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OT 6 0 3 HE B R E W E XE GE S I S I

COURSE SYLLABUS


Prepared by William D. Barrick, Th.D.
The Masters Seminary
Sun Valley, California
Fall 2013



1.0 Course Description

This two-semester course (OT603 and OT604) prepares the student for independent
exegesis of the Hebrew text. It emphasizes techniques involved in the use of language
tools, procedures in lexical word studies, and examination of grammatical and syntactical
phenomena. Prerequisites: OT503 and OT504.

Course materials and assignments related to select Hebrew Bible texts include the
study of the following subject areas relating to Hebrew exegesis:

OT603 OT604
principles of translation
syntactical analysisHebrew grammar
and syntax
diagrammatical analysis
textual analysisOT textual criticism
lexical analysisHebrew philology,
semantics, and lexicography
literary analysisOT literary devices,
structure, and forms
ancient near eastern (hereafter, ANE)
backgrounds (historical/political,
social/cultural, geographical)
exposition

2.0 Curriculum Statements

2.1 TMS Curriculum Statement

TMS exists to equip godly men to be pastors and/or trainers of pastors for service to
Christ in strategic fields of Christian ministry through an educational program and an
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 2
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environment of spiritual fellowship and relationships which emphasize unreserved
commitment to the worship of God, submission to the authority of the Scriptures, a life
of personal holiness, the priority of the local church, and the mission of penetrating the
world with the Truth.

2.2 Master of Divinity Program

The Master of Divinity Program is designed to provide a broad biblical theological
understanding, personal growth, and professional preparation for church or mission vocations
requiring ordination.

In order to accomplish the M.Div. curriculum statement, the faculty has identified the following
Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs):
PLO #1: As a future elder, pastor, missionary or educator, comprehend the significant
areas of Biblical Interpretation, Biblical Languages, Christian Theology and Pastoral
ministry.
PLO #2: As a future elder/pastor, construct a personal philosophy of ministry with
application to the desired vocational goals.
PLO #3: As a future teacher of the Scripture, synthesize the input of Biblical languages,
Bible backgrounds and theological constructs to preach and teach the Bible to varied age
levels and abilities within any ministry context.
PLO #4: As a future spiritual leader, exhibit the disciplines of holiness, prayer, and
compassion required for ministry.

2.3 Division of OT Studies

The Division of OT Studies is designed to advance critical thinking skills in linguistic,
exegetical and apologetical aspects of Old Testament study and to promote growth in
disciplined habits for ongoing independent study of the Old Testament.

In order to accomplish the Division of OT Studies curriculum statement, the OT faculty has
identified the following Division Learning Outcomes (DLOs):
DLO #1: As a translator, demonstrate competency with vocabulary, basic grammar,
and standard tools to translate simple biblical Hebrew texts.
DLO #2: As a scholar, implement a sound research methodology to interpret the
Hebrew Bible.
DLO #3: As an exegete, produce an exegetical project reflecting accuracy in critical
thinking and writing.
DLO #4: As an expositor, write a sermon combining accurate translation and exegesis
of the Hebrew text with reliable practical and theological implications.

Required courses in Hebrew Grammar, Hebrew Exegesis, and OT Introduction are
designed to accomplish these purposes.

Hebrew Grammar I & II (OT503/504):
Demonstrate mastery of basic Hebrew vocabulary.
Understand key grammatical and syntactical features.
Translate from major literary types with use of basic aids.

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Hebrew Exegesis I & II (OT603/604):
Syntactically analyze Hebrew phrases and sentences.
Identify key witnesses involved in OT textual criticism.
Exegete a Hebrew text within its context according to the methodology presented
in the course.

OT Introduction (OT796):
Defend OT inspiration, inerrancy, and canonicity.
Understand key aspects of biblical geography.
Introduce Ancient Near Eastern and Israelite history.
Define role of archaeology in OT studies.
Describe types of OT criticism, their problems, and contributions to OT studies.
Outline past and present trends in OT studies.

3.0 Course Rationale

Exegesis is the primary task of the student of biblical literature. It is best learned by
being exercised. Classroom reading, homework assignments, and discussion of selected
texts will provide an atmosphere for learning the specific principles involved in exegeting
the Hebrew Scriptures.

4.0 Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)

This research course will engage the student with the text of the Hebrew Bible. The
learning outcomes for this course are as follows:
SLO #1: The student will be able to demonstrate a mastery of basic Hebrew
vocabulary and grammar through translation of the major literary genres of the
Hebrew Bible. (See DLO #1.)
SLO #2: The student will be able to begin outlining the principles of Hebrew
exegesis in the exegesis of a Hebrew text within its context (completed spring
semester). (See DLO ##2 and 3.)
SLO #3: The student will be able to produce a logical (block) diagram of a text
based upon its syntactical analysis. (See DLO ##1, 2, and 3.)
SLO #4: The student will be able to perform adequate lexical analysis of key
words in the Hebrew text. (See DLO ##1, 2, and 3.)

5.0 Course Alignment Grid

SLO #1 SLO #2 SLO #3 SLO #4
Translation Assignments X
Textbook Reading X X X
Exegetical Paper #1 Syntactical X X
Exegetical Paper #2 Diagrammatical X X
Exegetical Paper #3 Text Critical X X
Exegetical Paper #4 Lexical X X X

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6.0 Portfolio Assignments in the Division of OT Studies

Students in the Division of OT Studies must submit a total of five (5) portfolio
assignments that will provide objective evidence that each student has satisfactorily
fulfilled the Student Learning Outcomes. These portfolio assignments provide the means
of assessment and become a permanent part of the students academic records. Courses
require more than just portfolio assignments in order to accomplish their objectives. The
following list of OT assignments must be in a students portfolio prior to graduation,
which is dependent upon their satisfactory completion:

DLOs
Assessment Indicators Courses
1. As a translator, demonstrate
competency with vocabulary, basic
grammar, and standard tools to
translate simple biblical Hebrew
texts.
OT Narrative Translation
OT Poetry/Prophetic Translation
OT504
OT603
2. As a scholar, implement a sound
research methodology to interpret
the Hebrew Bible.
OT Introduction Project OT796
3. As an exegete, produce an exegetical
project reflecting accuracy in critical
thinking and writing.
Syntactical Analysis Paper OT603
4. As an expositor, write a sermon
combining accurate translation and
exegesis of the Hebrew text with
reliable practical and theological
implications.
Hebrew Exegesis Project OT604

7.0 Rubrics

A rubric provides an explicit set of criteria to be applied in assessing a particular type
of work or assignment. The following sets of rubrics indicate the levels of achievement
and the kind of work that typifies each level for translation and research writing
assignments. The exegetical papers rubrics cover both the writing itself and the content of
the papers (identifying all the various elements involved in the series of papers).
The following pages display the various grading rubrics to be applied to assignments
for OT 603 Hebrew Exegesis I.

7.1 Rubric for Translation Assignments
Criteria Unacceptable

Lacking basics.
Basic

Adequate, but more
is expected at this
level.
Proficient

Well-informed and
skillfully executed.
Exemplary

Worthy to be
imitated.
Vocabulary
Comprehension
Major errors in
recognition. Poor
glosses. Substantial
confusion of similar
terms.
Minor errors in
recognition.
Acceptable glosses.
Some confusion of
similar terms.
Occasional errors in
recognition. Accu-
rate glosses. Virtu-
ally no confusion of
similar terms.
Excellent recogni-
tion. Superb glosses.
No confusion of
similar terms.
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Translation Cannot discern
proper relationships
between words and
phrases. Inaccuracy
in parsing. Skips
several words in each
sentence.
Discerns most
relationships between
words and phrases.
Most parsing is
accurate. Skips only
an occasional word.
Accurate
discernment of rela-
tionships between
words and phrases.
Accurate parsing. No
skipping of words.
But, translation lacks
smoothness and is
overly literal.
Accurate
discernment of rela-
tionships between
words and phrases.
Accurate parsing. No
skipped words. Full,
smooth, idiomatic,
and accurate
translation.

7.2 Rubric for Exegetical Paper AssignmentsWriting
Criteria Unacceptable

Lacking basics.
Basic

Adequate, but more
is expected at this
level.
Proficient

Well-informed and
skillfully executed.
Exemplary

Worthy to be
imitated.
Writing Style
and Format
Regular and
widespread violations
of the Style Guide.
Poor sentence and
paragraph
construction.
Largely adheres to the
Style Guide, a few
minor errors. Writing is
essentially correct
grammatically with
good construction.
Well executed in terms
of style. Grammar and
syntax commensurate
with graduate level
work. Varied vocabu-
lary and use of
technical terms.
Well executed in terms
of style. Excellent
grammar, superior
vocabulary and use of
technical terminology.
Evidence of
Graduate or
Post-
Graduate
Research
Uses only the most
basic resources,
evidencing only
rudimentary research.
Good use of basic
research tools, but
largely nothing beyond
basics. Little evidence
of a probing research
ethic.
Clear evidence of
probing research.
Excellent use of
periodical literature and
other front line
materials.
Obviously thorough
and detailed research.
Excellent use of
materials from all
genres which are
pertinent to the paper.
Organiza-
tion of
Material and
Argumen-
tation
Poorly organized,
structure lacks clarity.
Generally a clear
structure. Not detailed,
but material and argu-
ments are reasonably
organized.
Clear and detailed
structure, follows a
logical flow; cogent
arguments are well laid
out and reasonably
supported.
Excellent and detailed
structure of material.
Argumentation is
presented in a solid,
logical manner, well
documented and
insightful.
Scholarly
Interaction
with
Opposing or
Differing
View(s)
Little or no interaction;
does not represent
opposing view fairly or
with evidence of
nuance of position.
Acknowledges &
grasps opposing
view(s) & arguments
and makes an attempt
at interaction.
Clearly understands
opposing views and
arguments. Clear
interaction with
material.
Firm grasp of all views
on the topic. Clear,
insightful, and detailed
interaction with all
views while defending
the paper.
Coherence
and Logic of
Conclu-
sion(s)
Conclusions presented
are self-evident or
lacking evidence of
thought or conviction.
Logical fallacies are
evident in the
conclusion.
Generally a clearly
presented but
unremarkable
conclusion. Minimal
problems of logic or
coherence.
A clear and coherent
presentation. A
thoroughly thought-out
and logically presented
conclusion.
Demonstrates
compelling grasp of
material makes an
excellent presentation.
Makes a clear and
compelling conclusion.
Contribu-
tion to the
Topic or
Field
Fails to fully
summarize or
contribute insights to
the topic or field of
study.
Provides a good
summary of views
within topic or field.
Minimally advances the
discussion.
Has points of
contribution, with
refinement could have
chapters worthy of
publishing.
Significant, insightful
contribution to the
discussion; a paper
worthy of publication
in all or part.

