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\AMING AND NECESSITY

Naming and NecessitY


SAUL KRIPKE

rrninatum remains the same, these i qL\ are tolerable. But they should be :r..rem of a demonstrative science ar
rEear in a perfect language.2

1r. according to Frege, there is

r-\rseness or weakness in our lang mople may give one sense to the n Se.' others may give another. But c u.t only that; even a single spealiel

-That description

are you

willins

i'r

quite at a lo: mar,know many things about him: acular thing that he knows he mar il,presses a contingent propertJ' of --\ristotle" mearft the man who rat
rtre name?" may be

LECTURE
. . . The

first topic in the pair of topics is naming.

By a name here I will mean a proper name. i.e.. the name of a person, a city, a country, etc. It is well known that modern logicians also are very interested in definite descriptions: phrases of the form "the x such that Qa" such as "the man who comrpted Hadleyburg." Now, if one and only one man ever comrpted Hadleyburg, then that man is the referent, in the logician's sense,
of that description. We will use the term 'name' so that it does not include definite descriptions of that sort, but only those things which in ordinary language would be called 'proper names'. If we want a common term to cover names and descriptions, we may use the term 'designator'. It is a point, made by Donnella4,l that under certain circumstances a particular speaker may

man in the room who does have champagr in his glass, the speaker intended to refer, cr maybe, in some sense of 'refer' , didrefer, to tbe
man he thought had the champagne in his glass-

,itr the Great, then saying "Arir eacher of Alexander the Great" mre tautology. But surely it isn't: fie fact that Aristotle taught Al
Grcat, something we could discove

use a definite description to refeq not to the proper referent, in the sense that I've just defined it, of that description, but to something else which he wants to single out and which he thinks is the proper referent of the {escription, but which in fact isn't. So you may say, "The man over there with the champagne in his glass is happy," though he actually only has water in his glass. Now, even though there is no champagne in his glass, and there may be another

Nevertheless, I'm just going to use the term 'referent of the description' to mean the objocl uniquely satisfying the conditions in the definitc description. This is the sense in which it's been used in the logical tradition. So, if you have e description of the form "the x such that Qx, " and there is exactly one x such that Qa that is the referent of the description. . . . Many people have said that the theory of Frege and Russell is false, but, in my opinion they have abandoned its letter while retaining its spirit, namely, they have used the notion of a cluster concept. Well, what is this? The obviou-< problem for Frege and Russell, the one which comes immediately to mind, is already mentioned by Frege himself. He said,
In the case of genuinely proper names like "Aristotleopinions as regards their sense may diverge. As such may, e.g., be suggested: Plato's disciple and thc teacher of Alexander the Great. Whoever accepts this sense will interpret the meaning of the statemeil "Aristotle was bom in Stagira," differently from one who interpreted the sense of 'Aristotle" as the Stagirite teacher of Alexander the Great. As long as the

\t.

being the teacher of Alexandt nrrnot be part of fthe sense ofl the The most common way out of t s to say "really it is not a weaknes imguage that we can't substitute .ilxcription for the name; that's all *e really associale with the name i descriptions." A good example < ?hil o s ophical Inv e stigations, wher ',fumily resemblances is introduct seat power.
Consider

this example.

If

one says '--r

*ist," this may

mean various things. It lvaelites did not have a single leader w

fuew from Egypt-or: their leader s Iloses----or: there cannot have been r-complished all that the Bible relate . . But when I make a statement at

mI

always ready to substitute some

.bscriptions for "Moses"?

understand the man who Bible relates of Moses, or at any rate. :r- But how much? Have I decided how

lloses"

shall pe

roved false for me to give up my

:alse? Has the name "Moses" got a fixer --al use for me in all possible cases?3

From Namingand Necessity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, r98o). Reprinted by permission of the publishers and the authorfrom Namingand Necessity by SaulA. Kripke, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press. Copyright@ 1972, r98o by Saul A. Kripke. Also by permission of Basil Blackwell
Ltd. 272

-\ccording to this view, and a locut r is Searle's article on proper nam( :nt of a name is determined not

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AIISSI)IN CNV DNl,'rr"r

274

NAM ES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

NAMINC AND NECESSITY

meaning of the name; for some of the solutions of problems that I've just mentioned will not be right, or at least won't clearly be right, if the

description doesn't give the meaning of the name. For example, if someone said "Aristotle does not exist" means "there is no man doing such and such," or in the example fromWittgenstein, "Moses does not exist," means "no man did such and such," that might depend (and in fact, I think, does depend) on taking the theory in question as a theory of the meaning of the name "Moses," not just as a theory of its reference. Well, I don't know. Perhaps all that is immediate now is the other way around: if "Moses" means the same as "the man who did such and such" then to say that Moses did not exist is to say that the man who did such and such did not exist, that is, that no one person did
such and such. If, on the other hand, "Moses" is not synonymous with any description, then even if its reference is in some sense determined by a description, statements containing the name cannot in general be analyzed by replacing the name by a description, though they may be materially equivalent to statements containing a

description. So the analysis of singular existence statements mentioned above will have to be given up, unless it is established by some
special argument, independent of a general the-

ory of the meaning of names; and the

same

applies to identity statements. In any case, I think it's false that "Moses exists" means that at all. So we won't have to see if such a special argument can be drawn up.6 Before I go any further into this problem, I want to talk about another distinction which will be important in the methodology of these talks. Philosophers have talked (and, of course,

there has been considerable controversy in recent years over the meaningfulness of these notions) labout] various categories of truth, which are called 'a priori', 'analytic', 'necessary'-and sometimes even 'certain'is thrown into this batch. The terms are often used as if
whetherthere are things answering to these concepts is an interesting question, but we might as well regard them all as meaning the same thing. Now, everyone remembers Kant (a bit) as making a distinction between 'a priori' and 'analytic'. So maybe this distinction is still made. In

contemporary discussion very few people, ii any, distinguish between the concepts of statements being a priori and their being necessa4. At any rate I shall not trse the terms 'a priori' and'necessary' interchangeably here. Consider what the traditional characteizations of such terms as 'a priori' and 'necessatl'' are. First the notion of a prioricity is a concept of epistemology. I guess the traditional characterization from Kant goes something like: a priori truths are those which can be known independently of any experience. This introduces another problem before we get off the groundbecause there's another modality in the characterization of 'a priori', namely, it is supposed to be something which can be known independently of any experience. That means that in some sense it's possible (whether we do or do not in fact know it independently of any experience) to know this independently of any experience. And possible for whom? For God? For the Martians? Or just for people with minds like ours? To make this all clear might [involve] a host of problems all of its own about what sort of possibility is in question here. It might be best therefore, instead ofusing the phrase 'a priori truth', to the extent that one uses it at all, to stick to the question of whether a particular person or knower knows something a priori or believes it true on the basis of a priori evidence. I won't go further too much into the problems that might arise with the notion of a prioricity here. I will say that some philosophers somehow change the modality in this characterization from can to must. They think that if something belongs to the realm of a priori knowledge, it couldn't possibly be known empirically. This is just a mistake. Something may belong in the realm of such statements that can be known a priori but still may be known by particular people on the basis of experience. To give a really common sense example: anyone who has worked with a computing machine knows that the computing machine may give an answer to whether such and such a number is prime. No one has calculated or proved that the number is prime; but the machine has given the answer:
this number is prime. We, then, if we believe that the number is prime, believe it on the basis of our knowledge of the laws of physics, the construc-

tion of the machine, and so on. \\'e rt

not believe this on the basis ofpurelr i dence. We believe it (if anythin-e is a p' ail) on the basis of a posteriori er ider

theless, maybe this could be knoun someone who made the requisite ;: So 'can be known a Priori' doesn-r :
be

known

priori'.

