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Running head: DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL

Determining the Best Pre-Dan e Mea! Na"#ma R$ Ehrhart %#uth Per&#rming Arts S h##!

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL A(stra t Dan ing is m#re than )ust an art* it is a!s# an intense &#rm #& +h,si a! e-er ise$ .ust !i"e ath!etes* dan ers need t# are&u!!, +!an their mea!s t# a hie/e #+timum +er&#rman e$ The +ur+#se #& this +a+er is t# a hie/e a++r#/a! &#r a +r#)e t t# e-+eriment 0ith the #ntents #& dan ers1 mea!s (e&#re a dan e !ass in #rder t# determine the #m+#siti#n #&

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the +re-dan e mea! 0hi h +r#du es the (est +er&#rman e in !ass$ The resear h 2uesti#n is as &#!!#0s: in 0hat rati# sh#u!d &at* ar(#h,drates* and +r#tein a++ear in a +re-dan e mea! t# a hie/e ma-imum +er&#rman e in dan e !ass3 The a ti/ities ne essar, t# #ndu t this e-+eriment in !ude re ruiting dan ers* resear hing ade2uate &##d s#ur es #& the nutrients !isted a(#/e* +!anning and +re+aring mea!s &#r the dan ers* designing a +#stdan e !ass sur/e, &#r the dan ers* and #!!e ting these sur/e,s$ This +r#+#sa! in !udes an intr#du ti#n* initia! resear h* guiding 2uesti#ns* +r# edures* a time!ine 0ith +redi ted e/iden e* human res#ur es* &a i!ities* e2ui+ment* and (udget$ This +r#)e t is (eing #ndu ted in #rder &#r the auth#r t# graduate &r#m the %#uth Per&#rming Arts S h##! dan e de+artment$

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL Determining the Best Pre-Dan e Mea! 5hi!e dan e is &irst and &#rem#st an art* man, +e#+!e &#rget that it is

simu!tane#us!, an intense e-er ise$ Dan ers* !i"e ath!etes* need t# treat their (#dies 0e!! in #rder t# im+r#/e te hni a! s"i!! and artistr,$ E/er,#ne1s hea!th and +h,si a! readiness (egins 0ith the &##ds #nsumed$ It is true that e/er,thing +ut int# the (#d, a&&e ts e/er,thing it +r#du es$ It &#!!#0s that dan ers sh#u!d #nsume hea!th, &##ds &#r #+timum +er&#rman e$ I& ,#u d# s#me reading #n s+#rts nutriti#n 6#r an, nutriti#n7* the &irst thing ,#u 0i!! !earn is that three nutrients determine the /a!ue #& a!! &##ds: +r#tein* &at* and ar(#h,drates$ T#gether* these &##ds +r#/ide (#th the m#st su(stantia! natura! energ,$ H#0e/er* ea h #& these nutrients su++#sed!, +er&#rms (est under ertain ir umstan es$ Dan e is a /er, #m+!e- a ti/it,* #nsisting #& (#th aer#(i and anaer#(i e-er ise$ This ma"es it /er, di&&i u!t t# h##se a sing!e s#ur e #& energ, &#r dan ers t# &# us #n$ S#* i& ,#u an1t de ide #n a sing!e nutrient* it #n!, ma"es sense t# use them a!!$ This is 0here m, +r#)e t #mes in$ Nutriti#n has interested me sin e &reshman ,ear* and I ha/e +ursued it e/er sin e$ As a dan er* I am a!0a,s !##"ing &#r 0a,s t# im+r#/e m, +er&#rman e$ This e-+eriment a!!#0s me t# d# #m(ine these t0# +assi#ns$ This +r#)e t 0i!! in/#!/e mu!ti+!e dan ers$ I 0i!! (e &# using #n &ats* ar(#h,drates* and +r#teins as I reate mea!s &#r them$ Be ause there is n#t #ne magi nutrient &#r dan e energ,* I 0i!! (e e-+erimenting t# &ind the +er&e t &at: +r#tein: ar(#h,drate rati# #& a mea! &#r dan ers$ Sin e this +r#)e t is !imited t# the time I ha/e 0ith m, dan ers* I 0i!! (e &# using #n the mea! #nsumed immediate!, (e&#re dan e !ass* 0hi h ha++ens t# (e !un h$