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7.3 Rubric for Exegetical Paper AssignmentsContent
Criteria Unacceptable

Lacking basics.
Basic

Adequate, but more
is expected at this
level.
Proficient

Well-informed and
skillfully executed.
Exemplary

Worthy to be
imitated.
Translation Cannot discern
proper relationships
between words and
phrases. Inaccuracy
in parsing. Skips
several words in each
sentence.
Discerns most
relationships between
words and phrases.
Most parsing is
accurate. Skips only
an occasional word.
Accurate discern-
ment of relationships
between words and
phrases. Accurate
parsing. No skipped
words. But, transla-
tion lacks smooth-
ness and is overly
literal.
Accurate discern-
ment of relationships
between words and
phrases. Accurate
parsing. No skipped
words. Full, smooth,
idiomatic, and accu-
rate translation.
Syntactical Analysis Cannot identify the
most basic elements
of Hebrew grammar.
Very little under-
standing of gram-
matical relationships.
Grasps only the most
basic elements of
Hebrew grammar.
Some understanding
of grammatical
relationships.
Grasps basic
elements of Hebrew
grammar. Discerns
most grammatical
relationships.
Full knowledge of all
elements of Hebrew
grammar. Excellent
under-standing of
grammatical
relationships.
Diagrammatical
Analysis
Fails to preserve
Hebrew word order.
Does not indicate
proper diagramming
of dependent and
independent clauses
or phrases. Improper
treatment of dialog.
Usually preserves
Hebrew word order.
Occasional correct
diagramming of de-
pendent and inde-
pendent clauses or
phrases. Some re-
cognition of dialog.
Preserves Hebrew
word order. Mostly
correct diagramming
of dependent and
independent clauses
or phrases. Clear
recognition of dialog.
Never violates
Hebrew word order.
Always correctly
diagrams dependent
and independent
clauses or phrases.
Always includes
boxes around dialog
and dialog within
dialog.
Exegesis Exhibits a very lim-
ited understanding of
exegetical signifi-
cance of grammatical
elements.
Displays some
understanding of the
exegetical signifi-
cance of the most
basic grammatical
elements.
Demonstrates an
accurate under-
standing of the
exegetical signifi-
cance of most gram-
matical elements.
Always demonstrates
an accurate under-
standing of every
grammatical ele-
ments exegetical
significance.
Textual Analysis

[TCA = Text-critical
apparatus;
Mp = Masorah
parva]
Inaccurately tran-
scribes TCA and
Mp. Fails to properly
identify text-critical
symbols and abbre-
viations. Fails to
understand textual
problem.
Mostly accurate in
transcribing TCA
and Mp. Properly
identifies 70+% of
text-critical symbols,
abbreviations, and
Mp. Shows some
understanding of
textual problems.
Rarely inaccurate in
transcribing TCA
and Mp. Properly
identifies 90+% of
text-critical symbols,
abbreviations, and
Mp. Usually under-
stands textual
problems.
Total accuracy in
transcribing TCA
and Mp. Properly
identifies all text-
critical symbols,
abbreviations, and
Mp. Demonstrates
understanding of
textual problems.
Lexical Analysis Makes poor choices
of words for lexical
analysis. Inadequate
identification of
contextual factors.
Fails to use adequate
resources accurately.
Chooses words for
lexical analysis with
reasonable expecta-
tion of being a key
word. Some identifi-
cation of contextual
factors. Normally
uses adequate re-
sources accurately.
Chooses only key
words for lexical
analysis. Rarely
misses the identifi-
cation of contextual
factors. Always uses
adequate resources
accurately.
Chooses the most
significant of the key
words for lexical
analysis. Properly
and accurately iden-
tifies contextual fac-
tors. Always uses the
best resources with
complete accuracy.

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8.0 Textbooks [Not yet conformed to Turabians 8th edition.]

8.1 Required Textbooks (*marks required reading)

*Brotzman, Ellis R. Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction.
Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1994.
*Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to
Using Biblical Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.
Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of
the Old Testament. 2 volumes. Revised by Walter Baumgartner and Johann
Jakob Stamm. Translated and edited by M. E. J. Richardson. New York: Brill,
19942000.
Elliger, Karl, and W. Rudolph, eds. Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. 5th edition.
New York: American Bible Society, 1997.

8.2 Recommended Textbooks

Arnold, Bill T., and John H. Choi. A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Holladay, William L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old
Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1988.
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Exegetical Theology: Biblical Exegesis for
Preaching and Teaching. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1981.
Kelley, Page H., Daniel S. Mynatt, and Timothy G. Crawford. The Masorah of
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and Annotated Glossary.
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1998.
Long, Gary A. Grammatical Concepts 101 for Biblical Hebrew: Learning
Biblical Hebrew Grammatical Concepts through English Grammar.
Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2002.
Putnam, Frederic Clarke. Hebrew Bible Insert: A Students Guide. 2nd edition.
Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing, 2002.
Scott, William R. A Simplified Guide to BHS: Critical Apparatus, Masora,
Accents, Unusual Letters & Other Markings. 4th edition. N. Richland Hills,
TX: BIBAL Press, 2007.
Silzer, Peter James, and Thomas John Finley. How Biblical Languages Work: A
Students Guide to Learning Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.


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9.0 COURSE SCHEDULE
WEEK TOPIC ASSIGNMENTS*
1
Aug 27
Introduction: Course Syllabus (all)
and Study Notes, 4145
Translation Principles and
Practices: Study Notes, 4677
Read Chisholm, 718

2
Sept 3
Translation Principles and Practices
(continued)
Read Chisholm, 1929
Written Translation: Gen 3:17
Choice of Text Due
3
Sept 10
Translation Principles and Practices
(continued)
Syntactical Analysis: Study Notes,
78102
Read Chisholm, 5775
Written Translation: Gen 3:816
4
Sept 17
Syntactical Analysis (continued) Read Chisholm, 7594
Written Translation: Gen 3:1724
5
Sept 24
Syntactical Analysis (continued) Read Chisholm, 94117

6
Oct 1
Syntactical Analysis (continued) Read Chisholm, 11942
Written Translation: 1 Kgs 13:110
[PORTFOLIO]
7
Oct 8
Syntactical Analysis (continued)
Diagrammatical Analysis: Study
Notes, 10310
Read Chisholm, 14286
Paper #1: Syntactical Analysis
[PORTFOLIO]
8
Oct 15
Diagrammatical Analysis (continued) Read Chisholm, 187220

9
Oct 22
Diagrammatical Analysis (continued)
Text Critical Analysis: Study Notes,
11117
Read Chisholm, 22178
Read Brotzman, 1762
Written Translation: Jer 23:1522
10
Oct 29
Text Critical Analysis (continued) Read Brotzman, 63106
Paper #2: Diagrammatical Analysis
11
Nov 5
Text Critical Analysis (continued) Read Brotzman, 10732

12
Nov 12
Text Critical Analysis (continued)
Lexical Analysis: Study Notes, 118
27
Read Brotzman, 13370
Paper #3: Text Critical Analysis
13
Nov 19
No Class
National ETS Meetings, Nov 1921
Written Translation: Pss 87:188:1
[PORTFOLIO]
Nov 22Dec 2
Thanksgiving Break
14
Dec 3
Lexical Analysis (continued) Paper #4: Lexical Analysis
15
Dec 10
Final Exam Week Final Exam

* Syllabus reading assignments are recorded in the Topic column of this schedule.

NOTE: All reading assignments are quizzable without warning.
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10.0 Exegetical Papers

10.1 General

An exposition of a selected text of the HB will be produced by stages throughout the
two semesters of this course. The student will be required to choose a text for this
exposition and submit a written abstract (typed and single-spaced, but without footnotes
or bibliography) in the second week of OT603. The abstract must:
(1) identify the text,
(2) specify at least one exegetical problem within the text,
(3) indicate the theological or interpretative significance of the text, and
(4) describe the expositional value of the text.

The student must choose one of the following texts for all papers in Hebrew Exegesis
I and II:
Joshua 1:69
Psalm 46:14
Zechariah 5:811

10.2 Paper Requirements

All papers (not including the abstract, above) must meet the following
requirements:
Instructions for each paper specify the page maximums.
Thesis format. This includes internal headings, pagination, footnotes,
introduction, conclusion, and bibliography. Please follow Kate L.
Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and
Dissertations. 8th ed., rev. by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb,
Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012).
The bibliography for the fourth paper must be formal. Use bibliography
entries in this syllabus as a guideline to style. The bibliography must
contain the sources for all four papers.
Papers ##1 and 4 must begin with a working (i.e., tentative or provisional)
translation of the chosen text.

All papers must be submitted electronically and uploaded to the
Course Home Page on Joule.
All papers must be submitted on the date due. No late papers will be
accepted unless there has been a severe personal or family emergency. I t is
imperative that each student discipline himself to be organized and to work
ahead rather than waiting till the week before a paper is due.
The professor reserves the right to refuse any paper that has not been
written in accord with the principles of sound Christian scholarship:
(1) Graduate level research.
(2) Honest use of sources.
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(3) Original thought and expression.
(4) Consistent logic.
(5) Scriptural methods of interpretation.

10.3 Specifics about Each Paper

10.3.1 Paper #1: Syntactical Analysis (see Study Notes, 78102 [esp.,
8998] and grading sheet and abbreviations for grading comments
in Course Syllabus, 1719)
20 pages maximumincluding separate pages as follows:
translation page and syntactical analysis page(s).
Write a brief introduction (cp. Study Notes, 89).
Identify (includes parsing of verbs, gender and number of nouns,
and classification of all Hebrew words) and discuss the exegetical
significance of the syntactical elements within the chosen text.
What are the interpretative implications of the syntactical elements?
Answer the question, So what? (See sample in Study Notes,
8998.) Be certain to cover all of the syntactical issues discussed in
the Syllabus. Instead of repeating information for identical forms or
words, refer back to your first treatment.
Write a brief summary or conclusion (cp. Study Notes, 98).

10.3.2 Paper #2: Diagrammatical Analysis (see Study Notes, 10310
and grading sheet in Course Syllabus, 20)
2 pages maximumdiagram only. If necessary, arrange the
diagram in landscape mode instead of portrait mode, but keep rest
of the paper in portrait mode. To do this, insert section breaks
before and after the diagram.
You may use colors and shapes in producing the diagramin
order to highlight emphases, parallels, or repetitions.

10.3.3 Paper #3: Text Critical Analysis (see Study Notes, 11117 and
grading sheet in Course Syllabus, 21).
4 pages maximum.
In chart form (see sample in Study Notes, 11617), identify and
translated all masora parva and all text critical apparatus entries for
the verses assigned by the professor upon receiving your
synopsis for choice of text.
Write a brief set of preliminary observations regarding the
exegetical significance of the textual variants for your approved
text.

10.3.4 Paper #4: Lexical Analysis (see Study Notes, 11827 and
grading sheet in Course Syllabus, 22)
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12 pages maximumincluding separate pages as follows: title
page, revised translation page (from Paper #1), diagram page(s),
and bibliography page(s).
Select only two of the most significant key words utilized in your
approved passage and perform context, lexicon, concordance, and
theological dictionary research for each.
Write a brief set of preliminary observations regarding the
exegetical significance of each of the two word studies.
You may have only 4 pages of writing for each of the two words
for a total 8 pages. The remaining pages of the paper are those
listed in the first bullet point above.


