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Honors Chemistry: Hydrate Lab

Zenas Choi and Elliott Sun Period 8 Purpose: To determine the formula of the hydrated compound by determining the number of water molecules that attach to a formula unit. Then state the formula of the hydrated compound and name this compound. Procedure: 1. Mass the crucible 2. Place hydrated compound into crucible and mass it 3. Place crucible above bunsen burner using the the iron ring and the clay triangle 4. Keep crucible above bunsen burner until hydrated compound completely dehydrates and becomes white. 5. Weight the final product

Equipment and Materials: - 1 crucible - 1 set of tongs - 1 iron ring - 1 bunsen burner - 1 clay triangle - 1 weighing scale Calculations: mass of crucible with hydrated compound - mass of crucible with dehydrated compound = mass of water 19.992 g - 19.585 g = 0.40700 g mass of water = 0.40700 g

mass of crucible with dehydrated salt - mass of crucible = mass of dehydrated salt 19.585g - 18.851g = 0.73400 g mass of dehydrated salt = 0.73400 g

Data Table #1: Mass of Crucible, Hydrate, and Anhydrate Mass of Crucible Mass of Hydrated Compound and Crucible Mass of Hydrate Mass of Crucible with Anhydrous Compound Mass of Anhydrous Compound 18.851 g 19.992 g 19.992 g - 18.851 g = 1.1410 g 19.585 g 19.585 - 18.851 g = 0.73400 g

Show all work of how to determine the formula of the hydrated compound.

Mass of Hydrated Compound - Mass of Anhydrous Compound = Mass of H2O

1.1410 g - 0.73400 g = 0.40700 g Mass of H20 = 0.40700 g Molar mass of H = 1.0080

Molar mass of O = 16.000 Molar mass of H2O = 2(1.0080) + 16.000 = 18.016 g/mol

Moles of H20 = 0.40700g x 1 mole 18.016 g/mole = 0.022500 moles Molar mass of copper = 63.550 Molar mass of sulfur = 32.070 Molar mass of oxygen = 16.000 Molar mass of Anhydrous Compound (CuSO4)= 63.550 + 32.070 + (16.000 x 4) =159.62 g/mole Moles Anhydrate = 0.73400 g x 1 mole 159.62 g/mole = 0.0046000 moles Ratio H20 : Anhydrate 0.0225 : 0.0046000 4.8900 : 1.0000 39.000 : 8.0000

Formula of the Hydrated Compound = 8A . 39H20 Calculating the Percent Error: % of water in hydrate = 0.40700 g x 100% = 35.7% 1.1410 g Correct percentage was 36.1% Percent Error = Theoretical Percent - Actual Percent Actual Percent Percent Error = 35.7% - 36.1% = 0.0111% 36.1%

Percent Error = 0.0111%

Source used to find the correct answers. http://dwb4.unl.edu/chemistry/labs/LABS06.html

Discussion Questions: Make sure to address the following questions in your discussion section: Would the error cause your ratio to increase or decrease? 1. What was the actual ratio you obtained (with all significant digits)? What was your rounded ratio to whole numbers? Is your actual ratio higher or lower than the rounded ratio? Research what the actual ratio should be. Is your answer too high or too low? What is the percent error? (Elliott) The actual ratio we got for H20:Anhydrate was 0.0225 : 0.00460. Our rounded ratios was 39:8. Our ratio was lower compared to the actual ratio. Our percentage error was 0.011%.

2. How would your ratio change if you did not dehydrate the compound fully? (Zenas) If the compound wasnt dehydrated fully, the calculated mass of the water will be smaller. Hence, the percentage of the water will be smaller. 3. Suppose some of the compound fell out of the test tube before heating but after massing. How would that change your ratio? (Elliott) If compound fell out after the mass but before heating, then you would think there would be more water in the compound then there actually was when massing after heating the compound. The ratio water would be higher than the anhydrate then it actually should. 4. How would your ratio change if the test tube was wet when the hydrated compound was added to it at the beginning of the experiment? (Zenas) As external water was inserted into the test tube, the amount of water found in the hydrated compound would appear to be more. Hence, the water ratio will become higher. 5. How would your ratio relate to another groups who used the same compound, if you used 2.0 grams and they used 2.5grams? (Elliott)

The ratio should be the same, because the amount of compounds does not matter as the ratio of materials are always the same. 6. Suggest what might happen if you left the anhydrous compound to sit overnight before weighing it for your data? (Zenas) Moisture from the air may have contaminated the anhydrous compound and rehydrate the compound. 7. If you could improve this lab, what would you do differently and why? Discuss at least three feasible improvements and why with reference to the other discussion questions and errors. (Note: relate this to #1 and the answers for the other questions). (Elliott and Zenas) 1. In order to improve the hydrate lab, we should have made sure that all our measurements were completely accurate. This could have been accomplished through using the electric mass at least 3 times to get an accurate reading. Even the slightest of miscalculation would cause mistakes into our final results, so accurate and precise measuring is absolutely necessary. 2. We should make sure we had fully dehydrate the hydrated compound. If we hadn't, some water would still be left when massed and the ratio would be wrong as the amount water would be inaccurate. 3. Because of the limited amount of bunsen burners the chemistry laboratory had, we were forced to wait while another group was using the bunsen burner that we had to share. During this period of time, our hydrated compound was simply left on the table. The hydrated compound may become contaminated while on the table, and the contaminant would change the results of the lab. One way to improve on this mistake is to take the hydrated compound right when the bunsen burner is ready.

Conclusion Statement: Write a one to two sentence statement to conclude what you did in your lab, what was your actual and how did it compare to your theoretical. The hydrate lab was done to find the percentage of water in the hydrated compound, which was Cu2So4. We had to heat the hydrated compound to evaporate all the water that was present and compare the weight before and after the heating. This way we could find the mass of the water in the compound and find the ratio afterwards. Our actual data was slightly less than the theoretical data. We had gotten 35.7% of water while the theoretical was a 36.1%. Google Docs: https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/13Ut5VXGn2Tf9hzaqfFFkza8LhDtQuiBbX37 bFytbChY/edit