MACHINE DESIGN REVIEWER (LECTURE)
Machine Design, Engineering Materials,
Machine Shop Practice, and Manufacturing Process
Revision 0
2012
Prepared By:
Agerico U. Llovido – PME
A. PRESSURE VESSELS
B. SHAFTS
C. KEYS
D. COUPLINGS
E. FLYWHEELS
F. SCREW FASTENINGS
G. POWER SCREWS
H. SPRING
I. BELTS
J. CHAINS
K. WIRE ROPES
L. SPUR GEARS
M. HELICAL GEARS
N. BEVEL GEARS
O. WORM GEARS
P. BRAKES
Q. CLUTCHES
R. BEARINGS
S. RIVETED JOINTS
T. WELDED JOINTS
CONTENTS
U. ENGINEERING MATERIALS
V. MACHINE SHOP PRACTICE
W. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
A. PRESSURE VESSEL  LECTURE
1. Thinwall Pressure Vessel Thinwall pressure vessel – is one whose plate thickness is small compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio t/D _{i} is equal to or less than 0.1.
1.1 Circumferential tensile stress The fluid force acting on a longitudinal section of unit length is equal to pd, and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force equal to 2tσ _{t} , where σ _{t} represents the circumferential, hoop, or tangential stress.
σ
t
=
pD _{i}
2 t
1.2 Longitudinal tensile stress The fluid force acting on a ring section is equal to 1/4πD _{i} ^{2} p and for equilibrium of forces may be equated to the resisting force πdtσ _{l} , where s _{l} represents the longitudinal stress.
σ
l
=
pD _{i}
4 t
Where
σ _{t} = circumferential stress, psi σ _{l} = longitudinal stress, psi
p 
= internal pressure, psi 
D 
_{i} = internal diameter, in. 
t = wall thickness, in
1
A. PRESSURE VESSEL  LECTURE
The formula above is also applicable to thinwall sphere.
1.3 Joint efficiency or relative strength Joint strength is the ration of minimum strength of joint to the strength of solid plate.
η =
Minimum strength of joint
Strength of solid plate
Then considering joint efficiency, Circumferential tensile stress
σ ^{t}
=
pD _{i}
2
t
η
Longitudinal tensile stress pD _{i}
σ
l
σ
l
=
=
4 t
pD _{i}
4 t
η
1.4 Factor of safety Factor of safety on specified material strengths is taken as 5.
2. ThickWall Cylinder Thickwall cylinder – is one whose plate thickness is large compared to the diameter of the vessel. The ratio
t/D _{i} is greater than 0.1.
2.1 Lame’s formula Tangential stress, σ _{t} .
2 
2 
2 
2 
( 
r 
2 

σ t 
= 
p 
i 
r i 
− 
p r o o 
+ r i 
r o 
p 
i 
− 
p 
o 

2 
2 

− 

r o Radial stress, σ _{r} , 
r i 

2 
2 
2 
2 
( 
r 
2 

σ ^{r} = 
p 
i 
r i 
− 
p r o o 
− r i 
r o 
p 
i 
− 
p 
o 

2 
2 

r o 
− r i 

Where: 

r 
_{o} = outer radius of cylinder, in. 

r 
_{i} = inner radius of cylinder, in. 
p _{i} , p _{o} = internal and external pressure, respectively, psi
t = wall thickness, r _{o} – r _{i} σ _{t} = tangential stress, psi σ _{r} = radial stress, psi
Maximum tangential stress at the inside.
σ
^{t}
=
p
i
(
2
r
o
+
r
i
2
)
− 2
2
p r
o
o
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
2
A. PRESSURE VESSEL  LECTURE
Maximum tangential stress at the outside.
σ
^{t}
=
2 p r
i
i
2
−
p
o
(
2
r
o
+
r
2
i
)
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
Maximum shear stress at the inside surface.
τ =
2
r
o
(
p
−
i
p
o
)
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
Tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.
σ
t
σ
r
=
=
p
i r
i
2
2
r o
p
− r
i
i r
i
2
2
2
r o
−
r
2
i
1 +
1 −
2
2
r o
r
2
r o
r
2
Maximum tangential and radial stress with zero value for the external pressure.
σ
t
(
max
)
σ
r(
max
)
=
p
i
(
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
)
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
= −p
i
3
A. PRESSURE VESSEL  LECTURE
2.2 Maximumnormalstress theory
2.4 Maximumstrain theory Birnie’s equation for openend cylinders
t =
r i
Clavarino’s equation for closedend cylinders
2.5 Maximum energy of distortion theory (Octahedral shear stress theory)
For zero value of external pressure
σ
l
=
p r
i
i
2
2
r
o
−
r
i
2
 
