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MACHINE DESIGN REVIEWER (LECTURE) Machine Design, Engineering Materials, Machine Shop Practice, and Manufacturing Process

MACHINE DESIGN REVIEWER (LECTURE)

Machine Design, Engineering Materials,

Machine Shop Practice, and Manufacturing Process

Revision 0

2012

Prepared By:

Agerico U. Llovido – PME

Materials, Machine Shop Practice, and Manufacturing Process Revision 0 2012 Prepared By: Agerico U. Llovido –
Materials, Machine Shop Practice, and Manufacturing Process Revision 0 2012 Prepared By: Agerico U. Llovido –
A. PRESSURE VESSELS B. SHAFTS C. KEYS D. COUPLINGS E. FLYWHEELS F. SCREW FASTENINGS G.

A. PRESSURE VESSELS

B. SHAFTS

C. KEYS

D. COUPLINGS

E. FLYWHEELS

F. SCREW FASTENINGS

G. POWER SCREWS

H. SPRING

I. BELTS

J. CHAINS

K. WIRE ROPES

L. SPUR GEARS

M. HELICAL GEARS

N. BEVEL GEARS

O. WORM GEARS

P. BRAKES

Q. CLUTCHES

R. BEARINGS

S. RIVETED JOINTS

T. WELDED JOINTS

CONTENTS

U. ENGINEERING MATERIALS

V. MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE

W. MANUFACTURING PROCESS

S. RIVETED JOINTS T. WELDED JOINTS CONTENTS U. ENGINEERING MATERIALS V. MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE W. MANUFACTURING
S. RIVETED JOINTS T. WELDED JOINTS CONTENTS U. ENGINEERING MATERIALS V. MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE W. MANUFACTURING

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE 1. Thin-wall Pressure Vessel Thin-wall pressure vessel – is one whose

1. Thin-wall Pressure Vessel Thin-wall pressure vessel – is one whose plate thickness is small compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio t/D i is equal to or less than 0.1.

1.1 Circumferential tensile stress The fluid force acting on a longitudinal section of unit length is equal to pd, and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force equal to 2tσ t , where σ t represents the circumferential, hoop, or tangential stress.

σ

t

=

pD i

2 t

hoop, or tangential stress. σ t = pD i 2 t 1.2 Longitudinal tensile stress The

1.2 Longitudinal tensile stress The fluid force acting on a ring section is equal to 1/4πD i 2 p and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force πdtσ l , where s l represents the longitudinal stress.

σ

l

=

pD i

4 t

l represents the longitudinal stress. σ l = pD i 4 t Where σ t =

Where

σ t = circumferential stress, psi σ l = longitudinal stress, psi

p

= internal pressure, psi

D

i = internal diameter, in.

t = wall thickness, in

1

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE The formula above is also applicable to thin-wall sphere. 1.3 Joint

The formula above is also applicable to thin-wall sphere.

1.3 Joint efficiency or relative strength Joint strength is the ration of minimum strength of joint to the strength of solid plate.

η =

Minimum strength of joint

Strength of solid plate

Then considering joint efficiency, Circumferential tensile stress

σ t

=

pD i

2

t

η

Longitudinal tensile stress pD i

σ

l

σ

l

=

=

4 t

pD i

4 t

η

1.4 Factor of safety Factor of safety on specified material strengths is taken as 5.

2. Thick-Wall Cylinder Thick-wall cylinder – is one whose plate thickness is large compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio

t/D i is greater than 0.1.

2.1 Lame’s formula Tangential stress, σ t .

 

2

2

2

2

(

 

r  2 2 2 2 (   2

2

σ

t

=

p

i

r

i

p r

o

o

+

r

i

r

o

p

i

p

o

 

2

 

2

 

 

r

o

Radial stress, σ r ,

 

r

i

 

2

2

2

2

(

 

r  2 2 2 2 (   2

2

σ

r

=

p

i

r

i

p r

o

o

r

i

r

o

p

i

p

o

 

2

2

 

r o

r

i

 

Where:

 

r

o = outer radius of cylinder, in.

 

r

i = inner radius of cylinder, in.

 

p i , p o = internal and external pressure, respectively, psi

t = wall thickness, r o r i σ t = tangential stress, psi σ r = radial stress, psi

Maximum tangential stress at the inside.

σ

t

=

p

i

(

2

r

o

+

r

i

2

)

2

2

p r

o

o

2

r

o

r

i

2

2

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE Maximum tangential stress at the outside. σ t = 2 p

Maximum tangential stress at the outside.

σ

t

=

2 p r

i

i

2

p

o

(

2

r

o

+

r

2

i

)

2

r

o

r

i

2

Maximum shear stress at the inside surface.

τ =

2

r

o

(

p

i

p

o

)

2

r

o

r

i

2

Tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.

σ

t

σ

r

=

=

p

i r

i

2

2

r o

p

r

i

i r

i

2

2

2

r o

r

2

i

 

 

 

 

1 +

1

 

 

2

 

2

r o

r

2

r o

r

2

Maximum tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.