11.0 Translations

11.1 General Instructions

All translations must be typed, single-spaced. They must be submitted
electronically and uploaded to the Course Home Page on Joule.
Do not employ an English translation as a pony to aid in translating the
passage. Work only with the Hebrew text and a lexicon (like Holladay, BDB,
or HALOT).
Avoid utilizing computer programs providing parsings.
Do not include any footnotes or alternate translations!
Excellence in translation involves the following factors:
Accuracyconsistently reflective of the underlying Hebrew text and its
grammar.
Claritylack of ambiguity, redundancy, inconsistent tenses, and
unidentifiable antecedents.
Understandabilitysimple, proper English without torturous grammar or
vocabulary.
Readabilityeasily read aloud in public without creating any ambiguities,
misunderstandings, or cultural faux pas.
Contemporaneityavoid literal translations of Hebrew idioms, overly
technical vocabulary, and slang expressions.
Appealattractive format reflecting paragraphing and literary genre
(perhaps even literary devices).

11.2 Examples for Formatting (see pp. 12 and 13)

Note that the first paragraph would normally be indented. The example on the
following page is not indented only because that particular portion of the
translation is actually a kind of heading in the text of Genesis 37.
The translation must be arranged in paragraphs in English style. Failure to
employ paragraphing will result in an automatic deduction of 10%.
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Poetic texts must be formatted as poetry in poetic lines. Failure to employ
poetic format for poetic texts will result in an automatic deduction of 10%.
Example (using the NAU of Ps 16):

1 A Mikhtam of David.
Preserve me, O God, for I take refuge in You.
2 I said to Yahweh, You are my Lord;
I have no good besides You.

3 As for the saints who are in the earth,
They are the majestic ones in whom is all my delight.

Failure to provide verse numbers as exhibited in the sample translation will
result in an automatic deduction of 10%.
Failure to submit a single-spaced copy will result in an automatic deduction
of 10%.
Employ one of the following as the translation for : Yahweh or YHWH.
The use of Lord will always be assumed to represent . LORD will
not suffice, since the hearer cannot distinguish between Lord and LORD.
Violation of this distinction will result in deduction of 1% for every single
mistranslation within an assignment.
Use italics to show words added to the English translation to make sense that
are not in the Hebrew text nor indicated by Hebrew grammar. For example,
:: :s - :zs :s :s, So YHWH God said,
The man being alone is not good. The copula (is) is not in the Hebrew
text, but is demanded by the grammar, so it is not italicized. Never use
parentheses for supplying added words.

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Genesis 37:111 Hezekiah
Barebones


[1] Jacob eventually settled in the land of his fathers sojournings, in the land of
Canaan. [2] This is the history of Jacob:
Joseph was 17 years old. He was tending the flock with his brothers he was a
young man together with the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah, his fathers wives.
One day Joseph brought a bad report about them to their father.
[3] Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons because he was a son of his old age
so Israel had made a long-sleeved tunic for him. [4] Thus his brothers saw that their father
loved him more than all his brothers, so they hated him and were not able to speak
peaceably with him. [5] Then Joseph had a dream and revealed it to his brothers. As a
result, they hated him all the more. [6] So he said to them, Listen to this dream I had! [7]
We were about to bind sheaves in the midst of the field when my sheaf arose and even
stood upright. Then your sheaves gathered around and proceeded to bow down to my
sheaf.
[8] So his brothers asked him, Will you really be king over us if, indeed, you
could rule us? Thus they hated him all the more because of his dreams and his words.
[9] Then he had yet another dream and related it to his brothers. He said, Look
here, I have had a dream again. The sun, the moon, and eleven stars were bowing down to
me.
[10] Then he related it to his father and his brothers. But his father rebuked him
and asked him, What is this dream which you have had? Will I, your mother, and your
brothers really come to bow down to you on the ground? [11] Therefore, his brothers
were jealous of him, but his father kept the matter in mind.

Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 14
TMSFall 2013

11.3 TRANSLATION CORRECTIONS
The following letters will be employed by the professor in marking student translations.
Be certain to review graded translations so that mistakes are not repeated.

A. Unclearambiguous English meaning.
B. Misleading.
C. Culturally objectionable in modern American setting.
D. Unnatural English.
E. Requires refinement in English style.
F. Fails to maintain the historical, geographical or cultural facts of the
original event in its setting.
G. Incorrect English punctuation.
H. Hard to understandlanguage too antiquated, theological, technical, etc.
I. Inaccurate.
I1 Inaccurate lexically.
I2 Inaccurate grammatically.
I2a Definiteness.
I2b Number (singular, dual, plural).
I2c Genitives (construct state).
I2d Disjunctive clauses (waw + non-verb).
I2e Perfect/Imperfect statives.
I2f Modals (imperatives, jussives, cohortatives).
I2g Wayyiqtol (sequence).
I2h Voice (active, passive, middle, reflexive).
I2i Infinitive absolute (CIAs).
I2j Participles (continuous or characteristic).
I2k Stems (Qal, Nifal, Hifil, Hofal, Piel, Pual, Hithpael).

J. Inconsistent with the immediate context.
M. Idiom mistranslated.
P. Plagiarized from a published translation.
Q. Interrogative not properly translated as a question.
R. Redundantsame word or phrase repeated too often in close proximity.
S. Hebrew accents misunderstood or not considered.
T. Followed textual critical error.
W. Word order misconstrued.

Underlined translation in the professors markings means that the students translation
was better than acceptable, it was well done.

Circled translation in the professors markings means that the students translation is
problematic.

A question mark (?) in the professors markings means that the students translation is
debatable.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 15
TMSFall 2013

11.4 Translation Grading

See the Translation Rubric on p. 4.

Genesis 3
1 Kings 13:110
Jeremiah 23:1522
Psalms 87:188:1
I I, J, B

Minus Grade Minus Grade
0 A+ 100 0 A+
13 A 99-96 17 A
49 A- 95-94 813 A-
1017 B+ 93-92 1421 B+
1825 B 91-88 2229 B
2631 B- 87-86 3038 B-
3237 C+ 85-84 3945 C+
3841 C 83-80 4652 C
4251 C- 79-78 5360 C-
5257 D+ 77-76 6169 D+
5862 D 75-72 7075 D
6369 D- 71-70 7685 D-
70+ F 69-0 86+ F

11.5 Translation Muffs and Laughs

This foot is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh (Gen 2:23).
The man answered, The women you gave me (Gen 3:12).
and he wrapped his waste in sackcloth (Gen 37:34).
Then the nose of the LORD became hot (2 Sam 6:7).
and they offered a sacrifice and made vowels (Jon 1:16).
who rejoices like a hero to run a way (Ps 19:6).
Begin to sin exultantly all you who are upright in heart! (Ps 32:11).
and they had not reached the bottom of the pit before the lions
overpowered them and their bottoms were shattered (Dan 6:25, Aramaic).


Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 16
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12.0 Course Grading System

The following system will be employed in figuring your final grade in the course.

12.1 Letter Grade and Percentage Equivalents

For all assignments a letter grade will be awarded.

Letter Percent
A+ 100
A 96
A- 94
B+ 92
B 90
B- 86
C+ 84
C 81
C- 78
D+ 75
D 72
D- 70
F 0

12.2 Grading Percentage by Assignments

The percentages listed below represent the portions of the final course grade.

Translations 30%
Papers ##14 40%
Final Exam 15%
Required Reading* 15%
100%

*Required Reading
The following must be read during this semester or the preceding summer
break regardless of any prior reading for any other course. Even if you read
it before, it must be read again. All required reading is quizzable without
warning.
All of Chisholm as scheduled in the Course Schedule.
All of Brotzman.
All of the Study Notes.

12.3 Grading of Exegetical Papers

The following (pp. 1722) are the forms used for grading each paper.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 17
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Grading Paper #1: Syntactical Analysis

Hezekiah Barebones Box #123

Area Explanation Out of
(Points)
Grade
Research (12) Accurate use of resources. (3)
Pertinent appeal to resources. (3)
Honest use (no plagiarism or purposeful
distortion) of resources.
(2)
Adequate use of resources (minimum:
OT503/504 grammar, Putnam, Chisholm,
Holladay).
(4)
Format & Style (6) Pagination (page number on each page of the
paper), Times Roman size 12 font, and
double-spaced as described in TMS
Guidelines, course syllabus, and Turabian.
(3)
Footnote style per above. (3)
Preliminary
Translation (8)
Single page, double-spaced, paragraphing,
verse numbers, no footnotes.
(3)
Translation accuracy. (5)
Syntactical Introduction (must be present). (2)
Analysis (74) Exhaustive treatment of every word, phrase,
and clause.
(10)
Accurate grammatical identifications for
individual elements.
(20)
Accurate identification of relationships
between grammatical elements.
(20)
Accurate identification of exegetical
significance.
(20)
Conclusion or summarypresent, accurate,
and pointing to future research.
(2)
Grade: (100)

Paper Order:
p. 1 = Translation Page
pp. 220 = Body


See instructions for Paper #1 on p. 10 and exegetical paper rubrics on pp. 56.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 18
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SYNTACTICAL ANALYSIS
KEY TO GRADING COMMENTS
OT603

ABBREV COMMENT
>way Where is the leading verb of the wayyiqtol chain?
>w
e
Where is the leading verb of the w
e
qatal chain?
ACC Accentnote which accent is employed (cf. Putnam 4).
ADJ What is the grammatical construction with the adjective here? (cf. Putnam
1.7)
AGREE? What do the principles of grammatical agreement indicate in this situation?
(cf. Putnam 1.3)
ALL?
What is the grammar of involved here?
AN? Why is this noun anarthrous? (cf. Putnam 1.4.1)
ANT? What is the antecedent?
APO? Where is the apodosis?
APP? Which usage of apposition is involved here? (cf. Putnam 1.8.2, 3.4)
ART? What usage of the article is involved here? (cf. Putnam 1.4.3)
CON? What is the force of the conditional clause here?
CONSTR? Which usage of the construct state is involved here? (cf. Putnam 1.8.1)
D? Which usage of the Piel/Pual is involved here? (cf. Putnam 2.1.4, 2.1.5)
DisjCl What is the function and significance of the disjunctive clause here? (cf.
Putnam 3.2.2)
DOM?
Why is the direct object marker ( ) used here? See Gibsons excursus.
E2E See Chisholm, From Exegesis to Exposition
EMPH? What are the evidences for some form of emphasis being involved here?
ERR Erroneous grammatical identification.
ES?? What is the exegetical significance?
ESimpf What is the exegetical significance of the Imperfect here? (cf. Putnam
2.2.2)
ESinf What is the use and significance of the infinitive here? (cf. Putnam 2.2.6,
2.2.7)
ESmod What is the use and significance of the modal verb here? (cf. Putnam 2.2.4)
ESpart What is the exegetical significance of the particle used here? (cf. Putnam
3.3)
ESperf What is the exegetical significance of the Perfect here? (cf. Putnam 2.2.1)
EVID? What evidence or proof can you offer to prove this point?
EXTRA? What is the function and exegetical significance of the extraposition (casus
pendens or nominative absolute) here?
FN? Where is the footnote?
FUNCT? What is the function of this particular word?
G? Which usage of the Qal is involved here? (cf. Putnam 2.1.1, 1.1.2)
GIBS See Gibson, Davidsons Introductory Hebrew GrammarSyntax
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 19
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ABBREV COMMENT
GKC See Gesenius Hebrew Grammar
H? Which usage of the Hifil/Hofal is involved here? (cf. Putnam 2.1.7, 2.1.8)
HBI See Putnam, Hebrew Bible Insert
HEN What are the evidences for hendiadys here? (cf. Putnam 1.8.3, 2.3)
Ht? Which usage of the Hithpael is involved here? (cf. Putnam 2.1.6)
IBHS See Waltke & OConnor, Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax
INC Incomplete sentence.
INT What is the function of the interrogative here? (cf. Putnam 1.5.3)
ITAL Italicize.
L?
Which use of the is involved here in this construction?
LEX Consult the lexicons on this word.
MAC? Is this being used as a macrosyntactical marker in this context? (cf. Putnam
2.2.3b, 3.2.1e)
MNG? What is the resultant meaning (translation)?
MOD? What word or phrase does this phrase modify?
N? Which usage of the Nifal is involved here? (cf. Putnam 2.1.3)
NEG? What is the force of the negative particle here?
NUM? Why the change in grammatical number (e.g., singular to plural)?
NUMB What is the grammar of the Hebrew numeral(s) here? (cf. Putnam 1.6)
OSIMP Oversimplification.
OT? Are there other examples in the OT?
P/R? What is the evidence pro/con purpose or result here?
PRO? Where is the protasis?
PRON? What is the function of the pronoun or pronominal suffix here? (cf. Putnam
1.5.1, 1.5.2, 1.5.5)
PTCP? Why is the participle used here? (cf. Putnam 2.2.5)
REL What is the function of the relative here? (cf. Putnam 1.5.4)
SEEC See my prior comment(s).
SEQ Sequenceespecially regarding the sequential nature of wayyiqtol.
SOL? What is the solution to the problem? Which view will you take? Why?
SRCS? What are your sources for this information?
TIME? What is the time element involved here?
UNCL Unclear writing or description.
WAW? What is the function and meaning of waw here?
WO? Is the word order normal here?
X? How often does this word/construction occur?



Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 20
TMSFall 2013


Grading Paper #2: Diagrammatical Analysis

Hezekiah Barebones Box #123

Area Explanation Out of
(Points)
Grade
Macrosyntactic
structure (20)
Accurate understanding of the larger structure
of the text.
(20)
Grammatical
relationships (20)
Accurate subordination of dependent clauses
and phrases.
(20)
Retention of word
order (20)
No alteration in word order. (20)
Internal
relationships (20)
Observance of repetitions, parallelisms,
emphases, etc.
(20)
Visual effect (20) Appealing to the eye, simple to understand. (20)
Grade: (100)

Paper Order:
pp. 12 = BodyDiagram

See instructions for Paper #2 on p. 10 and exegetical paper rubrics on pp. 56.


Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 21
TMSFall 2013


Grading Paper #3: Text Critical Analysis

Hezekiah Barebones Box #123

Area Explanation Out of
(Points)
Grade
Masorah parva All required Mp fully and accurately copied. (20)
(40) Accurate translation of Mp. (20)
Textual critical All required TCA fully and accurately copied. (20)
apparatus (40) Accurate translation of TCA. (20)
Preliminary
Observations
(20)
Thesis style. Pertinent resources. (20)
Grade: (100)

Paper Order:
pp. 12 = BodyMasorah parva analysis chart
pp. 34 = BodyText critical apparatus analysis chart

See instructions for Paper #3 on pp. 1011 and exegetical paper rubrics on pp. 56.

Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 22
TMSFall 2013

Grading Paper #4: Lexical Analysis

Hezekiah Barebones Box #123

Area Explanation Out of
(Points)
Grade
Preliminary
Translation (10)
Single page, double-spaced, paragraphing,
verse numbers, no footnotes, proper
formatting (esp., poetry).
(5)
Translation accuracy and appropriate revisions
from Paper #1.
(5)
Choice of Words
(10)
1st: Key term in context best contributing to
the exegesis of the text.
(5)
2nd: Key term in context contributing
significantly to the exegesis of the text.
(5)
Contextual
sensitivity (15)
Pay attention to how the immediate context
affects the meanings of each word.
(15)
Lexicon research
(10)
At least 2 lexicons for each word and
demonstrating full reading of the entries.
(10)
Concordance
research (15)
At least 1 concordance and inclusion of
statistics for usages.
(15)
Theological
dictionary
research (20)
At least 2 theological dictionaries and
demonstrating full reading of the entries.
(20)
Bibliography &
footnotes (20)
Thesis style bibliography. Pertinent resources
(for Papers ##14).
(10)
Thesis style footnotes. (10)
Grade: (100)

Paper Order:
p. 1 = Title Page
p. 2 = Translation Page
pp. 310 = Body
pp. 1112 = Bibliography

See instructions for Paper #4 on p. 11 and exegetical paper rubrics on pp. 56.

Note how to cite theological dictionary entries as a footnote and bibliography entry:

2
A. S. Van der Woude, :, in Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament, 3 vols.,
ed. by Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, trans. by Mark E. Biddle, 2:61011 (Peabody,
MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997), 610.

Van der Woude, A. S. : . In Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 volumes.
Edited by Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann. Translated by Mark E. Biddle, 2:610
11. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 23
TMSFall 2013


13.0 Bibliography [Not yet conformed to Turabians 8th edition.]

A P R E L I MI N A R Y B I B L I OGR A P HY
F OR HE B R E W E XE GE S I S

13.1 Books
1


Aharoni, Yohanan. The Land of the Bible: A Historical Survey. Revised edition.
Translated by A. F. Rainey. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1979.
, and Michael Avi-Yonah. The Macmillan Bible Atlas. Revised edition. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1977.
The best Bible atlas for studying the individual biblical events involving movement. Especially
helpful for biblical battles and travels.WDB
Alexander, T. Desmond, and David W. Baker, eds. Dictionary of the Old Testament:
Pentateuch. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003.
Andersen, Francis I. The Sentence in Biblical Hebrew. 1974. Reprint, The Hague: Mouton
Publishers, 1980.
Archer, Gleason L. Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Publishing, 1982.
, and Gregory Chirichigno. Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament .
Chicago: Moody Press, 1983.
Arnold, Bill T., and John H. Choi. A Guide to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press, 2003.
, and H. G. M. Williamson, eds. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical
Books. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2005.
See the review in MSJ 19, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 1079.WDB
Babut, Jean-Marc. Les Expressions Idiomatiques de lHbreu Biblique: Signification et
TraductionUn essai danalyse componentielle. Cahiers de la Revue Biblique 33.
Paris: J. Gabalda et C
ie
diteurs, 1995.
. Idiomatic Expressions of the Hebrew Bible: Their Meaning and Translation
through Componential Analysis. Translated by Sarah E. Lind. North Richland Hills,
TX: BIBAL Press, 1999.
Bailey, Kenneth E. Poet & Peasant and Through Peasant Eyes: A Literary-Cultural
Approach to the Parables of Luke. Combined edition. 2 volumes in 1. 1983. Reprint,
Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1992.
An analysis of selected parables in the Gospel of Luke emphasizing literary structure and
cultural setting. Each study concludes with a listing of the theological motifs of the parable.
Although this book is about the NT, it provides valuable insight into the role of ANE studies in
exegesis.WDB
Baker, David W., and Bill T. Arnold, eds. The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey
of Contemporary Approaches. Grand Rapids: Apollos/Baker Books, 1999.
See the review in MSJ 11, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 23942.WDB
Baly, Denis. The Geography of the Bible: A Study in Historical Geography. Revised
edition. New York: Harper & Row, 1974.

1
Do not divide your paper bibliographies into these categories. Use one unified listing.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 24
TMSFall 2013

Barr, James. Comparative Philology and the Text of the Old Testament . Winona Lake,
IN: Eisenbrauns, 1987.
. The Semantics of Biblical Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.
. The Typology of Literalism in Ancient Biblical Translations. Mitteilungen des
Septuaginta-Unternehmens 15. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1979.
Barrick, William D. Leviticus 26: Its Relationship to Covenant Contexts and Concepts.
Unpublished Th.D. Dissertation, Grace Theological Seminary, 1981.
In this study of Leviticus 26, Chapter 2 is an example of text-critical analysis and chapter 3 is
an example of exegetical analysis. The structural analysis of Lev 26:43 (153) and the
syntactical analysis of Lev 26:1445 (161) present alternatives to the more conventional
method of diagrammatical analysis.WDB
Barthlemy, Dominique, et al. Preliminary and Interim Report on the Hebrew Old
Testament Text Project. 5 volumes. New York: United Bible Societies, 19791980.
UBS hopes to eventually employ a reduced selection from this material to produce the
equivalent of Bruce M. Metzgers A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament
(London/New York: United Bible Societies, 1971) for the OT.WDB
Barthes, R., et al. Structural Analysis and Biblical Exegesis: Interpretational Essays.
Pittsburgh Theological Monograph Series 3. Edited by Dikran Y. Hadidian.
Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1974.
Beale, G. K., and D. A. Carson, eds. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old
Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.
Beekman, John, and John Callow. Translating the Word of God. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing, 1974.
Bergen, Robert D., ed. Biblical Hebrew and Discourse Linguistics. Dallas: Summer
Institute of Linguistics, 1994.
Biguenet, John, and Rainer Schulte, eds. The Craft of Translation. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1989.
Block, Daniel I. The Gods of the Nations: Studies in Ancient Near Eastern National
Theology. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2000.
Bodine, Walter R., ed. Linguistics and Biblical Hebrew. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns,
1992.
Botterweck, G. Johannes, and Helmer Ringgren, eds. Theological Dictionary of the Old
Testament. 15 volumes. Translated by John T. Willis et al. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans
Publishing, 1974.
Brenner, Athalya. Colour Terms in the Old Testament. Journal for the Study of the Old
Testament Supplement Series 21. Sheffield, UK: University of Sheffield, 1982.
Brooke, Alan England, and Norman McLean, eds. The Old Testament in Greek
According to the Text of Codex Vaticanus, Supplemented from Other Uncial
Manuscripts. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1909.
Brotzman, Ellis R. Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Grand
Rapids: Baker Books, 1994.
Brotzman produced the most helpful basic introduction to OT textual criticism. It is especially
informative because he includes an examination of all of the major textual problems in the
Book of Ruth WDB
Broyles, Craig C., ed. Interpreting the Old Testament: A Guide for Exegesis. Grand
Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.
Brueggemann, Walter. The Land: Place as Gift, Promise, and Challenge in Biblical
Faith. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 25
TMSFall 2013