The second concept which is ln that of necessity. Sometimes this is

,'pistemological way and might ther. priori. And of course. sometimc: iI i physical way when people distingui' physical and logical necessit;-. But ;oncemed with here is a notion u hi notion of epistemologY but of men :ome (l hope) nonPejorative >en> rvhether something might hat.e be might have been false. Well. if s.' ralse, it's obviously not necessari-r rue, might it have been otheru'ise I I: rhat, in this respect, the world shoul" different from the waY it is? li ti. "no," then this fact about the u.orid sary one. If the answer is "1's.." 13 .rbout the world is a contingent one. of itself has nothing to do with anr t'' edge of anything. It's certainll' a pl 'Jresis. and not a matter of obvitrus ,'quivalence, either that eveq-thin-s recessary or that everything nece=ori. Both concepts maY be vague T rnother problem. But at anY rate n, ng with two different domains- r'g areas, the epistemological and th: ;al. Consider, say, Fermat's lart i the Goldbach conjecture. The Goldb rure says that an even number gre must be the sum of two Prime numh true, it is presumablY necessan. I t-alse, presumably necessarily fal.e' ing the classical view of mathemal f,ssume that in mathematical realiq

rue or false.

If the Goldbach conjecture is fal= is an even number, n, gteater than rbr no primes p, and P2, both < n. d p.. This fact about n, if tnre, is r direct computation, and thus is nec results of arithmetical computation

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-- 'lle le Jr sesn euo leql luelxe eql ol - -d e, esurqd eql SuISnJo peelsul'erur -r. iq8rtu 1I 'eJeq uorlsenb ur sr u
-.1s

-ll\oull s,euo,(ue qlr1( op o1 Surqlou seq Jlestr ,l: pue ur sql'auo lue8urluoc e sr plJo/( eql lnc\--r lJeJ slr.ll ueqt .,'se,(.. sr ro,rsue eqt.;1 'euo ir -seceu 3 sr plJo,r eql lnoqe lceJ srql ueql ,,'oE_ sr re,rsuu eql JI isl 1r ,(e,tr eql uro4 luera-IJ= ueeq e^uq plnoqs plro,^A eql 'lcedser srql ur 'tr= elqrssod 1r sI eesraJeqlo ueeq e^pq lr lq8nu 'an:
sr Surqleuos JI 'lle1y1 'esleJ ueeq e^uq tq;rE Jo 'enr1 ueeq aleq lq8rur Suqteuos Jeqteqr {se e/d 'esues elrleJoleduou (edoq I) eru..-. tu

r -a^lo^ull lq?Iru relr II3 slql a{Eu


:tr.JI spuru qlr^\ eldoed JoJ lsnl rc) :,jr ro{ ipoc rod aluoq,4A roJ elqlssd --adxe ,(ue;o ,{PuePuedePur srD $o -:adxe fue;o (puePuedePu] l{ morl

tsqa lnoqe u^\o sll Jo IIe sualq(

sr lr JI 'anrl fpesseceu 1ou ,{lsnor,tqo s,lr 'esr.:

' ' "ll lnoqe rrorrd e 3urq1,{ue . Aou>I l,uop ,{lurugec eA\ Mou tq8u oS 'esleJ Jo enrt sr ernlceluoc s,qceqploC Ieqlaq,t\ ,^Aou)I l,uop elA 'uor}rerrp reqlre ur uo4senb srql lnoqe e8pel^aoDl rrorrd u ,{ue seq sn Jo euou'uorlsenb srqt Surprcep ;oord lecrleu -eqleur e Jo JJuesqE Jql uros ',(em ;eqlre lno eruoc uuc uorlsenb eql 'lAou>I eAA s JEJ se ',4dou lq8u 1eq1 sI 'esJnoc;o 'fus uec e,r leq,r lng enp^-qlnl JeAe
'.(lrsseceu ,(q lr ol s8uoleq ssq lr
-leqdA :esIEJ.ro

:f ro op e,{\ reqleq^A) alqrssod s.lr.2 :leql sueelrr leqJ 'ecuerJedxe ,i

ut 'scrs,(qdulaur Jo lnq ,{3o1oruelsrde Jo uourtr. E lou sr qcrq,r uorlou e sr eJeq qlr. A perrrosuLr: luq^A 1ng 'flrsseceu pcr3o1 pue lecrsiq;

--adepur u,tou{ eq uDr qcrq,t 8u :: pesoddns sr 1I ',(lelueu ',uoud E. -I -rrr?qc eql uI flllepolll Jel{]oue s.el:

'erntceluoc s,qceqploC 'serurrd o,rl Jo tuns eql eq ol 'uorlelnduroc lce:rp ,{q ure8u 'u,Lroqs eq uuc eseql Jo rlJee 'erul eq o1 ernlceluoc s,qreqploC Sununsse eru e,r erurs 'srseqtod{rl
.,{q

enrl ,(pueSuuuoc eq louuc 'ueql

uee^Aleq qsrn8urlsrp eldoed ueqa,r. ,{e,r

pcrsiq:

'pue : ' ' '

3 Ur pesn sr lr serurlerrros 'esJnoJ Jo puv 'uolr; e uueu tsnlueql lq8rru pue ,{e,u pcrSoloruelsrri: ue ul pesn sr srrll sJrurlJruo5 'r(trssaceu Jo IEE: sr uorlsenb ur sr qcrq,r ldecuoc puoces eqJ

:unor8 eql go

1eE

ea

eroJeq lurlq(

'0I '8 '9 'V Jo auo eq 01 e^q plno,4A


luql pFo,^A leqr11 6seurrd

'.rrorrd p u.ronl

l:

reqlrnu

E I{cnS 4ueeru

$nM, uaeLu l.useop ,rroud e u,4dorDl eq ilrJ. os 'suorlelncleJ alrsrnber eql eperu oqa euoeurL\ .(q rroud e u,roul eq plnoc srql eq,(eru 'sselar-re,^.eN 'ecuepr^e rJorJelsod e Jo srsEq eqt uo ( Ii.
1e rrouelsod e sr Surqlfuu gr) lr e^elleq eld 'ecueF rrorrde fleJndJo srseg eql uo srt{l el.er1eq lor

-r,re

odA] Jo urns oql lou seda qJrq,^A Jequnu ue^e ue qcns ueeq e,teq lq8rur ereql 'seurrrd o,4at Jo runs eql sI Jeqlunu uele qcns ,{re.le 1ce; ur q8noqlp 'teql esec eql eq ueql 1l plnoJ 'seurrd o,r,r,1 ;o runs eql sr 7 Surpeecxe Jeqrunu ue,te ,fte,te uaql 'en-4 sr ernlceluoc erll Jr 'puuq reqlo eql uO 'fres

op eroJeraql

e [uo

os pue 'eurqrEru

oqlJo uo:

