Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Therese Thompson

Rationale:

Long-Term Plan High School

Biology

You cannot understand how our bodies or other organisms function unless you understand the chemistry of our cells, what our cells are made up of, how our cells interact with each other, and how cells reproduce. We have to start with what makes up an Atom: electrons, neutrons, & protons. Then, what are an element and a molecule. The periodic table used in chemistry shows the different elements in our world, which of these are part of our make up? What are the roles of these molecules in our bodies? Students will learn how do these molecules react with each other, what is the strength of their bonds, and how do they behave with each other, which molecules will become important as we understand the structure and function of cells. Our bodies are made up of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Students will understand the roles each of these plays in a living species, how do they differ, and where are they found in our bodies. Everything is determined by the genes. Genes (RNA and DNA) are expressed as proteins/enzymes. Do we get our genes from our parents? What similarities do we have genetically as humans? How do our genes differ from other organisms? Cells and organelles in our cells, determines their role in our bodies. What are the differences between cells, and what are the differences in the organelles in the cells? Cells make up our organs and their roles are totally different in our body. What is the difference between a cell membrane and a cell wall? How do substances enter or exit our cells? Do these cell membranes have different functions? The human body is a chemistry set, with interactions, communication, & cellular processes taking place all the time without us telling the cells to do it. How the physical and environmental factors around us are affecting our cells and health? Where do we get our energy every day when we wake up? Are there different energy molecules in our body? Do some energy molecules play a greater role in our bodies?

We breathe in oxygen, where does oxygen come from? How do plants get their food, they dont have a digestive tract. Plants take our waste product of breathing = CO2 and give us Oxygen, while they are making their own food. Our cells divide to make new cells, how is this done? What type of cells divide by Mitosis, and others divide by Meiosis? Why do some cells continue to grow/divide and may become cancer? Digestion, diffusion, and osmosis are taking place between cell membranes, which allows the movement of molecules to get to a new cell. Specialized proteins or enzymes have a major role in our bodies. Enzymatic reactions are continually happening in our cells, what are the roles of these reactions? Phenotype is our physical appearance from our Genotype. Some of us may inherit genes that may give us a disease; others will have a different hair color, etc. Prokaryotic organisms or bacteria are everywhere, on us and within us. How do prokaryotic organisms differ from us (eukaryotic)? How diverse are bacteria around the world and live in every habitat from the ocean to the soil? How does our immune system prevent or control pathogens? Do we differ in our blood type? Are their natural defenses that can help us stay healthy? Cells become tissues, tissue can become organs, and how different are these cells? What are the differences between humans, frogs, & chickens? Depending on what is provided at the school, will determine what we can perform in the lab setting. But as much as possible I want to have hands on lab experiences.

A school year is 36 weeks long = ~ 180 days.

Unit/Lessons:
1. Chemistry of Biology: matter, atoms, their properties, & chemical reactions. Students will learn the difference between an element, atom, bonds & relative strengths, parts of an atom & how they behave.

NH Std.

S:LS2:11:3.1 Explain that as matter and energy flow through different levels of organization in living systems and between living systems and the environment, elements, such as carbon and nitrogen, are recombined in different ways. 2. Chemical & Biological differences between Proteins, Carbohydrates, & Lipids . Students will understand the roles these play in living organisms.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:2.5 Describe the structures of proteins and their role in cell function. 3. Structure of Nucleic Acids. Students will understand the structure of DNA & RNA, replication, and inheritance. And how genes are expressed or mutations take place.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:3.1 Describe the chemical and structural properties of DNA and explain its role in identifying the characteristics of an organism. S:LS1:11:1.2 Explain that organisms that possess similar DNA code are more closely related than those in which DNA varies greatly. 4. Types, structure, & function of Cells & Organelles . Students will understand how cells in our body differ and how they differ between animal and plant cells.
NH Std.

S:LS5:11:2.1 Describe the use and benefits of equipment such as light microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, spectrophotometers, probes, and robotics to the study of the life sciences. S:LS1:11:2.1 Identify the structures of different types of cell parts/organelles and explain the functions they perform. S:LS1:11:2.8 Use data and observation to make connections between, to explain, or to justify how specific cell organelles produce/regulate what the cell needs or what a unicellular or multi-cellular organism needs for survival (e.g., protein synthesis, DNA transport, nerve cells). [LS1(9-11)INQ+SAE+FAF-1] S:LS1:11:2.2 Recognize how cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins, and through the selective expression of individual genes; and explain how this regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division. 5. Structure & Function of Cellular Membranes. Students will understand how membranes regulate which substances enter & leave the cell.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:2.3 Recognize how an organisms organization and complexity accommodate its need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain it. 6. Cellular Processes and Communication. Students will understand how substances inside & outside our bodies & physical & environmental factors can affect our cells & health.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:2.3 Recognize how an organisms organization and complexity accommodate its need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain it. S:LS2:11:3.2 Trace the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon cycle) and the flow of energy in a living system from its source through its transformation in cellular, biochemical processes (e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration, fermentation). [LS2(9-11)POC+SAE-4] S:LS1:11:2.2 Recognize how cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins, and through the selective expression of individual genes; and explain how this regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division.

