Ts biyfomit-iiwaagib kult! yoom. éna. St béfmil-ilwaagib kul1? yoom. Te hom 8: biyitmfluclwaagib kul1* yoom. Continue with other persons, using the following: bétat gawaab. kétab gawaab. simt-{1muhié 1fbis gazmftu. télab-innfmra. vaakir dérsu. déras ?ingiltizt. dérris Sérabi. 7.12 Ti HayLImil-ilwaagib békea. dna. S: fatmil-ilwaagib bukra. ‘Ts hima. . S: tayitm{lu-lwaagib biikra. Continue with other persons, using the sentences in drill 7.11. 52 7.13 Ts Témalit Yee-mbaerifi, kuti! yoom, 8: bitgsmt1 Yee kuti! yoom, ‘ [bile 7 \ S: Hatdimil Yee bier eee : Tr imbaarit, | S: émalit Yee-mbaarif, st Be Continue with the verbs in drill 7.11, 7.14 xerégna-mbearifi. . Substitute: : {net bitre fnew kutt! yon —kémmii sfmis ; Yaakir hiwwa déras éna i a , bétera aiiwé?tt — imbaarit Merit inta ku! yoom hhgmma Lfbis afyya imbaarifi ffina seafir kétab intu biikra D. Active participles of /katab/- kétab-ilgawaab, biyfktib-t1gawaab. hiwwa kaatib, héwwa katb-ilgavaab, hfyya kétba. hima katbiin, imbaariii. biyderug ditwd7 es. hiwwa xaorig dilwé7ti. hiya xérga. hiimma xargiin. ‘type verbs. He wrote the letter. He ie writing the letter, He (is the one who) has written. He has written the letter, She (1s the one who) has written. They (are the ones who) have written. He went out yesterday. He is going out new, He is going (48 about to go) out now. She is going (18 about to go) cut. They are going (are about to go) out. 53 N7.7 he active participle of /katab/-type verbs has the structure CaaciC and is regularly derived from the 3 m. perfect form of the verb. Like adjettives, the active participle is inflected for gender or number: The f. is marlied by /-a/: /kétba, /-iin/: /katbiin/, /xargiin/. Like verbs, the active participle may take an object fwatb-L1gawaab/, or a complement /xaavig dilwd?ti/. . /xéega/; and the p. by The active participle of all verbs except verbs Sf locomotion is used to express ‘the doer of! or ‘the one who has done! the action. Tn meaning, these participles match closely the present perfect: . construction in English. The active participle of verbs of locomotion (like /sxé g/ 'go out", /déxal/ ‘enter) expresses ‘the doer of' or ‘the one who is doing’ or ‘the one-who is about to do' the action. DRILLS” : 7.15 1: $frig. {nei S: firffti. {nti térfa. T: ffina. St Sirffna. fina farfiin. Continue with other persons, using the following: : afmif 1fbis éfhin déras ?éfal saa 7.16 2 Hayddxul. fata, St fatddxul. {nta daaxil, T ffina. St fanddxul, {fina daxliin. Continue with other persons, using the following: nfzil " 54 717 7.18 7.19 T: ?dlat séftu. hfyya. Si 7élavit satftha. hfyya 741ta satitha. Tz hénma. oa P 7élavu saf{thum, hima ?alfiin saf{thum. Continue with other persons, using the following: bétat gawaab, Yémal wagbu. 1fbis s4ftu. déras durwusu, laa Sdmal wagbu wéladéras duruusu. SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS bavaali "ddvis Sérabi tawaali xémas asabiit. Substitute for /xémas asabiit/: 8 weeks 5 months 4 months 6 weeks 3weeks _ 7 months 9 months 6 months 10 weeks 7 weeks minkin t17G11i-ssaafa kaen min fédlak, Substitute for /issaata kaam/: How many classes a week do you have? When are the Arabic classes? How many minutes are there in a class period? How many hours do you study Arabic? When is the physics exam? Where did you meet this student? What is this student studying? How long have you been studying Arabic? What time did you leave?” What is the temperature today? 7.20 mimkin t{?ulitli-ssaata kaam min fédlik, Continue as in drill 7.19, 55 LESSON 8 Conversation PRI 1, Tee-Miikaaya ya ra¥aad. it?axxart’ tee, 2, Yaasif la mu?éxea. it?, fi-nnoom, 3. SaSaan-ilmindbbih bitaati wirif. 4, {mta-rgift’-mn-il?agaaza. 5. rigife-imbaarit, ? éunsil-inbaarit imbarti-is: inbarhi-idduhr imbaarifi bi-11ee1 min Suvdyya 6. fiat{1mil Yee-nnahérda, illileadi 7. Haryuti-ilmaktdéba SaSaen Yazaakir 1i-1?imtifiaan, 8. hiyya-Imaktdba ma? fuula-nnahdrda? 9. 1a?. ilmaktéba maftuufia-lyayt -issaafa xdmsa misaa?an. 10. fiat{ghar-ilteela? 11. dywa. fiazaakir liyayt-issaata wétida sabaatian. 12. imta 7imtitiaanale. 56 iddars-ittaamin ING FOR AN EXAN - What's the matter (story), Rashad? Why are you late? I'm sorry, I overslept. Because my alarm clock stopped. When did you get back from the vacation? I got back yesterday. the day before yesterday yesterday morning yesterday noon last night a Little while ago What are you going to do today? this morning at noon this afternoon tonight I'm going to go to the library to study for the examination, Is the library closed today? No, ‘The library 1s open until 5:00 pom. Are you going to stay up late? Yes, I am going to study until 1:00 a.m. When is your exam? . 13. Vimtifiaan-ittariix bok ~sgubli-issaata taménya. 14. wi 7imtitiaan-ilguyrdéya bikra batd-iddubr. bikra bi-1lee1 batd™ by 2 pata® pai bi-Lleel 15. téyyib, ydlla blina-nruwh ? yadubna faddinaaha. 8,: Tidduuha taani. Continue with the sentences in drill 19.2. 19.4 T: warra-ssaafa-1 salibu. 8, yadubhum warru-ssaata-1 satiibhum. 851 yadubhum warruhaalu. Continue with the sentences in drill 18.16. 156 19.5 T: issaata ba?it watida. zamaanu wisil. ‘ S,: issaata ba?ie watida, zamanha wislit. S)i issaata ba?it watida. cananhum wiglu. Continue with the following: sift ?abithum saafir miki xarag rafal naan rigit kal rikb-il?atr gih 19.6 ag min sateen. zamaanu wisil. inti. S: xaragti min safteen, zamaanik wisilti. T: hunma. 8: xéragu min safteen. zamanhum wislu. Continue with other 2nd and 3rd pers. Repeat, substituting for /wisil/: simif kul fiaaga. tatib. . Saaf-ily xad-il?utubiis. raati-ilbeet. faat Ta-Ibank. Yaabil satibu. B. Verb phrases: Verb I + verb. nisi-yeiib-i3¥anta. “He forgot to bring the suitcase. bitivgaf tituun? Do you know how to swim? mi¥ tayi%dar yiigi. He will not be able to cone. saami miS Yaadir yilfab. Sami is not able to play. laazim yifiaawil yi?ablu. He must try to meet him. Jumraha ma fiatifraf tifuum. She will never know how to swim. N19.2 In this construction of verb + verb, only a limited number of verbs (Werb I, given in List 19,1), or active participles derived from them, can occur in first position. ‘The verb may be perfect or imperfect (with or without tense prefixes). In second position, any verb may occur, but only in the imperfect without tense prefixes. Note that the two verbs have the same subject. This construction may include a modal at the beginning. If the modal has a (bound) pronoun, then it and the subject of the verbs agree in person and number or gender. 157 DRILLS LIST 19.1 Verb I firit 2idir (a) be able fiaawil (a) keep on, continue : Habb faddal prefer nisi ibtada (i) begin 19.7 T: famal-ilwaagib. 8,1 Hawite® titmil-itwaagib? Sp: fawilt. . laakin ma?dirti¥ 7atmilu. 85: niseet ?atmilu. Continue with the following: fatati-i8¥anta. kawa-2¥akitta. wadda-Igawabaat. fadd-i1£i1uus. fadda-ddurg. baaf-ilfarabiyya. bara-1alam. targim-ilgumla. Sirb-iddawa. 19.8 T: Samal-ilwaagib. iz St fiawiltu tifmilu-lwaagib? aad nifmilu. : 8,1 fiawilna. laakin ma?d S,: niseena nifmilu. . Continue with the sentences in drill 19.7, 19.9 ibtada-yzeakir wi ma?dirY!-ykammil. Substitute for /zaakir/: kal katab sammat yanna fara girt kawa fiaka-lfiikaaya daras ?allu fiall-ilmas’ala Yadd-innaas 19.10 tiayfiibbu yiigu walla-yfaddalu mayguu3? Substitute for /gih/: kal dilwa?tt ati dafat dilwa ei yanna seatir rated tara nizl-ilbalad gih naam rikib Yate kallinhum 158 . 19.11 fidlit timli-1yayt-issu Substitute for /mi¥i/: simf-irradyu bassilu kallimni, talab-innimra girt saa? katab Siri ?ahwa baka zaakir daras naada 19.12 ana mi¥ "aadir ?afham tiaaga. Substitute: ‘fina Samal intu ‘fina taal inta simit hiyya talab Sirtd kal inti huwwa sbunma nisi lara 19-13 Sumraha ma Hatifraf tifuum li watidaha. Substitute: inti eth inta ifina saa? ana xarag naan intu tara ana rigit radd* falee — humma zaakir hiyya \- fina katab siti ratad : ©. Derived verbs: /it-/ prefix with /katab/ and /rama/:types. katab-ilgawaab. He wrote the letter. ilgawaab-itkatab. The letter was/has been written. biyikeib-ilgawaab. We is writing the letter. ilgawaab biyitkitib. The letter is being written. : fihm-iddars. He understood the lesson. iddars-itfahan, The lesson was/has been understood. iddars*-byitfihim. The lesson can be understood (is understandable). bana-Ibeet. He built the house. ilbeet-itbana, ‘The house was/has been built. ilbeet biyitbini, The house is being built. nisi-Iikaaya, | ~ He forgot the story. ilfitkaaya-tnasit. The story was/has been forgotten. ilfiikaaya mi¥ fiatitnisi. ‘The story will not be forgotten. s 159 N19.3. Derived verbs with the /it-/ prefix are passive. Although grammatically there is a subject, no agent is expressed. ‘The letter was written by him’ can be expressed in Arabic only by using the simple (active) form of the verb: 'He wrote the letter.’ The form of the prefix is comonly /it-/; however /in-/ also occurs. ‘The vowel patterns of verbs derived from the simple verbs of the /katab/ and /rama/-types are predictable. All perfect stems have the form itCaCa(C) and all imperfect stems itCici(C). All such derived verbs hence belong to the /i/ class, regardless of the class to which the simple verbs belong. The participle of these verbs has the form mitCici(C): /mitkitib/, smitnisi/. However, the passive parciciple of /katab/, /rama/ (and /tiabb/)- type verbs is more conmonly used than the participles of the derived verbs; hence /maktuub/ is preferred to /mitkitib/. DRILLS LIST 19.2 Verbs garali (a) wound itgarati (i) wagat (a) hurt. itwagat (i) sara? (a) steal. itsara? (i) natal (i) transfer dtna%al (i) yalab (1) defeat ityalab (1) expel itfasal (1) imprison ittiabas (1) please itbasat (1) 19.14 Tt fatali-ilbaab. S,t ilbaab-itfatati. Spt ilbdab flayitfitin. Continue with the following: simf-is sara?-il?alam. nada-Lgawaab. Sirf-ilfiikaaya. . Misi-likaaya. bana-Ibeet. fihn-iddars. fasal-ittiimiiz. nala-ddurg. dafat-ilmixalfa. ?afal-iltilba. Yara-lfikaaya. kasar-ilkursi, Samal-ilwaagib. tafa-nnuur. rana-lwéra?a. misk-ilfaraami. 160 19.15 19.16 19.17 19.18 19.19 T: fatati-ilbaab. $11 ilbabeen dool-itgétatu. : $,: ilbabeen dool Hayitfittiu batd -Swayya. Continue with the sentences in drill 19.14. T: Sirb-il?ahwa. S$: il?ahwa di matitSirib3” 7dbadan. Continue with the following: kasar-ilfingaan. nisi-lfiikaaya. libs-i%¥akitta. Hiaka-lfitkaaya. rikb-i1?ai Yamal-ilfiaaga di. T: gératiu. ana. 8, garatiuuni. 8) itgaratit. Tr inti. 81: garativuki. Spi itgaraiti. . Continue with other persons, using the following: b wagat yalab misik wi fabas fasal na?al min mage! 1i-skindiriyya gératiu. ana. 81: Kayigrafiuuni. Sp: mis fatgiriti. Continue with other persons, using the verbs in drill 19.17. + fatati-ilbaab. 8,1 ilbaab maftuuti? Spt la?. Lissa matfatah¥, 83: Hiayitfitif batdeen. Continue with the sentences in drill 19.14, 161 . D. Subordinators. kallimtaha, axuuha gih. I spoke to her. Her brother came. kallimtaha lanma gih ?axuuha. I spoke to her when her brother came. Lanna gih ?axuuha kallimtaha. When her brother came, I spoke to her. tiakallimha. faagi. Iwill speak to her. I will come. fiakallimha ?awwil m-aagi. I will speak to her as soon as I come. fiakallimu. axuu tlayiigi. I will speak to him. His brother will come. fiakallime ?abl* ma yiigi ?axuu. I will speak to him before his brother comes. Yiakallimu ?abl* taxuu ma yligi. I will speak to him before his brother comes. istanni. fiayiigi. Wait. He will come. - istanni lanma yiigi. Wait until he comes. N19.4 Subordinators (cf. N5.4) are uninflected and are used to link two sentences, the second of which must be verbal. If the verb in sentence, is perfect, the verb in sentence, must also be perfect. If the first is imperfect or imperative, the second must be imperfect without tense prefixes. Note that when a verbal sentence with a free subject occurs after a subordinator, the usual order of free subject + verb (N3.4) is commonly reversed: subordinator + verb + free subject. A free subject may also precede the /ma/ of the subordinator. Two different sequences are possible: sentence, + subordinator + sentence, or subordinator + sentence, + sentence, In sentences Linked by the subordinators /abi* ma/ or /nin yer ma/, the verb in sentence, is only imperfect without tense prefixes; the verb in sentence, may be perfect or imperfect. Other subordinators link sentences with verbs in the perfect or the imperfect. Note that /lamma/ is translated either 'when' or ‘until’. Note the elision that takes place if the subordinator immediately precedes a 1s. verb in the imperfect; hence /lamma/ + /?aktib/ is Nann-aktib/, or /?awwil ma/ + /?aagi/ is /?awwil m-aagi/ (cf. N7.4). DRILLS 162 LIST 19.3 Subordinators Lanna vhen, until bata? ma after Tawi ma as soon as saafit ma at the time that liyaayit ma until min yeer ma without abl! ma before 19.20 T: ?areet-ilgawaab. t-ilgawaab. 8 aveet~{lgevaah wi betdeen madeetn, gt bata’ ma Yareet-Llgaveah wadest. ‘ Continue with the following using /batd! ma/: nizl-ilbalad. dafaf-ilmixalfa. (lana) gna. (bad ma) tafit-innuur. naanit. (min yeer ma) katabli. vaddeet falee. (?awwil ma) ilfarabiyya faatit. adda-¥Saari. (?ab1* ma) wa??afni. daffetni-mxalga, (batd* ma) Sadd~ilfiluus,tiatt-ilgiluus fi-ddurg. (1iyaayit ma) baal-ilfarabiyya. saafir. (lamma) salliftu-lfiluus. bana-Ibeet. (1amma) fidbasu-lfiaraami. (min yeer ma) leet-ilgawaab batd® ma ?areetu. ‘Samalna-Iwaagib. In drills 19.21-25, use the subordinator given in the drill and continue with the sentences in 19.20. 19.21 Ts Yareot-tlgawasb. madegteitgawasb $1 ?areet-ilgavaab wi bata! kida madegtu. 8): Yareet-ilgawaab abt mramdii. 3 t-ilgavaab batd! ma ?areetu. 19.22 T: 2areet-ilgawaab. madeet-ilgawaab. $11 Tareet-i1gawaab wi faalan S,t Tawwil ma Yareet-ilgawaab madeetu. Sgt madeet-ilgawaab Yawwil ma ?areetu. 