::JnpoJlul srql 'ecuerredxe ,{u? -Io -:pur u,^Aou{ eq uet qclq,t\ esoql a --:d e :e{ll Surqleuros seo8 lue) ruo -rEr?qc I?uolllperl eql ssenS 1 'f3o1c .jacuoc e sI rgrcuoud E Jo uollou a ,iesseceu, pue ,rrorrd e, se su[el q -?zuelcBJeqc FuorllpsJl eID lBq.lA 'ereq,,{lqeeSueqcrelul,fue' -:oud e, s{urel eql esn Joil IPqs I lrsseJou Sureq rreql pue rroud e -:lels Jo sldecuoJ eql uee/(1eq qsln

:. 'eldoed

,.rra1

fue,t uotssnrstP i
O

5Lz

-LISS]f]N CNV DNIIAVN

;]AI.LVUISNOY\]C

NV S] IAVN

276

NAM ES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

NAMINC AND NECESSITY

Humphrey) might have been the President in 1970, and Nixon might not have; so this designator is not rigid. In these lectures, I will argue, intuitively, that proper names are rigid designators, for although the man (Nixon) might not have been the President, it is not the case that he might not have been Nixon (though he might not have been

(3) If most, or a weighted most, of the <p's are satisfied by one unique object y, then y is the referent of 'X."

(4)

If

the vote yields no unique object,

'X"
the

does not refer.

(5) The statement,


speaker.

"If X exists,
"If X

then X has

most of the g's" is known a priori by


(6) The statement,

called"Nixon"). Those who have argued that to


make sense of the notion of rigid designator, we must antecedently make sense of "criteria of transworld identity" have precisely reversed the cart and the horse; it is because we can refer

exists, then X has

most of the g's" expresses a necessary truth (in the idiolect of the speaker). (C) For any successful theory, the account

the Greek. But that won't be so case. Cerlainly it is not trifling to be iah was called "Isaiah." In fact, ir i told that Isaiah was called "Isaiah": wouldn't have recognized this nam of course the Greeks didn't call tl anything like "Greece." Suppose s' thesis so that it reads: it's trifling to Socrates is called "Socrates" by us. c me, the speaker. Then in some sense trifling. I don't think it is necessan' In the same way, it is trifling to be tol

il

must not be circular. The properties which are


used in the vote must not themselves involve the notion of reference in such a way that it is ulti-

(rigidly) to Nixon, and stipulate that we


identifications" are unproblematic
cases.T

are

speaking of what might have happened to him (under certain circumstances), that "transworld

mately impossible to eliminate.


(C) is not a thesis but a condition on the satisfac-

in

such

are called "horses," without this ler conclusion that the word "horse" si "the animal called a 'horse'." As a t reference of the name "Socrates" immediately to a vicious circle. If on mining the referent of a name like

The tendency to demand purely qualitative descriptions of counterfactual situations has


many sources. One, perhaps, is the confusion

of

the

between a prioricity and necessity. If someone identifies necessity with a prioricity, and thinks that objects are named by means of uniquely identifying properties, he may think that it is the properties used to identify the object which, being known about it a priori, must be used to identify it in all possible worlds, to find out which object is Nixon. As against this, I repeat: (1) Generally, things aren't 'found out'about a counterfactual situation, they are stipulated; (2) possible worlds need not be given purely qualitatively, as if we were looking at them through a telescope. And we will see shortly that the properties an object has in every counterfactual world have nothing to do with properties used to identify it in the actual world. . . . LECTURE II Last time we ended up talking about a theory of naming which is given by a number of theses: (1) To every name or designating expression "X," there corresponds a cluster of properties, namely the family of those properties <p such
that A believes "qX."

epistemologicat and

the

metaphysical,

tion of the other theses. In other words, theses (1)-(6) cannot be satisfied in a way which leads to a circle, in a way which does not lead to any independent determination of reference. The example I gave last time of a blatantly circular
attempt to satisfy these conditions was a theory of names mentioned by William Kneale. I was a

himself and made the following shall use the term 'Glunk'to refer to I call 'Glunk'," this would get on

One had better have some independr nation of the referent of "Glunk." Tt

example of a blatantly circular der Actually sentences like "Socrate:

little surprised at the statement of the theory


when I was reading what I had copied down, so I looked it up again. I looked it up in the book to see if I'd copied it down accurately. Kneale did use the past tense. He said that though it is not trifling to be told that Socrates was the greatest philosopher of ancient Greece, it is trifling to be told that Socrates was called "Socrates." Therefore, he concludes, the name "Socrates" must simply mean "the individual called 'Socrates'."

'Socrates"' are very interesting

at

spend, strange as it may seem, hc about their analysis. I actually did, or I won't do that, however, on this oc< how high the seas of language can the lowest points too.) Anyway this example of a violation of the no

Russell, as I've said, in some places gives a similar analysis. Anyway, as stated using the past tense, the condition wouldn't be circular, because one certainly could decide to use the term "socrates" to refer to whoever was called
"socrates" by the Greeks. But, of course, in that sense it's not at all trifling to be told that Socrates was called "Socrates." If this is any kind of fact, it might be false. Perhaps we know thatwe call

condition. The theory will satisff i statements, perhaps, but it satisfies because there is some independe determining the reference indepe the particular condition: being the
''Socrates."

I have already talked about, in the thesis (6). Theses (5) and (6), by tht converses. What I said for thesis (5 statement that if X exists, X has mos is a priori true for the speaker. It will under the given theory that certain cr

him "socrates"; that hardly shows that

the

(2) One of the properties, or some conjointly, are believed by A to pick out some individual uniquely.

Greeks did so. In fact, of course, they may have pronounced the name differently. It may be, in the case of this particular name, that transliteration from the Greek is so good that the Englisb version is not pronouncedvery differently from

this statement hold true also a pri speaker, namely: if any unique thing
the properties
<p

in the properly weig it is X. Similarly a certain conve: will be necessarily true, namely: i has most of the properties <p in th

ueru luaJ8 e Jo erusu eql Jo Surueeru eql qlrl\ ele -rcosse ppom e1,(pe3 sd?qred 'fuo1srq ur pnprn

.(1.redord

eql ur

Surqlfue ;r :flerueu 'ans1 tlttossacau eq l;'a su{l ol esrJnuoJ ureual e flrulrung 'X s! :'esues pelq8rem ,{lredord eq1 ur
Jo lsoru suq Surqt anbrun

sergedord eql Jo tsoru s-;

-1pq eql o1 elor leer8 B u8rsse eru4 erus eql le 1e,{ pue crlsuruilatep eq qloq lq8ru qcrqm ',fto1 -sq;o ,(qdosopqd eqt;o snrarl eruos ur relndod sdeqred'f:oeq1 uregec e sr areqJ'rurq ol peln

6 sargedord ac ,(ue;r :fleureu 1e4eac,

:r

rory fpuere33rp fuat pecunouorc qsrl3ug er{l tuql poo8 os sr {eor! -erelllsueJ] leql'etuuu relncrued 'aq ,{eru 11 ',(puereg;rp erueu