σ

t

(

max

)

σ

r(

max

)

=

p

i

(

2

r

o

r

i

2

)

2

r

o

r

i

2

= −p

i

with zero value for the external pressure. σ t ( max ) σ r ( max
with zero value for the external pressure. σ t ( max ) σ r ( max

3

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE

A. PRESSURE VESSEL - LECTURE 2.2 Maximum-normal-stress theory  σ + p  t i t

2.2 Maximum-normal-stress theory

 σ + p  t i t = r i  − 1 
σ
+ p
t
i
t
= r i
1
σ
p
t
i
2.3 Maximum-shear theory
σ
s
t
= r i
1
σ
p
s
i
σ
t
Usually,
σ
=
s
2

2.4 Maximum-strain theory Birnie’s equation for open-end cylinders

t =

r i

σ + ( 1 µ ) p    − t i − 1
σ
+
(
1
µ
)
p
  −
t
i
1
(
σ
1
+
µ
)
p
  −
t
i

Clavarino’s equation for closed-end cylinders

 σ + ( 1 − 2 µ ) p   t i t
σ
+
(
1
2
µ
)
p
t
i
t =
1
r i
σ
(
1
+
µ
)
p
t
i
Where µ= poisson’s ratio

2.5 Maximum energy of distortion theory (Octahedral shear stress theory)

  σ  t  t = − 1 r i   σ
σ
t
t
=
1
r i
σ
3
p
t
i
2.6 Longitudinal stress
2
2
p r
p r
i
i
o
o
σ
=
l
2
2
r
− r
o
i

For zero value of external pressure

σ

l

=

p r

i

i

2

2

r

o

r

i

2

-

End

-

4

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE 1. Definition A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used

1. Definition A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant torque (or twisting moment) setup within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft.

2. Types of shafts

2.1 Axle – is a stationary member carrying rotating wheels, pulleys, etc.

2.2 Transmission shafts – transmit power between the source and the absorbing power.

2.3 Machine shafts – a shaft which is an integral part of the machine itself. The crank shaft is an example of machine shaft.

2.4 LIneshaft, or mainshaft is one driven by a primemover.

2.5 Countershafts, jackshafts, or headshafts – are shafts intermediate between a line shaft and a driven machine.

2.6 Spindles – are short shafts on machines.

3. Stresses in Shafts

3.1 Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).

3.2 Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.

3.3 Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads.

4. Design of shafts

4.1

Strength

4.1.1

Shafts subjected to twisting moment only.

4.1.2

Shafts subjected to bending moment only.

4.1.3

Shafts subjected to combined twisting and bending moments.

4.1.4

Shafts subjected to axial loads in addition to combined torsional and bending loads.

4.2

Rigidity

4.2.1

Torsional rigidity

4.2.2

Lateral rigidity

5.

Shafts Subjected to Twisting Moment Only

T

J

=

τ

r

Where

T = Twisting moment (or torque) acting upon the shaft, J = Polar moment of inertia of the shaft about the axis of rotation,

τ = Torsional shear stress, and

 

d

r =

; where d is the diameter of the shaft.

 

2

1

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE For solid shaft: J = π 32 Then × d 4 T

For solid shaft:

J =

π

32

Then

×d

4

T =

π

16

×τ ×d

3

For hollow shaft:

d

Then

π

32

π

16

[(

J =

T =

×

o

τ

(

d

i

d

o

(

i

)

4

)

4

(

)

4

)

4

]

d

d

o

6. Shafts Subjected to Bending Moment Only

M σ

b

=

I

y

Where

M = Bending moment, I = Moment of inertia of cross-sectional area of the shaft about the axis of rotation,

σ

b

= Bending stress, and

y = Distance from neutral axis to the outer-most fibre.

For round solid shaft,

I =

π

64

4

and

y =

d

2

×d

Then

M

For hollow shaft:

I =

Then

d

π

=

32

π

64

[(

π

16

×σ ×

b

×

)

o

4

σ

)

4

]

(

d

i

)

4

d

i

(

o

)

4

(

d

b

d

o

d

3

M =

7. Shafts Subjected to Combined Twisting Moment and Bending Moment

7.1 Maximum shear theory or Guest’s theory. It is used for ductile materials such as mild steel.

7.2 Maximum normal stress theory or Rankine’s theory. It is used for brittle materials such as cast iron.

Maximum Shear Stress Theory 1 ( σ ) 2 = 2 + 4 τ τ
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
1 (
σ
)
2
=
2 +
4 τ
τ max
b
2

2

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE 2 2 1  32 M   16 T  =
2 2 1  32 M   16 T  =   +
2
2
1
32 M
16
T
=
+ 4
=
τ max
3
3
2
π
d
π
d
π
3
2
2
τ
×d
=
M
+T
max
16 ×
16 [ ] 2 2 M + T 3 π d
16
[
]
2
2
M
+
T
3
π
d

The expression

is known as equivalent twisting moment and is denoted bymax 16 × 16 [ ] 2 2 M + T 3 π d The expression

Maximum Normal Stress Theory

1 σ = σ 1 ( 2 + σ ) 2 + 4 τ b
1
σ
=
σ
1 (
2
+
σ
)
2 +
4 τ
b max
(
)
b
b
2
2
2
2
1
32
M
1
32
M
16
T
σ
=
×
+
+
4
b
(
max
)
3
3
3
2
π
d
2
π
d
π
d
32
 1
(
) 
2
2
σ
=
M
+
M
+
T
b
(
max
)
3
π
d
2
π
3 1
( M
)
2
2
×
σ
×
d
=
+
M
+
T
b
(
max
)
32
2

T

e

.

