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Turbine Blade Shop Block 3

Situated at

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

Presented By:

Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Quantum School Of Technology, Roorkee Uttarakhand - INDIA

Company Overview


Manufacturing Plant
BHEL Haridwar has two manufacturing plants:Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant (HEEP) Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP).

HEEP includes design and manufacture of large steam and gas turbines, turbo generators, hydro turbines and generators, hydro turbines and generators, large AC/DC motors and so on. CFFP is engaged in manufacture of Steel Castings: Upto 50 Tons Per Piece Wt & Steel Forgings: Upto 55 Tons Per Piece Wt.

Major Products of BHEL, Haridwar

Steam turbine Gas turbine Steam Generators HRSG- Heat recovery steam generator Transformers Locomotives Circuit Breakers Pumps Motors- BOTH AC AND DC, LT AND HT Generators

Product Profile - HEEP

Product Profile - CFFP

Turbine Shop Block 3

General Details
Steam Turbines, Gas Turbines and Turbines Blades Special Tooling for all products in the Tool Room located in the same block Consists of four Bays, namely, Bay-I and II of size 36x378 meters and 36x400 meters respectively and Bay-III and IV of size 24x402 meters and 24x381 metres respectively Facilities of EOT Cranes, compressed air, Steam, Overspeed Balancing Tunnel, indicating stands for steam turbine, rotors, one Test stand for testing 210 MW steam turbines .

Details of Bay I
Size- 36x378 meters. Consists of following machines: Hydraulic lifting platform CNC turning lathe Combustion chamber assembly platform

Details of BAY II

Size:- 36x400 meters CNC creep feed grinding machine

(Gas turbine machining area)

External broaching machine CNC facing lathe Wax melting equipment Gas turbine test bed

Details of Bay III

Size :-24x402 meters CNC stub borer CNC milling machine Universal milling machine CNC bed type milling machine CNC surface broaching machine

Details of Bay IV
Size:- 24x381 metres Turbine blade machining shop Heat treatment zone

Gas Turbine
Also called a combustion turbine, is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a flow of combustion gas. Energy is extracted in the form of shaft power, compressed air and thrust, in any combination, and used to power aircraft, trains, ships, generators, and even tanks

Manufacturing Facilities - Gas


Hydraulic Lifting Platform: used for assembly and disassembly of G.T. Rotor. CNC Creep Feed Grinding M/c: grinds the hearth serration on rotor disc faces. External Broaching Machine: used to make groove on the outer dia of rotor discs for the fitting of moving blades on the discs. CNC Facing Lathe: used for facing rotor disc. CNC Turning Lathe: used to turn Tie Rods of Gas Turbine. Wax Melting Equipment: used to mix and melt Wax to arrest the blade movement during the blade tip machining of stator blade rings. Gas Turbine Test Bed: used to finally assemble the gas turbine. Combustion Chamber Assembly Platform: used for assembly of Combustion Chambers of Gas Turbine.

Manufacturing Process Gas


MACHINING: one of the most important material removal methods, in which power driven machine tools, such as lathes, milling machine and drill presses are used with sharp cutting tools to achieve the desired geometry. MAIN ASSEMBLY: Final assembly is done on test bed. Parts are assembled to make sub-assemblies. ROTOR ASSEMBLY: The rotor is assembled on Hydraulic Lifting Platform and sent to main assembly, where after checking clearances, it is sent for machining. COMBUSTION CHAMBER ASSEMBLY: This assembly is carried out on 3 tier platform installed for this purpose in Bay-I assembly. After machining of all components, ceramic tiles are fitted in flame tube. Burner and piping etc. is fitted in dome and combustion chamber is finally assembled. PAINTING, PRESERVATION AND PACKING: After testing, turbine is disassembled and inspected then the parts are painted and packed for final dispatch.

Steam Turbine

About Steam Turbine

A steam turbine is a mech. device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine (invented by Thomas Newcomen and greatly improved by James Watt) primarily because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Because the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an electrical generator about 80% of all electricity generation in the world is by use of steam turbines.