End 
 
4 
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
1. Definition A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit power from one place to another. The power is delivered to the shaft by some tangential force and the resultant torque (or twisting moment) setup within the shaft permits the power to be transferred to various machines linked up to the shaft.
2. Types of shafts
2.1 Axle – is a stationary member carrying rotating wheels, pulleys, etc.
2.2 Transmission shafts – transmit power between the source and the absorbing power.
2.3 Machine shafts – a shaft which is an integral part of the machine itself. The crank shaft is an example of machine shaft.
2.4 LIneshaft, or mainshaft is one driven by a primemover.
2.5 Countershafts, jackshafts, or headshafts – are shafts intermediate between a line shaft and a driven machine.
2.6 Spindles – are short shafts on machines.
3. Stresses in Shafts
3.1 Shear stresses due to the transmission of torque (i.e. due to torsional load).
3.2 Bending stresses (tensile or compressive) due to the forces acting upon machine elements like gears, pulleys etc. as well as due to the weight of the shaft itself.
3.3 Stresses due to combined torsional and bending loads.
4. Design of shafts
4.1 
Strength 

4.1.1 
Shafts subjected to twisting moment only. 

4.1.2 
Shafts subjected to bending moment only. 

4.1.3 
Shafts subjected to combined twisting and bending moments. 

4.1.4 
Shafts subjected to axial loads in addition to combined torsional and bending loads. 

4.2 
Rigidity 

4.2.1 
Torsional rigidity 

4.2.2 
Lateral rigidity 

5. 
Shafts Subjected to Twisting Moment Only 
T
J
=
τ
r
Where
T = Twisting moment (or torque) acting upon the shaft, J = Polar moment of inertia of the shaft about the axis of rotation,
τ = Torsional shear stress, and
d 

r = 
; where d is the diameter of the shaft. 

2 
1
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
For solid shaft:
J =
π
32
Then
×d
4
T =
π
16
×τ ×d
3
For hollow shaft:
d
Then
π
32
π
16
[(
J =
T =
×
o
τ
(
− d
i
d
o
−
(
i
)
4
)
4
(
)
4
)
4
]
d
d
o
6. Shafts Subjected to Bending Moment Only
M σ
b
=
I
y
Where
M = Bending moment, I = Moment of inertia of crosssectional area of the shaft about the axis of rotation,
σ
b
= Bending stress, and
y = Distance from neutral axis to the outermost fibre.
For round solid shaft,
I =
π
64
4
and
y =
d
2
×d
Then
M
For hollow shaft:
I =
Then
d
π
=
32
π
64
[(
π
16
×σ ×
b
×
)
o
4
σ
)
4
]
−
(
d
i
)
4
− d
i
(
o
)
4
(
d
b
d
o
d
3
M =
7. Shafts Subjected to Combined Twisting Moment and Bending Moment
7.1 Maximum shear theory or Guest’s theory. It is used for ductile materials such as mild steel.
7.2 Maximum normal stress theory or Rankine’s theory. It is used for brittle materials such as cast iron.
2
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
The expression
is known as equivalent twisting moment and is denoted by
Maximum Normal Stress Theory
T
e
.
K
t
= Combined shock and fatigue factor for torsion.
3
M
e .
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
From Design of Machine Elements by V.M. Faires
σ
es
σ
e
=
σ ns
σ ys
σ
=
σ
n
σ
y
σ
m
ms
+
+
K fs
σ
as
for torsion
SF
K
f
σ
a
SF
for bending
Where σ is a symbol for stresses. SF = size factor or load factors
Maximum Shear Theory
1
N
=
σ
e
σ
n
2
+
σ
es
0 5
.
σ
n
2
1
2
von MisesHencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory)
1
N
=
σ
e
σ
n
2
+
σ
es
0 577
.
σ
n
2
1
2
9. Shaft Subjected to Axial Load in addition to Combined Torsion and Bending Loads
Resultant Stress
σ
1
=
M ⋅
^{y} +
F
I A
10. Design of Shafts on the basis of Rigidity
10.1 Torsional rigidity
θ =
T
⋅
L
J
⋅
G
10.2 Lateral rigidity From strength of materials
4
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
d
2
^{y} =
M
dx
2
EI
11. Shaft Design by PSME Code/Machinery’s Handbook
Allowable stresses:
27.6 
MPa (4000 psi) for main powertransmitting shafts. 
41.5 
MPa (6000 psi) for lineshafts carrying pulleys. 
58.7 
MPa (8500 psi) for small, short shafts, counter shafts, etc. 
IP Units 