1 ) 2 2 The expression ( M + M + T is known as
1
)
2
2
The expression
( M +
M
+ T
is known as equivalent bending moment and is denoted by
2
8. Shaft Subjected to Fluctuating Loads
=
(
2
K
M
)
+
(
K T
)
2
T e
m
t
1
2
2
=
K
M
+
(
K
M
)
+
(
K T
)
M e
m
m
t
2
Where
K
= Combined shock and fatigue factor for bending, and
m

K

t

= Combined shock and fatigue factor for torsion.

3

M

e .

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE From Design of Machine Elements by V.M. Faires σ es σ e
B. SHAFTS - LECTURE From Design of Machine Elements by V.M. Faires σ es σ e

From Design of Machine Elements by V.M. Faires

σ

es

σ

e

=

σ ns

σ ys

σ

=

σ

n

σ

y

σ

m

ms

+

+

K fs

σ

as

for torsion

SF

K

f

σ

a

SF

for bending

Where σ is a symbol for stresses. SF = size factor or load factors

Maximum Shear Theory

1

N

=

σ

e

σ

n

2

+

σ

es

0 5

.

σ

n

2

1

2

von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)

1

N

=

σ

e

σ

n

2

+

σ

es

0 577

.

σ

n

2

1

2

9. Shaft Subjected to Axial Load in addition to Combined Torsion and Bending Loads

Resultant Stress

σ

1

=

M

y +

F

I A

10. Design of Shafts on the basis of Rigidity

10.1 Torsional rigidity

θ =

T

L

J

G

10.2 Lateral rigidity From strength of materials

4

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE d 2 y = M dx 2 EI 11. Shaft Design by

d

2

y =

M

dx

2

EI

11. Shaft Design by PSME Code/Machinery’s Handbook

Allowable stresses:

27.6

MPa (4000 psi) for main power-transmitting shafts.

41.5

MPa (6000 psi) for lineshafts carrying pulleys.

58.7

MPa (8500 psi) for small, short shafts, counter shafts, etc.

IP Units

Torque

T =

63,000 P

N

Diameter of solid shaft 5 1 T . D = 3 σ s 321 000
Diameter of solid shaft
5 1 T
.
D
=
3
σ
s
321 000 P
,
D
=
3
N
σ
s
SI Units
Torque
9 55×10
.
6 P
T
=
N
10 6
P
T
=

ω

Diameter of solid shaft

5 1 T . D = 3 σ s 6 48 7 . × 10
5 1 T
.
D
=
3
σ
s
6
48 7
.
×
10
P
D
=
3
N
σ
s
6
5 1
.
×
10
P
D
=
3
ωσ
s

11.1 For main power-transmitting shafts.

P =

D

3

N

80

in IP units

3

D N

in SI units

Where P = power transmitted, hp or kW

P

=

1 755×10

.

6

N

= angular velocity of the shaft in revolutions per minute (rpm).

D

= diameter of the haft, in or mm.

11.2 For lineshafts carrying pulleys.

P =

D

3

N

53 5

.

in IP units

5

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE

B. SHAFTS - LECTURE P = 3 D N 1 1738 × 10 . 6 in

P

=

3

D N

1 1738×10

.

6

in SI units

11.3 For small, short shafts.

P =

P

=

3

D N

38

in IP units

3

D N

0

.

837 ×10

6

in SI units

12. Shaft Design by Machinery’s Handbook

12.1

Torsional deflection According to some authorities, the allowable twist in steel transmission shafting should not exceed 0.08 degree per foot length of the shaft. The diameter D(in.) of a shaft that will permit a maximum angular deflection of 0.08 degree per foot of length for a given torque T (in-lb) or for a given horsepower P can be determined from the formulas:

 

D

= 0.29

.

6

4 T P 4 N
4
T
P
4
N

D

=

4

Using metric SI units and assuming an allowable twist in steel transmission shafting of 0.26 degree per meter length,

 

D

= 2.26

4 T P . 4 N
4
T
P
.
4
N

125 7

D

=

Another rule that has been generally used in mill practice limits the deflection to 1 degree in a length equal to 20 times the shaft diameter. For a given torque or horsepower, the diameter of a shaft having this maximum deflection is given by:

 

D

= 0.1

.