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL

Initial Research and Guiding Questions I ha/e #nsu!ted a dan e nutriti#n (##"* a genera! nutriti#n (##"* and a dan e nutriti#n 0e(site &#r m, initia! resear h$ Be&#re #nsu!ting these s#ur es* I 0as #n!, #nsidering the 2ua!it, #& the &##ds I 0#u!d (e +r#/iding &#r m, dan ers during this +r#)e t$ A&ter e-+!#ring these res#ur es* I rea!i9ed that there 0ere s# man, #ther &a t#rs t# #nsider$ I (egan t# 0#nder* h#0 mu h is t## mu h &#r a +re-dan e mea!3 H#0 mu h #& ea h &##d and:#r &##d gr#u+ sh#u!d the dan ers eat3 Is it 0#rse t# eat t## mu h #r n#t en#ugh (e&#re a dan e !ass3 ;er!ina Mastin 6'<<=7 sa,s in her (##" Nutrition for the Dancer* >5hat and h#0 mu h ,#u h##se t# eat 0i!! ha/e an en#rm#us im+a t #n ,#ur +er&#rman e* s"i!!* e-e uti#n #& ste+s and artistr,? 6+$ 1@7$ The Centre &#r Dan e Nutriti#n 0e(site 6'<147 states that >A BC#rre t!,C timing ,#ur mea!s and sna "s 0i!! a tua!!, he!+ ,#u ha/e m#re energ,* str#nger mus !es* m#re enduran e* and !ess (#d, &at? 6arti !e 17$ This #n e+t 0as ne0 t# me and is es+e ia!!, im+#rtant* sin e m, #rigina! 2uesti#n re!ied !arge!, #n the time &a t#r: 0hat sh#u!d dan ers in !ude in a pre-dance mea!3 I had ne/er rea!i9ed the im+#rtan e #& timing in a dan er1s diet$ I 0as sh# "ed at h#0 mu h it a&&e ts #ur &un ti#n during dan e !ass* su h as the +#int at 0hi h 0e (egin t# &atigue$ I rea!i9ed that timing ann#t (e ign#red in m, +r#)e t: the !un h time must remain #nstant thr#ugh#ut$ N#0* I am uri#us t# "n#0 a(#ut the re!ati#nshi+ (et0een the am#unt #& &##d and the timing #& the mea! 0hi h 0#u!d a!!#0 dan ers t# e- e! during !ass$ Th#ugh the, #u!d (e #me a nutriti#na!

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL e-+eriment #n their #0n* the >h#0 mu h? and >0hen? &a t#rs 0i!! de&inite!, (e resear hed m#re th#r#ugh!, (e&#re I e-e ute m, urrent +r#)e t$ M, guiding 2uesti#n is as &#!!#0s: 5hat nutrient sh#u!d dan ers &# us #n in a +re-dan e mea! &#r #+timum +er&#rman e3 M, +!an is t# use this +r#)e t t# &ind the nutrient (a!an e in the (est +re-dan e mea!$ I "n#0 that s#me dan ers &ee! 2ueas, #r s!uggish during !ass (e ause #& the !un hes the, #nsumed* 0hi!e s#me are (#un ing 0ith energ,$ I 0ant t# dis #/er 0hat 0e need t# in !ude #n #ur !un h (#-es t# gi/e us that energ,* in rease &# us* &ue! #ur mus !es* and +re/ent in)uries$ S# 0hat e-a t!, are the &##ds 0e need in #ur !un hes3 Are there ertain &##ds that dan ers sh#u!d ta"e are t# a/#id3 I "n#0 that the main &##d gr#u+s t# &# us #n are +r#teins* &ats* and ar(#h,drates$ 5hi h #ne is the m#st /a!ua(!e3 5hat nutrients sh#u!d 0e a/#id3 5hi!e the &##d itse!& is ertain!, the m#st im+#rtant &a t#r in this e-+eriment* there are #ther as+e ts t# #nsider$ H#0 !#ng (e&#re dan ing sh#u!d dan ers eat a mea!3 En&#rtunate!,* sin e this e-+eriment 0i!! (e #ndu ted at s h##!* m, dan ers and I 0i!! n#t (e a(!e t# h##se e-a t!, 0hen t# eat* (ut it is +#ssi(!e that the !ength #& time 5hi h &##ds +r#/ide these nutrients3