Callow, Kathleen. Discourse Considerations in Translating the Word of God. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1974.
Carson, D. A. Exegetical Fallacies. Grand Rapids: Baker Book, 1984.
Carsons volume should be required reading for every seminary student before he is allowed to
begin any classes.WDB
. The Inclusive Language Debate: A Plea for Realism. Grand Rapids: Baker
Books, 1998.
Chisholm, Robert B., Jr. A Workbook for Intermediate Hebrew. Grand Rapids: Kregel
Publications, 2006.
Cleave, Richard. The Holy Land Satellite Atlas. 2 volumes. Nicosia, Cyprus: Rohr
Productions, 1999.
Not only are these volumes beautifully illustrated with full-color photos (both satellite and
non-satellite), they are accompanied by a very useful CD-ROM with a 3-D user-controlled
projection of Palestine.WDB
Cohen, David. Dictionnaire des Racines Smitiques ou attestes dans les langues
smitiques. Comprenant un fichier comparatif de Jean Cantineau. Paris: Mouton,
1971.
Collins, C. John. Genesis 14: A Linguistic, Literary, and Theological Commentary.
Philippsburg, NJ: P & R Publishing, 2006.
See the review in MSJ 19, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 11114.WDB
Committee on Translations of the United Bible Socieities. Fauna and Flora of the Bible.
Helps for Translators 11. London: United Bible Societies, 1972.
Cotterell, Peter, and Max Turner. Linguistics & Biblical Interpretation. Downers Grove,
IL: InterVarsity Press, 1989.
Danker, Frederick W. Multipurpose Tools for Bible Study. Revised and expanded edition.
Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Dearman, J. Andrew. Religion & Culture in Ancient Israel. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
Publishers, 1992.
Dockery, David S., Kenneth A. Mathews, and Robert B. Sloan, eds. Foundations for
Biblical Interpretation: A Complete Library of Tools and Resources. Nashville:
Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1999.
Dorsey, David A. The Literary Structure of the Old Testament: A Commentary on
Genesis-Malachi. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.
Although chiastic structures are legitimate literary devices in the Hebrew bible, Dorsey
sometimes identifies their presence in much too subjective a fashion.WDB
Driver, S. R. A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical
Questions. 3rd edition, revised. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969.
Even-Shoshan, Abraham, ed. A New Concordance of the Bible: Thesaurus of the
Language of the Bible: Hebrew and Aramaic Roots, Words, Proper Names, Phrases
and Synonyms. Jerusalem: Kiryat Sepher, 1983.
Even-Shoshans concordance is the best Hebrew concordance available.WDB
Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas Stuart. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth: A Guide to
Understanding the Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1982.
See the review in MSJ 8, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 11617.WDB
Field, Fridericus, ed. Origenis Hexaplorum quae supersunt sive Veterum Interpretum
Graecorum in Totum Vetus Testamentum. 2 volumes. 1875. Reprint, Hildesheim,
Germany: Georg Olms, 1964.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 26
TMSFall 2013

Fischer, Bonifatio, Johanne Gribomont, and H. F. D. Sparks, eds. Biblia Sacra Iuxta
Vulgatam Versionem. 2 volumes. Revised by Robertus Weber. Stuttgart:
Wrttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1969.
France, R. T. Jesus and the Old Testament: His Application of Old Testament Passages
to Himself and His Mission. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1971.
Furuli, Rolf. The Role of Theology and Bias in Bible Translation. Huntington Beach, CA:
Elihu Books, 1999.
Futato, Mark D. Interpreting the Psalms: An Exegetical Handbook. Handbooks for Old
Testament Exegesis. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic & Professional, 2007.
See the review in MSJ 19, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 11821.WDB
Gage, Warren Austin. The Gospel of Genesis: Studies in Protology and Eschatology.
Winona Lake, IN: Carpenter Books, 1984.
Gall, August Freiherrn von. Der hebrische Pentateuch der Samaritaner. Reprint, Berlin:
Alfred Tpelmann, 1966.
Gibson, J. C. L. Davidsons Introductory Hebrew GrammarSyntax. 4th edition.
Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1994.
See the review in MSJ 8, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 12021.WDB
Gordis, Robert. The Biblical Text in the Making: A Study of the Kethib-Qere.
Augmented edition. N.p.: Ktav Publishing House, 1971.
Gorman, Michael J. Elements of Biblical Exegesis: A Basic Guide for Students and
Ministers. Revised and expanded edition. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers,
2009.
Greenspoon, Leonard. Hebrew Into Greek: Interpretation In, By, and Of the Septuagint.
In A History of Biblical Interpretation: Volume 1, The Ancient Period. Edited by
Alan J. Hauser and Duane F. Watson, 80113. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing,
2003.
Greenstein, Edward L. Essays on Biblical Method and Translation. Brown Judaic
Studies 92. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989.
Greidanus, Sidney. Preaching Christ from the Old Testament: A Contemporary
Hermeneutical Method. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1999.
Hallo, William W., and K. L. Younger, Jr., eds. The Context of Scripture: Canonical
Compositions from the Biblical World. Volume 1. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997.
Harris, R. Laird, Gleason L. Archer, and Bruce K. Waltke, eds. Theological Wordbook of
the Old Testament. 2 volumes. Chicago: Moody Press, 1980.
Harrison, R. K. Old Testament Times. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1970.
Hatch, Edwin, and Harry A. Redpath, eds. A Concordance to the Septuagint and the
Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (including the Apocryphal books). 3
volumes in 2. Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1975.
Heller, Roy L. Narrative Structure and Discourse Constellations: An Analysis of Clause
Function in Biblical Hebrew Prose. Harvard Semitic Studies 55. Winona Lake, IN:
Eisenbrauns, 2004.
Hillers, Delbert R. Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1974.
Hindson, Edward E. The Philistines and the Old Testament. Baker Studies in Biblical
Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book, 1971.
Hoerth, Alfred J. Archaeology and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 27
TMSFall 2013

, Gerald L. Mattingly, and Edwin M. Yamauchi, eds. Peoples of the Old
Testament World. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1994.
Horbury, William, ed. Hebrew Study from Ezra to Ben-Yehuda. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark,
1999.
See the review in MSJ 11, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 25254.WDB
Jacques, Xavier. List of Septuagint Words Sharing Common Elements. Rome: Biblical
Institute Press, 1972.
Jellicoe, Sidney. The Septuagint and Modern Study. Reprint, Ann Arbor, MI:
Eisenbrauns, 1978.
Jenni, Ernst, and Claus Westermann, eds. Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3
volumes. Translated by Mark E. Biddle. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1997.
. Theologisches Handwrterbuch zum Alten Testament . 2 volumes. Mnchen:
Chr. Kaiser Verlag, 1971, 1976.
Jobes, Karen H., and Moiss Silva. Invitation to the Septuagint. Grand Rapids: Baker
Academic, 2000.
Joon, Paul. A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew. 2 volumes. Translated and revised by T.
Muraoka. Subsidia Biblica 14/III. Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1996.
Kaiser, Otto, and Werner G. Kmmel. Exegetical Method: A Student Handbook. Revised
edition. Translated by E. V. N. Goetschius and M. J. OConnell. New York: Seabury
Press, 1981.
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Hard Sayings of the Old Testament. Downers Grove, IL:
InterVarsity Press, 1988.
. A History of Israel From the Bronze Age Through the Jewish Wars. Nashville:
Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998.
. More Hard Sayings of the Old Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity
Press, 1992.
. Toward an Exegetical Theology: Biblical Exegesis for Preaching and Teaching.
Grand Rapids: Baker Book, 1981.
Kaiser presents logical/block Hebrew diagramming with parallel English homiletic outline as a
valuable means of viewing and understanding the text.WDB
, and Moiss Silva. An Introduction to Biblical Hermeneutics: The Search for
Meaning. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1994.
Kantenwein, Lee L. Diagrammatical Analysis. Revised edition. Winona Lake, IN: BMH,
1991.
Kautzsch, E., ed. Gesenius Hebrew Grammar. 2nd English edition. Translated and
revised by A. E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910.
GKC is still the only exhaustive research grammar of classical Hebrew in the English language.
It is out of date in many areas and is a translation and revision of the German edition edited by
Emil Kautzsch.WDB
Keel, Othmar. The Symbolism of The Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern Iconography
and the Book of Psalms. Translated by Timothy J. Hallett. New York: Seabury Press,
1978.
This limited study demonstrates the significance of archaeological evidence in OT exegesis. By
using the epigraphical evidence, Keel is able to provide the reader with visible illustrations.
WDB
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 28
TMSFall 2013

Kelley, Page H., Daniel S. Mynatt, and Timothy G. Crawford. The Masorah of Biblia
Hebraica Stuttgartensia: Introduction and Annotated Glossary. Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans Publishing, 1998.
No handier volume is available for the interpretation of the minor masorah in BHS. It is held
on reserve in the library for Paper #3.WDB
Although Page Kelley (19241997) died shortly before the completion of this book, his
collaboratorsDaniel Mynatt (Anderson College) and Timothy Crawford (Bluefield College)
were able to complete the volume without his guiding hand (p. xiv), since the bulk of the
work, which represents the fruit of more than a decade of study in a graduate seminar, was
done.Frederic Clarke Putnam, JETS 44, no. 1 (March 2001): 135.
King, Philip J., and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Library of Ancient Israel.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001.
Klein, Ralph W. Israel in Exile: A Theological Interpretation. Philadelphia: Fortress,
1979.
. Textual Criticism of the Old Testament: The Septuagint after Qumran. Guides
to Biblical Scholarship (Old Testament Series). Edited by Gene M. Tucker.
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974.
Knight, Douglas A., and Gene M. Tucker, eds. The Hebrew Bible and Its Modern
Interpreters. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1985.
Koehler, Ludwig, and Walter Baumgartner, eds. Hebrisches und aramisches Lexikon
zum Alten Testament. 3rd edition. Revised by Walter Baumgartner et al. Edited by B.
Hartmann et al. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1967.
. The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 5 volumes. Revised by
Walter Baumgartner and Johann Jakob Stamm. Translated and edited by M. E. J.
Richardson. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 19942000.
Now available on CD-ROM from E. J. Brill with search capabilities in Hebrew, Greek,
English, and transliterations. Hyperlinked with references and biblical texts.WDB
Kogut, Simcha. -sz --:: s: -.ze z -ze: -:-
-:: . .s: :.z -:: [The Authority of Masoretic
Accents in Traditional Biblical Exegesis]. In Shaarei Talmon: Studies in the Bible,
Qumran, and the Ancient Near East Presented to Shemaryahu Talmon. Edited by
Michael Fishbane and Emmanuel Tov, 153*65*. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns,
1992.
Kuhn, Karl Georg, ed. Konkordanz zu den Qumrantexten. Gttingen: Vandenhoeck &
Ruprecht, 1960.
Lambdin, Thomas O. Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. New York: Charles Scribers
Sons, 1971.
Larson, Mildred. A Manual for Problem Solving in Bible Translation. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing, 1975.
Lewis, Jack P. Historical Backgrounds of Bible History. Grand Rapids: Baker Book,
1971.
Lisowsky, Gerhard. Konkordanz zum hebrischen alten Testament. 2nd edition.
Stuttgart: Wrttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1958.
Lohse, Eduard, ed. Die Texte aus Qumran. 2nd edition, revised. Mnchen: Ksel-Verlag,
1971.
Longenecker, Richard N. Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period. Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans Publishing, 1975.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 29
TMSFall 2013