163 19,23 T: "areet-ilgawaab. t-ilgawaab. S,! madeet-ilgawaab laakin ma?arituu. S, madeet-ilgawaab min yeer m-a? 19.24 Ti Yareet-ilgawaab. mgdeet-ilgawaab. jegt-ilgawaab saafit ma Vareetu. -ilgawaab lama ?areetu. 19.25 T: Tareet-ilgawaab. madeet-ilgawaab. manadit¥ - ilgawaab-illa batd' ma Yareetu. mamaditS-ilgavaab lama ?areetu. ou 8): 7 83: B-11gavaab Liyaayit ma ?areetu. mene 19.26 T: Yareet-ilgawaab. madeet-ilgawaab. amma. , S,: madeet~ilgavaab lanma areetu. $5? tiandi-lgawaab lamn-a?raa S51 imdu-Lgawaab lamma ti?ruu. Continue with the sentences in drill 19.20, using the subordinators in parentheses. > SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 19.27 mabyi?dar3* yudxul-ilgamfa min yeer ma y Substitute for /yififaz-ilgur?aan/. study Arabic read the Quran go abroad obtain a certificate go to @ secondary school Pass the exam bring a certificate be transferred to Cairo speak English obtain a fellowship 19.28 fii talat talaaf taglib ?agnabi fi-lganfa. Substitute: 200 Arab students 9 American students 12 French students 16 American students 48 Egyptian students 3500 foreign students 17 German students 70 Spanish students 10 Syrian students 62 Syrian students 164 LESSON 20 iddars-iisiSriin Conversation ‘TWO FABLES 1 Yasad wi diib wi taflab Once a lion, a wolf, and a fox went out together to hunt. 2. i1?asad-istaad yazaal wi ?aal ‘The Lion caught a gazelle and said to li-dditb. the wolf, 3. inta raagil fia??aani. i?sim "You are an honorable fellow. Divide ~ilyazaal binna-fina-ttalaata. the gazelle among the three of us.” fa-ddiib £ wi Taal. ‘and the wolf thought about it and said, xalliina niddi-ttaflab righ. "Let us give the fox a leg, weana Yaaxud rigl. wi-lbaa?i and I will take a leg; the rest is for SalaSaanak. you. Then the lion became angry and attacked the wolf and cut off his head. Then he turned to the fox and said, "I know that you are a just and a wise fellow. 9. i?sim-ilyazaal binna-fina Divide the gazelle between the two of litneen. latisan-ilwaatiid us. For one is hungry and wants to gaat wi faawiz yaakul. eat." 10. fa-ttaflab 7allu. itfaddal ‘Then the fox said to him, "Please eat fiadritak kul lama tidbat. until you have had enough. 11, i11i yifdal minnak yikfiini wi That which is left will suffice for.me -zyaada. and be more than enough. 12, il?asad-istayrab ’awi mi-ttatlab The lion was very surprised at the fox wi-?allu. and said to him, 13. ya salaam. da-nta Taadil min "Do tell! You are indeed just! fia??* wi fia?ii?. 165 14, bass 7ahibd® 7afeat gibt Only I would like to know, where did tonabaaha di-mneen, you get this wisdom?” 15. fa-ttaflab ?aal. iddiib-illi And the fox said, "From the wolf's head which got cut off. 1. marra kaan yuraab waa?if fala Once there was a crow perching on a -w Saayil Hittit latima-£ tree and holding a piece of meat in his mouth. 2, Saafu taSlab. fa tiabb* yititaal A fox saw him and wanted to play a Salee-w yisra?-illafina minnu, trick on him and take the meat away from him. Then he approached him and said, "Good, day. I am delighted to see you \ 4 ilyuraab maraddi¥ Sa¥aan fumu The crow did not reply because Kaan malyaan. his mouth was full. : 5. lamma-tta?lab Saaf-inn-ilfiiila When the fox saw that the first -Lawwilaniyya manifsit , trick did not succeed, he said rallu. to him: 6. Yatiibb” ?ahanniik fala sootak © "I would like to congratulate you -ilbadiit. on your magnificent voice. 7. simiftu-mbaarifi wi Sagabni awi. I heard it yesterday and it pleased me very much. 8. liyya Tandak raga. tismati have a favor to ask of you. tisanmafni-ssoot-ilnalayki Would you please let me hear da taani, this angelic voice again?" 9. ilyuraab-imbasat mi-lkalaam da ‘The crow was delighted with these words wi-tnafax wi-btada-yyanni. and was proud and began to sing. 166 10. fa-Llafima wi?Sit Ta-l! xadha-ttaflab wi miSi-w be fa Yaal Li-lyw LL. biyithayya’li bata? kuti! -fisaab-inn’ Lafimak ?alaze* min Latinak. Gramma: A, Verb phrases: Verb II + verb. gaab-ilkitaab. ati yigiib-ilkitaab. Hayruuli yigiib-ilkitaab. saami xaarig yilfal YaSad kal. Yafad yaakul. biyu?tud yaakul. Sali YaaSid yaakul. N20.1 The meat fell to the ground. NY Then the fox took it, walked away, and said to the crow: "It seems to me after all that your meat is more enjoyable (delicious) than your tune." He went and brought the book. He went to bring the book. He will go to bring the book. Sami is going out to play. He sat down and ate. He sat down to eat/ate on and He is sitting down to eat. Ali is sitting and eating/ is on and on. eating In this construction of verb + verb, again only a limited number of verbs (Verb II, given in List 20.1), or active participles derived from The verb (Verb II) may be perfect or imperfect (with or without tense prefixes). them, can occur in first position (cf. N19.2). In second position, any verb in the perfect or the imperfect without tense prefixes may occur. Restrictions on sequences are as follows: If Verb II is perfect, it may be followed by either the perfect or the imperfect; if it is imperfect or the participle, it can be followed only by the imperfect. Note that the two verbs have the same subject. This construction may include 4 modal at the beginning. If the modal has a (bound) pronoun, then it and the subject of the verbs agree in Person and number or gender. 167 DRILLS LIST 20.1 Verb 12 xatag gih daxal raat ravad nizil witit tilif (a) go up, climb In drills 20.1-4, continue with the sentences in drill 19.7. 20.1 Tt Samal-ilwaagib. 1 Faatiu yifmilu-lwaagib. $1 lee, fina Samalnaa 20.2 T: Sanal-ilwaagib. ait! yitmil~ilwaagib. ana fiaruuhi ?afmilu. 20.3 1 gt aywa, Sali raat yifmilu. g2 1a?. amiira fiatruu titmilu bukra. 20.4 Ts Samal-ilwaagib. 81+ Tanalectivaagib? it” Samaltu-mbaariti. 7afmilu bukra. Sp: Taywa, x : la? Sy: la. far 20.5 intu gayiin tizakru, Substitute, using the verbs in drill 19.9. 20.6 74Sadit timBi-lyayt-issubti. Substitute, using the verbs in drill 19.11. 20.7 daxalna-nkallimeilmudiir, Substitute: Libis Yafal-iddulaab dafat sallim Taleeha zaakir kal Saaf-issaata naam ralat Yabl-Llmudiir 2 sa?al nadaa bs Sirib gaab- 138; 168 20.8 daxalit kallimit-ilmudiir wi xdragit fala yafla. Substitute, using the verbs in drill 20.7. 20.9 humma daxliin yikallimu-Imudiir. Substitute, using the verbs in drill 20.7. B. More derived verbs with /it-/. baal-ilfarabiyya. He sold the car. biyya-tbaatit. The car was/has been sold. He is selling the car. ‘The car is being sold. biytidd-i1¢t1uus, He is counting the money. ilfiluus bitittadd. The money is being counted. iddars-itfassar The lesson was/has been explained. iddars' ayitfassar. ‘The lecson will be explained. fali kallim afimad. Ali spoke to Ahmad. Sali-tkallin. Ali spoke. N20,2 Like derived verbs with /it-/ of the /katab/ and /rama/-types (W193), derived verbs of the /Saaf/ and /fiabb/-types are passive. Note that these four types have simple stems (N14.5). However, derived verbs of the /kallim/, /yanna/, /zaakir/, and /naada/-types (which already have derived stems) with /it-/ may or may not be passive. /itfassar/ is passive, but /itkallim/ is not. /kallim/ can be used only with an object; /itkallim/ is used intransitively. ‘the meanings of these /it-/ derivations are not predictable and must be learned. ‘ Derived verbs with /it-/ of all types except /katab/ and /rama/ have the same vowel patterns as do the forms without /it-/. Further, all of these derived verbs have the same stems in the perfect and the imperfect. ‘They hence belong to Class I (NB.5) regardless of the class to which the forms without /it-/ belong. The participle again has /mi-/: /mitbaat/, /mittadd/, /mitkallim/. ‘The irregular verb /kal/ (N15.2) has a passive with /it-/t perfect /ittaakil/ and imperfect /yittaakil/. 169 DRILLS LIST 20.2 Verbs itma¥a ityadda ittadsa ithassin take a walk have lunch have dinner improve 20.10 tyyatbaatit. 8): ilfarabiyya fatitba Continue with the following: ¥aal-i3¥anta min hina. saab-ilfilba. ~ sadd-ittarii?. fiall-ilmas?ala. Sadd-i1¢iluus. yaaz~il?asad. basat-ilyuraab. 20.11 T: itkallim. S)1 itkallimu mata batd. Sy: itkallimna mata batd. 84: binitkallim mafa bad. Continue with the following: itmaSSa itnaa’is ittad3a ityadda 20.12 T: itkallim, $\1 huwarntu-tkallimtu mata b itnaa’i3 discuss, argue itxaani? quarrel itbalL get wet itxadd get scared kabb-i1?abwa, ball-ilbadla. figtt-ilkitaab Ta-ttarabeeza. nadd-irrangil. Yassis-ilgamta, 7iblu-ttgalib fi-Lgamta. 2atal raasu. itfassati itxaani? itfarrag Ta-lbalad itxarrag aywa, ifina mitkallimiin mata batd Continue with the verbs in drill 20,11. 170 20.13 T2 itkallim. $1 to S): itkallimt* mataa? S): la’, laakin ?ahibb! ?atkallim mataa. Continue with the verbs in drill 20.11. 20.14 Tr itkallim kitiir. inti. St itkallimti-ktiir. Continue with other persons, using the following: itfexxar Yawi. ittiassin £1-1fgrabi. itta’¥im xeer. itwazzas £1-Tukuuma. ittallim $érabi. itxagsas fi-Ikinya, itma8¥a-b surfa. ityaaz minnu, itfassali fi-Ibalad. itbagat minnu, 20:15 Tr itkallim kitiir. $1: itkallimna-keiir. 8,1 binitkallim kitiir. Continue with the sentences in drill 20.14, . Repeat, using 2 p., then 3 £. forms. ©. Intensifiers. : il?alam da mi¥ kuwayyis ?4badan. This pencil is no good at all. magirii¥ bi surta ?ébadan. He did not run fast at all. hhuwwa zaflaan ?awi. He is very angry. huwwa zaflaan ?awi ?awi. He is very, very angry. miSi bi-SweeS 7awi. He walked very slowly. Yabuu yani giddan. His father is very rich. saa? bi surfa giddan. He drove very fast. ilwalad da Saati The boy is extremely clever, wi-ttaani mi¥ Saati xaalis. and the other is not clever at all. iahwa suxna-ktiir. The coffee is very hot. i1?ahwa suxna-Ywayya. ‘The coffee is rather hot. N20.3 Intensifiers are uninflected and occur in construction with adjec~ tives or manner complements, ete a7. /?ébadan/ is used only in negative constructions. The other intensi- fiers may be used in affirmative or negative constructions. matched in English. In meaning, these intensifiers show gradations which are not readily Mawil, /giddan/, and /kitiir/ are roughly equivalent and can be translated by ‘very’. /?ébadan/ and /xaalis/ are more than ‘very', and /Suwayya/ is less. 20.16 20.17 DRILLS ‘T: il?ahwa suxna. 8): il?ahwa suxna-Swayya. So? il?ahwa suxna ’awi. 83? il’ahwa mis suxna ?ébadan. Continue with the following: ilfiikaaya yariiba. iddawa yaali. nasri-piiida. illuya di safba. il?afandi tafbaan. Tr miSi bi-3wee¥ ?awi. 8,2 mamSiik bi-%vee¥ ?awi. Spt mam¥ii¥ bi-SweeS ?ébadan. S,? mi¥ fiayim$i bi-Swee¥ 4badan. Continue with the following: saa? bi surfa giddan. naam kuwayyis ?awi. baka-ktiir giddan. ilgantta-kbitra. itteyyaara sariita, iWakitea wasta. iddinya bard, | ‘Egsoot Taali. itmaS8a Tala mahlu ?awi. it?axxar kitiir Yawi, * biyitxadd’ bi-shuula giddan. 20.18 Repeat drill 20.17, using 3 £, and 2 p. verbs. D, Predicate complements. sammu-lwalad ?atimad. Sayyinus naazir. ‘ayyinuuhum nuzzaar. la?eet-iddurg* faadi. la?eet-iS¥anta fadya. mala-1fingaan mayya 172 They named the boy Ahmad. ‘They appointed him principal. They appointed them principals. I found the drawer empty. I found the suitcase empty. He filled the cup with water. N20.4 A few verbs (given in List 20,3) may be used with an object (noun or pronoun) and a predicate complement (noun or adjective). If the comple- ment is an adjective or a noun of personal reference, the complement and the object agree in gender or nunber. Note that with a few verbs (items (i) in List 20.3) the predicate complement can be only a noun. DRILLS LIST 20.3 Verbs (4) sama (a) ame (44) fiasab (i) reckon, Sayyin appoint intaxab (1) elect : jem laa mala 20.19 T: sammuu ?ism’ $Jrabi. ana, bi. 8: sammuuni ?isné T inti. 8: sammuuki ?isn* 5 abi. Continue with other persons, using the following: Sayyinuu mudarris. famaluu ?ustaaz biyifisibuu Haraamt. la?uu raagil tayyib. intaxabuu mudiir. biyitisibu magri. 20.20 T: sammu-lwalad atimad. 8, ilvalad-itsanma Vatimad. 8): i1?awlaad-itsammu 7atimad. Continue with the following: Sayyinu-Imudarris ?ustaaz fi-lgamfa. fiasabt-issawwaa? Haraamt. i] duki mala-1ilba-fluus. Sémaluer: 20.21 T: sammu-lwalad samiir. 8, ilwalad mitsammi samiir. St i1awlaad mitsammiyiin samiir. Continue with the sentences in drill 20.20. 173 consider SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 20.22 itfaddal kul. Substitut ask ride write enter sign read sit down take speak drink look have supper divide eat cross the street 20.23 ilwaatiid gaat wi Saawiz yaakul. Substitute: is tired, sit read a lot, sleep ask, know is imprisoned, get out study, pass is scared, walk away ; travel a lot, arrive graduate, find employ. ent is late, run is hungry, have supper 20.24 Saawiz 2atzaf gibt-innabaaha di-mneen, Substitute: Why is English important? “ Which is the most important language in Egypt? How many Languages do ‘you know? . How many universities are there in Egypt? Which is the largest university of then? When was Cairo University founded? Why are these people sitting here? Where do you want me to send this letter for you? Which is the oldest Islamic University in the world? How many students are there in Al-Azhar? 20,25 Habbu yititaalu fale, Substitute: . steal the watch from him enter the university approach hin learn the Quran by heart | congratulate her specialize in physics | divide the money among then excuse hinsel pass the exan wait ~ make a big fuss punish him defend her appoint him director 174 . LESSON 21 Conversation L 6. 10. ilgahixa akbar madiina-£ Vifvigya vi-8¥ar?-il?avsat. Yadad sukkanha Hawaali 2arbata milyoon. wi laha ?ahanmiyya tigariyya-w sagafiyya-kbiira ?awi, li ?innaha Hdla?it~ilrite: been-£88ar?