(et0een eating and dan ing #u!d a&&e t 0hi h &##ds 0#u!d (e (est t# eat* and h#0 mu h sh#u!d (e #nsumed$ This (rings me t# m, ne-t 2uesti#n: H#0 mu h #& ea h &##d gr#u+:nutrient sh#u!d (e eaten during a +re-dan e mea!3 I am e-+e ting #ne nutrient t# +r#/e m#re /a!ua(!e than the #thers* (ut e/en s#* 0hat sh#u!d (e the genera! rati# #& +r#ten: ar(s:&ats3 H#0 mu h is t## mu h3 Is it 0#rse t# eat t## mu h #r n#t en#ugh3 H#+e&u!!,* 0ith a !itt!e m#re resear h* m, +r#)e t 0i!! ans0er a!! #& these 2uesti#ns$

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL

Procedures Girst* I 0i!! reate a time!ine detai!ing the da,s 0hi h I 0i!! (e 0#r"ing 0ith m, dan ers and the &##d &# uses &#r th#se da,s$ I 0#u!d !i"e t# s+an this +r#)e t #/er t0# 0ee"s* 0#r"ing 0ith m, dan ers #n a!ternating da,s 6Red #r 5hite7$ The t#ta! num(er #& da,s I 0i!! (e 0#r"ing 0ith m, dan ers 0i!! (e &i/e* h#0e/er I 0i!! +#ssi(!, e-tend int# a third 0ee" t# add an e/en si-th da,$ The da,s 0i!! (e di/ided e/en!, (et0een three &##d >&# uses?: +r#teins* &ats* and ar(#h,drates$ G#r e-am+!e* during a +r#tein &# us* the am#unt #& +r#tein in the dan ers1 mea!s 0#u!d (e greater than the am#unts #& ar(#h,drates and &at$ Ne-t* I 0i!! re ruit m, dan ers$ I 0#u!d !i"e t# ha/e three dan ers in m, e-+eriment* (ut a &#urth 0#u!d (e ni e t# ha/e as a &i!!-in in ase #ne #& the #thers is a(sent #ne da,$ I 0i!! a!s# (e +arti i+ating in the e-+eriment m,se!&$ The dan ers 0i!! (e eating 0ith me &#r !un h #n e/er, 5hite #r Red da, during the t0# 0ee"s$ I urrent!, eat 0ith a(#ut se/en dan e ma)#rs #n Red da,s* s# getting three #r &#ur #& them t# 0#r" 0ith me sh#u!d n#t (e di&&i u!t$ The, 0i!! (e eating #n!, the !un h I +r#/ide &#r them during that time$ I 0i!! dra&t a #ntra t &#r them t# sign #n&irming this$ A&ter gathering m, dan ers* I 0i!! gi/e them a Pre-E-+eriment Huesti#nnaire t# &i!! #ut at !east a 0ee" (e&#re (eginning the e-+eriment$ Here* the, 0i!! !ist an, &##d a!!ergies* dietar, restri ti#ns* &a/#rites 6&ruits I /egeta(!es7 and !east &a/#rites$ I 0i!! #!!e t these 2uesti#nnaires 0ithin '8 h#urs$ The, 0i!! ser/e as re&eren es 0hen +re+aring m, dan er1s mea!s$

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL Ne-t* I 0i!! use these 2uesti#nnaires t# reate a !ist #& &##ds &#r m, dan er1s