Torque 

T = 
63,000 P 
N
ω
Diameter of solid shaft
11.1 For main powertransmitting shafts.
P =
D
3
N
80
in IP units
3
D N
in SI units
Where P = power transmitted, hp or kW
P
=
1 755×10
.
6
N 
= angular velocity of the shaft in revolutions per minute (rpm). 
D 
= diameter of the haft, in or mm. 
11.2 For lineshafts carrying pulleys.
P =
D
3
N
53 5
.
in IP units
5
B. SHAFTS  LECTURE
P
=
3
D N
1 1738×10
.
6
in SI units
11.3 For small, short shafts.
P =
P
=
3
D N
38
in IP units
3
D N
0
.
837 ×10
6
in SI units
12. Shaft Design by Machinery’s Handbook
12.1 Torsional deflection According to some authorities, the allowable twist in steel transmission shafting should not exceed 0.08 degree per foot length of the shaft. The diameter D(in.) of a shaft that will permit a maximum angular deflection of 0.08 degree per foot of length for a given torque T (inlb) or for a given horsepower P can be determined from the formulas: 

D 
= 0.29 . 6
4
T
P
4
N


D 
= 
4 

Using metric SI units and assuming an allowable twist in steel transmission shafting of 0.26 degree per meter length, 

D 
= 2.26
4
T
P
.
4
N
125 7 

D 
= 

Another rule that has been generally used in mill practice limits the deflection to 1 degree in a length equal to 20 times the shaft diameter. For a given torque or horsepower, the diameter of a shaft having this maximum deflection is given by: 

D 
= 0.1 
.
3
T
P
3
N
0 

D 
= 
4 

12.2 For steel line shafting, it is considered good practice to limit the linear deflection to a maximum of 0.010 inch per foot of length. The maximum distance in feet between bearings, for average conditions, in order to avoid excessive linear deflection, is determined by the formulas: 
L 
3
2
D
3
2
D
= 8.95 = 5.2 for shafting subject to no bending action except its own weight for shafting subject to bending action of pulleys, etc. 