3 T P 3 N
3
T
P
3
N

0

D

=

4

12.2

For steel line shafting, it is considered good practice to limit the linear deflection to a maximum of 0.010 inch per foot of length. The maximum distance in feet between bearings, for average conditions, in order to avoid excessive linear deflection, is determined by the formulas:

L

3 2 D 3 2 D
3
2
D
3
2
D

= 8.95

= 5.2

for shafting subject to no bending action except its own weight

for shafting subject to bending action of pulleys, etc.

 

L

in which D = diameter of shaft in inches and L = maximum distance between bearings in feet. Pulleys should be placed as close to the bearings as possible.

- end -

6

C. KEYS - LECTURE

C. KEYS - LECTURE 1. Definitions Key - is a piece of mild steel inserted between

1. Definitions Key - is a piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub of the pulley to connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always inserted parallel to the axis of the shaft. Keyway - is a slot or recess in a shaft and hub of the pulley to accommodate a key.

2. Types of Keys Flat key – is rectangular in section with the smaller dimension placed in a radial direction and they may or may not be tapered.

in a radial direction and they may or may not be tapered. Square key – is

Square key – is square in section and may or may not be tapered. Round key – is circular in section and fit into holes drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub.

holes drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub. Barth key – is a

Barth key – is a square key with bottom two corners bevelled. Gib-head key - is a square or flat and tapered key with a head at one end known as gib head. It is usually provided to facilitate the removal of key.

It is usually provided to facilitate the removal of key. Saddle key – is tapered and

Saddle key – is tapered and are either hollow with a radius of curvature slightly smaller than the shaft radius, or flat in which case they are assembled on a flat on the shaft. It is used without keyway on the shaft. Flat saddle key – is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and is flat on the shaft.

1

C. KEYS - LECTURE

C. KEYS - LECTURE Hollow saddle key – is a taper key which fits in a

Hollow saddle key – is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and the bottom of the key is shaped to fit the curved surface of the shaft.

of the key is shaped to fit the curved surface of the shaft. Woodruff key –

Woodruff key – is a key which fits into a semi-cylindrical seat on the shaft.

a key which fits into a semi-cylindrical seat on the shaft. Feather key – is a

Feather key – is a key that allows the hub to move along the shaft but prevents rotation on the shaft.

to move along the shaft but prevents rotation on the shaft. Kennedy key – is a

Kennedy key – is a tapered square key, with or without gib heads, assembled with the diagonal dimension virtually in a circumferential direction. It is also called tangential key.

heads, assembled with the diagonal dimension virtually in a circumferential direction. It is also called tangential

2

C. KEYS - LECTURE

C. KEYS - LECTURE Rollpin – is a key driven or pressed into a hole that

Rollpin – is a key driven or pressed into a hole that is small enough to close the slit, assembled in radial direction.

enough to close the slit, assembled in radial direction. Splines – is a key made integral

Splines – is a key made integral with the shaft which fits in the keyways broached in the hub.

3. Shearing and Crushing of the key

Torque transmitted by the shaft,

T =

T =

FD

2

63,000 hp

n

in-lb

T =

P

n

Shearing stress

2π

τ

=

2 T

F

=

wLD

wL

Crushing (Compressive) stress

σ

c

=

2

T

tLD

Where

=

2 F

tL

D

= shaft diameter

w

= width of key

t = thickness of key

F

= tangential force

T

= torque

= 2 F tL D = shaft diameter w = width of key t = thickness

3

C. KEYS - LECTURE

C. KEYS - LECTURE 4. Proportions of key The usual proportions of the square key are

4. Proportions of key The usual proportions of the square key are

w =t =

D

4

Typical hub lengths fall between 1.25D and 2.4D.

For the same material and w = t = D/4, σ

c

= 2τ , L = 1.1571D.

-

End

-

4

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE 1. Definition Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the

1. Definition

Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the most common of which are the following:

a. To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are manufactured separately such as a motor and generator and to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations.

b. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility.

c. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another.

d. To introduce protection against overloads.

e. To alter the vibration characteristics of rotating units.

Note : A coupling is termed as a device used to make permanent or semi-permanent connection where as a clutch permits rapid connection or disconnection at the will of the operator.

2. Types of Shaft Couplings

2.1 Rigid Couplings

Rigid coupling – is used to connect two shafts which are perfectly aligned.

2.1.1 Flange coupling - usually applies to a coupling having two separate cast iron flanges. Each flange is mounted on the shaft end and keyed to it. The faces are turned up at right angle to the axis of

the shaft. One of the flange has a projected portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess.

portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess. 2.1.2 Compression coupling utilizes two split cones

2.1.2 Compression coupling utilizes two split cones which are drawn together by the bolts in order to produce a wedging action which tightens the parts of the coupling and the shafts.

which tightens the parts of the coupling and the shafts. 2.2 Flexible Couplings Flexible coupling –

2.2 Flexible Couplings

Flexible coupling – is used to connect two shafts having both lateral and angular misalignment.