-qlrne .{pouruoc sergedord eql ppg eltolsuv l?ql qrn4 fuesseceu e ',{lrsseceu Jo esues eADr fue ur 'lou sr 1snl11 'os lou sr luq,r\ sl sF{I
-n1ur

eql JoJ uoud e osp erul ploq lueruelels srE ue,rr8 eq1 repu: Jo sesJeluoc urcuec lsql ^Joeql erul eq oslu 11r,Lr 11 'ra>1ueds eql roJ erul uoud e :-r 's,dr eql 3o lsotu s?q X 'slsrxe X Jr teql luetuaturl;
erp 13ril sr (g) srseql roJ pres I 1?r{Aysesrenuc: e.r.eq 'fe,tr eql fq '(9) pue (9) sesoql '(9) srsrc 'ernlrel lsB[ eql ul 'tnoqe pe11ut ,(pee.r1e e,teq 1

,"

;o

pellec uuru eql Sureq :uoqrpuoJ relncrlred aa ,(puepuedepur ecueJeJer eql Suruuuol:tr
esneJN

,.'seleJcoS.

ot petnqu,u ,{luouuroo saruedo:d '"&r""Xi; elrsnlcur 'uns pcr8o1 eqt suq ellotsrrv leql lceJ fres -seceu B sr tr t?ql 8uqse88ns rue 1 q8noqt ',(So8eped olur lue,r JeAe ellolsuv leql lcuJ lue3uquoc e sr 1r lnq-reqcuel s.repuExelv sr ol pexeJor ueru eql l?ql qln4 fuessJJeu e sr lr uJql ..'repuExJJVJo leqJuel aql,, 'fes 'esn pue ..epolsrJv,, dorp o1 eer8e e.a,r esoddng
',(es o1 uo seoS elreas

Jo .{e.r luepuedepur etuos sr ereql

rreq,{zur feql'esrnoc;o .lcEJ uI rql teql s,roqs ,{1preq leql :.. fvJ aM lerp .l.rotnl em. sduqre4 .as -tJeJJo puDI ,(ue sr srql;1 ...seterr let?rros teql p1o1 eq o1 3urgu1 1p ltqt ur'esrnoc Jo'lng's{eerg erp PJIIUJ Se,ry\ Je^eoq,r 01 JeJer ol ..s Jgt esn ol eprcep plnoc ,(yurzga 'rElncJrc eq l.uplno,\\ uourpuoJ aqt Sursn pel4s se ',{em,{uy .srs e sa,tr8 seceld euros ur .prus a-\ ..' setercos, Pelpc Pnpr^rpul eqt. lsnur ,,seJeJcos,, etuuu oql .sepn
-oJeqJ ..'seleJcos,, pelpc
se,ry\ solE

,{1uo ureql seusrlus }l lnq 'sdsqled 'slueuelas aseqt Jo IIB KJsrles 1pr'r ,{roeql eqJ 'uoqrpuo: ,(luepcrrcuou erll Jo uo4elorl e Jo eldure\: InJesn E sr srql ,{ua,r.fuV ('oor slurod lse,Lro1 ac sees eql q8rq lp puv 'esu rmc e8un8uel Jo ^loc eeg) 'uorsecco srql uo telaa.r.or1 luql op l.uo^r J 'leql 'prp,(11entcu 'srs,(luue.neql tnoqr op'oruo I ,pueds 3uo1u1 1r se e8ue4s

uer euo pue Su4serelur ,fte,r eJB ,,,saleJcos. pellur sr solulroS.. e{ll seJuolurs flpntcy
'uorluurruJelep rulncJrc fpuelelq B Jo

sJnoq 'ruees '{eu

eq o1 8urgu1 sr 1r 'eceerg luerorr? rseleerS eql se,r seleJcos leql plo lou sr tl qSnoqt leql pms eH .osu plp ep-av>I 'flelerncce u^\op lr par 01 {ooq eql uI dn lr pe{oo1 .ure3e 1 os 'u,rop perdoc peq 11eq,r Surpe; uoarD egl Jo lueuelels eql le p

eldue\:

rog ',{lrsseceu tnoqe uelqord srqt ot (eq ,,(eur lI Jeneleq,r) Je1(srru lcexor eql lou sr sqt 'eruq lsey pen8ru I leql sSuql eruos ezueruuns oJ 'suorlducsep;o Jelsnlc e Jo leql ol rrrnl puu uo4ducsep e18urs u;o u8rpered pu -t8uo eql dorp lsnur euo leql sepnlcuoc eq 'eJoJ -ereq1 'fSo8eped olur luo,r rela ellolsrrv luql euo lue8urluoc e lnq qlrul f;usseJeu u lou sr lr '{pres elrees se lng 'lerg eq1 repuexely lq8nul enolsuv leql 'eldruexe roJ 'essc srql ur-sqlrul ,trusseceu lou ele qJlq,^A sqlrul ,(resseceu

poo8 e sr slqJ ,,'{unlC,, Jo tuereJer eql Jo uorletr -tuuelep luepuedepur eruos eleq relleq puq euo

e su/rt 'eleeu) rueq1.,11 ,{q peuorl J _\Joeqt B se/t\ suorupuoc eseqt , ;sr

'ereq,rou euo 1eB p1no,4t srql .,'.{unlg, rcc I

relncrrc .{puurelq e Jo erurl lsel a. aqJ 'ecuereJeJ Jo uoqeuruuotep .(ue o1 peel lou seop qcrq,r ,(el't e speel qcrq,.( ,(em e ur pegsrlus eq 1 seseql 'spJo,r\ Jer{lo uI 'soseql Jer
-JeJSqes eql uo uorlrpuoc u

lnq srsa
01 elqrss

'eleullurle

qlll(

eq ol uJnl ol tuees 11rA\ s8urql uregec ueql lno eql repupxelv lq8nu1 oq,l.r raqdosolqd -tearC eril sBi\\ epolslrv 'eldruexe JoJ-lueJeJeJ eql lno 4crd o1 uo4ducsep elrugep euo ,{us s.lol '.llz 1z 1q8re,,rt fue uelr8 sr fuedord euo fpo 1eq1 os 'esues .roxeu .{rel u ur ue>lel sr eruuu redord e petelcosse seryedord 3o relsnlc eqt Jr lBql sreqdosogqd,{ueur fq pe,rresqo ueeq s,11 '(9) srs

-I]ln sr lr lBql fB,r e qcns ur eruar aql eAIoAuI se^leslueqt lou lsnr[ el oru qcrq,r sergedord eqJ .JeIncnJ tunoJre eql 'froeql 1n;sseccns f
.(relueds
eq1;r
,,s.d

lql uelx aql o1 JaJer ol .{unlc, urlel aql esn Ileqs L, 'uorsrcep 3ur.tro1lo; eql epeur pue Jlesunq ol ,{unlC, e>IrI etueu B Jo luereJer eql Sururu -Jelep sB,r euoJI 'alcJrc snorcr^ e ol ,{lelerpeurun Peel IIr,^A lI ..sel?rcos,, elueu eql Jo ecueJeJel eqt ;o .{roeqt e sv ,.',esroq, e pellec Frurue eql.. suoaw fldwrs !,esroq,, pro^d. eql leql uorsnlcuor eql ol Sulpeel srql lnoqlra.('sesJor{,, pellec erB sesrorl leql plol eq o1 8urgu1 sr lr ',{,r erues eql ql 'cr/1eue lo ,(russeceu sr lI {ulql 1,uop 1 .Surgrrr flrru; sr srql esues euos ur ueqJ're>1eeds eql'ertr
.{q 'lsee1 le ro 'sn ,(q ,.se1ercos,, palluJ sr selurros tuql plol eq o1 3urgu1 s,ll :spear tr teql os srseqt eql puerue e,r esoddng (.'eceorC,, e>1r1 3urq1,{ue

ul) qln4 ,(resseceu e sesserdxe


seq

X ueql 'slsrxa X;1,,

.1uetue1r

aqt ,(q Forrd e u,^Aou{ sr


s?q

,.s,d)