Steam Flow Diagram

Manufacturing Process Steam

The facilities and parts manufacturing of Steam Turbine are as follows: TURBINE CASING MACHINING SECTION: equipped with large size Planer, Drilling, Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, CNC Horizontal and Vertical Boring machines . ROTOR MACHINING SECTION : Equipped with large size machining tools like Turning Lathe, CNC Lathes, Horizontal Boring Machines, special purpose Fir tree Groove Milling Machine etc. ROTOR ASSEMBLY SECTION : Equipped with Indicating Stand, Small size Grinding, Milling, Drilling, machines, Press and other devices for fitting Rotors and Discs. TURBINE CASING ASSEMBLY SECTION : Machined casings are assembled and hydraulically tested by Reciprocating Pumps at two times the operating pressure. TEST STATION : Equipped with condensers, Ejector, Oil Pumps, Oil containers Steam Connections etc, required for testing. OVER SPEED VACUUM BALANCING TUNNEL: Vibration and frequency of rotor shaft is tested at very high speed of 4500rpm.

Blade Shop

Turbine Blade Machining Shop is located in Bay-IV of Block-III. A batch production shop comprising of various kinds of CNC Machines and Machining Centres.

Manufacturing Facilities Blade

Blade shop is divided into four distinct areas: PLAIN MILLING SECTION: it prepares accurate reference surfaces on the blade blanks by milling and grinding operation. COPY MILLING SECTION: the semi blanks prepared from plain milling section are further machined by copy milling machines for concave and convex aero-dynamic profile forms. LP SECTION: this area deals with all types of free standing and forged blades for steam turbine compressor. POLISHING SECTION: blade contours are ground and polished to achieve the desired surface finish and other aerofoil requirements.

Inspection of Blade

D Coordinate Measuring Machines for taper and rhomboid checking. Moment weighing Equipment. Real time Frequency analyzer for checking frequency of free standing blades. Contour plotter for plotting of blade profile with various magnification. Magna spray crack detection equipment.

Manufacturing Process Blade

The manufacturing process of turbine blades primarily depends on the type of blade e.g. Bar type, Brazed type, Gas Turbine blade

1. Bar Type Blade


Blanking of area material

Sizing to rectangular shape Thickness grinding

Circular saw/band saw

Hor. Milling Machine Surface grinder

Rhomboid milling
Taper grinding

Duplex milling machine

Surface grinder

Grinding and polishing of Abrasive belt polishing m/c profile

2. Brazed Type Blade

PROCESS / OPERATION MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cutting of drawn profile & Hor. Milling machine spacer blank Thickness grinding Cutting-off spacer Surface grinder Abrasive cutting

Milling of width
Grinding and polishing

Duplex milling machine

Abrasive belt polishing m/c

3. Gas Turbine Blade

PROCESS OPERATION Cerrobend casting Root machining / MACHINE TOOL/EQUIPMENT USED Cerrobend casting equip. Hor. Machining center

Length cutting

Circular saw/hor. Milling m/c Hor. Milling m/c

belt polishing

Grinding and polishing of Abrasive fillet m/c


Vertical Boring Machine

:10000mm Max height of work piece :5000mm Diameter of table :8750mm Max travel of vertical tool head RAM slides :3200mm Max travel of vertical tool heads from centre of table :5250mm Max weight of work piece :200 T
Max diameter of work piece accommodated
For N<=6rpm;100T for any


Diameter of boring spindle of combined head:160mm

Centre Lathe

Max diameter over bed Max diameter over saddle Length between centers Max weight of work piece Spindle bore

:3200mm :250mm :16m :100 T :96mm

CNC Lathe

Manufacturer Swing over carriage Centre distance Weight capacity Spindle power External chucking range Hydrostat steady range Max spindle rpm CNC system

: Safop, Italy :3500mm :9000mm :120 T :196KW :250-2000mm :200-1250mm :200 :SINUMERIK 840D

CNC Vertical Borer

Manufacturer Machine model Table diameter Max turning diameter Min boring diameter Max height for turning and milling Table Speed Table load capacity Milling spindle speed Spindle taper CNC system


Carnaghi, Italy
:AP 80TM-6500 :6500mm :8000mm :660mm :7000mm :0.2-50 rpm :200 T :3000 rpm at40KW :BT 50 :SINUMERIK 840D

CNC Skoda Horizontal Borer

Spindle diameter Taper spindle RAM Size RAM length Spindle length Headstock Table CNC system Job

:200mm :BT 50 :450x450mm :1600mm :2000mm :5000mm :4000x3500mm :SIMENS850mm : I.P. Outer

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