2.2.1 Oldham coupling Oldham coupling – is used to join two shafts which have lateral mis-alignment.

1

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE 2.2.2 Universal (or Hooke’s) Coupling Universal or Hooke’s coupling – is used
D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE 2.2.2 Universal (or Hooke’s) Coupling Universal or Hooke’s coupling – is used

2.2.2 Universal (or Hooke’s) Coupling Universal or Hooke’s coupling – is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The inclination of the two shafts may be constant, but in actual practice, it varies when the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another.

when the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another. 2.2.3 Other flexible couplings Chain coupling,

2.2.3 Other flexible couplings Chain coupling, flexible disk coupling, gear type coupling, etc.

2

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE 3. Stresses in Flange Coupling Torque T = P FD = 2

3. Stresses in Flange Coupling

D. COUPLINGS - LECTURE 3. Stresses in Flange Coupling Torque T = P FD = 2

Torque

T =

P FD

=

2

π

n

2

Where

F

= total transmitted load on bolts

D

= diameter of bolt circle

d

= bolt diameter

t

= thickness

n

1 = number of bolts

F b = Force per bolts

F b =

F

n

1

Shear stress in bolts

τ =

F

b

4

F

b

=

A

s

π

d

2

Compressive stress

σ

c

=

F b

td

-

End

3

-

E. FLYWHEELS - LECTURE

E. FLYWHEELS - LECTURE 1. Definition of Flywheel A flywheel used in machines serves as a

1. Definition of Flywheel

A flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir which stores energy during the period when the

supply of energy is more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than supply.

A flywheel is a rotating member that acts as a storage reservoir for energy when work is not

“consumed” at as fast a rate as the power is supplied.

“consumed” at as fast a rate as the power is supplied. 2. Kinetic Energy, KE KE

2. Kinetic Energy, KE

KE =

KE

I

2

ω

mv

2

 
 

=

s

=

2

I

(

2

ω

1

2

2

ω

2

)

=

mk

2

(

2

ω

1

2

ω

2

)

=

(

m v

2

s

1

v

2

s 2

)

 

2

2

2

Where:

I = mk 2 = moment of inertia

m = mass of flywheel = W/g

r = radius of gyration

ω 1 = maximum angular velocity, rad/sec = 2pn1/60 ω 2 = minimum angular velocity, rad/sec = 2pn2/60

v

s1 = maximum speed = πDn 1

v

s2 = minimum speed = πDn 2

3. Coefficient of fluctuation, C f Maximum fluctuation of speed - the difference between the maximum and minimum speeds during a cycle. Coefficient of fluctuation of speed - the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of speed to the mean speed.

C

C

f

f

=

=

ω

1

ω

 

n

 

n

2

 

v

v

2

=

1

1

= s

s

2

 
 

ω

 

n

v

s

 

2

(

ω

1

ω

2

)

=

(

2 n

1

n

2

)

=

(

2 v

s

1

v

s 2

)

ω

1

+ ω

2

n

1

+ n

2

v

s

1

+

v

s

2

1

E. FLYWHEELS - LECTURE

E. FLYWHEELS - LECTURE 4. Weight of Flywheel, W Engineers frequently neglect the effect of the

4. Weight of Flywheel, W

Engineers frequently neglect the effect of the hub and arms.

W = πDbtρ

Where

D

= mean diameter

b

= width of flywheel

t

= thickness of flywheel

ρ = density of flywheel = 72,00 kg/m 3 for cast-iron = 7,860 kg/m 3 for steel

Also

W =

g

KE

C

f

v

2

s

5. Stress in flywheel

σ = ρv

2

s

Rules of thumb from experience specify the conventional limits of operation; 6000 fpm for cast iron and 10,000 fpm for cast steel.

6. Energy required for punching a metal

KE

=

1

2

Ft

=

1

2

τ

u

At

=

1

2

τ

u

(

π

)

dt t

=

1

2

τ

u

(

π

) 2

d t

Where

F = force required to punch a metal τ u = ultimate shearing stress

t

= thickness of metal plate

d

= diameter of hole

7. Equations from Dynamics

ω =

θ

t

ω = 2π n

α

=

ω

2

ω

1

t

θ =ω t +

1

1

2

αt

2

-

End

2

-

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE 1. Screw Fastenings Screw fastening – is composed by a bolt

1. Screw Fastenings Screw fastening – is composed by a bolt and nut. Screw thread - is formed by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface.

2. Definitions

helical groove on a cylindrical surface. 2. Definitions Major diameter – is the largest diameter of

Major diameter – is the largest diameter of an external or internal screw thread. The screw is specified by this diameter. It is also known as outside or nominal diameter. Minor diameter – is the smallest diameter of an external or internal screw thread. It is known as core or root diameter. Pitch diameter – is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder, on a cylindrical screw thread, the surface of which would pass through the thread at such points as to make equal the width thread and the width of the spaces between the threads. It is also called an effective diameter. It is the mean diameter of major and minor diameters. Pitch – is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next. This is measured in an axial direction between corresponding points in the same axial plane.

Pitch =

1

No of threads per unit length of screw

.