-eql sI ernlcel lsel eql ur lnoq? pe{Iel I leqlA 's8urql eseql ,^aou)I l,uop eroJeJeql pue f-roeql slql Jo eJulreun eJB sJe>leeds eruos rcqt eq rcu ilI,!\ (9) pue (g) seseql ol suorlcelqo eq1 'erul ere (g) pue (g) leqt sees eroJereql eq 'sFIl Sur,Lrou;4 'serueu redord ;o froeql srql sdser3 releeds elrtreger dlluercg;ns u 1eq1 ,,{es lsnl fper (9) pue (S) puy'esoddns seseqt snorl

,{r1unoc rreql ilec l,upp s{eerg eql esrnoc

Jo

ueql 'slslxe

31,, '1ueura1e1

f '(t)-(t)

-ard eql ruor; seuroc flee; sHI 'd sergedord eql Jo lsorrl suq .,(lenbrun tl Jr fluo pne JI X sr 3urq1 -eruos leql,{:ussecau pue uorrd B qloq

,,y,,'pelqo enbrun ou sp1er,{ e1o,t


-Jer eqt sr r( ueql (lcelqo enbrun eur ere s,dr eq1;o'lsoru pelq8rem e ro ,

fes uec euo fleer oS 'X sI tr 'esues pelq8rem


LLz

sr 1r

lpql

puv'11e J? errruu srql pezruSoceJ eleq l.uplno,r\ leqdord eqt :,,q?rcsl, pellec s,r qercsl lql plol eq o1 eslBJ sr 1r 'lrBJ uI ,.'rl?rBSL, pellec s?,r r{Er -esl leql plol oq o1 3urgu1 1ou sr 1r ,(1urege3 'esec lereue8 aql ur os eq l,uol\ leql lng '{aeJC eql

AIISS])]N ONV DNI/\VN

slAtlvut_sNoy\Ec o NV Sl mvN

278

NAM ES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

i"AMINC AND NECESSITY

his achievements. According to such a view it will be necessary, once a certain individual is
born, that he is destined to perform various great tasks and so it will be part of the very nature of Aristotle that he should have produced ideas which had a great influence on the western world. Whatever the merits of such a view may be as a view of history or the nature of great men, it does not seem that it should be trivially true on the basis of a theory of proper names. It would seem that it's a contingent fact that Aristotle ever did any of the things commonly attributed to him today, any of these great achievements that we so much admire. . . . To clear up one thing which some people have asked me: When I say that a designator is rigid, and designates the same thing in all possible worlds, I mean that, as used in ourlatguage, it stands for that thing, when we talk about

have nothing to do with necessity and can survive. In particular thesis (5) has nothing to dt'

:on, when you say: I shall call

with necessity and it can survive.

If I

r-rdy over there ,,Hesperus."e Th

use the

name "Hesperus" to refer to a certain planeta4 body when seen in a certain celestial position in the evening, it will not therefore be a necessa4 truth that Hesperus is ever seen in the evening. That depends on various contingent facts aboui people being there to see and things like that. Sc

'i determined. Another case, if vor -:hit u nurne. mighr be when the p .lon use the name ,,Jack"
or,,Jack

:ase where the theses not only are r Jven grve a correct picture of hos.

counterfactual situations. I don't mean, of course, that there mightn't be counterfactual situations in which in the other possible worlds
people actually spoke a different language. One doesn't say that "two plus two equals four" is contingent because people might have spoken a language in which "two plus two equals four" meant that seven is even. Similarly, when we speak of a counterfactual situation, we speak of it in English, even ifit is part ofthe description of that counterfactual situation that we were all speaking German in that counterfactual situation. We say, "suppose we had all been speaking

German"

or

"suppose

we had been

using

even if I should say to myself that I will use "Hesperus" to name the heavenly body I see in the evening in yonder position of the sky, it wili nol be necessary that Hesperus was ever seen ir the evening. But it may be a priori in that this is how I have determined the referent. If I hale determined that Hesperus is the thing that I sa$ in the evening over there, then I will know, just from making that determination of the referentthat if there is any Hesperus at all it's the thing I saw in the evening. This at least survives as far as the arguments we have given up to now go. How about a theory where thesis (6) is eliminated? Theses (2), (3), and (4) turn out to have a large class ofcounterinstances. Even when theses (2)-(4) are true, thesis (5) is usually false: the truth of theses (3) and (4) is an empirical "accident', which the speaker hardly knows a priori. That is to say, other principles reaill determine the speaker's reference, and the fact that the referent coincides with that determined by (D-() is an "accident', which we were in no position to know a priori. Only in a rare class oi cases, usually initial baptisms, are all of (2)-(5
r

=fer to the man, whoever he is. rrb all these murders, or most of ther .:re giving the reference of tbe
Je

scription.l0 But in manv or [ro\r r he theses are false. So lei,s look ar Thesis (1), as I say, is a definitio 'ays that one ofthe properties belit

a'ho denounced Catiline (or finr

.rim in public, to make it unique). Tl

,lnalysis, who don,t believe that r meaning in any sense, think that rh

.:n object uniquely in this particula Even some writers such as Ziff i

English in a nonstandard way." Then we are describing a possible world or counterfactual situation in which people, including ourselves, did speak in a ceftain way different from the way we speak. But still, in describing that world, we we English with our meanings and ourreferences. It is in this sense that I speak of
a

true.