!un hes 6in !uding am#unts needed7 &#r the &i/e da,s$ This !ist 0i!! in !ude ateg#ries #& &##d su h as +r#tein* &at* ar(#h,drate* &ruits* and /egeta(!es$ M#st #& the &##ds !isted here 0i!! a!read, (e a/ai!a(!e t# me in m, #0n "it hen* #r are &##ds that m, &ami!, 0i!! +ur hase 0ee"!, at the gr# er,$ The ne-t ste+ is a 2uiring the &##ds #n this !ist$ I 0i!! he " m, #0n "it hen &irst* 0here man, #& the &##ds 0i!! (e &#und$ An, &##ds that are n#t a/ai!a(!e in m, "it hen must (e +ur hased$ This +resents a (it #& an #(sta !e in the &#rm #& +ri eJ h#0e/er* the &##ds that I 0i!! need t# +ur hase 0i!! !i"e!, (, &##ds that m, &ami!, 0#u!d +ur hase an,0a,$ I 0i!! sim+!, (e using m#re #& these #& these &##ds than usua!$ The gr# er, (i!! sh#u!d n#t in rease m#re than K4<$ I 0i!! (e +a,ing &#r an, +ri e in reases$ A&ter a 2uiring these &##ds* I 0i!! reate a !un h +!an &#r the &i/e:si- da,s$ I 0i!! #nsu!t m, time!ine &#r the dai!, &##d &# uses$ I 0i!! re #rd the am#unts #& &at* +r#tein* and ar(#h,drates in ea h &##d m, dan ers 0i!! (e eating$ Esing these am#unts* I 0i!! reate &i/e:si- !un h +!ans #rres+#nding 0ith the &##d &# us da,s$ Ea h mea! 0i!! in !ude at !east #ne s#ur e #& ea h #& the &#!!#0ing: +r#tein* ar(#h,drates* &ats* &ruit* /egeta(!e$ M, dan ers 0i!! drin" 0ater 0ith ea h !un h$ 5ithin ea h !un h +!an* I 0i!! re #rd the t#ta! am#unt #& &ats* ar(s* and +r#teins in the mea!$ Ne-t* I 0i!! reate a P#st-Dan e sur/e,$ M, dan ers 0i!! &i!! #ut this sur/e, a&ter a!! dan e !asses:rehearsa!s at %PAS #n ea h da, that 0e eat t#gether during the e-+eriment 6this 0i!! a!s# (e in !uded in the #ntra t7$ The, 0i!! &i!! #ut the same sur/e, ea h time$ The sur/e, 0i!! in !ude 2uesti#ns a(#ut the dan ers1 energ,* &!e-i(i!it,* strength* &# us* et $ during their dan e !asses a&ter their +!anned mea!$ I 0i!! #!!e t

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL these sur/e,s either a&ter s h##! #r the &#!!#0ing da,$ I 0i!! a!s# te-t: a!! m, dan ers t# remind them t# #m+!ete these sur/e,s 6i& I ha/e n#t re ei/ed them7 a&ter s h##!$

The ne-t ste+ is #ndu ting the e-+eriment$ M, dan ers and I 0i!! meet at %PAS &#r !un h$ There* I 0i!! gi/e them their mea!s$ 5e 0i!! eat t#gether (e&#re g#ing #&& t# dan e !ass$ Dan ers must eat a!! #& the !un h +r#/ided$ The dan ers 0i!! #m+!ete the P#st-Dan e sur/e, a&ter !ass and rehearsa!$ The, 0i!! return the sur/e, t# me 0ithin '8 h#urs$ These sur/e,s 0i!! sh#0 me 0hi h &##d &# us +r#du ed the m#st +#siti/e #ut #me in m, dan ers$ A&ter the &i/e:si- da,s* I 0i!! inter/ie0 ea h #& m, dan ers a(#ut their e-+erien e$ 5e 0i!! dis uss an, hanges the, ha/e seen in themse!/es* 0hi h da,s the, &e!t great and 0hi h da,s the, &e!t s!uggish* and s# #n$ 5e 0i!! a!s# dis uss their sur/e,s &#r ea h da,$ I 0i!! re #rd the 2uesti#ns and res+#nses in a n#te(##"$ Gina!!,* I 0i!! use the sur/e,s* !un h +!ans* and inter/ie0 n#tes t# #m+i!e a resear h +a+er$ This +a+er 0i!! e-+!ain m, &indings and a detai!ed #n !usi#n #ut!ining the nutrient dan ers sh#u!d &# us #n and the #/era!! nutrient rati# in a +re-dan e mea!$