L 
in which D = diameter of shaft in inches and L = maximum distance between bearings in feet. Pulleys should be placed as close to the bearings as possible.
 end 
6
C. KEYS  LECTURE
1. Definitions Key  is a piece of mild steel inserted between the shaft and hub of the pulley to connect these together in order to prevent relative motion between them. It is always inserted parallel to the axis of the shaft. Keyway  is a slot or recess in a shaft and hub of the pulley to accommodate a key.
2. Types of Keys Flat key – is rectangular in section with the smaller dimension placed in a radial direction and they may or may not be tapered.
Square key – is square in section and may or may not be tapered. Round key – is circular in section and fit into holes drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub.
Barth key – is a square key with bottom two corners bevelled. Gibhead key  is a square or flat and tapered key with a head at one end known as gib head. It is usually provided to facilitate the removal of key.
Saddle key – is tapered and are either hollow with a radius of curvature slightly smaller than the shaft radius, or flat in which case they are assembled on a flat on the shaft. It is used without keyway on the shaft. Flat saddle key – is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and is flat on the shaft.
1
C. KEYS  LECTURE
Hollow saddle key – is a taper key which fits in a keyway in the hub and the bottom of the key is shaped to fit the curved surface of the shaft.
Woodruff key – is a key which fits into a semicylindrical seat on the shaft.
Feather key – is a key that allows the hub to move along the shaft but prevents rotation on the shaft.
Kennedy key – is a tapered square key, with or without gib heads, assembled with the diagonal dimension virtually in a circumferential direction. It is also called tangential key.
2
C. KEYS  LECTURE
Rollpin – is a key driven or pressed into a hole that is small enough to close the slit, assembled in radial direction.
Splines – is a key made integral with the shaft which fits in the keyways broached in the hub.
3. Shearing and Crushing of the key
Torque transmitted by the shaft,
T =
T =
FD
2
63,000 hp
n
inlb
T =
P
n
Shearing stress
2π
τ
=
2 T
F
=
wLD
wL
Crushing (Compressive) stress
σ
c
=
2
T
tLD
Where
=
2 F
tL
D 
= shaft diameter 
w 
= width of key 
t = thickness of key
F 
= tangential force 
T 
= torque 
3
C. KEYS  LECTURE
4. Proportions of key The usual proportions of the square key are
w =t =
D
4
Typical hub lengths fall between 1.25D and 2.4D.
For the same material and w = t = D/4, σ
c
= 2τ , L = 1.1571D.

End

4
D. COUPLINGS  LECTURE
1. Definition
Shaft couplings are used in machinery for several purposes, the most common of which are the following:
a. To provide for the connection of shafts of units that are manufactured separately such as a motor and generator and to provide for disconnection for repairs or alternations.
b. To provide for misalignment of the shafts or to introduce mechanical flexibility.
c. To reduce the transmission of shock loads from one shaft to another.
d. To introduce protection against overloads.
e. To alter the vibration characteristics of rotating units.
Note : A coupling is termed as a device used to make permanent or semipermanent connection where as a clutch permits rapid connection or disconnection at the will of the operator.
2. Types of Shaft Couplings
2.1 Rigid Couplings
Rigid coupling – is used to connect two shafts which are perfectly aligned.
2.1.1 Flange coupling  usually applies to a coupling having two separate cast iron flanges. Each flange is mounted on the shaft end and keyed to it. The faces are turned up at right angle to the axis of
the shaft. One of the flange has a projected portion and the other flange has a corresponding recess.
2.1.2 Compression coupling utilizes two split cones which are drawn together by the bolts in order to produce a wedging action which tightens the parts of the coupling and the shafts.
2.2 Flexible Couplings
Flexible coupling – is used to connect two shafts having both lateral and angular misalignment.
2.2.1 Oldham coupling Oldham coupling – is used to join two shafts which have lateral misalignment.
1
D. COUPLINGS  LECTURE
2.2.2 Universal (or Hooke’s) Coupling Universal or Hooke’s coupling – is used to connect two shafts whose axes intersect at a small angle. The inclination of the two shafts may be constant, but in actual practice, it varies when the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another.
2.2.3 Other flexible couplings Chain coupling, flexible disk coupling, gear type coupling, etc.
2
D. COUPLINGS  LECTURE
3. Stresses in Flange Coupling
Torque
T =
P FD
=
2
π
n
2
Where
F 
= total transmitted load on bolts 
D 
= diameter of bolt circle 
d 
= bolt diameter 
t 
= thickness 
n 
_{1} = number of bolts 
F _{b} = Force per bolts
F _{b} =
F
n
1
Shear stress in bolts
τ =
F
b
4
F
b
=
A
s
π
d
2
Compressive stress
σ
c
=
F b
td