Longman, Tremper, III. Old Testament Commentary Survey. 2nd edition. Grand Rapids:
Baker Book, 1995.
Mandelkern, Solomon. Veteris Testamenti concordantiae hebraicae atque chaldaicae.
Jerusalem: Schocken Press, 1967.
Matthews, Victor H. Manners and Customs in the Bible. Revised edition. Peabody, MA:
Hendrickson Publishers, 1991.
, and Don C. Benjamin, Jr. Old Testament Parallels: Laws and Stories from the
Ancient Near East. New York: Paulist Press, 1991.
. Social World of Ancient Israel, 1250587 BCE. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
Publishers, 1993.
McCarter, P. Kyle. Textual Criticism: Recovering the Text of the Hebrew Bible.
Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.
McConville, J. Gordon. Grace in the End: A Study in Deuteronomic Theology. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1993.
McNamara, Martin. Interpretation of Scripture in the Targumim. In A History of
Biblical Interpretation: Volume 1, The Ancient Period. Edited by Alan J. Hauser and
Duane F. Watson, 16797. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 2003.
Merrill, Eugene H. Everlasting Dominion: A Theology of the Old Testament . Nashville:
B&H Publishing, 2006.
Miller, J. Maxwell. The Old Testament and the Historian. Guides to Biblical Scholarship
(Old Testament Series). Edited by Gene M. Tucker. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1976.
Mitchel, Larry A. A Students Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1984.
Moor, Johannes C. de, ed. Synchronic or Diachronic?: A Debate on Method in Old
Testament Exegesis. Vol. 34 of Oudtestamentische Studin. Edited by Johannes C.
de Moor. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995.
Mulder, Martin Jan. Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading & Interpretation of the Hebrew
Bible in Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson
Publishers, 2004.
See the review in MSJ 16, no. 2 (Fall 2005): 34647.WDB
. The Transmission of the Biblical Text. In Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading &
Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity. Edited
by Martin Jan Mulder, 87135. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2004
Muraoka, T. Emphatic Words and Structures in Biblical Hebrew. Jerusalem: Magnes
Press, 1985.
Nida, Eugene A. Toward a Science of Translating: With Special Reference to Principles
and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1964.
, and Charles R. Taber. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Helps for
Translators 8. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974.
Orlinsky, Harry M., and Robert G. Bratcher. A History of Bible Translation and the
North American Contribution. Society of Biblical Literature Centennial Publications.
Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1991.
Parker, T. H. L. Calvins New Testament Commentaries. 2nd edition. Louisville:
Westminster/John Knox Press, 1993.
Of special interest is chapter 8, Prolegomena to Exegesis.WDB
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 30
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Peshitta Institute of the University of Leiden, eds. The Old Testament in Syriac
According to the Peshitta Version. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1966.
Porter, Stanley E., and Richard S. Hess, eds. Translating the Bible: Problems and
Prospects. Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement Series 173.
Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.
Dont allow the JSNTSS title to mislead you. The majority of essays have direct application to
the OT.WDB
Price, James D. The Syntax of Masoretic Accents in the Hebrew Bible. Studies in the
Bible and Early Christianity 27. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990.
Pritchard, James B., ed. The Ancient Near East. Volume I: An Anthology of Texts and
Pictures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973.
See, also, the works by William W. Hallo and K. L. Younger, Jr., as well as Victor H.
Matthews and Don C. Benjamin, Jr., above, and John H. Walton, below.WDB
. The Ancient Near East. Volume II: A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.
. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament with Supplement .
3rd edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Puckett, David L. John Calvins Exegesis of the Old Testament. Columbia Series in
Reformed Theology. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1995.
Putnam, Frederic Clarke, comp. A Cumulative Index to the Grammar and Syntax of
Biblical Hebrew. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996.
Rahlfs, Alfred, ed. Septuaginta, id est Vetus Testamentum graece iuxta LXX interpretes.
2 volumes. 9th edition. Stuttgart: Wrttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1971.
Raitt, Thomas. A Theology of Exile: Judgment/Deliverance in Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.
Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press, 1992.
Reider, Joseph. An Index to Aquila. Revised by Nigel Turner. Vetus Testamentum
Supplement 12. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1966.
Roberts, Bleddyn J. The Old Testament Text and Versions: The Hebrew Test in
Transmission and the History of the Ancient Versions. Cardiff: University of Wales
Press, 1951.
Rooker, Mark F. Studies in Hebrew Language, Intertextuality, and Theology. Texts and
Studies in Religion 98. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.
See the review in MSJ 17, no. 1 (Spring 2006): 12628. WDB
Rosscup, Jim. Commentaries for Biblical Expositors: An Annotated Bibliography of
Selected Works. Revised edition. Sun Valley, CA: Grace Book Shack, 1993.
This annotated bibliography of commentaries is of greater value to the student of exegesis than the
bibliography produced by Longman.WDB
Senz-Badillos, Angel. A History of the Hebrew Language. Translated by John Elwolde.
Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1996.
Sailhamer, John H. The Pentateuch as Narrative: A Biblical-Theological Commentary.
Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1992.
Sandy, D. Brent, and Ronald L. Giese, Jr., eds. Cracking Old Testament Codes: A Guide
to Interpreting the Literary Genres of the Old Testament . Nashville: Broadman &
Holman Publishers, 1995.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 31
TMSFall 2013

Sasson, Jack M., ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. 4 volumes in 2. Peabody,
MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1995.
Sawyer, John F. A. A Modern Introduction to Biblical Hebrew. Stocksfield,
Northumberland, UK: Oriel Press, 1976.
Scanlin, Harold. The Dead Sea Scrolls & Modern Translations of the Old Testament .
Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1993.
Schaefer, Konrad. Psalms. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative & Poetry.
Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2001.
Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995.
Shaw, R. Daniel. Transculturation: The Cultural Factor in Translation and Other
Communication Tasks. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1988.
Sherwood, Stephen K. Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew
Narrative & Poetry. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 2002.
Silva, Moiss. Biblical Words and Their Meaning: An Introduction to Lexical
Semantics. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1983.
. God, Language, and Scripture: Reading the Bible in the Light of General
Linguistics. Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation 4. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing, 1990.
Silzer, Peter James, and Thomas John Finley. How Biblical Languages Work: A
Students Guide to Learning Hebrew and Greek. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.
Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 3rd edition. London:
Hodder and Stoughton, 1895.
In 1998 I saw paperback reprints of this volume in Jerusalem. It is the best firsthand descriptive
historical geography available in the English language. Smith has a way of making the reader
visualize exactly what the setting looks like that is only conveyed in modern geographies and
atlases by means of color photographs.WDB
Smith, J. Payne, ed. A Compendious Syriac Dictionary. Reprint, Oxford: Clarendon
Press, 1967.
Soulen, Richard N. Handbook of Biblical Criticism. 3rd edition. Atlanta: Westminster
John Knox Press, 2001.
A resource for ready reference to define terms in the field of biblical interpretation. There is no
other reference which would make this information available under one cover.James Mays
Sparks, Kenton L. Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible: A Guide to the
Background Literature. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005.
See the review in MSJ 18, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 13637.WDB
Sperber, Alexander, ed. The Bible in Aramaic. 5 volumes. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 195973.
Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis: A Primer for Students and Pastors. 4th
edition. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 2009.
Swete, Henry B. An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press, 1900.
Thiele, Edwin R. The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. 3rd edition. Grand
Rapids: Kregel Academic & Professional, 1994.
Thomas, D. Winton, ed. Documents from Old Testament Times. New York: Harper &
Row, 1961.
Thomas, Robert L. How to Choose a Bible Version: An Introductory Guide to English
Translations. Ross-shire, UK: Mentor/Christian Focus Publications, 2000.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 32
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Tov, Emanuel. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. Jerusalem:
Simor Ltd., 1981.
. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2nd revised edition. Minneapolis:
Fortress Press, 2001.
This is the premier volume on its subject. It is the required textbook for TMSs ThM course in
OT textual criticism.WDB
Tucker, Gene M. Form Criticism of the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship
(Old Testament Series). Edited by J. Coert Rylaarsdam. Philadelphia: Fortress Press,
1971.
VanGemeren, Willem A., ed. New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology
& Exegesis. 5 volumes. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1997.
See the review in MSJ 9, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 12023.WDB
Vaux, Roland de. Ancient Israel. 2 volumes. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965.
Waldman, Nahum M. The Recent Study of Hebrew: A Survey of the Literature with
Selected Bibliography. Bibliographica Judaica 10. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns,
1989.
Waltke, Bruce K. An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical, and Thematic
Approach. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007.
Waltke, Bruce K., and M. OConnor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax.
Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1990.
Walton, John H. Ancient Israelite Literature in Its Cultural Context: A Survey of
Parallels Between Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Texts. Grand Rapids: Regency
Reference Library, 1989.
, ed. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Backgrounds Commentary: Old Testament. 5
volumes. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009.
, Victor H. Matthews, and Mark W. Chavalas. The IVP Bible Background
Commentary: Old Testament. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000.
Watson, Wilfred G. E. Classical Hebrew Poetry: A Guide to its Techniques. 2nd edition,
revised. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 26. Sheffield,
UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.
Watts, J. Wash. A Survey of Syntax in the Hebrew Old Testament. Grand Rapids:
Eerdmans Publishing, 1964.
Wegner, Paul D. The Journey from Texts to Translations: The Origin and Developments
of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.
. A Students Guide to Textual Criticism of the Bible. Downers Grove, IL: IVP
Academic, 2006.
See the review in MSJ 18, no. 1 (Spring 2007): 14042.WDB
. Using Old Testament Hebrew in Preaching. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic,
2009.
Weil, Grard E., ed. Massorah Gedolah Manuscrit B. 19a de Lningrad. 3 volumes.
Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1971.
Weingreen, J. An Introduction to the Critical Study of the Text of the Hebrew Bible.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
. A Practical Grammar for Classical Hebrew. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939.
Wendland, Ernst R. Analyzing the Psalms: With Exercises for Bible Students and
Translators. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1998.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 33
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Williams, Ronald J. Hebrew Syntax: An Outline. 2nd edition. Toronto: University of
Toronto Press, 1976.
Wiseman, D. J., ed. Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973.
Wolde, Ellen van, ed. Narrative Syntax and the Hebrew Bible. Leiden: Brill Academic,
1997.
Wrthwein, Ernst. Der Text des alten Testaments: Eine Einfhrung in die Biblia
Hebraica. 4th edition. Stuttgart: Wrttembergische Bibelanstalt, 1973.
. The Text of the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Biblia Hebraica. 2nd
edition. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing, 1995.
Yamauchi, Edwin. Greece and Babylon: Early Contacts Between the Aegean and the
Near East. Baker Studies in Biblical Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book, 1967.
. Persia and the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1996.
. The Stones and the Scriptures. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1972.
Yamauchi puts into proper perspective the nature and value of archaeological evidence to the
interpretation of the Bible. Reading Chapter 4 (Fragments and Circles: The Nature of the
Evidence) is a necessity for serious Bible students.WDB
Zuck, Roy B., ed. A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Press,
1991.
. Vital Old Testament Issues. Grand Rapids: Kregel Resources, 1996.
Reprinted articles from Bibliotheca Sacra on major issues in OT studies.WDB