* wi-lyarb wi hiyya-Imarkaz-irra?iisi 1i -liukuuma wi-Lhay?aat-issiyasiyya wi-ddiniyya wi-lmuva fi-lgahira gamfaat wi maktabaat wi mataaliif wi ?amaakin ?asariyya wkedir. dagr-ilkutub-ilmasriyya maktaba muhinma, £1iha kutub wi maxtutaat Yadiima ba}daha mi-lgarn-issaabit. wi fitha nusax ?adiima mi-Lgur? bi-lxatt~ilkuusi. ilmattiaf-ilmasri fii akbar magmuuta sgar-ilfarfuniyya fi -1faalam. ilgghirg fiiha Tatiyaa? kitiir minha mast-il?adiima-w magr-ilgidiida wi-zzamaalik. 175 iddars-ilwaatiid wi JiSriin CAIRO Cairo is the largest city in Africa and the Middle East. ‘The number of its inhabitants is about four million. It is of very great commercial and cultural importance, in that it is the link between east and west. It is also the main center of the government, the diplomatic corps, the religious authorities, communications and the press. In Cairo there are also universities and many libraries, museums, and historical sites. The Egyptian Library is an important library, with books and old manu- seripts some of which are from the 7th century. It also has old copies of the Quran in Kufi script. ‘The Egyptian Museum has the largest collection of Pharaonic autiq- uities in the world. There are many sections in Cairo, among them Old Cairo, Heliopolis (New Cairo), and Zamalik. 11. magr-il?adiima fiiha ?amaakin Yadiima 1i-1fibaada min gawaamif wi kanaayis. io rardaul gstith es eat deers Same. suttu miyya wastiid wi 7arbifiin, 14, wi bana-lgaamit wi ?assis ?awwil madiina Sarabiyya-f£ sammaaha-1£ 15, ba?a-smaha-Igahira batd-ilgaa?id gogher ma fatali masr. 16. ilmasaafa been masr-ilgidiida wi ta?eiiban. \ 17. rassisitha ¥irka bal¥ikiyya-t sanit ?alf, tusfu miyya-w xamsa. 18. fadad sukkanha fawaali miit ?alf, wi fiiha ganaayin wasta-w mayadiin, gamiila. ?abu-1hool. 20. ilharam-ilkibiir-itbana tiawaali talat talaaf sana ’abl-ilmilaad. 21. mas! fitha Pehraam kitiir-itbanit TaSaan tikuun ma?aabir li-lfarafna. 22. ilg madiina latiifa giddan i Tinnaha-btigma’ been-i1?adiim wi cIgidiid wi been-i8¥ar?* wi-ly, rt In Old Cairo there are old places of worship, mosques, churches and synagogues. The oldest mosque in Egypt is the Mosque of Amr. Amr ibn al-Aas is the Arab general who conquered (opened) Cairo in ean, built the mosque, and founded the first Arabic city in Egypt and called it Fustat. ‘Its name became Cairo after General Gohar conquered Egypt. The distance between Heliopolis and Cairo is about eight kilometers. A Belgian company founded it in 1905. Its inhabitants number about 100,000 and in it are large parks and beautiful squares. At a distance of twelve kilometers from the center of Cairo.are the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx. The Great Pyramid was built about 3,000 years B.C. In Egypt there are many pyramids, built as tombs for the Pharachs. Cairo is a very interesting city because it combines the old and the new, and east and west. 6 Grammar A. Verb phrases: Verb I + Verb II + verb. fiabb yuxrug yilfab. He wanted/liked- to go out to play. : fiayfiaawil yiigi yismaS-ilmutiadra. He will try to come to listen to the lecture. *axuuya mid Yaadir yiruuhi yigibhum. My brother is not able to go to bring them. laazim yitiaawil yiigi yismat He must try to come to listen to ~ilmutiad: the lecture. N21.1 In the construction of verb + verb + verb, only those verbs identi- fied as Verb I (List 19-1) can occur in first position, and only those identified as Verb II (List 20.1) can occur in second position. Any , verb may occur in third position. Verb I may be perfect or imperfect (with or without tense prefixes), or thé active participle. Verbs in second (Verb II) and third positions can be only in the imperfect without tense prefixes. All three verbs have the same subject. This constuction may include a modal at the beginning. If the modal has a (bound) pronoun, then it and the subject of the verbs agree - in person and number or gender (cf. Notes 19.2 and 20.1). Note that a verb phrase is a construction consisting of one, two, lie or three verbs, or a participle followed by one or two verbs. The construction may include a modal at the beginning. The minimum verb Phrase hence consists of one verb; the maximum is a sequence of modal + verb/participle + verb + verb. DRILLS LIST 21.1 Verbs. 2idir itfassatt : fiabb farrag fiaawil ityadda nisi itmad¥a » faddal simit : 7 Herre tt ug yitfassati. a. Substitute in the position of /fiabb/. b, Substitute in the position of /yuxrug/. c. Substitute in the position of /yitfassat/. 4. Substitute in any one of the three positions. In drills 21.2-7, follow the instructions given in drill 21.1. . 21,2 fianfiibb* nuxrug nitfassati. 21.3 mabiyhibbuu¥ yuxrugu yitfassatiu. 21.4 ana mi¥ Kaabib ?exrug ?atfassal 21,5 yimkin tifiibb’ tu , 21.6 Sumrik ma Kabbeeti tuxrugi titfassatii. 21.7 ya Sali. fathibe' cuxrug titfassal,walla ia”, B. Verb phrases with /laazim/ and /yimkin/. laazim yizaakir. He must study. laazim zaakir. He must have studied. : , laazim biyzaakir. He must be studying. laazim fayzaakir. He will probably study. yimkin ti?rg-lgaweab. She may read the letter. yimkin ?arit-ilgawaab. She may have read the letter. yimkin biti?ra~lgawaab. She may be reading the letter now. yimkin fati?ra~Lgawaab. She may read the letter soon. N21.2 These modals are used without (bound) pronouns and, unlike all other modals, may be followed by the perfect or the imperfect (with or without tense prefixes). Note that, depending on the form of the verb, these phrases have different meanings. In the phrase /laazim/ + imperfect without tense prefixes, either the modal or the verb may be negated: /mi¥ laazim yizaakir/ 'he does not have to study' or /iaazim mayzakir$/ ‘he must not study'. In all other phrases only the verb may be negated. 178 21.8 DRILLS intu nafsaniin, naam. intu nafsaniin, laazim tinaamu. Continue with the following: gih badri. sibirna-ktiir-imbaarifi. naam badri-Lleela. hiyya bardaana. daxal guwwa witifna-ktiir, afad. sa?alhum suaal. radd* falee. hiyya Sawea-tkallimak. faat Saleeha. satti wi?fit. malaaha. ilwdra’a di-btaftak. issite*-btaveu Sayyaana. inta Yaavid hina-ketir. cy misku-Hiaraami. tébasu. saa? bi surfa Yawi. 21.9 Tr geena waxri. ilfaskari~ddaa-mxalfa, S: mi¥ leazim niigi waxri. Continue with the following: fiameeti fannu. siftyit badri. niseetu-Imafaad. miyu-b surfa. da??u fa-Ibaab. ina waxrt. 21.10 T: i1?awlaad mi¥ hina. S: i1?awlaad mi¥ hina. saddeetu-#8¥aarit. xaaf min-ilfaskeri, nizilt-tibalad. cu-1Tilba, dafatt! -mxalfa. déxalit-i1? xarag- laazim xéragu. Continue with the following: giryu-b surfa. xaag. ‘imalifaze mi¥ wayyaaha. nisiiha fi-Lbeet. nagatitu fi~l?imtifiaan. zaakir kitiir. Yamiira magat¥'-1issa. sitiyit waxri. kaanu fi-lbeet. sim?-issoot. 179 biyimSu 1i-1gamta kull* yom. baat § Yaluuli-itkeaya, 7, sha fi-1gurnaal. zeenab mi¥ hina. xarag. i8¥anta mi¥ wayyaahum. sabha fi-lbeet. innuur bitafhun matfi. naamu, maraddits! falayya. masmit¥. 21.11 T: biyruuti-ilmadrasa-zzaay, miSi. S: laazim biyim¥i. Continue with the following: biyruuli-ilmadrasa-zzaay, rikib utubiis. a kutub kitiir. r, ansaawi-kwayyis. atimad fi-lbeet. katab gawaab. daragatha-kwayyisiin. zaakir kitiir. £ihmu-Lmutiad: Sirif Sérabi-kwayyis. maraddit®” Salayya. matrifS* térabi. gih bi-l?atr. matiabbi¥ yirkab tayyaara. maxadit®’ Sarabiyya, mafrif8t-ysuu?. 21.12 T: issama-myayyima. St issama-myayyima. laazim Hatt Continue with the following: alimad Haysaafir. xad Sali mafaa. ilmasaafa-bSiida. raatiu bi-lfarabiyya. ilnasaafa ?urayyiba. midyit. mabyifhand™ abi. targimuulu. faysafru bukra. sifiyu badvi. fal £1 New York. ilmafrad-iltalami. fii-mtitiaan bukra. sihru-lleela. xdragu badri. wiglu fi-Imafaad. ilfiluus mafaa. figttgha £i-Lbank. 21.13 T: issama-myayyima. 8, issama-myayyima. laazim fatma: 8): issama kaanit miyayyima, laazim ma 180 21.14 21.15 Continue with the following: ' ilmasaafa-biiida. ilmasaafa urayyiba. midyit. ilwalad tafbaan. naam li-s: Sali £1 New York. fii-mtifiaan, sihru-lyayt-isgubli. T: issama-myayyima. S: issama-myayyima. yimkin timattar. Continue with the sentences in drill 21.12. Tr feen farabiyyithum. batha. 81: feen St mafrafS. yinkin bafuuha. abiyyithum, Continue with the following: midyu ?awaam lee, itxadd wiglu 7abl-ilmataad lee, gih bi-ttayyaara, feen ?amiira. raati-ilbeet. simfu-Ifitkaaya di feen, ?araaha fi-lkitaab. Safitu feen, Yablu fi-lgamta. managatiuus lee, mazakir¥. magabit¥-ilfilba lee, mala?ahaa. nalibsit8-ilfustaan-il?atinar lee, makawahuuS. G. /illi/-phrases: /ill1i/ + verb/participle. ittilmiiz biyyanni. ittilmiiz The student is singing. The gatibi. student ig my friend. ittilmiiz-illi biyyanni safbi. The student who is singing is my friend. da tilmiiz biyyanni kull* yom. This is a student who sings every day. il?afandi laabis Yakitta The man is wearing a white jacket. Yabilt-iltafandi, I met the man. Yabilt-i1?afandi-11i laabis I met the man who is wearing a Zakitta beed white jacket. Yebite! rafandi laabis Yakitta I met a man wearing a white jacket. beeda. 181 4 | N21.3_ A verb phrase or a participle may be used as an attributive of a noun (phrase). I£ the noun is definite, the verb phrase or participle must be Preceded by /illi/; if the noun is indefinite, /illi/ is omitted (ef. N9.2). 21.16 21.17 21.18 21.19 DRILLS + ittilmiiz fiall-ilmas?ala. Sy fii tilmiiz fiall-ilmas?ala. 8: feen-ittilmiiz-illi fiall-ilmas?ala. Continue with the following: biyaaxud fdrabi. ~ nisi yifmil biyitrag -ilwaagib. abi. $4 sallifni-ktaabu, biyHibb yitfallim Sérabi. Tr ittilmiiz Hall-ilmas?ala. $1! fii talamza fallu-Imas?ala. 8): feen-ittalamza-11i tiallu-Imas?ala. Yaab yumeen, baat-ilfarabiyya. kallim-inni biyitraf yituun. Continue with the sentences in drill 21.16. : Ti ittilmiiz tay: S)} fi tilmiiz fay: 8): fii tilmite raayit $4: feen-ittilmiiz-illi raayi masr. Continue with the following: fiaysaafir buk: xad Yérabi. sallifni-ktaabu. biyliibb yieTallim férabi. ?dir8* yigham. T: Lttilmiiz fayruwh masz. 8): fii talanza fayruutiu masz. 8): fli talamea x: nafrif8*-yrudd* ta-ssu?aal. ?afad yitkallim. biyxaaf mi-1?imtitiaan. biynaam wi-y?uum hina. itfayyin ?ustaaz. 8, feen-ittalamza-11i rayliiin masr. Continue with the sentences in drill 21.18, : 182 : 21.20 T: fii 81: fii bint* bityanni. aagil biynaadi, ‘1bint* yannit. 8): miin-ilbint-illi bityanni. 2 Continue with the following: issitt’ da?7it Ta-lbaab. iLustaaz darris § 1 darab-ibnu. ilxaddaam fatati-ilbaab. iL?agnabi-tkallim il?awlaad-itxan?u. ittilmiz 2a D. The quantifiers /muSzam/ and /batd/. am-ittalamza yaybiin. bafd-innaas yifrafuu. bafduhum yitrafuu. fii bad? naas yitrafuu. N21.4 Quantifiers are uninflected or (bound) pronouns. Note that Most of the students are absent. Most of them are absent. Some of the people know him. Some of them know him. ‘There are some people who know him. and occur in construction with p. nouns A V/ does not occur before indefinite nouns or noun phrases. DRILLS 21.21 Ti ittilmiiz fiall-ilmas?ala. $11 mufzam-ittalanza allu~Imas?ala. Jambum fiallu-1mas?ala. juhum fallu-Imas?ala, Laakin muzamhum matial luhaa’. Continue with the sentences in drill 21.16. Tr ittilmliz fayruult mase. $1: bafd-ittalanza fiayruutiu mast. Spt bafdubum 83: Continue with the sentences in drill 21.18. xe rayfiiin. 183 21.23 Tr itbine’ yannit. 8, bafd-ilbanaat yannu. a S): laakin mufzanhum mayannuuy, Continue with the sentences in drill 21.20. N21.5 Alternative plural constructions. In addition to the p. forms and constructions used thus far, with p. nouns of nonpersonal reference the £. forms of adjectives and demonstratives, and the 3 £. forms of verbs may be used. Hence /fiiha ganaayin wasYa-w mayadiin gamiila/ or /fiiha ganaayin wasTiin wi mayadiin gundal/; similarly /ilkutub-il?adiima-tbaafit/ or /ilkutub-il?udaam-itbaatu/. SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS 21.24 fiiha ganaayin wasfiin kitiir. Substitute: large universities old manuscripts old museums small pyramids new sections old places of worship beautiful squares religious leaders \ old copies of the Quran large companies fe wide streets technical schools experimental colleges teachers‘ institutes 7 21.25 miin-lgag?id-ilférabi-11i fatali masr. Substitut the American professor who taught Arabic the Arab general who founded Al-Azhar the Pharaoh who built the great pyramid the French general who founded the Egyptian museum The Caliph who turned Al-Azhar into a university the American professor who specialized in Egyptian history the police officer who made him pay a fine the Egyptian student who knows four Languages the first man who flew from New York to Los Angeles the first woman who graduated from the’ University of Cairo 184 ‘LESSON 22 Gonversation 1i-3¥amaal. wi-byis?i-blaad kitiir ?abl> ma-ysubb! £i-Ibatir-il?abyad -ilmutawassit. lismniil farfeen. inniil-il?; wienniil-il?aera?. inniil-il?abyad biyigri min butieerit Victoria, wi-nniil -il’azra? min gibaal Tasyubya. ilfarfeen dool biyigtimfu gamb -ilxartuun fi-ssudaan. 10. li. tittle nugs* miil. fii a-nniil sadd*-£ Yasvaan wi fadad min-{l?anaatir li -ttatiakkun £1 garayaan-ti ayya. fawaali xamastaa¥ar miil Samal ~ilgahira-byitfarrat-inniil 1i farfeen, gart* biysubp’ dunyaat ganb! boor safiid, wi ra8iid gonb-iskindiriyya, iddars-il?itneen wi i8riin THE NILE T The Nile is the largest river in Africa and one of the longest in the world. It begins in central Africa and runs from south to north. It waters many countries before it flows into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile has two ‘tributaries, the White Nile and the Blue Nile. The White Nile runs from Lake Victoria and the Blue Nile from the mountains of Ethiopia. These two. tributaries join near Khartum in the Sudan. The width of the Nile in Egypt is between 1/3 and 1/2 a mile. There is a dam at Aswan and a number of barrages on the Wile to control the flow ‘of the water. About fifteen miles north of Cairo the Nile divides into two branches. One branch flows into the sea at Damyetta and the other at Rosetta. Damyetta is near Port Said and Rosetta near Alexandria, 185 12. iskindiriyya-w boor satiid wi ~ssuvees ?ahanm’ mawaani mast 2 been-ilfarteen-ismaha -ddilta aw wagh’ batiri. 