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End of Packet-Chapter 4

Case Study: Dams, Wetlands, Hurricanes, and New Orleans


Dams and levees have been built to control water flows in New Orleans. Reduction in natural flow has destroyed natural wetlands.
Causes city to lie below sea-level (up to 3 meters). Global sea levels have risen almost 0.3 meters since 1900.

Freshwater Inland Wetlands: Vital Sponges


Inland wetlands act like natural sponges that absorb and store excess water from storms and provide a variety of wildlife habitats.
Figure 6-18

Inland Wetlands.Importance
marshes, swamps, floodplains, bogs

Recharging groundwater supplies Recreation Biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur Waterfowl habitat (geese, ducks)

Freshwater Inland Wetlands: Vital Sponges


Filter

and degrade pollutants. Reduce flooding and erosion by absorbing slowly releasing overflows. Help replenish stream flows during dry periods. Help recharge ground aquifers. Provide economic resources and recreation.

Impacts of Human Activities on Freshwater Systems


Dams, cities, farmlands, and filled-in wetlands alter and degrade freshwater habitats.
Dams, diversions and canals have fragmented about 40% of the worlds 237 large rivers. Flood control levees and dikes alter and destroy aquatic habitats. Cities and farmlands add pollutants and excess plant nutrients to streams and rivers. Many inland wetlands have been drained or filled for agriculture or (sub)urban development.

Impacts of Human Activities on Freshwater Systems


These wetlands have been ditched and drained for cropland conversion.

Figure 6-19

Species Loss in an Marine Ecosystem


Overfishing Habitat destruction Pollution Erosion

Mitigation Bankingcreating or restoring as much wetlands as are destroyed

Why go aquatic?
Climate moderation Flood control Nutrient cycling

Life in Saltwater/Freshwater can be limited


Dissolved oxygen for respiration Temperature Solar capital for photosynthesis

Which of the following is most likely to result from the destruction of wetlands surrounding a river?

A) A decreased sediment load in the river B) a decreased level of pollutants such as nitrates in the river C) An increased diversity of aquatic species in the river D) An increased level of oxygen in the river E) An increased frequency of flooding in the river valley

Reasons that human populations historically have settled in floodplains include which of the following?

I) The soil in floodplains is usually fertile II)The terrain in floodplains tends to be flat III) Floodplains are close to rivers for transportation A) I only B) II only C) I and II only D) II and III only E) I, II and III

Which of the following is the usual cause of cultural eutrophication in surfacewaters of both developed and developing countries?

D A) Lack of proper filtration devices for power plant

effluents (coming out of) B) Introduction of cyanobacteria to streams and rivers C) Runoff of metal ions in bodies of water D) Runoff of nitrate compounds into bodies of water E)Runoff of herbicides into bodies of water

The greatest amount of freshwater is found in which of the following?


A) The atmosphere B) Estuaries C) Lakes D) Rivers and Streams E) Polar Ice Caps and glaciers

Which of the following is a common characteristic of lakes undergoing cultural eutrophication?

A) Decreases rates of sediment accumulation B) decreased amounts of green and bluegreen algae C) Increased levels of oxygen throughout the water column D) Increased water quality in the epilimnion E) Increased levels of plant nutrients