Lead – is the distance between two corresponding points on the same helix. It may also be defined as the distance which a screw thread advances axially in one rotation of the nut. Lead is equal to the pitch in case of single start thread, it is twice the pitch in double start, thrice the pitch in triple start and so on. Crest – is the top surface of the thread. Root – is the bottom surface created by the two adjacent flanks of the thread. Depth of thread – is the perpendicular distance between the crest and root. Flank – it the surface joining the crest and root. Angle of thread – is the angle included by the flanks of the thread. Slope – it is half the pitch of the thread.

1

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE 3. Forms of screw threads British standard Whitworth (B.S.W.) thread .

3. Forms of screw threads

British standard Whitworth (B.S.W.) thread .

.
.

British association (B.A.) thread.

(B.S.W.) thread . . British association (B.A.) thread. American national standard thread. 2 Unified standard

American national standard thread.

association (B.A.) thread. American national standard thread. 2 Unified standard thread. Square thread. Acme thread.

2

Unified standard thread.

association (B.A.) thread. American national standard thread. 2 Unified standard thread. Square thread. Acme thread.

Square thread.

association (B.A.) thread. American national standard thread. 2 Unified standard thread. Square thread. Acme thread.

Acme thread.

association (B.A.) thread. American national standard thread. 2 Unified standard thread. Square thread. Acme thread.

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE Knuckle thread. 4. Basic profile of the thread. Buttress thread. 5.

Knuckle thread.

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE Knuckle thread. 4. Basic profile of the thread. Buttress thread. 5.

4. Basic profile of the thread.

Buttress thread.

- LECTURE Knuckle thread. 4. Basic profile of the thread. Buttress thread. 5. Design profile of
- LECTURE Knuckle thread. 4. Basic profile of the thread. Buttress thread. 5. Design profile of

5. Design profile of the nut and bolt.

- LECTURE Knuckle thread. 4. Basic profile of the thread. Buttress thread. 5. Design profile of

3

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE 6. Common Types of Screw Fastening a. Through bolt – a

6. Common Types of Screw Fastening

a. Through bolt – a cylindrical bar with threads for the nut at one end and head at the other end.

b. Tap bolt – a bolt screwed into a tapped hole of one of the parts to be fastened without the nut.

c. Studs - a round bar threaded at both ends. One end of the stud is screwed into a tapped hole of the parts to be fastened, while the other end receives a nut on it,

d. Cap screws - are similar to tap bolts except that they are of small size and a variety of shapes of heads are available.

e. Machine screws - are similar to cap screws with the head slotted for a screw driver. These are generally used with a nut.

f. Set screws – are used to prevent relative motion between two parts that tend to slide over one another.

g. Coupling bolt – is finished all over, usually having coarse threads.

h. Carriage bolt – is distinguished by a short potion of the shank underneath the head being square or finned or ribbed.

i. Stove bolt – is a cheap variety of bolt made in small sizes.

j. U-bolts – are in the form of U and are used as holding clamps, as on an automobile spring.

k. Plow bolts – are widely used on farm machinery.

l. Track bolts – are used in railway track construction.

m. Lag screw – is used to fasten machinery and equipment to a wooden base.

7. Locking Devices

a. Jam nut or lock nut

b. Castle nut

c. Sawn

d. Penn, ring or grooved nut

e. Locking with pin

f. Locking with plate

g. Spring lock washer

8.

Design Stress: σ 1  y σ = ( A ) 2  D <
Design Stress:
σ
1
y
σ
=
(
A
)
2
 D <
3 in
d
s
6
4 
3
= 0.4σ
σ d
 D >
in
 
y
4

Where σ y = yield strength of material, ksi σ d = design tensile strength, ksi A s = stress area, in 2 D = nominal diameter, in.

9.

Tightening stress, initial tension & tightening torque

Tightening stress when proof stress available.

σ

Where

i

= 0.9σ

p

.

σ

p

= proof stress

4

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE Tightening stress when no proof stress σ Initial tension = i

Tightening stress when no proof stress

σ

Initial tension =

i

= 0.85σ

y

F =σ A

i

i

s

Tightening Torque =

T = 0.2DF

i

10. Elastic considerations Equivalent area of connected parts

A

D

c

e

=

π

4

D

2

e

π

4

D

2

h

= (Nut or head width across flats) + 2

D 2 e − π 4 D 2 h = (Nut or head width across flats)

F

b

=

F

e

k

b

k

b

+

k

c

k

c

=

A

c

E

c

L

k

b

=

A

b

E

b

L

Bolts:

F

t

=

F

i

+

k

b

k

b

+

k

c

σ

t

=

F

t

A

s

F

e

Tube or connected parts:

F

c

σ

c

=

F

i

=

F

c

A

c

k

c

k

b

+

k

c

F

e

For zero stress in the tube

F

o

=   k

 

b

+

k

c

k

c

 

F

i

5

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE

F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE 11. Working Strength of Bolts (Machinery’s Handbook) The following empirical formula
F. SCREW FASTENINGS - LECTURE 11. Working Strength of Bolts (Machinery’s Handbook) The following empirical formula

11. Working Strength of Bolts (Machinery’s Handbook)

The following empirical formula was established for the working strength of bolts used for packed joints or joints where the elasticity of a gasket is greater than the elasticity of the studs or bolts.