14. di araadi ziratiyya xisba giddan. 15. min ?ahamn® mudun-iddilta 16. ganuub-{igshira manti’a zirafiyya Ateen-inniil d Yaw wagh® dayya?a Sala di ribli. 17. Yahanm’ mudun-isgaSiid-ilinya-w Zasyuut wi ?ina-w 2aswaan. 18. ganb* ?ina madiina tarixiyya ~smaha lu?sur fiiha maTaabid farfuniyya Yadiima-keiir. 19. bixlaaf-issaafid wi-ddiita mafii¥ ~zraTiyya. 20. fa tisfiin fi-Imiyya min ?araadi masri matislaht’ 11-ceiraata-w ?aktarha safira. safira-btimtadd’ min waadi -nniil liyayt-ilfivduud 1i-Imayrib. 7. biyiftary batd-ilmayrib, wi -byistiu ?abl-ilfagr’ SaSaan yaklu-ssutuur. 8. fii raggil biyfuut Sa-nnaas yigatitidihum 1i-seutiu 9. irrukn-ilxaamis-ilfige. 10, iImustim-illi yi?dar talee-yruu iMfigaaz yitiige'-£ ¥ahr-ismu zi-liigga. 11, fi Yayyaam-iltiigg-ilmuslimiin min bilaad kitiir biyigtimtuew biyibtiasu-£ masalitihum ~ilmu¥téraka. 12, wi biyzuuru-1?amaakin-ilmu?addasa. 13. li-Imuslimiin talat ?atyaad diniyyiin, iddars-ittista-w fikriin ISLAM IT The third pillar is tithing. It is required of every Muslim to give of his possessions to the Poor and the needy. The tithe is distributed at the end of Ramadan. The fourth is fasting. It is required of every Muslim to fast during the month of Ramadan. Those who fast neither eat nor drink from dawn to sunset. They break the fast after sunset and get up before dawn to eat the last meal before the fast. A man calls on the people to wake them up for this meal. The fifth is the pilgrimage. It is required of the Muslim who can to go to the Hijaz on a pilgrimage ‘during the month called Higga During the days of the pilgrimage, Muslims from many countries gather to discuss their conmon interests and to visit the holy places. The Muslims have three religious holidays. 251 ea 14, i19id-i1%aweil bata? Sala tual, wi biysanmuu-1fiid ~issuyayyar. 15, ilfiid-ittaani-f£ ?aaxir zi-lfigga. wi biysammuu-Lfiid-ilkibiir, 16, wi-lfiid-ittaalit muulid-innabi mutiannad. 17, ilmuslimiin biyitbafuessana -Uhigriyya-£ ?atyadhum. 18. issana-lhigriyy: zayy-issana-1miladiyya. 19. laakin yoom. 20. issana-lhigriyya-btadit fi sanit suttu miyya-tneen wi SiSriin, 21. lanma haagir mutianmad min makka lislmadiina. 22. ifina dilwa?ti-¢ sanit ?alf, tustu miyya xamsa-w sittiin milaadi. wi Yalf, taltu miyya 2a tamaniin higri. Grammar A. More subordinators. kul madaamak gutaan, miS fiaruyti madaam-iddinya nnubun Sayyantin. nogaat maNinni 7ultilu -Witkaaya. magaa¥ 1i ?inn’ £ii Yagaaza ~mmah The first is right after Ramadan and is called "The Little Holiday". The second is at the end of the month Higga and is called "The Big Holiday". The third is the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. : Muslims follow the Muslim (A.H., Higra) calendar for their holidays. ‘The Muslim year, like the Christian (A.D., Nativity), has twelve months, but is eleven days shorter. The Muslim calendar begins in 622 ADey when Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Madina. It is now 1965 A.P., and 1384 A.H. Eat, since you are hungry. 1 am not going to go because it is raining. They came although they were sick. He did not come although I told him the story. He did not come because there is a holiday today. ‘ 252 N29.1 The subordinators /nadsam/ /mat-inn/, as well as /1i ?inn/ "because! and /ka Yinn/ ‘as if' are also used to link two sentences. The second may be equational, verbal, or a /£ii/-sentence (cf. N24.1). These subordinators must be followed.by a noun or a bound (but not @ free) pronoun if the second Seatence is equational or verbal. DKILLS 29.1 Tr kul. inta gufaan. : 8): kul, iza kunt” gutaan. Sy: kul madaamak gufaan, Continue with the following: u?fudi. inti tafbaana. udxulu, intu bardaniin, laazim tistatgil. hiyya mit?exxar laazin yises: fianitfassai itina fadytin. fanimSi. hunma maSyuliin. ifina mal iin. intu mafaana. i3vab. inta fat¥aan. matxafS. ana hina. fayintixbuu. huwwa ?atisan waatiid fiihum, 29.2 T: zaakir kuwayyis. nagati. 8: nagati madaamu zaakir kuwayyis. St nagali 1i ?innu zaakir kuwayyis. Continue with the sentences in drili 24,1, 29.3 magaaS. ultilu yiigi, 5,1 magaa¥ maf~inni 7ultilu yiigi. S)t maf-inni ?ultilu yiigi, magaay. Continue with the following: istafiamma fi-lbatir. iddinya bard. istanninaahum. it?exxeru, ifitaalu Sa-rvaagil. irraagil nabiih. huwwa yaltaan. 253 o{ itbasatna. irritila taviila, ityaddit. kaan fii naas kitiir hinsak. Yamaluu mudiir. fali ?atisan minnu. ityarragti Yablaha, déxalit-ilgamfa ?ablik. séra?u kull! fiaaga. ilbuliis kaan waa?if. i¥téyalit wari. kaanit tafbaana, 29.4 T: Samalna. maSufnaa¥ tiadd. S: Samaina ka ?innina maSufnaa¥ tiadd. Continue with the following: faysallin faleeha. biyifrafha min zamaan. miSyit Sala mahlaha. mi¥ mit?, rigif. Sumru ma saab. Samiltu. huwwa-bnukum. it?ébalu, maTamaluud fiaega. Vamalti. mafii¥ faaga x diri-b kul’ fiaaga. kaan hinaak. igtayrabu. fumruhum ma simfu-ltiikaaya abl‘ Kida. B. Derived adjectives. irtgagil da min masr. This man is from Egypt. . huwwa masri. He is an Egyptian. Samu biyzuuru kul! ¥ahr. His uncle visits him every month. ziyagrit Samu Sabriyya. His uncle's visit is monthly. da markaz li-ttigaarg. This is a center for comerce, da markaz tigaari. This is a commercial center. Sali min Ali is from Tanta. huwwa tantaawi. He is a Tantan (from Tanta). i88a?%a-11i foo? kibiira. ‘The apartment above is big. i88a??a-1fu?antyya-kbiira, The above ‘apartment is big. ¥29.2 Adjectives may be derived from nouns and from Group IT prepositions (list 9.1). Nouns ending in a consonant add /=i/; £. nouns ending in /a/, drop the /a/ and add /-i/. Nouns ending in a vowel (especially place names) lengthen it and add /-wi/. Note that the final vowel of /sana/ and /Sita/ is not lengthened: /sénawi/ ‘annual' and /Sitwi/ 'wintry'. 254 : Some adjectives or origin (derived from place names) have /-ni/ rather than /-wi/: /Yamriika/, /"amrikaani/, and may exhibit other irregular- ities: /iskindiriyya/ ‘Alexandria’, /iskandaraani/ ‘Alexandrian’. Group II prepositions lengthen the final vowel and add /-ni/; prepo- sitions ending in a consonant add /-aani/. Note that /yara/ lengthens the /e/: /yarraani/. The £. and p. forms of most of these adjectives are regular. ‘The £. adds /-yya/ and the p. /-yyiin/. Adjective of origin warrant special attention. (1) The p. forms of , many are irregular: /?amrikaan/, /Sarab/. (2) They are inflected for sender only with nouns of personal reference; with other nouns they show no gender agreement: /raagil masri/ and /sitt' masriyya/, but /beet i/ 'an Egyptian house’ and /siggaada masri/ ‘an Egyptian rug'. DRILLS 29.5 Tt irraagil da min st 2 T: min-iskindiriyya, S: irraagil da-skandaraani. Continue with the following: min ?amriika min faransa min tanta min Libnaan min ?asbahya min-i33aam min 1u?sur min ?ina min-ilminya min bayruut, : min tuunis min-i1?urdun min-i8¥ar? min-ilyarb 29.6 T: issitt’ di min mage. S: issite’ ai magriyya. Continue with the phrases in drill 29.5. 29.7 Tt iddurg-i11i foo? faadi. 811 {ddurg-i1fu?aant 8): iddizaag-ilfu?aniyyiin fadyiin. 255 Continue with the following: ilbaab-illi vara maftuuti. ilbaab-illi 7uddaam ma?fuul. s-illi tatit ?utn. il?eoda-Lli barra dayya?a. 1i guuwa wasfa. i88a?%a-11i foo? kibiira. 29.8 T: da markaz. li-ssiyaasa. S,: da markas siyaasi. 8, luh ?ahanmiyya siyasiyya, 2 Continue with the following: Li-ttiga li-ssaga: L-Lfamal li-rri?aasa —Li-1fann Li-ttariix li-ttadriib Li-ddiin li-ttatliim 1i-L?asaar Li-nn: Li-L?islaam — Li-lgawy li-lgamta li-lkahraba li-lfalsafa — 1i-Tiukuuma li-Lvaskar li-Imadrasa 1i-1silm 1i-LSaalam Li-Ladab li-ddirgasa 29.9 T: Sammu biyzuuru kul! izeiyaara ¥ahriyya. , Continue with the following: . 2 ay Sandu “agaaza kull! sana. il?agaaz biyaaxud ?ugra kull! yoom. 41% daxal gism-ilfuluum. ilgisn. illatin'-byitgib-ilfarab. illatin. tigaww! yislak li-ddiraasa. ilgaw. ilfustaaz biyhitbb-iltia??, i17ustaaz. Yanna-b soot-{imalayka. iggoot. €. Collectives. iddiini wara? ?abyad Give me some white paper. - iddiini wara’a beeda. Give me a piece of white paper. iddiini-lwara’teen-ilbiid. Give me the two pieces of white paper. iddiini talat wara?aat biid. Give me three pieces of white paper. 256 : PEERS SHEH iddiini-Svayyit vara’. Give me a little paper. iddiini wara? kitiir. Give me a lot of paper. i8tareet s iddiini fittit s I bought some sugar. Give me a lump of sugar. Give me this lump’ of sugar. N29.3 In addition to s., d., and p., some nouns have a collective form. ‘The collective ie inflected for definiteness only and, like p. forms, may be used with the quantifiers /Suwayya/ and /kitiir/. In other constructions the collectives pattern like s. nouns.. A few collectives end'in /-a/ and are £.3 most are m. S. forms (conventionally called nouns of unity) may be derived from collectives with the suffix /-a/; s. forms so derived are all £. and are fully inflected. From a few collectives, Like /sukkar/, s. forms are not derived. These collectives are used in construction with nouns such as (eitta/, Mitat/ 'piece(s)' or /lu%ma/, /lu?am/ 'mouthful(s) or bite(s)’. Note that most s, nouns are not derived from collectives. thus Mkitaab/, /valad/, /oint/, and /Zanta/ are s. and have no corresponding collectives. DRILLS LIST 29.1. Gollectives wara? wara?a wara?aat Paper beed beeda bidaat eee samak sémaka samakaat fish burtu’aan —_burtu?aana burtu?anaat orange mooza muzaat banana futaaya / it, 2utayaat tomato Segara tree tiffaatia tiffatiaat apple Hittite gukkar — Hitat sukkar sugar Hittite Latina fittat Latina vtieat lu’mit teed lu?am fee bread fabbit Sinab Hebbayaat Tinab grape 257 29.10 S|: iStareet kam wéra’a, 8y: i¥tareet tal it wara?aat. 7 832 i¥tareet wara? kitiir. Continue with the following: : b mooz burtu?aan samak tiffaat 29.11 T: da wara?. 81! da wara? kibiir. 8)! di wéra?a-kbiira 83: dool talat wara?aat kub: Continue with the nouns in drill 29.10. 29.12 T: ilwara? ilmooz x 8): ilmuzteen dool xisru Continue with the nouns in drill 29.10. ilmooz. SUPPLEMENTARY DRILLS . : 29.13 i1?islaam mabni Ta-lgur?aan. Substitute: Islam, the Law the economy, commerce the economy, agriculture religion, faith religion, good works life, good relations among men life, religion Christianity, the Bible grades, final exams physics, mathematics 29.14 biyfallim-ittglaba famal-ilxeer. Substitute: Kufi script religious subjects to drive cars mathematics Islamic Law to write letters military training political science prayer philosophy engineering Arabic literature religion to read the Quran independence : to help the needy the use of th- project the use of reference books 258 29:15 raasi-btivgafni. Substitute: ny foot my hand her head your (m) hand your (£) foot fay mouth * . . his head her mouth a hic hand her foot : 29,16 ana mabsuut-inni nagatit. substituts waited she we we agreed with him didn't lend him money consulted hin I graduated they learned it by heart were accepted welcomed hin stopped found him 29.17 inta¥er fi-Lgern-ittZamin milaadi. Substitute: 10th century Ast. in the middle ages 12th century A.D. Ast century B.C. 20th century A.D. in 632 A.D. in 1859 A.D. before the Arab conquest in 1232 A.B. after the conquest of Egypt ‘ 10 years ago Sth century B.C. : 29,18 huwwa akbar minni-b sana, Substitute: 2 years 11 months 8 years 29 days - "12 years 2 weeks 3 months 6 months 5 days 7 weeks 29.19 biyitxassasu bi-Lluya-lfarabiyya. Substitute: the English Language physics medicine the French Language the arts religious subjects 259 }/ the sciences engineering the German Language history geography scientific subjects LESSON 30 iddars-ittalatiin Conversation YOU CAN'T PLEASE EVERYONE 1. kaan fii -reag wayya There was once a man who left home with sbnu, wi kaan wayyaahum his son, and they had a donkey with tunaar. them, 2, Yaam-irraagil ?aal 1i->nu. So the man said td his son, "You ride irkab-ilfumaar ya-bni. en the donkey, ny son. 3. Taam-ilwalad 7aal.l-abuu. 1a?. The boy said to his father, "It is mi maf?uul ?arkab, Li ?inni impossible that I ride, because I am gadat w-inte "abuuya. a young man and you are my father. 4, itfaddgl-irkab ?ab1* markab ana. You must ride before I do." Yaan-il?abb* Yaal. irkab-inta ya But the father said, "You ride, my -bni, ana ?arkab lama nirgat son. I willl ride when we return, Sa¥aan mat abs. so chat I won't get tired." 6. fa sim?-ilwalad kalaam ?abuu-w Whereupon the boy ubeyed his father \ rikib. and mounted. - 7. wi miSyu. ilwalad raakib wi So they went along, the boy riding ~1abb* naa¥i fala riglee and his father walking beside ganbu. hin, 7aamu Safuuhum naas faytiin Some people passing by saw them and wi Taalu, Yee da, mi¥ feeb said, "What's this! Aren't you ya gadat? ashamed, young man? Yuum-inzil vi xalli 7abuuk Get down and let your old father -ilfaguuz yirkab. ” ride." 10. ilvalad ba’a maksuuf giddan. The boy was very ashamed, dismounted fa nizil wi rakkib Yabuu-w and made his father ride while mii huwwa fala riglee. he walked. : 11, batd’-wayya-zyayyara gum 1i After a little while, they cane ~Bwayyit niswaan. upon a few womens 260 12. wi fi-lfiaal-inniswaan ‘aalu. _ya salaam fa-1?abb* da. maluu3 ?alb* wala Séga’a. 13. ixg! taleek ya raggil. tirkab ~ilfiunaar wi-txalli-bnak ~{lmaskiin yittab? flargam Saleek. : 14, Yaam-irrgagil ?aal”1i-bnu. irkab war nirkab sawa ?afisan. 15. ya dubhum rikbu Habba, illa-w ¥afuuhum-itneen ?afandiyya. 