What picture of naming do these Theses

[(lF

rigid designator as having the same reference


possible worlds.

in all

also don't mean to

imply that the thing designated exists in all possible worlds, just that the name refers rigidly to that thing. If you say "suppose Hitler had never

(5)l give you? The picture is this. I want to name an object. I think of some way of describing it uniquely and then I go through, so to speak, a sort of mental ceremony: By "Cicero" I shall mean the man who denounced Catiline; and that's what the reference of "Cicero" will be. I will use "Cicero" to designate rigidly the man who (in fact) denounced Catiline, so I can spea.k of possible worlds in which he did not. But still my intentions are given by first, giving some
condition which uniquely determines an object. then using a certain word as a name for the object determined by this condition. Now there may be some cases in which we actually do this. Maybe, if you want to stretch and call it descrip-

is

nind pick out anyone uniquelr_ they're all satisfied by two people_ can you say which one of them vor about? There seem to b" no grouods -vou're talking about the one rather the other. Usually the properties in q supposed to be some famous deeds son in question. For example, Cicer man who denounced Catiline. The ar son, according to this, wheq he refers
saying something

a priori way, that it,s got to be true tou don't think that the properties.

picture of the way reference can be r Let's see if thesis (2) is true. It seet

like

,.the

denounced Catiline" and thus has pi cerlain man uniquely. It is a tribute r

cation of philosophers that they har-t thesis for such a long time. In fact, m<

been born" then "Hitler" refers here, still


rigidly, to something that would not exist in the counterfactual situation described. Given these remarks, this means we must
cross off thesis (6) as incorrect. The other theses

else about Cicero to have a referer name. Consider Richard Feynman, many of us are able to refer. He is a lea

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28o

NAM ES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

NAMINC AND NECESSITY

turn be picked out as "Einstein's theory." So thesis (2) seems to be false. . . . Let's go on to thesis (3): If most of the <p's, suitably weighted, are satisfied by a unique object y, then "yis the referent ofthe name for the speaker. NoW since we have already established that Thesis (2) is wrong, why should any of the rest work? . . . Suppose most of the rp's are in fact satisfied by a unique object. Is that object necessarily the referent of "X" for A? Let's suppose someone says that Godel is the man who proved the incompleteness of arithmetic, and this man is suitably well educated and is even able to give an independent account of the incompleteness theorem. He doesn't just say, "Well, that's Gcidel's theorem," or whatever. He actually states a certain theorem, which he attributes to Godel as the discoverer. Is it the case, then, that if most of the g's are satisfied by a unique object 1, then "y is the referent of the name"X" forA? Let's take a simple case. In the case of Gddel that's practically the only thing many people have heard about him-that he discovered the incompleteness of arithmetic. Does it follow that whoever discovered the incompleteness of arithmetic is the referent of

"Gddel"?
Imagine the fotlowing blatantly fictional situation. (I hope Professor Gcidel is not present.)
Suppose that Gcidel was not in fact the author of this theorem. A man named "Schmidt," whose body was found in Vienna under mysterious circumstances many years ago, actually did the work in question. His friend Gtidel somehow got hold of the manuscript and it was thereafter attributed to Gcjdel. On the view in question, then, when our ordinary man uses the name "G<idel," he really means to refer to Schmidt, because Schmidt is the unique person satisfying the description, "the man who discovered the

arithmetic is in fact Schmidt, we, when we talk about "Gtidel," are in fact always referring to Schmidt. But it seems to me that we are not. We simply are not. One reply, which I will discuss later, might be: You should say instead, "the man to whom the incompleteness of arithmetic is commonly attributed," or something like that. Let's see what we can do with that later. But it may seem to many of you that this is a very odd example, or that such a situation occurs rarely. This also is a tribute to the education of philosophers. Very often we use a name on the basis of considerable misinformation. The case of mathematics used in the flctive example is a good case in point. What do we know about Peano? What many people in this room may "know' about Peano is that he was the discoverer of certain axioms which characteize the sequence of natural numbers, the socalled "Peano axioms." Probably some people can even state them. I have been told that these axioms were not first discovered by Peano but by Dedekind. Peano was of course not a dishonest man. I am told that his footnotes include a credit to Dedekind. Somehow the footnote has been ignored. So on the theory in question the term "Peano," as we use it, really refers tonow that you've heard it you see that you were

Thesis (4): Ifthe vote yields no un the name does not refer. Really thi

been covered before-has been cov, previous examples. First, the vote ma a unique object, as in the case of Cicer man. Secondly, suppose it yields no r nothing satisfies most, or even an\..

number, of the <p's. Does that mea.o doesn't refer? No: in the same ua' may have false beliefs about a per

may actually be true

of

someont

you may have false beliefs which :

absolutely no one. And these may col totality of your beliefs. Suppose. rr example about G<idel, no one had r the incompleteness of arithmetic-p

really all the time talking about-Dedekind. But you were not. Such illustrations could be
multiplied indef, nitely.
Even worse misconceptions, ofcourse, occur to the layman. In a previous example I supposed people to identify Einstein by reference to his work on relativity. Actually, I often used to hear

that Einstein's most famous achievement was the invention of the atomic bomb. So when we refer to Einstein, we refer to the inventor of the atomic bomb. But this is not so. Columbus was
the first man to realize that the earth was round. He was also the flrst European to land in the

incompleteness of arithmetic." Of course you might try changing it to "the man who published the discovery of the incompleteness of arithmetic." By changing the story a little further one can make even this formulation false. Anyway, most people might not even know whether the thing was published or got around by word of mouth. Let's stick to "the man who discovered the incompleteness of arithmetic." So, since the man who discovered the incompleteness of

western hemisphere. Probably none of these things are true, and therefore, when people use the term "Columbus" they really refer to some Greek if they use the roundness of the earth, or
to some Norseman, perhaps, if they use the "discovery of America." But they don't. So it does not seem that if most of the <p's are satisfled by a unique object y, then 1 is the referent of the name. This seems simply to be false.12

proof simply materialized by a randc ing of atoms on a piece of paperGcidel being lucky enough to have be rvhen this improbable event occurrer suppose arithmetic is in fact coml rvouldn't really expect a random sc: atoms to produce a correct proof. A st unknown through the decades, has unnoticed-or perhaps not actually I but the friends of Gcidel. . . . So even ditions are not satisfied by a unique name may still refer. I gave you * Jonah last week. Biblical scholars. think that Jonah really existed. It isn they think that someone ever was s\r'a a big flsh or even went to Nineveh These conditions may be true of no or ever and yet the name "Jonah" reallr erent. In the case above of Einstein's of the bomb, possibly no one really d be called the "inventor" ofthe device Thesis 5 says that the statement ''l then X has most of the <p's," is a priori Notice that even in a case where (3) an pen to be true, a typical speaker hardl. priori that they are, as required by tht think that my belief about Gcidel is ir rect and that the "Schmidt" story is j tasy. But the belief hardly constitute knowledge. . . . Someone, let's say, a baby, is bom ents call him by a certain name. They I him to their friends. Other people r Through various sorts of talk the name

'S/KaIA

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pezqeueleru ,{ldrurs;oord

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p1er,,( 1ou ,(eru e1o,r

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egl 'lsJrd 'seldruexe snor,r.erd

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L8z

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{Fl

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NV S] IAVN

282

NAMES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

NAMINC AND NECESSITY

Haven't I been very unfair to the description theory? Here I have stated it very preciselymore precisely, perhaps, than it has been stated by any of its advocates. So then it's easy to refute. Maybe if I tried to state mine with sufficient precision in the form of six or seven or eight theses, it would also tum out that when you examine the theses one by one, they will all be false. That might even be so, but the difference is this. What I think the examples I've given show is not simply that there's some technical error here or some mistake there, but that the whole picture given by this theory of how reference is determined seems to be wrong from the fundamentals. It seems to be wrong to think that we give ourselves some properties which

Except for a belief in the description theory, in its importance in other cases, one probably

wouldn't think that that was a case of giving oneself a description, i.e., "the guy I'm just meeting now." But one can put it in these terms

Why shouldn't their belief be abor man named "George Smith"? If h Newton was hit by an apple, someh
of transmitting a relerence is easier. communicated a cofilmon misconce

if one wishes,

and if one has never heard the name in any other way. Of course, if you're introduced to a man and told, "That's Einstein," you've heard of him before, it may be wrong, and so on. But maybe in some cases such a paradigm works----especially for the man who first gives someone or something a name. Or he points to a star and says, "That is to be Alpha Centauri." So he can really make himself this ceremony: "By 'Alpha Centaur,i' I shall mean

Newton.