13.2 Periodical Articles & Essays

Ackroyd, Peter R. Meaning and Exegesis. In Words and Meaning: Essays Presented to
David Winton Thomas. Edited by Peter R. Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars, 114.
Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1968.
Andrews, Stephen J. Some Knowledge of Hebrew Possible to All: Old Testament
Exposition and the Hebraica Veritas. Faith & Mission 13, no. 1 (Fall 1995): 98114.
Arichea, Daniel C., Jr. Taking Theology Seriously in the Translation Task. Bible
Translator 33, no. 3 (July 1982): 30916.
Baker, David L. Which Hebrew Bible? Review of Biblia Hebraica Quinta, Hebrew
University Bible, Oxford Hebrew Bible, and Other Modern Editions. Tyndale
Bulletin 61, no. 2 (2010): 20936.
Baker, David W. Reading the Old Testament: Tools and Techniques. Ashland
Theological Journal 28 (1996): 87111.
Barr, J. Etymology and the Old Testament. In Language and Meaning: Studies in
Hebrew Language and Biblical Exegesis. Edited by J. Barr et al., 128. Volume 19 of
Oudtestamentische Studin. Edited by A. S. van der Woude. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1974.
. Semitic Philology and the Interpretation of the Old Testament. In Tradition
and Interpretation: Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study.
Edited by G. W. Anderson, 3164. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Barrick, William D. Ancient Manuscripts and Biblical Exposition. The Masters
Seminary Journal 9, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 2538.
. Current Trends and Tensions in Old Testament Textual Criticism. Bible
Translator 35, no. 3 (July 1984): 3018.
. The Eschatological Significance of Leviticus 26. The Masters Seminary
Journal 16, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 95126.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 34
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. Exegetical Fallacies: Common Interpretive Mistakes Every Student Must
Avoid. The Master's Seminary Journal 19, no. 1 (Spring 2008): 1527
. The Integration of OT Theology with Bible Translation. The Masters
Seminary Journal 12, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 1531.
. Review of Alfred J. Hoerth, Archaeology and the Old Testament. The
Masters Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999): 299301.
. Review of Allen P. Ross, Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and
Exposition of Genesis. The Masters Seminary Journal 11, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 269
70.
. Review of Daniel I. Block, Judges, Ruth. Vol. 6 of The New American
Commentary. The Masters Seminary Journal 12, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 1001.
. Review of Daniel J. Estes, Handbook of the Wisdom Books and Psalms. The
Masters Seminary Journal 17, no. 2 (Fall 2006): 24041.
. Review of D. Brent Sandy, Plowshares & Pruning Hooks: Rethinking the
Language of Biblical Prophecy and Apocalyptic. The Masters Seminary Journal
16, no. 1 (Spring 2005): 18083.
. Review of George A. F. Knight, The Song of Moses: A Theological Quarry.
The Masters Seminary Journal 11, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 25657.
. Review of Gordon D. Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All Its
Worth. The Masters Seminary Journal 8, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 11617.
. Review of Hermann Gunkel and Joachim Begrich, An Introduction to the
Psalms: The Genres of the Religious Lyric of Israel. The Masters Seminary
Journal 11, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 12627.
. Review of J. C. L. Gibson, Davidsons Introductory Hebrew Grammar
Syntax. The Masters Seminary Journal 8, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 12021.
. Review of Kenneth L. Barker and Waylon Bailey, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
Zephaniah. Vol. 20 of The New American Commentary. The Masters Seminary
Journal 12, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 98100.
. Review of Mark F. Rooker, Studies in Hebrew Language, Intertextuality, and
Theology, Texts and Studies in Religion 98. The Master's Seminary Journal 17, no.
1 (Spring 2006): 12628.
. Review of Martin Jan Mulder, ed., Mikra: Text, Translation, Reading &
Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Ancient Judaism & Early Christianity. The
Master's Seminary Journal 16, no. 2 (Fall 2005): 34647.
. Review of Robert B. Chisholm, Jr., Handbook on the Prophets. The Master's
Seminary Journal 16, no. 2 (Fall 2005): 32832.
. Review of Walter Brueggemann, A Commentary on Jeremiah: Exile and
Homecoming. The Masters Seminary Journal 11, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 12022.
. Review of Willem A. VanGemeren, ed., New International Dictionary of Old
Testament Theology & Exegesis. The Masters Seminary Journal 9, no. 1 (Spring
1998): 12023.
. Review of William Horbury, ed., Hebrew Study from Ezra to Ben-Yehuda. The
Masters Seminary Journal 11, no. 2 (Fall 2000): 25254.
. Samsons Removal of Gazas Gates. Near East Archaeological Society
Bulletin NS8 (1976): 8393.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 35
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Bergey, Ronald. The Rhetorical Role of Reiteration in the Suffering Servant Poem (Isa
52:1353:12). Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 40, no. 2 (June 1997):
17788.
Boerger, Brenda H. Extending Translation Principles for Poetry and Biblical Acrostics.
Notes on Translation 11, no. 2 (1997): 3556.
Brueggemann, Walter. Texts That Linger, Words That Explode. Theology Today 54,
no. 2 (1997): 18099.
Buchanan, George Wesley. Integrity in Translating and Editing. Revue Biblique 115,
no. 1 (Jan 2008): 4955.
Childs, Brevard S. Toward Recovering Theological Exegesis. Pro Ecclesia 6, no. 1
(1997): 1626.
Combs, William W. Errors in the King James Version? Detroit Baptist Seminary
Journal 4 (Fall 1999): 15164.
Crim, Keith R. Hebrew Direct Discourse as a Translation Problem. Bible Translator 24,
no. 3 (July 1973): 31116.
Deuel, David C. Malachi 3:16: Book of Remembrance or Royal Memorandum? An
Exegetical Note. The Masters Seminary Journal 7, no. 1 (Spring 1996): 10711.
Excellent example of the application of ANE backgrounds to the interpretation of the biblical
text.WDB
. An Old Testament Pattern for Expository Preaching. The Masters Seminary
Journal 2, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 12538.
Diringer, David, and Brock, S. P. Words and Meanings in Early Hebrew Inscriptions. In
Words and Meaning: Essays Presented to David Winton Thomas. Edited by Peter R.
Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars, 3945. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1968.
A brief survey of some of the archaeological contributions to OT Hebrew philology.WDB
Despite their small extent, the surviving Early Hebrew inscriptions serve as a constant
reminder of how limited a picture the vocabulary of the Old Testament gives us of the range
that the spoken language must have had. (43)
Ellington, John. Wit and Humor in Bible Translation. Bible Translator 42, no. 3 (July
1991): 30113.
Too often both translators and exegetes ignore figures of speech and linguistic plays. The
exegete must identify and explain these elements of the text if he wishes to understand it fully
and if he wishes to convey it accurately to others.WDB
Ellis, Karl C. The Nature of Biblical Exegesis. Bibliotheca Sacra 137, no. 546 (April
June 1980): 15155.
Estes, Daniel J. Audience Analysis and Validity in Application. Bibliotheca Sacra 150,
no. 598 (AprilJune 1993): 21929.
. The Hermeneutics of Biblical Lyric Poetry. Bibliotheca Sacra 152, no. 608
(OctoberDecember 1995): 41330.
Fassberg, Steven E. The Lengthened Imperative in Biblical Hebrew. Hebrew
Studies 40 (1999): 713.
Finley, Thomas J. The WAW-Consecutive with Imperfect in Biblical Hebrew:
Theoretical Studies and Its Use in Amos. In Tradition and Testament: Essays in
Honor of Charles Lee Feinberg. Edited by John S. Feinberg and Paul D. Feinberg,
24162. Chicago: Moody Press, 1981.
The waw-consecutive/conversive controversy does affect exegesis. No matter what theory one
holds on this issue, it is incumbent upon the exegete to give attention to the
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 36
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consecution/relation of tenses throughout a passage. Finleys study should be considered a
serious contender for a solution.
See article by Sasson, below.WDB
Geisler, Norman. The Concept of Truth in the Contemporary Inerrancy Debate. In The
Living and Active Word of God: Studies in Honor of Samuel J. Schultz. Edited by
Morris Inch and Ronald Youngblood, 22536. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.
Apart from minor editorial differences, this essay is substantially the same as the article in
Bibliotheca Sacra 137, no. 548 (OctoberDecember 1980): 32739. Geisler presents one of
the key areas of discussion regarding the nature of biblical truth: correspondence vs. intention.
Must reading.WDB
Gibson, J. C. L. The Massoretes as Linguists. In Language and Meaning: Studies in
Hebrew Language and Biblical Exegesis. Edited by J. Barr et al., 8696. Volume 19
of Oudtestamentische Studin. Edited by A. S. van der Woude. Leiden: E. J. Brill,
1974.
Glenn, Donald R. An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Psalm 139. In Tradition
and Testament: Essays in Honor of Charles Lee Feinberg. Edited by John S.
Feinberg and Paul D. Feinberg, 16188. Chicago: Moody Press, 1981.
Goerling, Fritz. Psalm 1: Analysis and Interpretation. Notes on Translation 14, no. 3
(2000): 5160.
A superb example of a careful analysis of Psalm 1 that pays attention to all the nuances of the
Hebrew text. The analysis of verse 1 is especially noteworthy.WDB
Goshen-Gottstein, M. H. The Aleppo Codex and the Rise of the Massoretic Bible Text.
Biblical Archeologist 42 (1979): 14563.
. Hebrew Biblical Manuscripts: Their History and Their Place in the HUBP
Edition. Biblica 48 (1967): 24390.
Greenspoon, L. Its All Greek to Me: Septuagint Studies Since 1968. Currents in
Research 5 (1997): 14774.
Grisanti, Michael A. Review of Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, eds., Theological
Lexicon of the Old Testament. The Masters Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999):
3067.
. Review of John Bright, A History of Israel. The Masters Seminary Journal
12, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 1013.
. Review of Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., A History of Israel: From the Bronze Age
through the Jewish Wars. The Masters Seminary Journal 10, no. 2 (Fall 1999):
3079.
Grossberg, Daniel. Form and Content and Their Correspondence. Hebrew Studies 41
(2000): 4752.
Harman, Allan M. The Syntax and Interpretation of Psalm 45:7. In The Law and the
Prophets: Old Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis.
Edited by John H. Skilton, 33747. [Nutley, NJ]: Presbyterian and Reformed
Publishing, 1974.
Hurowitz, Victor Avigdor. A Forgotten Meaning of Nepes in Isaiah lviii 10. Vetus
Testamentum 47, no. 1 (January 1997): 4352.
Joosten, Jan. The Long Form of the Prefixed Conjugation Referring to the Past in
Biblical Hebrew Prose. Hebrew Studies 40 (1999): 1526.
Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. The Future Role of the Bible in Seminary Education. Concordia
Theological Quarterly 60, no. 4 (October 1996): 24558.
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. The Literary Form of Genesis 111. In New Perspectives on the Old
Testament. Edited by J. Barton Payne, 4865. Waco, TX: Word Books, 1970.
The primary task of the Biblical scholar is to unfold the meaning of the text of Scripture
as it was originally intended to be understood by the writer of that text. Those ideas, meanings,