16. Yaame ?aalu. mi¥ fiaraam tirkabu intu 17, yalla. waatiid minkum yinzil faalan, walla niddi xabar li-lbultis. nizlu min £007~ifi 19. wi fidiu ma¥yiin sawa fala rigleehum, wi-ltumaar maaSi adi, 7uddamhun 20. liyaayit ma gum 1i-Swayyit talamza-mrawwafiiin-ilbeet ?axr-innghaar 21. aamu dool difiku-w ?aalu. amma ¥ee? yariib. 22. innaas ma¥yiin fala ‘rigleehum tafbaniin, wielfumaar mai Yuddambum mabsuut. ya ya-bni. xalliina at once the women said, "What kind of a father is this! He has no heart nor pity. Shame on you! You ride on. the donkey and let your poor son get tired. Haye you no pity?" So the man said to his son,’ "Mount up behind me, my son. It's best that we ride together." They had just ridden a short while when two gentlemen saw them and said, "Is it not a disgrace for both of you to ride on this poor donkey? Come now. One of you get down at once or else we will tell the police.” Whereupon they got very scared and dismounted from the donkey. ‘They kept on walking together, with the donkey going ahead of them unioaded, until they came upon a few students going home at the end of the day. They laughed and said, "What a strange thing! The people are tired and walking, and the donkey walking happily ahead of then. 261 2h. 25. 26. Mount up you fools:" fa-rragl-iltafat 1i-bnu-w ‘The man turned to his son and said, ?aal.. valla ya-bni ana "By golly, my son, I don't’ know ott what to do. 7 Hanifmil Ye fi-nnaas dool-illi What do we do with these people who mi¥ faweiin yisibuuna-f fialna. will not leave us alone. : rakkibtak fi-1’awwil, wi lamma At first I let you ride; and when -rkibt~inta watidak, makanuuS you rode alone, they were not mabsuti : happy. 27, nazziltak wi-rkibt-ana wafidi, 1 made you dismount, and I rode by ba?u eaSlaniin. myself. Then they became angry. 28, rikibna-tina Litneen sava, Then both of us rode together, and mafsgabhun¥-iHiaal. . this did not please them either. 29. wi lama-nzi'Jna-w maS¥eena And when’ we dismounted and let the ditiku Taleena. donkey go free, they laughed at us. 30. Sawzinna nifmil %ee afd’ kida. What else do they want us to do? : : Let the donkey ride on us? 31. aadi fiaal-iddunya. illi Taawiz Thus it is with the world. He who : yibsit-ilkull, yizaftal wants to please everyone, displeases -ilkull, . everyone, 32, laakin fala ra?y-ilmasal. ifmt1 As the proverb says: Do your duty vilwagb-illi Saleek, wala and pay no attention to hat tistald-£ kalaan-innaas. people say." Grammar A, Numerals after nouns. ittalat kutub dool bituufi. These three books belong to me. ilkutub-ittalaata dool bituufi. ‘These three books belong’ to me. ilgamagtaa¥ar kitaab dool These fifteen books belong to bituuti. me. ilkutub-ilxar These fifteen books belong to bituuri. me. ’ 262 témanu xamsa-gneeh. iddiini-Lxamsa-gneeh dool. iddiini-1ginihaat-ilxamsa. Its-cost is five pounds (money). Give me these five pounds. Give me the five pounds. N30.1 Numerals may be used after as well as before nouns. numeral + noun, three through ten have different (pri In the construction nominal) forms, and the moun is s. if the mumeral is eleven or higher. If the construction is definite, only the nunéral has the article (ef. Notes 6.10 and 12.3), However, in the construction noun + numeral, the counting forms of all mumerals are used and the noun is p, with all numerals from three on. This construction can be only definite, and both the noun and the numeral must have the article. Numerals with nouns of measurement and money require special attention 4 the numeral precedes. the counting (not pre-nominal) forns are used, and the noun is 8. with all numerals including two; these nouns are not commonly used with the'd. suffix, In all other details these coristruct- ions are the same as those with other nouns. DRILLS 30-1 Repeat the following drills, using the construction noun + nuneral: 6.15-16; 12.125 12.14, 30.2 tuulu xamsa kilumitr. Substitute: 5 meters 20 kilometers 12 kilometers 15 meters 20 meters 9 kilometers 2 kilometers 87 meters 100 meters 111 meters 30.3 tdmanu sitta-gneeh. Substitute: 1B 10 LE 7 Lz 19 LE 76 LE 5 1/2 LE 153 1/2 LE 100 Le 2 LE 1500 LE 12 263 B. Alternative negative constructions with free pronouns. ifina fabmiin, We understand. ifina mi¥: fahmiin. . We do not understand. natinaa¥ fahmiin, We do not’ understand. huwwa zaflaan. He is angry. huwwa miz 2aflaan. He is not angry. mahuwwaaz, za$laan. He is not angry. N30.2 In addition to the use of /mi3/ to negate equational sentences with free pronouns as subjects, /ma- -8/ may be used with the pronouns. The forms of the pronouns so used are given in the following table. huwwa mahuwwaa’ hiyya mahiyyaa’ : hunma _. Mahumnaas inte manta’ inti mantii® intu mantuuy ana mandi tina natinaa’ Zable 30.1 DRILLS 30.4 Repeat the following drills, using alternative negative constructions: 5.57, 9-103 10.6; 16.3, 30.5 Repeat the following drills, using alternative plural constructions (21.5): 46-125 5.3-4, 85 641-33 8.1-6, 10-115 9.5, 16; 21.243 23.13: 24.103 25.15; 29.7. 264 OUTLINE REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF CATRO ARABIC This Reference’ Grammar is a brief statement of the, grammar (phonology, morphology and syntax) of Cairo Arabic. Except for phonology, the coverage is Limited to-the contents of the grammar notes in the preceding lessons. Phonological’ details are here provided because they were not incorporated in the grammar notes. A word of warning may ke in order. Cairo is a large metropolis of some 4,000,000 population. As in any such area, variation in speech can be observed. The transcription in this book reflects what can fairly be described as the prestige usage of the majority in everyday situations. It will be so recognized and understood by all Cairenes, and by most speakers i Sf Arabic, however much or little their speech may deviate from it. 4 superimposed standard, Modern Standard Arabic, is recognized by all speakers of Arabic. Borrowings from Modern Standard Arabic and reshaping of forms and constructions under its influence may result in "exceptions" to some of the statements in this Reference Grammar. Thug unstressed long vowels (2.2-3 below) and nonelision of unstressed /i/ (2.6) may be observed, \ Among other differences, /?/ in some words may be replaced by /q/; for example, in more formal contexts, /?ism/ 'section' may occur as /gism/. PHONOLOGY 1, Consonant: Labial Dental Palatal Velar _Uvul. Pharyngeal Glottal ‘Stop > a t : Sone f gE 7 i fH Nasal m n id Lateral 1 e il r Glide w y 265 é 1-1 Consonant sounds. Some of the consonants of Arabic are similar to those of English and present no pronunciation problem for speakers of English. ” This is true of most of the labials,'dentals, palatals, ‘velars, and glottals. However, some of these and all of the uvulars and pharyngeals are unlike any in English and will hence require careful listening and practice. the only way to learn them is by imitating a speaker of Arabic. The labials are as in English bee, fee, me, and we. Arabic /b/ has a voiceless variant before other voiceless consonants; /sabt/ 'Saturday' sounds like the last syllable of except. The dentals are similar to English tea, dee, sea, zero, knee, lee; they are, however, articulated with the tongue tip touching the upper teeth, not the gum ridge. /1/ is always "Light" or i-colored, hence never as in English feel or fool. /x/ is a trill as in Spanish or Italian. the x or English is not acceptable, The palatals and velars are as in English she, measure, ye, key, and 20s: The voiceless uvular stop /q/ and the voiceless and voiced spirants, uvulay /x y/ and pharyngeal /i $/, are unlike any consonants in English. The glottals again present no great problem. /h/ is as in English he. However, unlike English, it occurs freely noninitially: /f{him/ ‘he under- stood', /rabfih/ ‘intelligent’. The glottal stop occurs flanking the vowels . in English exclamations such as oh oh. In Arabic it is a regular consonant and occurs freely: /?4fal/, /y{?£11/ "he locked, locks', /3?a?/ ‘apartments’. A11 Arabic consonants occur initially, medially, and finally, and all occur short (written with a single letter) and long (written with two letters). The /m/ in /réma/ 'he threw' is about half as long as in /rémma/ 'he scat~ tered's similarly the glottal stop in /b4?a/ ‘he became! and /¥4?%a/ ‘apartment The consonants /q/ and /%/ are found only in a limited number of borrowed words: /q/ in borrowings from Modern Standard Arabic and /%/ in borrowings from various other languages. Although not written in this text, /p/ and /v/ axe used by some Cairenes, especially those who also speak English and/or French, in a few borrowed words: /piyéanu/ ‘piano’, /villa/ ‘villa'. Other speakers replace the /p/ and /v/ in these and other such words with /b/ and /£/ respectively. 266 1.2 Gonsonant sequences, In discussing consonant sequences it is useful to recognize two classes of consonants; those which have voiceless and voiced pairs (stops and spirants) will be referred to as obstruents, and those which do not (nasals, lateral, trill, and glides) a8 resonants. Single consonants occur freely in all positions in words and sentences, Sequences of identical consonants (¢,C,) do not occur initially, but freely medially and finally. Sequences of two different consonants (0,C,) are rare initially (and only if the word occurs at the beginning of a sentence); further, such sequences have only /w y r/ as Cy, Hence /kwayyis/ 'good' may So occur at the beginning of a sentence; noninitially in a sentence, after a word ending in a consonant, C,C, has a vowel inserted: /kitdab kuwdyyis/ ‘a good book'; and after a word'ending ina vowel, C; is linked to the Preceding vowel: /kirsi-kwyyis/ 'a good chair’. ‘This is pronounced as if the words were /Kérsik/ and /wayyis/. (The hyphen Ys used to show this type of linkage). Medially and finally, C,C, occurs subject to the following restrictions: (1) No two different consonants of the group /s 2 ¥ ¥/ occur in Sequence; of these, only sequences of identical consonants occur. ‘this holds true within vords and between words in sentences. Accordingly if 0,C, in« volving any two of these would result froma sequence of words or a stem and an affix, C, assimilates to C,, becoming C,C,: /mi/ + /sahl/ becomes /mis sahl/ 'not easy'; /déras/ + /ma- -¥/ becomes /madard¥¥/ 'he did not study". (2) 6,0) sequences of the dental and palatal obstruents /t ds 2 ¥ %/ are entirely voiced or voiceless. This applies within worde and may also apply (but not regularly for all Cairenes) between words. Again C, assimi~ lates to C, but only with respect to voice: /?ustdaz/, /?asddza/ ‘professor, Professors’ (/t/ + /z/ becomes /dz/); /sdafid/ + /~t/ becomes /satftt/ 'I helped’. At the end of sentences, C,C, sequences are subject to the following additional restrictions: (3) Sequences of any two obstruents usually (i.e. for most Cairenes) are entirely voiced or voiceless, Here also C, assimilates to C, with respect to voice. Note that this assimilation is not shown by the trans- cription used in this book and that sequences like /gt/ and /kt/ at the end 267 Be en er ee pyrene \ of sentences are pronounced alike. (In the speech of some Cairenes this assimilation can be observed nonfinally as well as finally in sentences. There is, however, considerable variation from speaker to speaker and/or sentence to sentence.) (4) If cy is a voiceless obstruent and Cy @ resonant, C, assimilates to cy with respect to voice; in this environment all resonants have voiceless variants. In the following words, the final resonants are voiceless at the end of the sentences, but not elsewhere: /litr/ 'Liter', /nagr/ ‘Egypt’, /ratl/ ‘pound (weight)', /fas1/ 'class', /?utn/ 'cotton', /mady/ ‘walking’ Sequences of three consonants do not occur in any position, within o. between words in a sentence, 2. Vowels. SHORT LONG Front Back Exont Back High u ‘High ii uu Low a Low aa 2.1 Vowel sounds. All of the vowels of Arabic are sufficiently similar to those of English so that they present the learner with relatively few difficulties. English has many more vowels than Arabic, and the speaker of English will hence at first hear more vowels in Arabic than the transcription distinguishes. ‘The short vowels /i u/ are as in English pit, put; /a/ is like the vowel of cot next to pharyngeal consonants, like a in about before the glides, and between e in pet, and a in pat elsevhere. The long vovels (written double) /ii/ and /au/ are similar to those of English beet and boot, and /ee/ and /oo/ to bait and boat. The main differ- ence between Arabic and English at this point is that for most speakers of English the vowels in these words are glideds long vowels in Arabic are not glided. Arabic /aa/, ike /a/, has different variants: next to pharyngeals it is like 9 in cot, but longer; elsewhere it: is like a in bad, but again somewhat longer. 268 2.2 Distributional restrictions. An Arabic sentonce or a word in isolation never begins with a vowel (V or VW); if no consonant is written, then /?/ occurs before the vowel. The three short vowels occur next to all consonants and sequences of consonants, finally and nonfinally in words, and stressed and unstressed. ote, however, that when unstressed their quality does not change; they are not centralized or reduced as is common in English.) The five long vowels occur only stressed; there is never more than one W in a word, and W never occurs before CC in the same word. Subject to these restrictions, long vowels occur finally and nonfinally in words and next to all consonants and sequences of consonants. 