To repeat, I may not have present but I do think that I have presented ; ture than that given by description d I think the next topic I shall u'ant t is that of statements of identity. Are r sary or contingent? The matter ha-s b

somehow qualitatively uniquely pick out an


object and determine our reference in that manner. What I am trying to present is a better picture-a picture which, if more details were to be filled in, might be refined so as to give more exact conditions for reference to take place. One might never reach a set of necessary and sufficient conditions. I don't know, I'm always sympathetic to Bishop Butler's 'Everything is what it is and not another thing'-in the nontrivial sense that philosophical analyses of some concept like reference, in completely different terms which make no mention of reference, are very apt to fail. Ofcourse in any particular case when one is given an analysis one has to look at it and see whether it is true or false. One can't just cite this maxim to oneself and then turn the page. But more cautiously, I want to present a better picture without giving a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for reference. Such conditions would be very complicated, but what is true is that it's in virtue of our connection with other speakers in the community, going back to the referent himself, that we refer to a certain
man. There may be some cases where the description picture is true, where some man really gives

the star right over there with such and such coordinates." But in general this picture fails. In
general our reference depends notjust on what we think ourselves, but on other people in the community, the history of how the name

dispute in recent philosophy. Firs agrees that descriptions can be us contingent identity statements. lt- it the man who invented bifocals rr. Postmaster General of the United :

these were one and the same-it's c true. That is, it might have been the c

reached one, and things like that.

It is by following such a history that one gets to the


reference. . . . A rough statement of a theory might be the following: An initial "baptism" takes place. Here the object may be named by ostension, or

man invented bifocals and another r Postmaster General of the United Str tainly when you make identity stater

descriptions-when you say "the,r : and the x such that yx are one and d that can be a contingent fact. But p
have been interested also in the quest

the reference of the name may be fixed by a description.l3 Wher-r the name is "passed from

link to link," the receiver of the name must, I think, intend when he learns it to use it with the
same reference as the man from whom he heard

it. If I hear the name "Napoleon" and decide it would be a nice name for my pet aardvark, I do
not satisfy this condition.la (Perhaps it is some such failure to keep the refelence fixed which accounts for the divergence of present uses of "Santa Claus" from the alleged original use.) Notice that the preceding ottlinehatdly elim' inates the notion of reference; on the contrary, it takes the notion of intending to use the same reference as a given. There is also an appeal to an initial baptism which is explained in terms either of fixing a reference by a description, or ostension (if ostension is not to be subsumed under the other category).l5 (Perhaps there are other possibilities for initial baptisms.) Further, the George Smith case casts some doubt as to

statements between names. \\l "Hesperus is Phosphorus" or "Cicer is what we are saying necessary or Further, they've been interested in a of identity statement, which comes tific theory. We identify, for examplt electromagnetic radiation between cr of wavelengths, or with a stream of ;

tity

identily heat with the motion oi

a name by going into the privacy of his room and saying that the referent is to be the unique thing with certain identifying properties. "Jack the Ripper" was a possible example which I gave. Another was "Hesperus." Yet another case which can be forced into this description is that of meeting someone and being told his name.

the sufficiency of the conditions. Even if the teacher does refer to his neighbor, is it clear that he has passed on his reference to the pupils?

sound with a certain sort of wave di= the air; and so on. Concerrring such the following thesis is commonly hel these are obviously contingent ident found out that light is a stream ofpbc course it might not have been a stre tons. Heat is in fact the motion of mc found that out, but heat might not ha motion of molecules. Secondly, ma phers feel damned lucky that these e: around. Now, why? These philosopl views are expounded in a vast literar a thesis called "the identity thesis" r to some psychological concepts. The

that pain is just a certain material

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;spdnd eql 01 ecueJeJer srq uo


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lq8(u froeqt

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284

NAM ES AN D DEMONSTRATIVES

NAMINC AND NECESSITY

those circumstances in which Hesperus is not Phosphorus or would not have been Phosphorus? It seems to me that they are not. Now, of course I'm committed to saying that they're not, by saying that such terms as "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus," when used as names, are rigid designators. They refer in every possible world to the planet Venus. Therefore, in that

imply that the way it finally turns out isn't necessary. For example, the four color theorem might turn out to be true and might turn out to

be false.

It might tum out either way. It still


expresses our present

doesn't mean that the way it turns out is not necessary. Obviously, the 'might' here is purely

'epistemic'-it merely
state

of ignorance. or uncertainty.

possible world too, the planet Venus is the planet Venus and it doesn't matter what any other person has said in this other possible world. How should we describe this situation?
He can't have pointed to Venus twice, and in the one case called it "Hesperus" and in the other "Phosphorus," as we did. If he did so, then "Hesperus is Phosphorus" would have been true

But it seems that in the Hesperus-Phosphorus case, something even stronger is true. The evidence I have before I know that Hesperus is Phosphorus is that I see a certain star or a cer-

tain heavenly body in the evening and call it "Hesperus," and in the moming and call it
"Phosphorus." I know these things. There certainly is a possible world in which a man should have seen a certain star at a certain position in
the evening and called it "Hesperus" and a certain star in the morning and called it "Phosphorus"; and should have concluded-should have

world can they be different. We use "l as the name of a certain body and "Ph as the name of a certain body. We us names of those bodies in all possible , in fact, they arettre same body, then il possible world we have to use them as that object. And so in any other possi it will be true that Hesperus is Phosp two things are true: first, that we do n priori that Hesperus is Phosphorus. : no position to find out the answer exct ically. Second, this is so because we c evidence qualitatively indistinguishe the evidence we have and determine ence of the two names by the positio
planets in the sky, without the planets
same.

in that situation too. He pointed maybe neither time to the planet Venus-at least one time he
didn't point to the planet Venus, let's say when
he pointed to the body he called "Phosphorus." Then in that case we can certainly say that the name "Phosphorus" might not have referred to Phosphorus. We can even say that in the very