W

=σ

t

(

0 55

.

D

2

0 25

.

D)lbs

where W = working strength of bolt or permissible load, in pounds, after allowance is made for initial load due to tightening; σ t = allowable working stress in tension, pounds per square inch; and D = nominal outside diameter of stud or bolt, inches.

12. Set Screw

Diameter of setscrew, d = 0.125D

Power transmitted by a single set-screw

P

=

Dnd

2.3

50

Torque transmitted by a single set-screw

T =

1250

Dd

Where:

2 . 3

P

= horsepower transmitted, hp6.

T

= torque, in-lb

D

= shaft diameter, in

n

= speed, rpm

d

= set-screw diameter

- end -

6

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE 1. Definition Power screws (Translation screws) – are used to move

1. Definition Power screws (Translation screws) – are used to move machine parts against resisting forces, for instance, in a screw-operated tensile-testing machine, jack, press, or lead screw of a lathe.

2. Types of Screw Threads used for Power Screws

2.1 Square threads.

of Screw Threads used for Power Screws 2.1 Square threads. From Faires, Black and Adams. h

From Faires, Black and Adams.

h

=

7

16

p

2.2 Acme or Trapezoidal threads.

h = 7 16 p 2.2 Acme or Trapezoidal threads. From Faires, h = 0 .

From Faires,

h = 0.5p

2.3 Buttress threads.

16 p 2.2 Acme or Trapezoidal threads. From Faires, h = 0 . 5 p 2.3

From Faires,

h = 0.663p

1

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE 3. Pitch and Lead Axial pitch or pitch – is the

3.

Pitch and Lead Axial pitch or pitch – is the distance, measured axially, from a point on on ethread to the corresponding point on an adjacent thread. Lead – is the distance that a thread advances in one turn; it is the distance the nut moves along the axis in one turn. Lead angle – is the angle between a tangent to the pitch helix and a plane normal to the axis of the screw.

the pitch helix and a plane normal to the axis of the screw. Pitch P c

Pitch

P

c

=

P

=

1

No of threads per inch

.

Lead Angle

λ = tan

1 Lead

π D

m

D m

=

1

2

(

Size

+ D

r

)

Where D m is the mean thread diameter

4.

Torque to turn screw

For square thread Torque required to turn the thread against the load

T =

WD

m

2

tan

(

β

+

)

λ

=

WD

m

(

tan

λ

+

tan

β

)

(

2 1

tan

β

tan

)

λ

=

WD

m

(

tan

λ

+

f

)

(

2 1

f

tan

λ)

Torque required to turn the thread with the load

T =

WD

m

2

tan

(

β

)

λ

=

WD

m

(

tan

β

tan

λ

)

(

2 1

+ tan

β

tan

)

λ

=

WD

m

(

f tan

λ

)

(

2 1 + f tan

λ)

Where f = tanβ = coefficient of friction and β = angle of friction

For Acme thread Torque required to turn the thread against the load

2

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE

G. POWER SCREWS - LECTURE T = WD m ( cos φ tan λ + tan

T =

WD

m

(

cos

φ

tan

λ

+

tan

β

)

(

2 cos

φ

tan

β

tan

)

λ

 

φ = pressure angle 14.5

o

=

WD

m

(

cos

φ

tan

λ

+

f

)

(

2 cos

φ

f

tan

λ)

Torque required to overcome collar friction:

5.

T

c

=

(

f W R

c

o

+

R

i

)

2

Efficiency of a square-thread screw

ideal effort

e =

actual effort

Efficiency of square thread considering only the screw friction.

e =

tan

λ

tan

λ

(

1

f

tan

λ

)

=

tan

(

β

+

)

λ

tan

λ

+ f

Efficiency of square thread considering screw friction and collar friction

e

=

tan

λ

tan

(

β

+

)

λ

=

tan

(

λ

1 f

tan

)

λ

tan

λ

+

f

+   f D

c

c

D

m

(

1 f tan

λ)

Where D c = R o + R i

Efficiency of acme thread considering screw friction and collar friction

6.

e =

tan

(

λ

cos

φ

f

tan

)

λ

tan

λ

cos

φ

+

f

cos

φ

+   f D

c

c

D

m

(

cos

φ

f

tan

λ)

Condition for self-locking screw The condition for self-locking of a square thread is that β must be greater than λ, or that tan β (the coefficient of

friction) must be greater than tan λ (the tangent of the lead angle). Self-locking Screw, β > λ

Torque to lower the load WD

T

=

2

m

tan(β λ)

- End -

3

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 1. Definition SPRING – is defined as an elastic body, whose function

1. Definition

SPRING – is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed.

2. Application:

2.1 To cushion, absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibration as in car springs, railway buffers, air-craft landing gears, shock absorbers and vibration dampers.