2.3 Shortening of W. Given the restrictions (noted above) on the occur- rence of long vowels, many stem + affix or enclitic constructions result in shortening of VV. Since the stress is always on the last syllable if the word ends with CC or WC, /séafir/ + /-t/ is /safirt/ 'I traveled’, /&i + /-ha/ is /kitébha/ ‘her book’, and /kitéab/ + /-een/ is /kitabéea/. In terms of this alternation between long and short vowels, /i/ is the short equivalent of both /it/ and /ee/, /u/ of /uu/ and /oo/, and /a/ of /aa/. Hence /fii1/ + /-een/ is /£iléen/ 'two elephants’ and /beet/ + /-een/ is Joitéen/ ‘two houses'; similarly /?uul/ + /-ha/ is /?Glha/ ‘tell her' and Jyoom/ + /een/ is /yunéen/ 'two days". b/ 2.4 Lengthening of stem-final V. Any stem-final V is lengthened before a suffix or an enclitic: /{rmi/ + /-ha/ is /irm{iha/ 'throw it', /frmu/ + J-ha/ is /irmiuha/ ‘throw (p) it, and /réma/ + /-ha/ is /ramdaha/ ‘he threw it’. 2.5 Addition of /i/. As noted above (1.2), a sequence of CCC never occurs. Hence if a word ending with two consonants (C,C, or C,C,) occurs before one beginning with a consonant, /i/ is added to the former: /dars/ before /mshfam/ occurs as /dérs* muhtnn/ ‘an important lesson‘. It is useful to be able to identify this Hinal added vowel, and therefore it is written above the line. There is, however, no difference in pronunciation between an /i/ above or on the line; /dérs*/ nonfinally in a sentence and /dérsi/ ‘my lesson’ are pronounced alike. 269 2.6 Elision of unstressed /i/. If a word beginning with the sequence Cicv occurs after a prefix or a word ending in a vowel, the unstressed /i/ is elided: /bi-/ + /tindam/ is /bitndam/ 'you are sleeping’, and /ilgimla/ + /gidfida/ is /ilgimla-gdfida/ 'the sentence is new'. Similarly, if a word ending with VCiC occurs before a suffix, an enclitic, or a word beginning with a vowel, the unstressed /i/here als0-is elided: /ffhim/ + /-u/ is /fihmu/ "they understood’, and /f{him/ + /ilgémla/ is /£{hm-ilgémla/ ‘he understood the sentence’. (Note that’ this elision does not take place if CCC would result; hence /bi-/ + /tithdmu/ is /bitifhém/ 'you (p) understend",) 3. Syllables. ‘The structure of syllables in Arabic is relatively simple. Every syllable has a vowel (V or W). In addition, every syllable has one and only one consonant before the vowel. Syllables may be open, or closed by one’ consonant or, at most, two consonants. A syllable may be closed by two consonants only if the vowel is short. Types of syllables are as follows: f@) Ww (c) cw () ove @) we (e) cvec Only types (a) and (b) occur freely with no distributional restrictions. Types (c), (4), and (e) occur only with stress; further, (d) occurs only finally in words and sentences and (e) only finally in sentences. Word and syllable boundaries do not aiways coincide in sentences. /iddars* muhfm/ ‘the lesson is important’ (initial /?/ is not written here) is a sequence of CVC.CVC.CV.|CV.cvcC.| with a dot marking syllable boundaries and a vertical line word boundaries. /ilgtmla-gdfida/ 'the sentence is new! is CVc.cvc.cv|c.cvv.cv.|, and /wi-zzdyyak-{nta/ ‘and how are you' is cv|C.cvc.cv.3|vc.cv.|. ‘The hyphen is used to mark word boundaries when they do not coincide with syllable boundaries. 4. Emphatics. All of the consonants and vowels occur emphatic or plain (nonemphatic). Emphasis is indicated in the transcription by a broken under- score. In some books on Arabic, the term velarization is used. This is mis~ leading in that emphasis includes, but is not limited to, what phoneticians’ call velarization. To produce the emphatic sounds, the various articulations 270 used in producing the plain consonants and vowels are modified by the following changes in tongue and lip positions. the tongue is slightly retracted, laterally spread, and the back is raised; hence the feeling by speakers of Arabic that the tongue is "thick" and "fills the mouth". At the same time, the lips are held neutral (not spread as for the plain sounds) or slightly protruded or rounded. ‘these articulatory features plus increased tenseness of the throat muscles conbine to give the emphatics a "hollow sound", Somewhat unsettling from the learner's point of view, but nonetheless true, is the fact that some words (in whole or in part) may occur with emphatic sounds in one sentence and with plain in another. This accounts for the alteration between emphatic and plain consonants and vowels which can be observed in the sentences in the lessons: /ilwdlad tawfil/ 'the boy is tall"; /ilbfnt® ila/ 'the girl is tall'. Note, however, that the distribution of emphasis alvays coincides with syllable boundaries; a syllable has all or none of its sounds emphatic. You will also notice that one speaker may say a word with emphatic and another with plain sounds. Such variation can be heard en the recordings of the conversations. This is not to suggest that it matters little whether a word is pronounced with emphatic or with plain sounds. Many words are identical excet for emphasis: /seef/ 'sword', /seef/ ‘summer’ ; /baat/ the spent the night", /baat/ ‘armpit’; /tiin/ 'figs', /tiin/ 'mud'; /batd/ ‘after’, Teata/ ‘some. | For a speaker of English, the most prominent differences between sequences of plain or emphatic sounds are with the vowels. All of the em- Phatic vowels are slightly lower (especially the high and back) and more retracted (especially the front and low) than the plain vowels. Practice with a speaker of Arabic is the only way to learn the correct pronunciation. 5. Stress. Stress in Arabic has little differentiating function, and in the vast majority of words the penult is stressed. The distribution of stress is almost totally predictable in terms of the syllable types in the word. (1) A word never has more than one stress, and syllables of the types Cvcc, CW, and CWC occur only with stress. Since a word never has more than one of these types, any one of them marks the position of stress. 2am (2) L£ a word has only syllables of the types CV and/or CVC, then the penult is stressed. L€ the occurrence of stress does not conform to these rules, then it is marked. There are very few such exceptions, and in almost all of them the last three syllables are CVCVCV(c). Kost of these have the stress on the antepenult: /Sérabi/ 'Arabic!; /mélika/ 'queen', /s4?alit/ ‘she asked', /itkdtabit/ 'it was written’; others have the stress on the penult: /¥alftu/ ‘she carried it', /Safftak/ ‘she saw you'. (For a somewhat different although equivalent. statement of the rules regarding the distribution of stress, see 10.4) From this point on, stress on examples is marked only if not predictable by these rules. 6. Intonation. Period, question mark, and comma are used to mark three intonation patterns which must be distinguished. /./ represents a‘level pitch pattern with terminal fall, ‘There is usually no, or only very slight, rise in pitch before the fali, and hence this pattern is significantly different from the common level-rise-fall as in English, "The lesson is easy.' /2/ represents a level pitch pattern with a terminal rise, similar to the intonation of English yes-or-no questions, "Is the lesson easy?! /,/ represents a pitch pattern which is level throughout, with neither rise nor fall at the end. Period, question mark, and comma mark only different intonation patterns. Questions conmonly occur with all three intonations, statements commonly only with /./ and /,/. MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX « Word formation, N13.4 2, Free vs. bound forms. Many words in Arabic have a free (or isolable) form and a bound form, Bound forms cannot stand alone and are used only in con struction with other forms. ‘Thus the pronoun /hunma/ (3 p., free form) has a bound form /-hum/: /bithum/ 'their house’, /Safhum/ 'he saw them'. The 272 negative particle /mi/ has a bound form /ma~ -¥/: /mi¥ kuwayyis/ ‘not good’, ¢naSaftum¥/ "he did not see them’. The noun /Santa/ has a bound form VSantit-/: Fantiteen/ ‘two suitcases’, /% ~ilbint/ 'the girl's suitcase’. ‘he preposition /fala/ has a bound form /alee-/: /Saleehum/ 'on them’. thum/ 'their suitcase’, /¥an: 3. Nouns. 3.1 Definiteness: N1.2-3; 3.8; 6.1, 2 3.2. Gender: N2.15 7.2 3.3. Bound form: N6.2 3.4 Number: dual N9.3; plural N4.1 co 3.5 Verbal: N24.33 26.43 27.4; 28.4 3.6 Collective: N29.3 4. Adjectives. 4.1 Definiteness: N5.2 4.2, Gender: N2.2-3 4,3 Number: N4,2-3; 9.33 21.5 4.4 Degree: N13.1; 27.33 14.1 4.5 Derived: "29.2 4.6 /bitaat/: NB.1; 9.3 5. Demonstratives. 5.1 Gender: N3.1 5.2 Number: N4.4; 21.5 5.3 In comparative constructions: N13.1 6. Pronouns. 6.1 Free: N5.3 6.2 Bound: 6.21 With nouns: N6.3-45 7.1 6.22 With prepositions: N9.1; 16.2 6.23 With verbs and participles: N12.1; 13.3; 17.2 6.24 With modals: N16.1; 17.1; 18.13 19.15 26.1 273 7. Numerals. 7.1 Cardinals: Z.11 One and two: N15.6; 30.1 7.12 Three through ten: N6.93 30.1 7.13 Eleven and up: N12.33 30.1 7.2 Ordinals} N17.35 18.4 7.3. Fractions and percentages: N23.4 8. Verbs. 8.1 Aspect: N3.43 4.5 8.2 Tense prefixes: N7.4 8.3 Imperative: N5.6 8.4 Classes: NB.5 8.5 Derivation: N14.5 8.51 Simple stems: /katab/: N6.6; 7.3 FBaat/; N9.4; 10.1 Fiabb/: W11.3 feama/: W12.25 13.2 8.52 Derived stens: /kallim/: N3.53 4.5 Jeaakic/: 05.5 Ayanna/t N14.3 /naada/: N14.2 Jit-/ prefix: N19.35 20.2 dote/ infix: 23,2 Hista-/ prefix: N26.3 8.6 Irregular: N10.15 15.2-5 8.7 Awta/: N22.2 9. Participles. 9.1 Inflection: N7.7 9.2 Verbs with two participles: /katab/: N7.7; 8.3 Fiabb/: N11.3 /rama/: N12.25 13.2 Trregular: N15.2, 4 274 9.3 Verbs with one participle: /¥aaf/: N10.1 Mkallim/: W10.2 Jeaakir/: 410.2 /yanna/: N14.3 Inaada/: N14.2 Hit-/ prefix: W19.35 20.2 Jnte/ infix: N23.2 /ista-/ prefix: N26.3 Irregular: N15.3, 5 10. Modals. 10.1. In verb phrases: N21.1 10.11 /Taawiz/, /naawi/, /Tammaal/: N15. 10.12 /Sala/, /nife/, /tagd/: NL7.1 10.13 /Sumr/: N18.1 10.14 /yadoob/, /zamaan/: N19.1 10.15 /laazim/, /yimkin/: N21.2 10.16 /ba?a/ + /1i/: N26.1 : 10.17 /yareet/: N27.2 10.2 With equational and /fit/-sentences: N28.2 11. Prepositions. 11.1 Group I: NB.2; 9.15 3.75 16.23 25.2 11.2 Group II: N9.1; 29.25 25.2 - 12. Coordinators. N5.43 18.2 13, Subordinators. 13.1 With /ma/: N19.4 13.2 With /inn/: N22.4; 29.1 13.3 Conditional: N28.1 13.4 /wi/, /latisan/, /a¥aan/, /madaam/:'N24.1; 29.1 14, Quantifiers, N21.4; 22.33 23.35 24.2 275 q 15. Intensifiers, 20.3 16. Interrogation. 16.1 Yes-or-no questions: N2.4 16.2 Interragatives: NB.4; 16.3-4 16.3. Shuwwa/, /hiyya/, /humma/> N6.8; 12.4 16.4 Question tags: N28.3 17, Negation. 17,1 Equational sentences: N1.6; 8.2; 9.1; 30.2 17.2 Verbal sentences: N10.3; 13.3; 18.25 21.1 17.21 Imperatives: NLi.4 17,22 Modals: N15.1; 17.1; 18.15 21.2 17.3. /#1i/-sentences: N1L.1 17.4 Topical sentences: N25.2 17.5 /?&badan/: N20.3 18, Noun phrases. 18.1 Construct: N6.1, 33 24,23; 23.3 18.2 Attributive: NZ3.35 8.1 18.3 Blliptic: N26.2 19. Verb phrases. 19.1 With two verbs: N19.2; 20.1 19.2 With three verbs: N21.1 19.3 Imperative: N22.1 19.4 With /kaan/: N25.1; 27.1 19.5 /xella/, /xad/, /idda/: N23.1 20, filli/=phrases. N9.25 21.3; 23.35 25.3 21, Prepositional phrases. See Prepositions. 276 4) 22. Complements. 22.1 Time: N7.5-65 8.4 22.2 Place: NB.4 22.3 Manner: N16.3 22.4 Predicate: W: 45 26.3 23. Equational sentences. An equationai sentence consists of a subject and a predicate (N11). The subject is a noun phrase or a free pronoun; the Predicate is a noun phrase, a prepositional phrase, or a.participle. /kaan/ and /ba?a/ (N9.5; 24.4) as well as some modals (N28.2) may be used in equational sentences. 24, Verbal sentences. A verbal sentence always has a verb and a bound subject (N3.3). It may also have a free subject (noun phrase or free pro- noun, N3.4) and/or an object (bound or free, N12.1) and/or a complement (22. above). Some verbs require two objects (NI8.3), others an object and a predi- cate complement (N20.4). : 25. /£ii/-sentences. NI1.1-2; 28-2 26. Topical sentences. N24,2; 25.23 277 GLOSSARY The entries in this glossary are limited to the vocabulary used in the lessons. Names (personal and place) and participles (if directly relatable to verbs given in the glossary) have been omitted. English equivalents are limited to those occurring in the lessons. The entry form of nouns and adjectives is the singular. No inflected forms other than the plural, and this only if it occurs in the lessons, are given. Nouns ending in /a/ are feminine unless identified as masculine (m); nouns ending otherwise are masculine unless identified as feminine (f). The entry form of verbs is the 3rd masculine of the perfect. A vowel in parentheses after the verb identifies the stem class; a verb with no following vowel belongs to Class J (N8.5). Derived verb stems and verbal nouns are entered alphabetically, not by root. For purposes of alphabetization, initial /?/ and emphasis have been ignored (although written). The order of alphabetization is: a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, k, 1, m, n, On Gs Te Sy ty Us We Xs Ys %y By Hy ys fy Te 7 Yadam: foot Yadd: like (in size, quantity) tadd! Pee: how much, how long ?aabil: to meet ?aadi [-lkitaab]: here is [the book] Yaal (u): to say, tell qenetbt eo pena ?aal fi nafsu: he said to himself *adiim, tudaam: old, ancient Yaam (u) to get up, stand up Zedtaai: see dite aam [?aal]: whereupon [he said) "#f@! (1): to close, lock Yafandi, Yafandiyya: effendi, gentle- Yaamin: to believe Yaani [-ktaab]: which [book]? 