End
3

E. FLYWHEELS  LECTURE
1. Definition of Flywheel
A flywheel used in machines serves as a reservoir which stores energy during the period when the
supply of energy is more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than supply.
A flywheel is a rotating member that acts as a storage reservoir for energy when work is not
“consumed” at as fast a rate as the power is supplied.
2. Kinetic Energy, KE
KE =
∆
KE
I 2 ω 
mv 2 

= 
s 

= 
2 I ( 2 ω 1 
− 
2 2 ω 2 
) 
= 
mk 
2 
( 2 ω 1 
− 
2 ω 2 
) 
= 
( m v 
2 s 
1 − 
v 
2 s 2 
) 
2 
2 
2 
Where:
I = mk ^{2} = moment of inertia
m = mass of flywheel = W/g
r = radius of gyration
ω _{1} = maximum angular velocity, rad/sec = 2pn1/60 ω _{2} = minimum angular velocity, rad/sec = 2pn2/60
v 
_{s}_{1} = maximum speed = πDn _{1} 
v 
_{s}_{2} = minimum speed = πDn _{2} 
3. Coefficient of fluctuation, C _{f} Maximum fluctuation of speed  the difference between the maximum and minimum speeds during a cycle. Coefficient of fluctuation of speed  the ratio of the maximum fluctuation of speed to the mean speed.
C
C
f
f
^{=}
^{=}
ω 1 
− 
ω 
n 
− 
n 2 
v 
− 
v 

2 
= 
1 
1 = s s 2 

ω 
n 
v s 

2 ( 
ω 
1 
− 
ω 
2 
) = 
( 2 n 
1 − n 2 
) 
= 
( 2 v s 1 
−
v
s 2
)
ω
1
+ ω
2
n
1
+ n
2
v
s
1
+
v
s
2
1
E. FLYWHEELS  LECTURE
4. Weight of Flywheel, W
Engineers frequently neglect the effect of the hub and arms.
W = πDbtρ
Where
D 
= mean diameter 
b 
= width of flywheel 
t = thickness of flywheel 
ρ = density of flywheel = 72,00 kg/m ^{3} for castiron = 7,860 kg/m ^{3} for steel
Also
W =
g
∆
KE
C
f
v
2
s
5. Stress in flywheel
σ = ρv
2
s
Rules of thumb from experience specify the conventional limits of operation; 6000 fpm for cast iron and 10,000 fpm for cast steel.
6. Energy required for punching a metal
∆
KE
=
1
2
Ft
=
1
2
τ
u
At
=
1
2
τ
u
(
π
)
dt t
=
1
2
τ
u
(
π
) ^{2}
d t
Where
F = force required to punch a metal τ _{u} = ultimate shearing stress
t 
= thickness of metal plate 
d 
= diameter of hole 
7. Equations from Dynamics
ω =
θ
t
ω = 2π n
α
=
ω
2
−
ω
1
t
θ =ω t +
1
1
2
αt
2

