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SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Phrases, Clauses, and Sentence Types

INDEPENDENT CLAUSES
An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate (verb or verb and object), and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause can be a sentence. Jim studied for his chemistry quiz at Tim Hortons

DEPENDENT CLAUSES
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought because it has a subordinate conjunction or relative pronoun. The clause might begin with something like when. When Jim studied at Tim Hortons for his chemistry quiz (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
after once until

although
as because

provided that
rather than since

when
whenever where

before
even if even though

so that
than that

whereas
wherever whether

if
in order that

though
unless

while
why

RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Note that some relative pronouns, like who, whom, which, etc. can also be the subject of the dependent clause

that which whichever

who whoever whom

whose whosever whomever

PHRASES
Phrases are a group of words that do not contain a subject or a predicate verb. The most common phrases in English prepositional phrases (i.e. begins with a preposition). There are 76 English prepositions, including: to, in into, on, onto, across, over, under, up, down, through. Prepositional phrases look like this:
To the store Over the bridge Under the table In the heat

PRACTICE SENTENCES
Find the phrases, dependent clauses and independent clauses in the sentences below For each clause, circle the subject, put brackets around the verb, and put brackets under the phrases

When Eileen gets angry at her students, she yells and jumps up and down.

PRACTICE SENTENCES
Find the phrases, dependent clauses and independent clauses in the sentences below For each clause, circle the subject, put brackets around the verb, and put brackets under the phrases

Ms Doucet has a short temper, which can be a problem for me.

SENTENCE T YPES
There are four major sentence types in English:
Simple Sentences Compound Sentences Complex Sentences Compound-Complex Sentences

All are combinations of independent and dependent clauses, plus the phrases associated with those clauses.

SIMPLE SENTENCE
Simple sentences are composed of ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and the PHRASES necessary to the idea expressed
I like chocolate. I like chocolate. Eileen ran to school. Eileen ran to school. In the heat of the night, Ms Doucet got up for a drink of water. In the heat of the night, Ms Doucet got up for a drink of water.

COMPOUND SENTENCES
Compound sentences are sentences that have T WO INDEPENDENT CLAUSES and their associated PHRASES joined by a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION. Coordinating conjunctions include: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (acronym FANBOYS) I love chocolate yet I hate chocolate -covered almonds. I love chocolate yet I hate chocolate-covered almonds. Mr. Zohar rides his bike to school and Mr. McNaughton drives. Mr. Zohar rides his bike to school and Mr. McNaughton drives.

COMPLEX SENTENCES
Complex sentences include ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and ONE DEPENDENT CLAUSE and their associated phrases. If you come over early, we can have lunch first . If you come over early, we can have lunch first. When my grandmother baked gingerbread cookies for us to take home, my sister and I used to throw them out of the car window on the 401 . When my grandmother baked gingerbread cookies for us to take home, my sister and I used to throw them out of the car window on the 401 .

COMPLEX-COMPOUND SENTENCES
Just as the name implies, a complex -compound sentence is the combination of ONE DEPENDENT CLAUSE with a COMPOUND SENTENCE (two INDEPENDENT CLAUSES joined by a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION) and their associated PHRASES. This is the longest type of sentence that can be formed in English. Adding more clauses will result in sentence errors. When I go to Montreal, I visit my family and I go to Schwartzs for a smoked meat sandwich. When I go to Montreal, I visit my family and I go to Schwartzs for a smoked meat sandwich .

SENTENCE ERRORS
If you create a sentence that does not fit one of these paradigms, you have probably created a sentence error. Sentence errors include:
Sentence Fragments Comma Splices Run-on Sentences Fused Sentences

SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
A sentence fragment is any group of words that has a capital at the beginning and a period at the end that does not contain a subject and a predicate and which does not form a complete thought. Two commons causes of sentence fragments:
Phrases meant to be attached to the previous sentence are written as their own sentences Dependent clauses are written as their own sentences

E.g. Like the three little pigs and Little Red Riding Hood. E.g. Which Eileen told them not to do.

RUN-ON SENTENCES
A run-on sentence is one in which two or more independent clauses are joined inappropriately. The term Run - on Sentence includes both comma splices and fused sentences. Often this term is used more specifically for sentences that have three or more independent clauses joined by conjunctions. E.g. I like ice cream so I went to the store to buy some, but the store didnt have any left, so I had had to take the bus to the mall to get some, and then I was late for work. FIX: I like ice cream and went to the store to get some; however, the store was out of chocolate ice cream, so I had to go to the mall. After all the running around I did, I was late for work.

COMMA SPLICES
A comma splice is the joining of two independent clauses with a comma. (Note: splice = join) In some languages, like Spanish, this is perfectly acceptable, but in English it is not. In English sentences must be joined by conjunctions, semi colons, or colons. E.g. I like chocolate ice cream, I eat it every other day. FIX: I like chocolate ice cream; I eat it every other day. FIX: I like chocolate ice cream, so I eat it every other day. FIX: Because I like chocolate ice cream, I eat it every other day.

FUSED SENTENCES
Fused sentences are ones that include more than one independent clause but which have no punctuation or conjunctions at all. This error can be corrected using the same strategies that are used to correct comma splices. E.g. I like ice cream I eat it every other day. FIX: I like ice cream, so I eat it every other day.

CAN YOU SPOT THE ERROR(S)?

Ms Doucets class is the best, I always learn something from her.

ERROR: Comma Splice

CAN YOU SPOT THE ERROR(S)?

Eileen is tall enough to reach the top shelf I dont think you are.

ERROR: Fused Sentence

CAN YOU SPOT THE ERROR(S)?

A long time ago in a country far, far away.

ERROR: Sentence Fragment

CAN YOU SPOT THE ERROR(S)?

Although I wanted to come to the party, I could not make it, I had to go to my grandmothers house.

ERROR: Comma Splice

CAN YOU SPOT THE ERROR(S)?

The dog ate my homework and my little sister flushed my cell phone down the toilet and my bus pass disappeared, I was having a bad day. ERRORS: Run-on Sentence and Comma Splice