Timeline and Evidence Be!#0 is the anti i+ated time!ine &#r m, +r#)e t$ I ha/e #ut!ined the a ti/ities I 0i!! (e #m+!eting ea h 0ee" a!#ng 0ith the time these a ti/ities 0i!! ta"e me and the e/iden e I 0i!! +r#/ide$ I 0i!! (egin #n M t#(er 18 and 0i!! end 0hen the &ina! +r#du t is due #n .anuar, 18$ M, +r#)e t 0i!! !ast ten 0ee"s$ I 0i!! (e s"i++ing h#!ida, 0ee"s$

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL 5ee" Dates 1 M t#(er 18-1L A ti/it, Re ruit 4-8 dan ers t# +arti i+ate in m, e-+eriment Dra&t a dan er #ntra t detai!ing the +arameters #& the e-+eriment Ha/e a!! dan ers sign the #ntra t Create a Dan er Dietar, In&#rmati#n sheet* 0here dan ers 0i!! !ist an, &##d a!!ergies #r dietar, +re&eren es$ Gi/e t# ea h dan er t# &i!! #ut$ Esing the dietar, in&#rmati#n sheets* resear h &##ds that 0i!! 0#r" 0ith ea h dan er in the ateg#ries #& +r#tein* &at* and ar(s$ Ma"e a !ist #& these &##ds in !uding the nutriti#n &a ts$ E/iden e B!an" dan er #ntra t Signed dan er #ntra t6s7

= Estimated H#urs '< minutes 6!un h +eri#d7 4< minutes '< minutes 6!un h +eri#d7

'

M t#(er '1-'D

C#m+!eted Dan er Dietar, In&#rmati#n sheets

1 h#ur t# reate* '< minutes t# &i!! #ut

M t#(er 'LN#/em(er 1

List #& &##ds I nutriti#n &a ts

'-4 h#urs

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL 8 N#/em(er 8-L Ma"e an, ne essar, &##d +ur hases &#r the dan ers1 !un hes$ P!an 0hi h 0ee"s 0i!! (e de/#ted t# 0hi h &##d gr#u+s* and the !un hes that 0i!! #rres+#nd$ Create a P#stDan e Sur/e, sheet &#r dan ers t# #m+!ete a&ter %PAS dan e !ass and Ensem(!e rehearsa! #n #ur meeting da,s$ .#urna! due 11:1F Girst 0ee" #& e-+eriment: &at &# us$ E-+eriment 0i!! (e #ndu ted #n Tuesda, and Thursda,$ Gr# er, re ei+t Lun h +!an

1< 1 h#ur 1-' h#urs

N#/em(er 11-1D

B!an" P#stDan e Sur/e, sheet

1-' h#urs

N#/em(er 1L-''

.#urna! entr, C#m+!eted P#st-Dan e Sur/e,s

@ L

N#/em(er 'D-'= De em(er '-F

.#urna! due 11:4< Se #nd 0ee" #& e-+eriment: +r#tein &# us$ E-+eriment 0i!! ta"e +!a e #n M#nda, and 5ednesda,$

.#urna! entr, C#m+!eted P#st-Dan e Sur/e,s

1 h#ur T0# '<minute !un hes* 4< minutes t# +re+are !un hes &#r ea h da,* sur/e,s 0i!! (e #!!e ted at the end #& the da,$ 1 h#ur T0# '<minute !un hes* t0# 4<minute mea! +re+s

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL = De em(er =-14 Third and &ina! 0ee" #& e-+eriment: ar(#h,drate &# us$ E-+eriment 0i!! ta"e +!a e #n Tuesda, and Thursda,$ .#urna! due 1':18 Esing the P#stDan e Sur/e,s* 0rite a #n !usi#n detai!ing 0hi h nutrient +u!!ed a(#/e the rest &#r the dan ers1 energ,$ Des ri(e 0hat the #m+#siti#n #& a +re-dan e mea! sh#u!d (e$ C#m+!eted P#st-Dan e Sur/e,s .#urna! entr,