7. Cellular & Energy Pathways. Students will understand the role of energy (ATP) and oxygen and biochemical transformations taking place in our body that are essential for life.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:2.3 Recognize how an organisms organization and complexity accommodate its need for obtaining, transforming, transporting, releasing, and eliminating the matter and energy used to sustain it. S:LS1:11:2.4 Explain how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interrelated and contribute to biogeochemical cycles. S:LS1:11:2.7 Recognize that because all matter tends toward more disorganized states, living systems need a continuous input of energy to maintain their chemical and physical organizations. S:LS2:11:3.2 Trace the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon cycle) and the flow of energy in a living system from its source through its transformation in cellular, biochemical processes (e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration, fermentation). [LS2(9-11)POC+SAE-4] S:LS1:11:2.2 Recognize how cell functions are regulated through changes in the activity of the functions performed by proteins, and through the selective expression of individual genes; and explain how this regulation allows cells to respond to their environment and to control and coordinate cell growth and division. 8. Photosynthesis & Plant Pigments. Students will understand how light energy from the sun can be converted to chemical energy for plant metabolism & growth and differences between plant pigments.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:2.4 Explain how the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are interrelated and contribute to biogeochemical cycles. S:LS2:11:3.2 Trace the cycling of matter (e.g., carbon cycle) and the flow of energy in a living system from its source through its transformation in cellular, biochemical processes (e.g., photosynthesis, cellular respiration, fermentation). [LS2(9-11)POC+SAE-4] 9. Mitosis & Meiosis. Students will understand how cells divide, what is the difference between sexual and asexual cell division, what is programmed cell death, and how cells have lost their control of cell division and become cancer cells.
NH Std.

S:LS:12:2:1 Compare the processes of mitosis and meiosis, including disruptions to the cycles, such as disease or cancer. S:LS1:11:3.3 Describe the alternation of generations, life cycles with haploid and diploid phases in living organisms, such as bacteria, plants and animals. S:LS3:11:3.7 Explain the concepts of Mendelian genetics. 10. Digestion, Osmosis & Diffusion. Students will understand the differences between these processes and what can cross the cell membranes and how.
NH Std.

11. Enzymes. Students will understand the differences between potential, kinetic energy, the laws of thermodynamics, how enzymes have a role in reactions, & cellular respiration.
NH Std.

12. Genetics: DNA, RNA, Chromosomes, Heredity, & Mutations . Students will understand chromosomes, inheritance (dominance, recessive, co-dominance, incomplete dominance), differences between phenotypes and genotypes, what is homo- or hetero- zygous, how genes are expressed, how DNA and RNA are replicated, how proteins are made, differences between purines and pyrimidines, mutations and affects.
NH Std.

S:LS4:11:2.5 Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled division, which is called cancer; and describe how exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increase mutation, and thus the chance for cancer.

S:LS3:11:3.5 Identify and describe ways genes may be changed and combined to create genetic variation within a species. S:LS1:11:3.3 Describe the alternation of generations, life cycles with haploid and diploid phases in living organisms, such as bacteria, plants and animals. S:LS1:11:3.1 Describe the chemical and structural properties of DNA and explain its role in identifying the characteristics of an organism. S:LS1:11:1.2 Explain that organisms that possess similar DNA code are more closely related than those in which DNA varies greatly. S:LS3:11:3.6 Explain that gene mutations and new combinations may have a variety of effects on the organism, including positive and negative ones, or none at all. S: LS3:12:3:1 Understand the types of mutations that cause changes in DNA and cause the appearance of new alleles, such as frameshift and point mutations, and the chromosomal mutations of insertion, deletion, translocation, and duplication. S:LS1:11:3.4 Explain or justify with evidence how the alteration of the DNA sequence may produce new gene combinations that make little difference, enhance capabilities, or can be harmful to the organism (e.g., selective breeding, genetic S:LS3:11:3.8 Use pedigree charts and Punnet Squares to determine patterns of inheritance. 13. Differences between Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Organisms. Students will understand how bacteria can affect our health and lives & the diversity in our environments. Students will be introduced to viruses. Microbiology is the study of bacteria. Students will learn differences between gram positive & negative bacteria, how to culture from our body or other surfaces.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:1.2 Explain that organisms that possess similar DNA code are more closely related than those in which DNA varies greatly. S:LS1:11:1.4 Differentiate between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells according to general structure and degrees of complexity. S:LS1:11:3.3 Describe the alternation of generations, life cycles with haploid and diploid phases in living organisms, such as bacteria, plants and animals. 14. Natural Defenses, Immunology, & Blood Typing. Students will understand their immune systems can prevent or control pathogens. Students will learn how to type their blood. 15. Animal Development. Students will understand cells differentiate into tissues & organs. Students will learn understand development differences between humans, frogs, & chickens.
NH Std.

S:LS1:11:1.1 Describe how organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups, which are based on similarities that reflect their evolutionary relationships

Laboratory Techniques include: use of the light microscope, asceptic techniques, culturing bacteria, molecular techniques in isolating DNA (micropipetting, gel electrophoresis, PCR), organisms found in pond water, running experiments with enzymes, determine plant pigments, understand what biotechnology & genetic engineering is, blood typing, the process of substances crossing a membrane, & Mendelian genetics.