7aas (i): to measure Yaasif, ?asfiin: sorry man Yaffil: to close, lock securely afl: closing, locking G + hold aaxir: last yagaaza, Yagazaat: holiday, vacation ?abadan: never, not at all ?abb: father Yagnabi, ?agaanib: foreigner, foreign Yahammiyya: importance ahoo [-lkitaab]: here is [the book] Yahwa: coffee Yakl: food, eating Yalab (i): to tip over Yalam, ?ilaam: pencil ralat (a) ?abl: before rabl* ma [yiigi]: before [he comes] ?abu-Lhool: the Sphinx 2abyad, biid: white Yadab, Yadaab: literature °fdabi: literary to undress, take off 278 Yalb: heart *alf, Yalaaf: thousand [xamas] talaaf: [five] thousand Yaliil, Yulaal: few, little God Golly! Yallaf: to make someone undress, take off, undress someone Yalmaani, ?almaan: German Yalf: undressing 2amiis, ?umsaan: shirt ?anma [raagil]: what a [man]! Yamrikaani, ?amrixdan: American L barrage (a): to read mit Aramaic ?arbafa: four ; ?arbat [kutub]: four [books] four [hundred] rubSu [miyya] Yarbattaa¥ar: fourteen Yarbifiin: forty land, soil aayib: kinfolk, relacive to make someone read ?arrab min: to approach Yaryaafi see riif antiquities cruelty Yased: Lion Yasam (i): to divide sari, Yasariyya: historical, archaeological Yasbaani, ?asbaan: Spanish 2asfar, 9 jl: in truth, truly ?asli, ?asliyya: original fatal (a): to cut Yate, Puturaat: train Yawaan: quickly 7ifrigya: central Africa very Yawwalan: firstly Yawwil: first awwil-imbaarifi: day before yesterday Pawi. Yawwil mat as soon as Yawwilaani, Yawwilantyyiin: first Tawwim: to make someone get up 2exdar, xudr: green Yaxraani, ?axraniyyiin: last Yaxx, Vixwaat: brother aywa: yes azdu [yiktib]: to intend [to write] ?azhar (1): to show Yazea?, aur?: blue Patimar, fume: red Yatisan: better ®afisan-inn: it is best that ?atiyaanan: sometimes Yafad (u)+ to sit dom, stay asad [yiktib]: he kept on [writing], sat down [to write] + bottom raffad: to make someone sit baab, bibaan: door baat (i): to sell baa?i: remainder, balance bédawi, badu: bedouin 279 badiit: magnificent badla, bidal: suit badri: early badu: see bédawi baka (i): to weep, ery bakaluryoos: bachelor's degree balad, bilaad: country, village, city ballaas: Large pot balziiki, bal%ikiyyiin: Belgian bana (i): to build pair of trousers bara (i): to sharpen baraamig: see birnaamig barbari: Berber bard: cold bardaan, bardaniin: cold rai outside, abroad (4): to please bass: only bass (u) li: to look at the Mediterranean Sea batis, ?abtiaas: research bafat (a): to send batd: after together afternoon bafdeen: afterwards batd! ma [yiigi]: after [he comes] ba?a (a): to become ba?aalu [yiktib]: to have been [writing] among, between beet, biyuut: house, home a beez, beez: beige beef: selling, sale bi: with, by means of bi-ktiir: by fer, a lot bi-lleel: during the night, evening bi munasba: on the occasion of bi nafsu: by himself bi-nnisba lub: as far as he is concerned bi-shuula: easily bi-sgudfa: accidentally bi surfa: quickly bi-zyaada: more than enough b: i~zzabt: exactly bi Sakl [yariib]: in a [strange] way bi-Swee3: slowly bi fiasab: according to bi tiees-inn: in such a way that bi "ee: with what, how bidaal: instead of, in place of bidaal ma [yiigi]: instead of [coming] bint, banat: girl bintu: his daughter birnaamig, baraamig: program bitaat: belonging to petroleum bixlaaf: apart from, beside bitiid, bufaad: far bluuza, bluzaat: blouse bukra: tomorrow police 280 bunni, bunni: brown hat burneeta, baraniit burtu?aan: oranges burtu?aana, burtu?anaat: orange b mail, post office buteera: Lake bufd: distance Yala bufd: at a distance of a da (m), dool: this, that daafi, dafyiin: varm daar-ilkutub: the Egyptian Library daawa (a): to treat daaxil: within, entering dat (i): to be lost, be wasted dafaf (a): to pay bank [of a river] daffat: to make someone pay aff: paying, payment dahab: gold dall (i): to guide, direct darab (a): to beat, hit déraga, darageat: degree, grade déraga Tula: first class daras (i): to study darb: beating, hitting darra (a): to make someone aware darris: to teach dars, duruus: lesson 4 : essential dawa (m), Tadwiya:. drug, medicine daxal (u): to enter daxl: income daxm, daxmtin: large daxxal: to make someone enter dayya?, dayya?iin: narrow dafiif, détafa: weak da?? (u) fala: to knock at di (£), dool: this, that difi (a): to become warm diib: wolf diin: religion diini, diniyyiin: religious dikha, dukham: that one dilt., delta, Lower Egypt dilwa?ti: now dilwa?ti Yahoo: right now dinya: world iddinya bard: it is cold iddinya Harr: it is hot sa, dirasaat: study sit academic dirt (a) bi: to become aware of aifiik (a): to Laugh diff, Padvaat: (five) fold, (five) times di?ii%a, da?aayi?: minute door, ?advaar: turn it is his turn doctor a + doctor's degree dulaab, dawaliib: cupboard, chest duny. see dinya durg, diraag: drawer duxuul: entry, entering 281 Yee: what Yada" ree: how-much, how long bi ee: with what, how %ee-lHikaaya: what is the matter? a fa: whereupon, then, so id (4): to overflow, flood feadi, fadyiin: empty, free, not occupied, unloaded faat (u): to pass [issana-11i] faatit: last [year] [417usbuus-i11i] faat: last [week] faat (u) fala: to drop in (a): to empty silver to prefer fagr: dawn fahhim: to make someone understand fakka: to think, conceive of fallaai, fallatiiin: farmer falsafa: philosophy fann: craft, art fanni, fanniyyiin: technical sawiyyiin: French Persian [language] tributary, branch na: Pharaoh farfooni: pharaonic fasal (i): to expel fasl, fusuul: season, chapter, class fas!’ diraasi: semester fassar: to explain fatar (a): to break the fast fatali (a): to open, conquer imi, fatimiyyiin: Fatimid fatti¥: to search, inspect fat, futuuti: conquest fayda, fawaayid: benefit, advantage + poor vhere fir in, by fi-Imafaad: on time fi-Imiyya: percent fi-lwa’t' dat at this, that time fi-lfaal: at once fi nafs [-ilwa’t]: at the same [time] fi yoom mi~L?ayyaam: one day, once upon a time fi faalu: alone, by himself fidil (a): to remain fidil [yikeib]: he kept on, continued [writing] fihim (a)! to understand fi there is, are fiima Tada: except for filuus (£): money fingaan: cup f00?: above fumm: mouth fustaan, fasatiin: dress fustia: Standard Arabic fuaani, fu%aniyyiin: above, upper 282 a gaab (i): to bring saahiz, gaheiin: ready gaamid, gandiin: heavy, hard gaamif, gawamif: mosque gaawib: to answer Beay? see gayy geal (u): to get hungry gabal, gibaal: mountain gadaS, gidfaan: young man gamaS (a): to combine ganb: beside gamiil, gumaal: beautiful gamifi: pertaining to a university gamuusd: water buffalo ‘gamfa, gamfaai: university genna: paradise ganuub: south gara (a): to happen a Yee: what has happened? garati (a): to wound gary: race, running gavaab, gavabaat: letter gaww? weather sayy. gayylin: coming [issana]-Lgayya: next [year] gazma, gizam: pair of shoes geeb: pocket, bag giddan: very gidiid, gudead: new gih (ir): to come gild: leather ginech, ginihaat: Egyptian pound (LE) gineena, ganaayin: garden, park gici (i): to run gumhuriyya, gonhuriyyaat: republic gumla, gumal: sentence gut see yoom gurnaal, garaniil: newspaper guwa: inside, in suyrafya: geography gufaan, gufaniin: hungry h haagir: to migrate haayil, hayliin: large, great haddid: to threaten hhagam (i): to attack handasa: engineering hanna (a): to congratulate 2ahraam: pyramid hay?aat: corps migration AH. hina: here hinaak: there hirib (a): to run away, escape hiyya: she, it (£) humma: they huwwa: he, it (m) ibtada (1): to begin 2ibti, a?baat: Copt, Coptic ?ibtidaa?i elementary, beginning 283 idda (ir): to give idda xabar: to tell, inform 2idir (a): to be able to iftakar (i): to think, reckon Yigbaari: compulsory igtamat (i): to confer, meet ?ihda: Well! inten’ bi: to be interested in ihtimaan: interest *ilaah: god ilfaatifia: the opening chapter of the Quran ; illa: except 411i:,who, which, that illilaadi: tonight ilmayrib: Morocco iltafat (i): to turn around ?imaan: faith \ imbaariti: yesterday imbaarifi bi-lleel: last night inma...?aw: either...or imta: when imtadd: to stretch 7imeifiaan, ?imtifianaat: examination in: if Yingiliici, ?ingiliiz: English inn: that Yalisan-inn: it is best that ka ?inn: as if 1i ?inn: because maf-inn: although innaharda: today however innam; inta: you (m) intaha (i): to end intaxab (i): to elect Sar (i): to spread you (£) intu: you (p) ?inBaa?. int: tI hope to Tiraaya: reading irtafat (i): to rise irtifaat: rise, height iskandargani: Alexandrian iskindiriyya: Alexandria ‘islam: Islam Yislaami: Islamic ist name iid? Upper Egypt istabdil: to exchange istafhim: to inquire istalaf (i): to borrow istalam (i): to receive ist: (4): to continue istanna: to wait to extract x (i): to seek advice istayrab: to be very surprised istatiamma: to bathe, swim istatila: to consider nice istafaan (i): to seek assistance istatadd (1): to get ready istatgil: to hurry istafmil: to use ista?aal (i): to resign ista?all (1): to become independent ista?bil: to welcome ista?zin: to ask permission 284 ?iswid, suud: black isti?aala: resignation isti?baa welcome istilaal: independence Please, go ahead to see, sight see to be divided to be interpreted itfassati: to look around ithayya?lu: it seemed to him itkallim: to speak itmaSfa: to take a walk ; itnaa¥ar: twelve itnaa?i¥: to discuss, argue itnafax (i): to be proud itneen: two itsamma: to be calle, be named ittabat (i): to follow \* ittafa? (i): to agree ittitiaad: union , il?ittitiaad-issufyeeti: the Soviet Union tw, to be employed itwazzaT: to be distributed itxaani?: to quarrel to get scared to graduate to specialize to have lunch seyayyar ithassin: to improve to be changed, change itfallim: to learn itfayyin: to be appointed itva¥¥a: to have dinner itTaSSim: to hope it?abal (i): to be accepted it?assis: to be founded it?axxar: to be late twfa: make sue, be sure, be careful, watch out ixs' Salee: shame on him ixtalaf (i) San: to differ Ytyaast measurement iza: if Yizaata: broadcasting station izdatiam (i): to be crowied izgaay: how imitna kida: how come? 78x supervision i¥taal: to carry” iStara (i): to buy iStayal: to work iS¥ahatteen: the Muslim creed, the two testimonies iBSariita: Islamic Law ifina: we ifitaag: to need, be in need ifitaal: to play a trick to be perplexed to celebrate Hitaram (i): to revere ifitifaal, ifitifalaat: celebration + preparatory, Junior High x (1)! to consider (i): to depend on iftazar: to apologize, decline 285 kaam: how much, how many kaan (u): to be kaatib, kdtaba: clerk, scribe kabb (u): to spill r-ilmas?ala: to make a big fuss kafa (i): to be enough kahraba: electricity electric kal (ir) kalaam: words, speech to eat kallim: to speak to someone kamaan: in addition, as well kammil: to complete, continue kamniyya, kanmiyyaat: amount police station kasaf (i): to embarass, shame gar (a): to break kassér: to smash katab (i): to write k kattib: to make someone write kawa (i): to tron kavy: ironing ka "innt as if Kida: so, this way kibiix, kubaar: big, old (of persons) kibir (a): to grow kifaaya: enough xeerak: many thanks kilma, kalimaat: word, vocabulary kiniisa, kanaayis: church Kitab, kutub: book ilkitaab-ilmu?addas: the Bible kitaaba: writing Kittin, ky bi-ktiir: hy far, a lot kull: every, ali kulliyya, kulliyyaat: college kulliyyatan: completely kursi, karaasi: chair kuufi: Kufi kuwayyis, kuwayyisiin: fine, good laakin: but laa...wala: neither...nor laazim: must laaSib: labbis: to dress someone to amuse someone lahga, lahgaat: dialect lanma: when, until larbaf: see yoom 1atiLE, Lutaat: pleasant latiini: atin law: if laziiz: enjoyable, delicious Latim: meat latima: a piece of meat latin: tune latisan: otherwise, rince, lest 1a?: no laa (a): to find lee: why Jel: night Jeela, layaali: night bi-lleel: at night lit to, toward, on behalf of 1i watidu: by himselé 14 7innt because 286 Libis (i libs: dressing, clothing Lissa: not yet, still Litnees to get dressed, put on see yoom liyaayit: until liyaayit ma [yiigi]: until [he comes] loola: were it not for loon, ?alwaan: color lukanda, lukandaat: hotel luya, luyaat: language luna, 1u?am: mouthful, bite ma been: varying between maal, ?amvaal: possessions maat (u): to die mablay, mabaaliy: sum of money mabna (m), mabaani: building mada (i): to sign madaamu [katab]: because, since he has [written] mada, mawaad: subject, course madiina, mudun; city ilmadiina: Madina madrasa, madaaris: school maggaani: free of charge magmuufa: collection makaan, ?amaakin: place, site maktab, makaatib: desk, office maktaba, maktabaat: library mala (a): to £111 mala-ssaafa: to wind the watch malaak, malaykat angel malayki: angelic manat (a): to prevent, forbid mandiil, manadiil: handkerchief, scarf manti?a, mghaati?: strip of land man? prevention, forbidding margif, maraagi?: reference markaz, maraakiz: center, position mai + once martiala, maraaiiil: stage, Level masaafa, masafaat: distance masal, "amsila: proverb mésalan: for example masiifi, masifiiyyiin: Christian maskiin, masakiin: poor (£): Egypt, Cairo st-ilgidiida: Heliopolis 1, masriyyiin: Egyptian mas%ala, masaa?il: problem mattar: to rain mathaf,,mataatif: museum mawduul, mawadiiy: subject, project mavluud: born manuscript mayya, miyaah: water maSruu?, ma¥ariit: project ma3y: a walk, walking maSyuul, ma%yuliin: busy na¥yuul fala: worried about na¥isteei: Master's degree mayrib: sunset ilmayrib: Morocco matiaddi¥: no one 287 mafialli, matialliyyiin: local station ma$-inn: although mafa: with mafa bafd: together mafa-1?asaf: sorry mafa-ssalaama: goodbye mafaad, mawaSiid: appointment fi-lmataad: on time mafbad, mafaabid: temple mathad, mafaahid: institute mafiiSa: Living mafna, mafaani: meaning mafrad, mafaarid: fair mafrudaat: exhibits reasonable, possible ma?aabir: tomb midaan, mayadiin: square miin: who miina (m), mawaani: port milaad: birth milaadi: A.D, milyoon: million from min’giha: on the one hand min giha tanya: on the other hand min-ilmufitamal: it is possible min wa?tahat from then on min Suwayya: a little while ago min yeer: without min tia??? wi fia?ii?: indeed, truly min yeer ma: witheut minabbih: alarm clock minfia, minali: grant, fellowship min?gar: beak tur his wife P.M. to take hold of, grasp, misaa’ar misik (i): catch, arrest mitgawwiz, mitna??il, mitfallim, mitgawwiziin: married mitna??iliin: mitYallimiin: nomadic educated mixalfa, mixalfaat: fine miyya: hundred £i-Imiyye: percent mi8; not miSi (1, miyayyim: cloudy to go, walk mifitaag, mititagiin: needy mifaawin: (police) officer mi?addin: muezzin mi?yaas, ma?ayiis gauge moot: death mooz: bananas mooza, muzaat: banana mudarris, mudarrisiin: male teacher mudarrisa, mudarrisaat: female teacher mudda: period of time, a long time mudiir, mudiriin: director mufiid, mufidiin: interesting muhimm, muhimmiin: important munkin: possible munti$: enjoyable munasba, munasbaat: occasion bi munasba: on the occasion of musafda: help, helping muslim, muslimiin: Muslim mustawa (m): level mustahiiil: impossible 288 mustafmal, mustafmaliin: used mutazaayid: increasing muta?akkid, muta?akkidiin: certain, sure muulid-innabi: the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad communication muzakra: studying muzdatiim: crowded muStarak: common mufiaddad: fixed mufiadra, mufiadraat: lecture mufaddal: average mufallim, mufallimiin: teacher mufamla: treatment, dealing muftadil: moderate most mu?abla, mu?ablaat: interview, act of meeting mu?addab, mu?addabiin: polite mu?addas: holy mu?axza: blame la mu?axzat pardon, excuse me naada (a): to call naam (ir): to sleep naam Sand: to stay with naar (f): fire maar: hell nas: people naawi [yiktib]: to intend [to write] + principal naa?i¥: to argue, discuss nabaaha: intelligence nabi, ?anbiya: prophet nabiih, nibaha: intelligent nadah (a): to call nafs: same bi nafsu: by himself fi nafs [-ilyoom]: on the same [day] fi nafsu:- to himself nagati (a): to pass, succeed nagaati: success Rahaarak safiid: good day! th natiiga: result : river nahr, 2 to brighten nawwar: ndzari: theoretical Razzam: to regulate, organize, plan nazzil: to bring down @) publication, spreading to publish, spread nafsaan, nafsaniin: sleepy na?al (i): to transfer na??a (a): to choose nifif (a): to succeed nifsu [yiktib]: to long to [write] nihaaya: end nihaa?i: final nimra, nimar: number, grade nisi (a): to forget niswaan: women nizil (1): to go down nizil fi (lukand: {hote1} nizil fala: to be revealed to to stay in a noom: sleep noof, ?anwaat: type, kind 289 nufuuz: influence haif nusxa, nusax: copy nuss nuur, anwar: light nuzuul: gotag down 2eoda, 2uwad: room Pool: saying a gaa?id: general (military) gatn: century ggwmi: national gism: section guwwa / guwai power, strength is (£)# head raas-issana: New Year's day raat (u): to go rabba (a): to raise, discipline, train {: spring radd (u) fala: to answer raga (m): favor reggat: to return something rakan (i): to lean, set aside rakkib: to make someone mount rama (i): to throw rama: to scatter rany? throwing rasmi, rasmiyyiin: official rasuul, rusul: messenger rattib: to put in order, straighten Fawaati: going Eaywati: to go home rayyt irrigation raSiid: Rosetta iis, ri?asa: leader, president ra?iisit main ridi (a) bi rigif (a): to return from rigl-(£),'rigleen: foot riif, Yaryaaf: country, rural area, to at -ept village rikib (a): to ride, board rixiis, ruxaas: inexpensive riyaada: mathematics trip presidency $i quarter rukn, ?arkaan: pillar, tenet rukuub: riding, boarding st lead rus: 3. saab (i): to leave saabi?: seventh saadis: sixth to travel sukkaan: saafir: saakin, saaliti, inhabitant galfiiin: good ggam (u): to fast saatitt sixth to arrange one who fasts 290 friend saafa, safaat: hour, watch saafid: to help saafit ma: at the time that saa? (u): to drive Sabaati-ilxeer: good morning sabaatian: A.M. sabaftaaar: seventeen sabb (u): to flow sabbib: to cause sabt: see yoom sabfa: seven saba? [kutub] subfu [miyya]: seven [hundred] seven [books] sabfiin: seventy sadd: dam sadd (i): to block sadd* faaga: to meet the need trip, traveling staying up sahl, sahliin: easy sakan (i): to live, dwell sala? prayer t-ilgumfa: Friday prayers salaan: peace salaama: safety mafa-ssalaama: good-bye gall (a): to pray sallif: to lend sallim: to deliver sallim Sala: to greet sama: sky samak: fish sémaka, samakaat: fish samati (a): to allow, let 291 samma (a): to name sama: to recite, let someone hear sana, siniin: year sdnawit annual, secondary, Senior High sagaafa: culture sagaafi: cultural sara? (a): to steal sariif, sarifiin: fast line gatr, ?astur [xamas] tustur: [five] lines sawa: together revolution sawwa?iin: driver pharmacy gayyadiin: hunter, fisherman the press true, correct gelirg: desert sali}: right salifia (a): to wake someone up safb, safbiin: difficult saTiida: hello, good-bye sa’a (1 sa?al (a): to ask to give to drink, to water siggaada: rug, carpet sihir (a): to stay up, stay awake silifi (a): to be usable simin (a): to grow fat £1 summer simif (a): to hear simi? kalaan: to obey sitgafi: man-made sinn: age sitt (£), sittaat: woman issitt*-beattu: his wife | t sitta: six sitt [kutub]: six [books] suttu [miyya]: six [hundred] sittaa¥ar: sixteen sittiin: sixty siwaa?a: driving siyaasa: politics, policy siyaasi: political, diplomatic + to wake up voice, noise, sound one seventh sukkar: sugar suts: one sixth suf: wool the last meal before the fast su?aal, Yas?il: question taabif li, tabfiin: associated with taagir, tuggea taalib, télaba merchant student taalit: third taamin: eighth taani, tanyiin: second, other taani: again ir (i): to fly taasif: ninth tabiita: physics tabfan: of course tadriib: training 292 tafa (1): to put out, extinguish talaaf: see ?alf talaat: see yoom talaata: three talat [kutub]: three [books] talat tirbaf: three fourths tultu [miyya]: three [hundred] talab (u): to ask for, order talab: @ demand, asking tamaam: perfect taman, ?atmaan: price tamaniin: eighty tamanya: eight taman [kutub]: eight [books] tumnu [miyya]: eight [hundred] tamm (i): to complete, be realized tamriin, tamariin: exercise, drill silt, md from Tanta organization, regulation » tarabizaat: table tarbiya: educating, education targama: translating, translation targim: to translate tariix: history historical way, street, road taxziin: storage tayyaara, tayyaraat: airplane tafiakkum: control talit: under, underneath tavaala: imperative of /gih/ tafab: tiredness tafbaan, tatbaniin: tired tafdiya: crossing taflab: fox tafliim: education, teaching ta’riiban: about, almost Hi ta?s: weather tibb: medicine tigaara: commerce tigaari: commercial HALAT (a): to go up, climb tilmiiz, talamza: student, pupil tilmiiza, tilmizaat : tilt: one third tirbaf: see talat tirbat female student tisaftaa¥ar: nineteen tista: nine tisat [kutub]: nine [books] tusfu [miyya]: nine [hundred] tistiin: ninety tiyyaam: see yoom tifib (a): to become tired tumn: one eighth turki, ?atraak: Turkish tusf: one ninth length tuul [-issana]: throughout [the year] tuul-innahaar: all day long Sala tuul: immediately Shur: see § tufifa: masterpiece Yuddaam: in front of 1 fee 1: consul iyya: consulate 2usayyariin: short Tusbuut, ?asabiif: week Pustaaz, ?asadza: professor uwwa: force Yuxt (£), Tixwaat: sister Yutaad: sitting, staying waadi: valley waagib, wagibaat: assignment, duty waasif, wasiin: wide, extensive waatiid: one (1) wadda (a: wafaa?-inniil: the cresting (fulfilling) of the Nile wagat (a): to hurt + to take, transport wagat: pain, hurting wagh' batiri: Lower Egypt 293 wagh* 74b14: Upper Egypt wakkil: to give someone to eat, feed wala: nor walad, ?awlaad: boy wall or walla: by golly! wallid: to generate, produce wara: behind wara?: paper wdraa, wara?aat: a piece of paper warra (a): to show ni, warraniyyiin: behind, rear + to take someone to his destination waxri: late wat, Yaw?aat: time fi-lwa?t? da: at this, that time min wa?taha: from then on wa??af (a): to stop, stop someone wit and, as, while wrinta maalak: it's none of your business wisil (a): to arrive wh witiS, wifSiin: bad, ugly wi7if (ir): to stop, stand wi?if (ir): to fall wuguud: presence : ministry wu?uuf: standing xaaf (ir): to be afraid xaaf min: to be afraid of xaaf fala: to be concerned about not at all, completely fifth xaamis: (£): private news, information xabbar! to inform xad (ir): to take xaddaam, xaddamiin: servant Xafiif, sufaaf: light (in weight) xa (it's) finished xaliifa: Caliph xalla (a): to let, make 1 fifteen xamastaa¥ xamiis: see yoom xamsa: five xamas [kutub]: five [books] xumsu [miyya]: five [hundred] xamsiin: fifty (u): to go out = to make someone go out 1x ae ttt writing, script xawwif: to. frighten xazzaan: reservoir xazzin: to store xa¥ab: wood xeer: good, well being fertile oof: fear xums: one fifth xMuruug: going out, exit xasaayir: loss, damage especially 294 ore yadoobu [katab]: to have just {written} yahuudi, yahuud: Jew yalla: come now! yallg biina [niktib]: let us [write] yareet: I wish ya salaam: do tell! ya siidi: my good man} + T wonder yatni that is yimin: may 2 equals (=) it seems yoom, ?ayyaam: day [xamas} tiyyaa yoom-ilgumt [five] days Friday yoom-ilxamiis: Thursday yoom-ilfiadd: Sunday yoom-issabt: Saturday yoom-ittalaat: Tuesday yoom larba?: Wednesday yoom litneen: Monday £1 yoom mi-l?ayyaam: one day, once upon a time zaad (i)! to increase zaakii to study zaar (u): to visit zaa?id: plus zamaan: a long time ago zamaanu [katab]: he must have [written] zara¥ (a): to cultivate 295, zayy? zaSlaan, zaflaniin: angry za?? (u): to push zikat tithing ziraal agriculture ziraafi: agricultural ziyaada: increase bi-zyaada: more than enough ziygara, ciyaraat: visit x Saat (u): to see Saal (i): to carry Saami, ¥avaam: Syrian Baarif, Sawaarif: street, road clever to resemble Sabbat: to satisfy someone's hunger Réfa?a: mercy, pity Yagar! trees ¥égara, ¥agaraat: tree Sahaada: testimony, certificate Sahad (a): to testify month: + [ive] months Sahri: monthly Sekar (u): to thank Samaal: north ¥amal (i): to include Santa, Yunat: bag, purse, briefcase, suitcase Sarrab: to make someone drink Bar: east i8Sar7il?awsat: the Middle East Sayyil: to load, make someone carry ¥a?a: apartment Beel: carrying See? yariib: strange thing Bibh* gaziira: peninsula Bibit (a): to have eaten enough Bidiid, Sudaad: heavy, strong Sirib (ay: to drink Sirka, ¥arikaat: company Sita (m): winter Sitwi: wintry Bubbaak, Sababiik: window Suke: thanks drinking Buwayya: a bit, a little a little while ago 1a little bit min Buvayy: Fuvayya-zyayy: Suyl: work ¥akitta, Yakittaat: jacket 1 yaab (i): to be absent yaali, yalyiin: expensive yaami?, yam?iin: dark Yaaz (1): to make someone angry yada (m): lunch Yadab yadd: tomorrow yalab (1): to defeat wrong, mistake anger mistaken Yani, ?ayniya: rich yanna (a): to sing Yyarb: west yariib, yéraba Yawiit: deep yayban: by heart yazaal: gazelle strange yakiim; yun: simpleton Yidib (a): to become angry yiyaab: absence yuraab: crow ti at present, currently . fiaaga: something, anything, need tial: condition fi-liaal: at once fi fiaalu: alone, by himself faalan; immediately faalit present, currently available Yiaama (a) fan: to defend fiaawil: to try fiabas (i): to imprison fiabb (1): to love, like tiabba: a short while fiabba, tiabbayaat: grain of, kernel tiabbib: to endear oneself tiadd fiadd: see yoom Yiadd, tuduud: border fiadiid: iron fiadiis: ney, modern to memorize anyone, someone 296 agar, Higaara: stone fiagg (i): to go on a pilgrimage tiaka (1): to tell a story fiakiim, hdkama: wise fala?it-ittisaal: Link ialiyyan: now fiall (i): to solve fiall (i) matiall: to replace iamaama: pigeon fiand: praise Yaleek: you have no pity id, Haramiyya: thief temperature + letter (of the alphabet) to consider, reckon et (u): to place, put fiatta: even, as well as fiawaali: about tiavaleen: around fawwil: to make into, change into tiayaa: Life flay, Tatiyaa?: section a??: truth iitia??* Sale: it is his fault kullu-Itia??! fale: it is all his fault wi fia?ii?: indeed, truly honorable fiees-inn: since, because bi fiees-inn: in such a way that fidaa¥ar: eleven fife learning by heart 297 Hiigg: pilgrimage iila, fiyal: trick ‘fikaaya, fitkayaat: story Hiikma: wisdom filw, filwiin: sweet, beautiful fiimaaya: protection isaab: account class hour Hitta, Hitat: piece, area ‘fifyali, thiyaliyyiin: shrewd ‘fukn, ?atikaam: regulation ‘Yukuuma: government iukuumi: governmental, state donkey ‘Kimi: Yaadil: just, fair Yaalam: world Saali, falyiin: high Saam (u to swim Faamil; to deal with someone Saamil, Sunmaal: worker Saarid: to object, oppose Taawiz [yiktib]: to want [to write] faaz (u): to need faa¥ (i): to live Saa¥ir: tenth faa?il: wise Jabitt, Subata: fool Sadad: number fadatan: usually Yadd (1): to count Yada (a): to cross over fagab (1): to please Taguuz, Savagiiz: old Salat upon, on Sala but at a distance of fala mahlu: carefully, slowly Sala tuul: immediately Sala yafla: suddenly Salami + universal, world YalaSaan: in order to, because, for, Salee [yiktib]: it is required of him [to write] falla (a): to raise Yallim: to teach Yamal (1): to do, make Yamal, ?afmaal: work ‘Yémalit experimental Samm: general Samm: uncle Sammaal [yiktib]: [to write] all the time, continually San: about fand: with, in possession of Arab, Arabic Sarabiyye, Tarabiyyaa Sard: width 1 car + bird faskar: soldiers, policemen faskari, Sasaakir: policemen, soldier faskari, Saskariyyiin: military mid afternoon ilfusuur-ilwusta: the Middle Agec Sataé: thirst Yat¥aan, fatYaniin: thirsty Sayyaan, Tayyaniin: sick Sayyin: to appoint Sa8aan: in order to, because, for YaSaan kida: for these reasons See¥: bread Sibaada: worship Fiddit [mgrraat]: several [times] Siid, ?atyaad: feast, holiday Siid-{1milaad: Christmas Siid-il?isti?laal: Independence Day J4id-i1?iyaama: Easter Siid-issawra: Revolution Day Siid-i8$uke: ‘Thanksgiving Siid milaad: birthday $id gawmi: national holiday filba, Silab: box Sili (a): to rise Silm, Tulum: knowledge, science Silmi: academic, scientific Sinab: grapes Sirif (a): to know Siti¥(a): to be thirsty Sia: late evening si8riin: twenty age jumru ma [katab]: he has never [written] Susur: see Sasr one tenth 298