Of course, it is only a contingent


true in every other possible world) thi seen over there in the evening is the

found out by empirical investigation-that he


names two different stars, or two different heavenly bodies. At least one of these stars or heav-

over there in the morning, because

position when viewed in the morning that we found Phosphorus, it might have been the case
that Phosphorus was not there-that something else was there, and that even, under certain circumstances it would have been called "Phosphorus." But that still is not a case in which Phosphorus was not Hesperus. There might be a

enly bodies was not Phosphorus, otherwise

it

possible world in which, a possible counterfactual situation in which, "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus" weren't names of the things they in fact are names of. Someone, if he did determine their reference by identifying descriptions,

might even have used the very identifying


descriptions we used. But still that's not a case in which Hesperus wasn't Phosphorus. For there couldn't have been such a case, given that Hesperus is Phosphorus. Now this seems very strange because in advance, we are inclined to say, the answer to the question whether Hesperus is Phosphorus might have turned out either way. So aren't there really two possible worlds-one in which Hesperus was Phosphorus, the other in which Hesperus wasn't Phosphorus-in advance of our discovering that these were the same? First, there's one sense in which things might turn out either way, in which it's clear that that doesn't

couldn't have come out that way. But that's true. And so it's true that given the evidence that someone has antecedent to his empirical investigation, he can be placed in a sense in exactly the same situation, that is a qualitatively identical epistemic situation, and call two heavenly bodies "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus," without their being identical. So in that sense we can say that it might have turned out either way. Not that it might have turned out either way as to Hesperus's being Phosphorus. Though for all we knew in advance, Hesperus wasn't Phosphorus, that couldn't have turned out any other way, in a
sense. But being put

possible worlds in which Phosphorur visible in the morning. But that contin shouldn't be identified with the stare Hesperus is Phosphorus. It could or identified if you thought that it was a truth that Hesperus is visible over rhr evening or that Phosphorus is visible r in the morning. But neither of those z sary truths even if that's the way we pir planet. These are the contingent marks we identify a certain planet and give ir

NOTES
1. Keith Donnellan, "Reference and Definit tions," Philosophical Review 75 (19(:6t

in a situation where we

have exactly the same evidence, qualitatively speaking, it could have turned out that Hesperus was not Phosphorus; that is, in a counterfactual world in which "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus" were not used in the way that we use them, as names of this planet, but as names of some other objects, one could have had qualitatively identical evidence and concluded that "Hesperus" and "Phosphorus" named two different objects.l6 But we, using the names as we do right now, can say in advance, that if Hesperus and Phosphorus are one and the same, then in no other possible

304, [reprinted in this volume]. See als Linsky, "Reference and Referents," il , and Ordinary ktnguage, ed. Caton fu-n Illinois Press, Urbana: 1963.) Donnellar

tion seems applicable to names as well as tions. Two men glimpse someone at a di think they recognize him as Jones. 'W-h doing?' 'Raking the leaves'. If the distan is actually Smith, then in some sense t}te, rlng to Smith, even though they both use a name of lones. In the text, I speak of tbt of a name to mean the thing named by tl e.g., Jones, not Smith----even though a sp sometimes properly be said to use the na.r to someone else. Perhaps it would have misleading to use a technical term, such :

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286
not describe the whoie possible world, but only the
us. sage

NAM E5 AN D DEMONSTRATIVES in question, whoever he is? By analogy to Donnellan's usage for descriptions, this might be called an "attributive" use of proper names. If this is so, then assuming the Godel-Schmidt story the sentence "Gildel proved the incompleteness theorem" is false, but 'Godel used a diagonal argument in the proof is (at least in some contexts) true, and the refLrence of the name 'Gddef is ambiguous. Since some counterexamples remain, the cluster-ofdescriptions theory would still, in general, be false, which was my main point in the text; but it would be applicable in a wider ciass of cases than I thought' I think, however, that no such ambiguily need be postulated. It is, perhaps, true that sometimes when someone uses the name "Giidel," his main interest is in whoever proved the theorem, and perhaps' tn some sense, he "refers'to him. I do not think that this case is different from the case of Smith and Jones. If I mistake Jones for Smith, I may refer (it an appropriate sense) to Jones when I say that Smith is raking ih" l"un"t: nevertheless I do not use "Smith" ambiguously, as a name someti.mes of Smith and ,o."ii-", of Jones, but univocally as a name of Smith. Similarly, if I erroneously think thatAristotle wrote such-and-such passage, I may perhaps sometimes use "Aristotle" to referto the actual author of the passage, even though there is no ambiguity in my use of the name. In both cases, I will withdraw my original statement, and my original use of the name, if apprised of the facts. Recall that, in these lectures, '."f"r".rt' is used in the technical sense of the thing named by a name (or uniquely satisfying a description), and there should be no confusion.

NAMING AND NECESSITY


ple. For each of these PeoPle'
as

fi

a certain sorl of causal or

his

8. g.

Caton, oP. cit., P. 160. deterrnining the reference of a name by description, as opposed to ostension, is the discovery of the pianet Neptune. Neptune was hypothesized as the planet which caused such and su-h discrepancies in the orbits of certain other planets. If Leverrier indeed gave the name "Neptune" to the planet before it was ever seen, then he fixed the reference of "Neplune" by means of the description just mentioned. At that time he was unable to see the planet even through a telescope. At this stage, an a priori material equivalence held between the statements "Nephrne exists" and "some one planet perturbing the orbit of such and such other planets exists in such and such a position," and also such statements as "if such and such perturbations are caused by a planet, they are caused by Neptune" had the status of a priori truths Neve(heless, they were
noI- necessary

;'in

between my use of the name a-nd French, but not one of the requift 15 Once we realize that the descripl reference of a name is not synon' the descriPtion theory can be regz ing the notion of naming or refe ment I made that the descriPti involve the notion of reference i something else and is crucial if t ory is to have anY value at all. Tl

description theorist

suPPoses

truths, since "Neptune" was intro-

if Neptune had been knocked off its course one miilion years earlier. it would have caused no such perturbations and even that some other object might have caused the perlurbations in its Place. 10. Foll,owing Donnellan's remarks on definite descriptions, we should add that in some cases, an object
Leverrier could well have believed that

duced as a name rigidly designating a certain planet'

In such cases, the description which fixes the reference clearly is i.n no sense known a priori to hold

of

the object, though a more cautious substitute may be. If iuch a more cautious substitute is available, it is really the substitute which fixes the reference in

11. Some of the theses are sloppily stated in respect of


fussy matters like use of quotation marks and related details. (For example, theses (5) and (6), as stated, presuppose that the speaker's language is English') Since the purpot of the theses is cleat, and they are false anyway, I have not bothered to set these things straight. 12. The iiuster-of-descriptions theory of naming would make "Peano discovered the axioms for number theory" express a trivial truth, not a misconception, and similarly for other misconceptions about the history of science. Some who have conceded such cases to me have argued that thete arc other tJses of the same

the sense intended in the text.

Descriptions are also used to fix a reference in cases of designation which are similar to naming except that the terms introduced are not usually called

'names'. The terms "one meter"' "100 degrees

proper names satisfying the cluster theory' For

-xample, it is argued, if we say' "Gddel proved the incompleteness of arithmetic," we are, of coutse, referring to Godel, not to Schmidt. But, if we say, "Gddel ielied on a diagonal argument in this step of whoever the proof," don't we ne asks, proved the theorem :'what did Aristotle in mind here?", isn't he talking about the author of the pas-

Centigrade," have already been given as examples, and other examples will be given later in these 1ectures Two things should be emphasized conceming the case ofintroducing a name via a description in an cription used is not synffoduces but rather fixes from the usual descriPtion theodsts. Second, most cases of initial baptism are far from those which originally inspired the description theory. Usually abaptizer is acquainted in some sense with the object he names and is able to name it ostensively. Now the inspiration of the description theory lay in the fact that we can often use names of famous figures of the past who are long dead and with whom no living person is acquainted; and it is precisely these cases wbich, on our view, cannot b; correctly explained by a description theory
14. I can transmit the name of the aardvark to other peo-

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