End
2

F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
1. Screw Fastenings Screw fastening – is composed by a bolt and nut. Screw thread  is formed by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface.
2. Definitions
Major diameter – is the largest diameter of an external or internal screw thread. The screw is specified by this diameter. It is also known as outside or nominal diameter. Minor diameter – is the smallest diameter of an external or internal screw thread. It is known as core or root diameter. Pitch diameter – is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder, on a cylindrical screw thread, the surface of which would pass through the thread at such points as to make equal the width thread and the width of the spaces between the threads. It is also called an effective diameter. It is the mean diameter of major and minor diameters. Pitch – is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next. This is measured in an axial direction between corresponding points in the same axial plane.
Pitch =
1
No of threads per unit length of screw
.
Lead – is the distance between two corresponding points on the same helix. It may also be defined as the distance which a screw thread advances axially in one rotation of the nut. Lead is equal to the pitch in case of single start thread, it is twice the pitch in double start, thrice the pitch in triple start and so on. Crest – is the top surface of the thread. Root – is the bottom surface created by the two adjacent flanks of the thread. Depth of thread – is the perpendicular distance between the crest and root. Flank – it the surface joining the crest and root. Angle of thread – is the angle included by the flanks of the thread. Slope – it is half the pitch of the thread.
1
F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
3. Forms of screw threads
British standard Whitworth (B.S.W.) thread .
British association (B.A.) thread.
American national standard thread.
2
Unified standard thread.
Square thread.
Acme thread.
F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
Knuckle thread.
4. Basic profile of the thread.
Buttress thread.
5. Design profile of the nut and bolt.
3
F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
6. Common Types of Screw Fastening
a. Through bolt – a cylindrical bar with threads for the nut at one end and head at the other end.
b. Tap bolt – a bolt screwed into a tapped hole of one of the parts to be fastened without the nut.
c. Studs  a round bar threaded at both ends. One end of the stud is screwed into a tapped hole of the parts to be fastened, while the other end receives a nut on it,
d. Cap screws  are similar to tap bolts except that they are of small size and a variety of shapes of heads are available.
e. Machine screws  are similar to cap screws with the head slotted for a screw driver. These are generally used with a nut.
f. Set screws – are used to prevent relative motion between two parts that tend to slide over one another.
g. Coupling bolt – is finished all over, usually having coarse threads.
h. Carriage bolt – is distinguished by a short potion of the shank underneath the head being square or finned or ribbed.
i. Stove bolt – is a cheap variety of bolt made in small sizes.
j. Ubolts – are in the form of U and are used as holding clamps, as on an automobile spring.
k. Plow bolts – are widely used on farm machinery.
l. Track bolts – are used in railway track construction.