2.2 To apply forces, as in brakes, clutches and spring-loaded valves.

2.3 To control motion by maintaining contact between two elements as in cams and followers.

2.4 To measure forces, as in spring balances and engine indicators.

2.5 To store energy, as in watches, toys, etc.

3. Types of Springs (According to shapes)

3.1 Helical springs – are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and is primarily intended for compressive or tensile loads. The cross-section of the wire from which the spring is made may be circular, square or rectangular.

Forms of helical springs.

3.1.1 Compression helical spring

3.1.2 Tension helical spring

Compression helical spring 3.1.2 Tension helical spring Closely coiled – when the spring is coiled so

Closely coiled – when the spring is coiled so close that the plane containing each turn is nearly at right angles to the axis of the helix and the wire is subjected to torsion. Helix angle is usually less than 10 degrees.

Open coiled – is coiled in such a way that there is a gap between the two consecutive turns, as a result of which the helix angle is large.

3.2 Conical and volute springs – are used in special applications where a telescoping spring or a spring with a spring rate that increases with the load is desired. The conical spring is wound with a uniform pitch whereas the volute springs are wound in the form of paraboloid with constant pitch and lead angles.

1

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 3.3 Torsional springs – are springs that may be of helical or
H. SPRING - LECTURE 3.3 Torsional springs – are springs that may be of helical or

3.3 Torsional springs – are springs that may be of helical or spiral type.

Helical type – may be used only in applications where the load tends to wing up the spring and are used in various electrical mechanisms. Spiral type – is used where the load tends to increase the number of coils and when made of flat strip are used in watches and clocks.

and when made of flat strip are used in watches and clocks. 3.4 Laminated or leaf

3.4 Laminated or leaf springs (flat spring or carriage spring) – consist of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of clamps and bolts.

– consist of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together

2

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 3.5 Disc or Belleville springs – consist of a number of conical

3.5 Disc or Belleville springs – consist of a number of conical discs held together against slipping by a central bolt or tube. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates and compact spring units are required.

3.6 Special purpose springs – these springs are air or liquid springs, rubber springs, ring springs etc.

4. Material for Helical Springs

The springs are mostly made from oil-tempered carbon steel wires containing 0.60 to 0.70 per cent carbon and 0.60 to 1.0 per cent manganese. Music wire is used for small springs. Non-ferrous materials like phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, monel metal, brass etc., may be used in special cases to increase fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance.

The helical springs are either cold formed or hot formed depending upon the size of the wire. Wires of small sizes (less than 10 mm diameter) are usually wound cold whereas larger size wires are wound hot. The strength of the wires varies with size, smaller size wires have greater strength and less ductility, due to the greater degree of cold working.

Severe service – means rapid continuous loading where the rate of minimum to maximum load (or stress) is one-half or less, as in automotive valve springs.

Average service – includes the same stress range as in severe service but with only intermittent operation, as in engine governor springs and automobile suspension springs.

Light service – includes springs subjected to loads that are static or very infrequently varied, as in safety valve springs.

5. Terms use in Compression Springs

5.1 Solid length – is the product of total number of coils and the diameter of the wire.

5.2 Free length – is the length of the spring in the free or unloaded condition. It is equal to the solid length plus the

maximum deflection or compression of the spring and the clearance between the adjacent coils (when fully compressed).

maximum deflection or compression of the spring and the clearance between the adjacent coils (when fully

3

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 5.3 Spring index – is defined as the ratio of the mean

5.3 Spring index – is defined as the ratio of the mean diameter of the coil to the diameter of the wire. Spring index, C = D d

coil to the diameter of the wire. Spring index, C = D d Where D =

Where

D = Mean diameter of the coil, and

d = Diameter of the wire.

5.4 Spring rate (stiffness or spring constant or spring scale) – is defined as the load required per unit deflection of the spring. Spring rate, k = F δ Where F = Load,and

the spring. Spring rate, k = F δ Where F = Load,and δ = Deflection of

δ = Deflection of the spring.

5.5 Pitch – is defined as the axial distance between adjacent coils in uncompressed state.

6. End Connections for Compression Helical Springs

state. 6. End Connections for Compression Helical Springs Inactive coils – part of the coil which

Inactive coils – part of the coil which is in contact with the seat and does not contribute to spring action. Active turns – turns which impart spring action.

4

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 7. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs 5
H. SPRING - LECTURE 7. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs 5

7. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs

H. SPRING - LECTURE 7. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs 5

5

H. SPRING - LECTURE

H. SPRING - LECTURE 8. Stresses in helical springs of circular wire Helical compression spring. D

8. Stresses in helical springs of circular wire

Helical compression spring.

D

= Mean diameter of the spring coil,

d

= Diameter of the spring wire,

n = Number of active coils,

G

= Modulus of rigidity for the spring material,

F

= Axial load on the spring,

τ

= Maximum shear stress induced in the wire,

C

= Spring index = D d ,

= Spring index = D d ,

p

= Pitch of the coils, and

δ = Deflection of the spring, as a result of an axial load W .

Deflection of the spring, as a result of an axial load W . A.M. Wahl Equation:

A.M. Wahl Equation:

τ

=

K

×