and truth-intentions which he had in mind are the first order of business. Further, if the concept
of Biblical authority is to be introduced into the discussion, it will only heighten rather than
decrease the intensity of the search to get back to that original writers thought; for he is the
man who claims to have heard the revelation of God. (48)
Kennedy, Rod. Idiom Skew. Notes on Translation 11, no. 1 (1997): 3739.
Kleven, Terence. Hebrew Style in 2 Samuel 6. Journal of the Evangelical Theological
Society 35, no. 3 (September 1992): 299314.
Lawlor, John. Theology and Art in the Narrative of the Ammonite War (2 Samuel 10
12). Grace Theological Journal 3, no. 2 (Fall 1982): 193205.
Lawlors study of the narrative of 2 Samuel 1012 on the basis of a structural analysis is a
fitting companion article to Wendlands on Habbakkuk.WDB
Lewis, Jack. Italics in English Bible Translation. In The Living and Active Word of
God: Studies in Honor of Samuel J. Schultz. Edited by Morris Inch and Ronald
Youngblood, 25570. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.
Lincoln, Lucy. Translating Hebrew and Greek Terms for Sheep and Goats. Bible
Translator 47, no. 3 (July 1996): 32235.
Locher, Clemens. The United Bible Societies Hebrew Old Testament Text Project.
Bible Translator 26, no. 3 (July 1975): 34652.
Loewe, Raphael. Divine Frustration Exegetically FrustratedNumbers 14:34 . In
Words and Meaning: Essays Presented to David Winton Thomas. Edited by Peter R.
Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars, 13758. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1968.
An excellent example of versional and rabbinic study.WDB
Lust, Johan. Translation Greek and the Lexicography of the Septuagint. Journal for the
Study of the Old Testament 59 (September 93): 10920.
MacKenzie, Cameron A. Theology and the Great Tradition of English Bibles.
Concordia Theological Quarterly 63, no. 4 (October 1999): 281300.
Margot, Jean-Claude. Should a Translation of the Bible Be Ambiguous? Bible
Translator 32, no. 4 (October 1981): 40613.
Martin, W. J. Zero Processes in Biblical Hebrew. In The Law and the Prophets: Old
Testament Studies Prepared in Honor of Oswald Thompson Allis. Edited by John H.
Skilton, 8793. [Nutley, NJ]: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1974.
Mathewson, Steven D. From B.C. to 11 A.M.: How to preach an Old Testament
narrative with accuracy and power. Leadership 18, no. 4 (Fall 1997): 5256.
. Guidelines for Understanding and Proclaiming Old Testament Narratives.
Bibliotheca Sacra 154, no. 616 (OctoberDecember 1997): 41035.
Mayhue, Richard L. For What Did Christ Atone in Isa 53:45? The Masters Seminary
Journal 6, no. 2 (Fall 1995): 12141.
When exegeting Isaiah 53, do not neglect this article.WDB
Merwe, C. H. J. van der. The Elusive Biblical Hebrew Term : A Perspective in Terms
of its Syntax, Semantics, and Pragmatics in 1 Samuel. Hebrew Studies 40 (1999):
83114.
Metzger, Bruce M. English Translations of the Bible, Today and Tomorrow.
Bibliotheca Sacra 150, no. 600 (OctoberDecember 1993): 397414.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 38
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. Important Early Translations of the Bible. Bibliotheca Sacra 150, no. 597
(JanuaryMarch 1993): 3549.
. Persistent Problems Confronting Bible Translators. Bibliotheca Sacra 150, no.
599 (JulySeptember 1993): 27384.
. Theories of the Translation Process. Bibliotheca Sacra 150, no. 598 (April
June 1993): 14050.
Minkoff, Harvey. As Simple as ABC: What Acrostics in the Bible Can Demonstrate.
Bible Review 13, no. 2 (April 1997): 2731, 46.
Minkoffs article will make you look at biblical acrostics in a fresh new way. This is a
pleasurable read that is also quite informative.WDB
Moberly, R. W. L. YHWH is One: The Translation of the Shema. In From Eden to
Golgotha: Essays in Biblical Theology, 7581. South Florida Studies in the History
of Judaism 52. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992.
Muilenburg, James. The Intercession of the Covenant Mediator (Exodus 33:1a,1217.
In Words and Meaning: Essays Presented to David Winton Thomas. Edited by Peter
R. Ackroyd and Barnabas Lindars, 15981. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 1968.
Fine attention paid to style and syntax but overly critical in source analysis. Gives a summary
presentation of the textual evidence. Good attention to the theme/concept of covenant.WDB
Nida, Eugene A. The Paradoxes of Translation. Bible Translator 42, no. 2A (April
1991): 527.
Overstreet, R. Larry. Israel Responds to Grace: A Study of Zechariah 12:10. Calvary
Baptist Theological Journal 13, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 130.
Patterson, Richard D. A Multiplex Approach to Psalm 45. Grace Theological Journal
6, no. 1 (Spring 1985): 2948.
Patterson claims that this article is a balanced use of grammar, literary analysis, history, and
theology (29).
. The Song of Deborah. In Tradition and Testament: Essays in Honor of
Charles Lee Feinberg. Edited by John S. Feinberg and Paul D. Feinberg, 12360.
Chicago: Moody Press, 1981.
Paul, Maarten J. Genesis 4:1724: A Case-Study in Eisegesis. Tyndale Bulletin 47, no. 1
(May 1996): 14362.
Payne, J. Barton. Right Questions About Isaiah 7:14. In The Living and Active Word of
God: Studies in Honor of Samuel J. Schultz. Edited by Morris Inch and Ronald
Youngblood, 7584. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983.
Determining what is relevant and what is irrelevant to the interpretation of a passage in the
Scriptures should be one of the interpreters first concerns. This posthumous publication of
one of Paynes best articles is a perfect illustration. The student should also consult Hobart
Freemans concise study of Isaiah 7:14 (An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets
[Chicago: Moody Press, 1971], 2039).WDB
Penkower, Jordan S. Verse Divisions in the Hebrew Bible. Vetus Testamentum 50, no.
3 (2000): 37993.
Pter-Contesse, Ren. Note on the Semantic Domains of Two Hebrew Words: and
. Bible Translator 27, no. 1 (January 1976): 11921.
Rabin, C. The Translation Process and the Character of the Septuagint. Textus 6 (1968):
126.
Rebera, Basil A. Yahweh or Boaz? Ruth 2.20 Reconsidered. Bible Translator 36, no. 3
(July 1985): 31727.
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 39
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Reberas detailed study of this particular problem in the book of Ruth is a model of exegesis
preparatory to translation.WDB
Revell, E. J. The Repetition of Introductions to Speech as a Feature of Biblical Hebrew.
Vetus Testamentum 47, no. 1 (1997): 91110.
Richard, P. Ramesh. Methodological Proposals for Scripture Relevance, Part 4:
Application Theory in Relation to the Old Testament. Bibliotheca Sacra 143, no. 572
(OctoberDecember 1986): 30211.
Roberts, B. J. The Textual Transmission of the Old Testament. In Tradition and
Interpretation: Essays by Members of the Society for Old Testament Study. Edited
by G. W. Anderson, 130. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1979.
Rooker, Mark F. Dating Isaiah 4066: What Does the Linguistic Evidence Say?
Westminster Theological Journal 58 (1996): 30312.
Rudman, Dominic. A Contextual Reading of Ecclesiastes 4:1316. Journal of Biblical
Literature 116, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 5773.
This article illustrates a methodology of exegesis claiming to place emphasis upon the
contextual analysis.WDB
Sailhamer, John H. Exegesis of the Old Testament as a Text. In A Tribute to Gleason
Archer. Edited by Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., and Ronald F. Youngblood, 27996. Chicago:
Moody Press, 1986.
. The Pentateuch as Narrative: A Biblical-Theological Commentary. Library of
Biblical Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1992.
Sasson, Victor. Some Observations on the Use and Original Purpose of the Waw
Consecutive in Old Aramaic and Biblical Hebrew. Vetus Testamentum 47, no. 1
(1997): 11127.
Saydon, P. P. Assonance in Hebrew as a Means of Expressing Emphasis. Biblica 36
(1955): 3650.
Scherer, Andreas. Is the Selfish Man Wise?: Considerations of Context in Proverbs
10:122:16 with Special Regard to Surety, Bribery and Friendship. Journal for the
Study of the Old Testament 76 (1997): 5970.
Shealy, Brian A. Redrawing the Line Between Hermeneutics and Application. The
Masters Seminary Journal 8, no. 1 (Spring 1997): 83105.
Shulman, Ahouva. The Particle in Biblical Hebrew Prose. Hebrew Studies 40 (1999):
5782.
Steiner, Richard C. Does the Biblical Hebrew Conjunction - Have Many Meanings, One
Meaning, or No Meaning at All? Journal of Biblical Literature 119, no. 2 (Summer
2000): 24967.
Steinmann, Andrew E. as an Ordinal Number and the Meaning of Genesis 1:5.
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45, no. 4 (December 2002): 57784.
Sterk, Jan P. Notes: An Attempt at Translating a Psalm. Bible Translator 42, no. 4
(October 1991): 43742.
A concise study of Psalm 110.WDB
Thomas, Robert L. Dynamic Equivalence: A Method of Translation or a System of
Hermeneutics? The Masters Seminary Journal 1, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 14975.
Bible translations are reflective of the translators hermeneutics and theology. See Aricheas
article, also.WDB
Barrick, Hebrew Exegesis I: Course Syllabus OT603 40
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. The Relationship between Exegesis and Expository Preaching. The Masters
Seminary Journal 2, no. 2 (Fall 1991): 18198.
Toorn, Karel van der, and Cees Houtman. David and the Ark. Journal of Biblical
Literature 113, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 20931.
Vall, Gregory. Psalm 22:17b: The Old Guess. Journal of Biblical Literature 116, no.
1 (Spring 1997): 4556.
A good example of the detail involved in textual criticism. An excellent chart giving a
hypothetical reconstruction of the corruption and preservation of Ps 22:17b is included in the
article.WDB
Waltke, Bruce K. Old Testament Textual Criticism. In Foundations for Biblical
Interpretation: A Complete Library of Tools and Resources. Edited by David S.
Dockery, Kenneth A. Mathews, and Robert B. Sloan, 15686. Nashville: Broadman &
Holman Publishers, 1994.
. The Samaritan Pentateuch and the Text of the Old Testament. In New
Perspectives on the Old Testament. Edited by J. Barton Payne, 21239. Waco, TX:
Word Books, 1970.
. The Textual Criticism of the Old Testament. In The Expositors Bible
Commentary. 12 volumes. Edited by Frank E. Gaebelein et al., 1:21128. Grand
Rapids: Zondervan Publishing, 1979.
. Textual Criticism of the Old Testament and Its Relation to Exegesis and
Theology. In The New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and
Exegesis. 5 volumes. Edited by Willem A. VanGemeren, 1:5167. Grand Rapids:
Zondervan Publishing, 1997.
Wendland, Ernst. Recursion and Variation in the Prophecy of Jonah: On the
Rhetorical Impact of Stylistic Technique in Hebrew Narrative Discourse, with Special
Reference to Irony and Enigma. Andrews University Seminary Studies 35, no. 1
(Spring 1997): 6798.
. The Righteous Live by Their Faith in a Holy God: Complementary
Compositional Forces and Habakkuks Dialogue with the Lord. Journal of the
Evangelical Theological Society 42, no. 4 (December 1999): 591628.
Wendlands structural analysis of Habakkuk is an excellent model for the analysis of the
Hebrew text preparatory to preaching. Such contextual/structural analysis is a vital part of the
exegetical procedure.WDB
Wolters, Al. The Text of the Old Testament. In The Face of Old Testament Studies: A
Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Edited by David W. Baker and Bill T. Arnold,
1937. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.