m. Lag screw – is used to fasten machinery and equipment to a wooden base.
7. Locking Devices
a. Jam nut or lock nut
b. Castle nut
c. Sawn
d. Penn, ring or grooved nut
e. Locking with pin
f. Locking with plate
g. Spring lock washer
8.
Where _{σ} _{y} = yield strength of material, ksi σ _{d} = design tensile strength, ksi A _{s} = stress area, in ^{2} D = nominal diameter, in.
9.
Tightening stress, initial tension & tightening torque
Tightening stress when proof stress available.
σ
Where
i
= 0.9σ
p
.
σ
p
= proof stress
4
F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
Tightening stress when no proof stress
σ
Initial tension =
i
= 0.85σ
y
F =σ A
i
i
s
Tightening Torque =
T = 0.2DF
i
10. Elastic considerations Equivalent area of connected parts
A
D
c
e
=
π
4
D
2
e
−
π
4
D
2
h
= (Nut or head width across flats) + 2
∆
F
b
=
F
e
k
b
k
b
+
k
c
k
c
=
A
c
E
c
L
k
b
=
A
b
E
b
L
Bolts:
F
t
=
F
i
+
k
b
k
b
+
k
c
σ
t
=
F
t
A
s
F
e
Tube or connected parts:
F
c
σ
c
=
F
i
−
=
F
c
A
c
k
c
k
b
+
k
c
F
e
For zero stress in the tube
F
o
= k
b
+
k
c
k
c
F
i
5
F. SCREW FASTENINGS  LECTURE
11. Working Strength of Bolts (Machinery’s Handbook)
The following empirical formula was established for the working strength of bolts used for packed joints or joints where the elasticity of a gasket is greater than the elasticity of the studs or bolts.
W
=σ
t
(
0 55
.
D
2
−
0 25
.
D)lbs
where W = working strength of bolt or permissible load, in pounds, after allowance is made for initial load due to tightening; _{σ} _{t} = allowable working stress in tension, pounds per square inch; and D = nominal outside diameter of stud or bolt, inches.
12. Set Screw
Diameter of setscrew, d = 0.125D
Power transmitted by a single setscrew
P
=
Dnd
2.3
50
Torque transmitted by a single setscrew
T =
1250
Dd
Where:
2 . 3
P 
= horsepower transmitted, hp6. 
T 
= torque, inlb 
D 
= shaft diameter, in 
n 
= speed, rpm 
d 
= setscrew diameter 
 end 
6
G. POWER SCREWS  LECTURE
1. Definition Power screws (Translation screws) – are used to move machine parts against resisting forces, for instance, in a screwoperated tensiletesting machine, jack, press, or lead screw of a lathe.
2. Types of Screw Threads used for Power Screws
2.1 Square threads.
From Faires, Black and Adams.
h
=
7
16
p
2.2 Acme or Trapezoidal threads.
From Faires,
h = 0.5p
2.3 Buttress threads.
From Faires,
h = 0.663p
1
G. POWER SCREWS  LECTURE
3.
Pitch and Lead Axial pitch or pitch – is the distance, measured axially, from a point on on ethread to the corresponding point on an adjacent thread. Lead – is the distance that a thread advances in one turn; it is the distance the nut moves along the axis in one turn. Lead angle – is the angle between a tangent to the pitch helix and a plane normal to the axis of the screw.
Pitch
P
c
=
P
=
1
No of threads per inch
.
Lead Angle
λ = tan ^{−}
1 Lead
π D
m
D m
=
1
2
(
Size
+ D
r
)
Where D _{m} is the mean thread diameter
4.
Torque to turn screw
For square thread Torque required to turn the thread against the load
T =
WD
m
2
tan
(
β
+
)
λ
=
WD
m
(
tan
λ
+
tan
β
)
(
2 1
−
tan
β
tan
)
λ
=
WD
m
(
tan
λ
+
f
)
(
2 1
−
f
tan
λ)
Torque required to turn the thread with the load
T =
WD
m
2
tan
(
β
−
)
λ
=
WD
m
(
tan
β
−
tan
λ
)
(
2 1
+ tan
β
tan
)
λ
=
WD
m
(
f − tan
λ
)
(
2 1 + f tan
λ)
Where f = tanβ = coefficient of friction and β = angle of friction
For Acme thread Torque required to turn the thread against the load
2
G. POWER SCREWS  LECTURE
T =
WD m ( cos 
φ 
tan 
λ 
+ tan 
β 
) 