11 T0# '<minute !un hes* t0# 4<minute mea! +re+s 1 h#ur

1< .anuar, F1<

C#n !usi#n

'-4 h#urs

T#ta!: at !east 1F h#urs Human Resources The &#!!#0ing hart !ists a!! +ers#ns in/#!/ed in m, +r#)e t and their intended r#!es$ Guture #nta t 0ith these +ers#ns is #ut!ined* as 0e!! as (a "u+ +!ans sh#u!d these +e#+!e &ai! t# &u!&i!! their r#!es in m, +r#)e t$

Pers#n6s7

R#!e

C#mmuni ati#n

P!an B

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL Dan ers 1* '* and 4 These are the +rimar, dan ers during m, e-+eriment 0h# urrent!, eat 0ith me #n Red da,s and 0i!! e/entua!!, eat the !un hes I +r#/ide$ The, 0i!! a!s# (e #m+!eting the P#stDan e Sur/e,s$ This dan er 0i!! a!s# eat 0ith me #n Red da,s$ He:she 0i!! sign the #ntra t and eat the mea!s I +r#/ideJ h#0e/er* he:she 0i!! n#t need t# #m+!ete the P#st-Dan e Sur/e,s un!ess #ne #& dan ers 1-4 is a(sent$ I ha/e a!read, menti#ned m, +r#)e t t# these dan ers and se/era! #& them seemed interested$ N#0* I )ust ha/e t# get three #& them t# #mmit t# the +r#)e t thr#ugh a signed #ntra t$ See a(#/e$

1' Sh#u!d n#ne #& the dan ers I eat 0ith #n Red da,s #mmit* I 0i!! #nsu!t the dan ers I eat 0ith #n 5hite da,s$ Sh#u!d I ha/e dan ers #mmit 0h# are a(sent #ne da,* I 0i!! use m, &#urth dan er$ I& I ann#t &ind a &#urth dan er* I 0i!! re&rain &r#m +arti i+ating &u!!, m,se!& and 0i!! (e #me the P!an B dan er$

Dan er 8 6and +#ssi(!, D7

Facilities, Equipment, and Budget Be!#0 is a hart detai!ing the materia!s* s+a e* and m#ne, I 0i!! need &#r m, +r#)e t$ In !uded is an e-+!anati#n #& h#0 these materia!s 0i!! (e #(tained and +aid &#r$ Materia!6s7 Meeting area 0here m, dan ers 0i!! eat !un h 0ith me$ M(tainment C#st N#ne Pa,ment Meth#d N:A

Sin e m, +r#)e t is ta"ing +!a e at s h##!* this is a!read, +r#/ided: m, dan ers and I 0i!! eat in #ne #& the %PAS anteens 60hi h 0i!! (e de ided u+#n 0hen the 0eather ##!s7$ Lun h (#-es #r T# redu e #sts* I 0i!! use +!asti (ags t# +a " m, gr# er, (ags that I ha/e a/ai!a(!e at dan er1s m, h#use$ !un hes

N#ne

N:A

DETERMINING THE BEST PRE-DANCE MEAL G##d &#r m, dan ers and m,se!& G#r the m#st +art* the &##ds I gi/e m, dan ers 0i!! #me &r#m m, &ami!,1s regu!ar 0ee"!, gr# eries 6i$e$ m, &ami!, 0i!! share the 0ee"!, gr# eries 0ith these dan ers$ The, ha/e a!read, agreed t# d# s#7$ I 0i!! attend the 0ee"!, gr# er, tri+ 0ith m, m#ther t# #!!e t the &##ds &#r m, dan ers$ Than"&u!!,* dan e !asses at %PAS (egin right a&ter !un h* s# this is a!read, +r#/ided$ Re&eren es I e-+e t a &e0 s+e ia! &##d +ur hases t# (e made* t#ta!ing n# m#re than K4<$

14 I 0i!! (e +a,ing &#r these s+e ia! &##ds m,se!&$

A dan e !ass immediate!, &#!!#0ing !un h

N#ne

N:A

Harris#n* E$ 6n$d$7$ The Centre &#r Dan e Nutriti#n - H#me $ The centre for dance nutrition$ Retrie/ed Se+tem(er D* '<14* &r#m htt+:::000$dan ernutriti#n$ #m: Mastin* ;$ 6'<<=7$ Nutrition for the dancer$ A!t#n* EN: Dan e (##"s$