( 2 cos 
φ 
− 
tan 
β 
tan ) λ 
φ = pressure angle ≈14.5
o
=
WD
m
(
cos
φ
tan
λ
+
f
)
(
2 cos
φ
− f
tan
λ)
Torque required to overcome collar friction:
5.
T
c
=
(
f W R
c
o
+
R
i
)
2
Efficiency of a squarethread screw
ideal effort
e =
actual effort
Efficiency of square thread considering only the screw friction.
e =
tan
λ
tan
λ
(
1
− f
tan
λ
)
=
tan
(
β
+
)
λ
tan
λ
+ f
Efficiency of square thread considering screw friction and collar friction
e
=
tan
λ
tan
(
β
+
)
λ
=
tan
(
λ
1 − f
tan
)
λ
tan
λ
+
f
+ f D
c
c
D
m
(
1 − f tan
λ)
Where D _{c} = R _{o} + R _{i}
Efficiency of acme thread considering screw friction and collar friction
6.
e =
tan
(
λ
cos
φ
− f
tan
)
λ
tan
λ
cos
φ
+
f
cos
φ
+ f D
c
c
D
m
(
cos
φ
− f
tan
λ)
Condition for selflocking screw The condition for selflocking of a square thread is that _{β} must be greater than _{λ}_{,} or that tan _{β} (the coefficient of
friction) must be greater than tan λ (the tangent of the lead angle). Selflocking Screw, β > λ
Torque to lower the load WD
T
=
2
m
tan(β − λ)
 End 
3
H. SPRING  LECTURE
1. Definition
SPRING – is defined as an elastic body, whose function is to distort when loaded and to recover its original shape when the load is removed.
2. Application:
2.1 To cushion, absorb or control energy due to either shock or vibration as in car springs, railway buffers, aircraft landing gears, shock absorbers and vibration dampers.
2.2 To apply forces, as in brakes, clutches and springloaded valves.
2.3 To control motion by maintaining contact between two elements as in cams and followers.
2.4 To measure forces, as in spring balances and engine indicators.
2.5 To store energy, as in watches, toys, etc.
3. Types of Springs (According to shapes)
3.1 Helical springs – are made up of a wire coiled in the form of a helix and is primarily intended for compressive or tensile loads. The crosssection of the wire from which the spring is made may be circular, square or rectangular.
Forms of helical springs.
3.1.1 Compression helical spring
3.1.2 Tension helical spring
Closely coiled – when the spring is coiled so close that the plane containing each turn is nearly at right angles to the axis of the helix and the wire is subjected to torsion. Helix angle is usually less than 10 degrees.
Open coiled – is coiled in such a way that there is a gap between the two consecutive turns, as a result of which the helix angle is large.
3.2 Conical and volute springs – are used in special applications where a telescoping spring or a spring with a spring rate that increases with the load is desired. The conical spring is wound with a uniform pitch whereas the volute springs are wound in the form of paraboloid with constant pitch and lead angles.
1
H. SPRING  LECTURE
3.3 Torsional springs – are springs that may be of helical or spiral type.
Helical type – may be used only in applications where the load tends to wing up the spring and are used in various electrical mechanisms. Spiral type – is used where the load tends to increase the number of coils and when made of flat strip are used in watches and clocks.
3.4 Laminated or leaf springs (flat spring or carriage spring) – consist of a number of flat plates (known as leaves) of varying lengths held together by means of clamps and bolts.
2
H. SPRING  LECTURE
3.5 Disc or Belleville springs – consist of a number of conical discs held together against slipping by a central bolt or tube. These springs are used in applications where high spring rates and compact spring units are required.
3.6 Special purpose springs – these springs are air or liquid springs, rubber springs, ring springs etc.
4. Material for Helical Springs
The springs are mostly made from oiltempered carbon steel wires containing 0.60 to 0.70 per cent carbon and 0.60 to 1.0 per cent manganese. Music wire is used for small springs. Nonferrous materials like phosphor bronze, beryllium copper, monel metal, brass etc., may be used in special cases to increase fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance.
The helical springs are either cold formed or hot formed depending upon the size of the wire. Wires of small sizes (less than 10 mm diameter) are usually wound cold whereas larger size wires are wound hot. The strength of the wires varies with size, smaller size wires have greater strength and less ductility, due to the greater degree of cold working.
Severe service – means rapid continuous loading where the rate of minimum to maximum load (or stress) is onehalf or less, as in automotive valve springs.
Average service – includes the same stress range as in severe service but with only intermittent operation, as in engine governor springs and automobile suspension springs.
Light service – includes springs subjected to loads that are static or very infrequently varied, as in safety valve springs.
5. Terms use in Compression Springs
5.1 Solid length – is the product of total number of coils and the diameter of the wire.
5.2 Free length – is the length of the spring in the free or unloaded condition. It is equal to the solid length plus the
maximum deflection or compression of the spring and the clearance between the adjacent coils (when fully compressed).
3
H. SPRING  LECTURE
5.3 Spring index – is defined as the ratio of the mean diameter of the coil to the diameter of the wire. Spring index, C = D d
Where
D = Mean diameter of the coil, and
_{d} = Diameter of the wire.
5.4 Spring rate (stiffness or spring constant or spring scale) – is defined as the load required per unit deflection of the spring. Spring rate, k = F δ Where F = Load,and
_{δ} = Deflection of the spring.
5.5 Pitch – is defined as the axial distance between adjacent coils in uncompressed state.
6. End Connections for Compression Helical Springs
Inactive coils – part of the coil which is in contact with the seat and does not contribute to spring action. Active turns – turns which impart spring action.
4
H. SPRING  LECTURE
7. End Connections for Tension Helical Springs
5
H. SPRING  LECTURE
8. Stresses in helical springs of circular wire
Helical compression spring.
D 
= Mean diameter of the spring coil, 
_{d} 
= Diameter of the spring wire, 
n = Number of active coils,
_{G} 
= Modulus of rigidity for the spring material, 
F 
= Axial load on the spring, 
τ 
= Maximum shear stress induced in the wire, 
_{C} 
= Spring index = D d , 
p 
= Pitch of the coils, and 
_{δ} = Deflection of the spring, as a result of an axial load W .
A.M. Wahl Equation:
τ
=
K
×
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